Transcript: Charlotte Gray, Author of "The Museum Called Canada" | Mar 19, 2005

Charlotte reads from behind a podium. She is in her forties and has short brown
hair in a pixie cut that has fringe. She wears a black dress with a cut out
circle near the neck.

Charlotte says I’M NOT
GOING TO TALK A LOT BEFORE WE
GET INTO THE PRESENTATION,
CAUSE THE PRESENTATION IS SO
COOL LIKE THE BOOK.
BUT I JUST WANT TO SAY THAT AS
SOON AS SARA CAME AND TOLD ME
ABOUT THE BOOK IT TOTALLY
ENGAGED ME, BECAUSE WHAT I HAVE
DISCOVERED THAT I LOVE DOING
AND WHAT I HAVE DISCOVERED THAT
CANADIANS WANT TO READ ABOUT IS
HISTORY FROM DIFFERENT AND
UNEXPECTED ANGLES.
HISTORY FROM THE POINT OF VIEW
OF WOMEN.
THE THREE, MY FIRST THREE BOOKS
WERE BIOGRAPHIES OF WOMEN WHO
NOBODY, NOT VERY MANY PEOPLE
HAD HEARD OF.
AND THEN AFTER HAVING EXPLORED
THEIR LIVES IN BIOGRAPHIES,
WHICH TURNED OUT TO SELL FAR
BETTER THEN I'D EXPECTED TO
EXPLORE LETTERS, TO EXPLORE
HISTORY THROUGH LETTERS.
SO NOW WE'VE GONE FROM WOMEN TO
LETTERS TO THINGS.
I'M NOT SURE WHERE THIS IS
GOING TO TAKE ME NEXT, BUT IT'S
BEEN A WONDERFUL JOURNEY AND
WORKING WITH SARA WAS GREAT.
I THINK THOUGH MORE SERIOUSLY
THAT THIS BOOK IS IMPORTANT
BECAUSE IT IS AN ORIGINAL
APPROACH, AND IT'S ALSO AN
APPROACH THAT SATISFIES THE
CURIOUSITY AND LITERARY TASTES
OF MANY CONTEMPORARY READERS.

The caption reads "Charlotte Gray. Carleton University. Author, ‘ The Museum
Called Canada 25 Rooms of Wonder.’ Royal Ontario Museum October 19, 2004."

Charlotte says THERE IS AN
OVERARCHING STRUCTURE,
CHRONOLOGY.
BUT FOR A GENERATION ACCUSTOMED
TO GRABBING INFORMATION FROM TV
AND VIDEOS, THERE ARE AS MANY
IMAGES IN HERE AS WORDS.
AND FOR A POST-MODERNIST AGE,
WHEN ANY KIND OF MASTER
NARRATIVE IS DEEPLY SUSPECT --

Charlotte says IT PROVIDES
MATERIAL AS WELL AS
INTELLECTUAL ARGUMENTS ABOUT
THE EVOLUTION OF OUR COUNTRY.
YOU SEE FOR ME, HISTORY HAS
ALWAYS BEEN IN THE DETAILS AND
IN COLOUR.
AND THAT'S WHY I LOVE "THE
MUSEUM CALLED CANADA."
I'M JUST GOING TO VERY BRIEFLY
SAY SOMETHING ABOUT HOW THE
BOOK WAS TO GET PUT TOGETHER.
SARA AND JONATHAN HOWELLS THE
DESIGNER, HAD COME UP WITH THIS
GREAT VISUAL GAG.
A BOOK THAT WOULD POSE AS A
MUSEUM, FILLED WITH PICTURES OF
ALL THE MOST INTRIGUING,
ILLUMINATING AND ICONIC
EXHIBITS THAT EVEN A HUGE,
BRICKS AND MORTAR MUSEUM COULD
NEVER ENCOMPASS.
THEY DIVIDED THE GROUP, THE
MUSEUM INTO 25 ROOMS, WHICH I
THE PEDANTIC WRITER KEPT
CALLING CHAPTERS.
[Audience laughs]

Charlotte continues A TEAM OF
RESEARCHERS FOUND THE ARTIFACTS
THAT SHOULD BELONG IN EACH
ROOM.
AND THEN I CAME INTO THE
PICTURE BECAUSE AT REGULAR
INTERVALS OVER THE PAST COUPLE
OF YEARS I SAT DOWN WITH SARA
AND THE TEAM.
SO KAREN, SHANNON, DOMINIQUE
AND OTHERS WOULD MUNCH MUFFINS
WITH ME AND OOH AND AH OVER
THEIR DISCOVERIES, WHICH YOU'RE
GOING TO SEE IN A MINUTE.
AND MANY OF THESE THINGS AS
YOU'VE HEARD ARE TREASURES THAT
WOULD NEVER, EVER BE ACTUALLY
SEEN TOGETHER AND MANY OF THEM
WE'D NEVER HAVE A CHANCE TO SEE
THE ORIGINALS.
I WOULD LOOK THROUGH THE
ARTIFACTS FOR EACH CHAPTER AND
DECIDE, I MEAN ROOM.
[Some laugh]

Charlotte says AND DECIDE
WHICH ONE I FOUND MOST
ENGAGING, AND THEN I WOULD
EXPLORE THAT OBJECT IN AN ESSAY
THAT WENT MUCH FURTHER THEN THE
EXTENDED CAPTIONS THAT SARA'S
TEAM HAD OTHERWISE ADDITIONS
DEVELOPED FOR ALL THE OTHER,
OBJECTS.
AND HOW DID I CHOOSE MY 25
SUBJECTS?
I'LL TALK ABOUT SOME OF THE
REASONS AS I GO ALONG THROUGH
THE IMAGES.
BUT YOU KNOW IT OFTEN FELT
QUITE ARBITRARY.
I WOULD BE DRAWN TO A
PARTICULAR OBJECT, SAY THE
FIRST BANK NOTE PRODUCED IN
CANADA FOR EXAMPLE, OR MELTED
GLACIER SAMPLES.
OR POWDERHORN THAT BELONGED TO
A NEW BRUNSWICK LOYALIST.
OR A FIRST WORLD WAR GAS MAKS,
OR LOUIS RIEL'S DEERSKIN COAT,
AND I NEVER KNEW QUITE WHY THE
OBJECT HAD PULLED ME IN.
AND INVARIABLY I FOUND THAT IT
EITHER HAD AN EXTRAORDINARY
STORY ITSELF OR THAT IT SHED A
BRILLIANT LIGHT ON THE PERIOD
TO WHICH IT BELONGED.
I'VE COME TO THE CONCLUSION IT
HARDLY MATTERED WHICH OBJECTS I
CHOSE TO CONCENTRATE ON. BECAUSE
EVERY OBJECT ON THESE PAGGES
GAVE A UNIQUE INSIGHT INTO OUR
SHARED PAST.
A SCRAP OF PAPER TORN FROM THE
BACK OF A HUDSONS BAY
SURVEYOR'S NOTEBOOK FOR INSTANT
OPENED A
WHOLE WORLD TO ME.
THE WORLD OF LIASONS BETWEEN
THE BAY MEN AND THEIR NATIVE
WIVES.
SO LET ME GIVE YOU A VIRTUAL
TOUR OF OUR VIRTUAL MUSEUM.

A clip shows a close up of an intricately designed wooden door, a coat rack with
one single brown winter coat, a sign with the word elevator, words in red
letters that read ‘3 Billion’,’25 rooms’ and ‘1 Book’. Then the clip continues
with a page that reads Random House Canada and another slide that says ‘The
Museum called Canada: 25 Rooms of Wonder’ by Charlotte Gray." Surrounded by a
wooden frame.

A slate reads "Fossil Foyer: 1 billion years ago to 65 million years ago." Then
a close up of fossilized plants that is grey in colour.

Charlotte says SO YOU'VE
OPENED THE MUSEUM DOORS, LEFT
YOUR COAT IN THE CLOAKROOM,
TAKEN THE ELEVATOR TO THE FIRST
FLOOR AND YOU'RE READY TO ENTER
THE FIRST ROOM.
AND HERE, AS YOU WALK DOWN THE
CORRIDOR TOWARDS THE DOOR YOU
CAN READ THE ROOM'S TITLE ON
THE WALL, THE FOSSIL FOYER.
LET'S START WITH SOME OF THE
INTRIGUING ARTIFACTS IN
"MUSEUM'S" EARLY PAGES.
FOR EXAMPLE THESE TWO ANCIENT,
FOSSILIZED PLANTS FROM DRUM
HEATHER ARE SO FRAGILE THAT
THEY BREAK AT THE SLIGHTEST
TOUCH.
BUT HERE YOU CAN PEER CLOSELY
AT THEM, AND THE EXTRAORDINARY
WAY THEY'VE BEEN PRESERVED AS
GLASS.
MUCH OF CANADA'S PRE-HISTORY IS
WRITTEN IN STONES.
STONES THAT INCLUDE SOME OF THE
OLDEST ROCKS FOUND ON OUR
PLANET.
SO IN THIS ROOM YOU'LL FIND
ROCKS AND FOSSILS FROM
LOCATIONS AS DIVERSE AS B.C.'S
BURGESS SHALE AND QUEBEC'S
MIGAUASHA PARK.
THIS PICTURE SHOWS WHAT I
CONSIDER ONE OF CANADA'S BEST,
KEPT SECRET, JOGGINS FOSSIL
CLIFFS IN THE BAY OF FUNDY.

A slate under the title "Joggins Fossil Cliffs." It reads, " The Joggin Fossil
Cliffs on the Bay of Fundy, offer a peek into life 286-350 million year ago with
its fossils of the earliest animals that walked on land." A photo shows the
brown cliffs against the blue and white sky.

Charlotte says I WALKED ALONG THIS BEACH OF
FOSSILS.
FOSSILS THAT INCLUDE EVIDENCE
OF THE EARLIEST LANDBASED CREA-
CREATURES ON EARTH.
IN "MUSEUM" YOU CAN SEE
CLOSE-UPS OF A LIZARD-LIKE
FOSSIL TAKEN FROM THIS BEACH,
WHICH WAS MENTIONED BY CHARLES
DARWIN IN HIS GROUNDBREAKING
WORK IN 18, 1859 ON THE ORIGIN
OF THE SPECIES.
AND WHAT DOES EVERY FOSSIL
COLLECTION HAVE TO INCLUDE?
[Some laugh]

A slate under the title " Tyrannosaurus (Tyrannosaurus Rex) Approx. 65 Million
years old Huxley Alberta." It reads, "The name translates as ‘Tyrant lizard
king’ and anyone who has stood next to the skeleton of a Tyrannosaurus rex will
understand why the giant meat-eater still inspires so much awe. "Also has a
skeleton of the T-Rex on its legs.

Charlotte says OUR OLD
FRIEND TYRANNOSAURAS REX, OF
COURSE HERO OF EVERY CANADIAN
PLAYGROUP.
[Some laugh]

Charlotte says IN "THE
MUSEUM CALLED CANADA" THERE ARE
SEVERAL PAGES OF DINOSAUR
SKELETONS SHOWING THEIR
EXTRAORDINARY VARIETY IN SIZE
AND FEROCITY.
IT IS A JUNIOR PALEONTOLOGIST'S
DREAM.
AS THIS IS A SNEAK PREVIEW I'M
NOT GOING TO SHOW YOU EVERY
ROOM.
SO WE'LL SKIP FORWARD A FEW
MILLION YEARS AND WALK INTO THE
FIRST CONTACT COLLECTION.

A slate appears under the title " First Contact Collection" and the next slate
shows a brown mask with small slits for eyes and a growling mouth with wooden
teeth. The title of this slate is "Dorset Mask: 500-1000 Bylot Island, Nunavut
driftwood with red ochre paint." It reads, " The life-sized mask originally
included a fur moustache attached by pegs. It probably had a ceremonial rather
than a warlike purpose."

Charlotte says IN THIS ROOM YOU CAN EXAMINE
SOME OF THE FRAGMENTARY
EVIDENCE OF THE CULTURES OF THE
ABORIGINAL PEOPLES OF NORTH
AMERICA AND THEIR EARLIEST
CONTACTS WITH THE FOREIGN
INTERLOPERS WHO HAD ARRIVED
ACROSS THE ATLANTIC.
THIS MARVELOUS, TUNIT MASK IS
THE KIND OF IN YOUR FACE
ARTIFACT WE FOUND BY COMBING
THROUGH COLLECTIONS.
IN THIS CASE AT THE CANADIAN
MUSEUM OF CIVILIZATION IN
OTTAWA.
IT WAS MADE BY THE TUNIT PEOPLE
ALSO KNOWN AS THE DORSET IN THE
HIGH ARCTIC.
IT DEMONSTRATES THE
SOPHISTICATION OF THEIR
CARVING, AND WOULD BE REALLY
NEAT ON HALLOWEEN.
[Audience laughs]

A slate under the title "Thule Carving of a Norseman: (‘Bishop of Baffin
Island’) Approx. 1300 Buffin Island, Nunavut driftwood." It reads, " The
featureless face and short aims of this figure are both characteristics of Thule
carving, but it almost certainty depicts a Norseman. He may or may not be a
priest." The close up of the Norseman shows a wooden doll wearing brown robes.

Charlotte says HERE'S A
SLIGHTLY MORE RECENT AND
EQUALLY STUNNING PIECE OF
CARVING FROM THE FAR NORTH.
AN EXQUISITE FIGURE MADE BY
TUNIE CRAFTSMEN, WHICH WAS
FOUND ON BAFFIN ISLAND.
IT'S NICKNAMED THE BISHOP OF
BAFFIN ISLAND, BECAUSE IT
APPEARS TO BE WEARING PRIEST-
LIKE ROBES AND HAVE A, CROSS
CARVED ON HIS CHEST.
THIS SUGGESTS THAT 700 YEARS
AGO ON BAFFIN ISLAND, FAR TO
THE NORTH OF -- KNOWN VIKING
SETTLEMENTS, THE CARVER HAS
SOMEHOW, SOMEWHERE MET A
NORSEMAN.
THERE IS NO WRITTEN EVIDENCE OF
SUCH AN ENCOUNTER, BUT THIS
ARTIFACT TELLS THE STORY.

A slate under the title "Water Room 1000-1693." Then a close up shows wooden
pendants with intricate stripped designs. The caption reads "Beothuk Pendants,
Approx. 1550 Eastern Woodlands bone (caribou) with red ochre paint)." It reads,
" These caribou pendants are the most distinctive relic of a now extinct people
the Beothuk of Newfoundland. When John Cabot first came ashore on the coast of
Newfoundland, or possibly Labrador, in 1497, he probably discovered artifacts
like these and took them home as souvenirs. It would be another century before
Europeans attempted settlement of the ‘New Founde Lande."

Charlotte says SO LET'S
STROLL ON THROUGH A FEW MORE
ROOMS.
HERE WE ARE COMING INTO THE
WATER ROOM WHERE WE CAN GET A
SENSE OF THE EUROPEAN RUSH TO
EXPLOIT AND COLONIZE NORTH
AMERICA, PARTICULARLY IN THE
16TH CENTURY.
EUROPEAN SAILORS LIKE MODERN
TOURISTS, LOOTED NATIVE
SETTLEMENTS FOR SOUVENIRS LIKE
THESE.
IT'S UNNERVING TO REALIZE THAT
WE'RE LOOKING AT THE
CRAFTSMANSHIP OF ANOTHER
VANISHED PEOPLE. LESS THEN
300 YEARS AFTER THESE PENDANTS
WERE CARVED IN PRESENT, DAY
NEWFOUNDLAND BEOTHUK WERE
EXTINCT.ONE OF MY
ESSAYS DEALS WITH THE ONLY
KNOWN PAINTING OF THE BEOTHUK,
"DEMASDUIT" OR MARY MARCH AS
SHE WAS KNOWN TO HER ENGLISH
CAPTORS.
EUROPEANS WEREN'T JUST LOOKING
FOR SOUVENIRS.
THEY CAME TO THE NEW WORLD FOR
FISH AND FOR EVEN MORE VALUABLE
COMMODITES.

The slate appears under the title "Black Ore Sample, Approx. 1577 Near Frobisher
Bay, Nunavut." It reads, " These otherwise uninteresting metamorphic rocks
fooled Frobisher’s backers because they were flecked with mica which they
thought was gold." The picture shows a black rock that has glints of minerals.

Charlotte says THIS RATHER DULL PIECE OF ROCK
IS TAKEN FROM AN ISLAND IN
FROBISHER BAY AND IT'S PART OF
AN EXTRAORDINARY CHAPTER IN
CANADIAN HISTORY.
THE ELIZABETHAN SEA CAPTAIN,
MARTIN FROBISHER PICKED IT UP
WHEN HE CAME LOOKING FOR THE
NORTHWEST PASSAGE IN 1576.
HE TOOK IT BACK TO LONDON WHERE
SOMEBODY DECIDED IT CONTAINED
GOLD.
THE RESULT WAS A TRANSATLANTIC
RUSH TO MINE THE ORE.
NOW GET THIS.
25 YEARS BEFORE THERE WERE ANY
BRITISH OR FRENCH SETTLEMENTS
ON THE ATLANTIC SEABOARD,
BEFORE JAMESTOWN OR PORT, PORT
ROYAL, 15 SHIPS AND 300 MEN
INCLUDING 150 MINERS, SAILED
INTO THE UNCHARTED NORTH TO
OPERATE A WORKING MINE.
THEY WORKED LIKE DOGS UNDER THE
MIDNIGHT SUN.
HACKING TONS OF THIS STUFF FROM
THE CLIFFS OF A TINY ISLAND,
THEN LOADING IT INTO THEIR
VESSELS. AND GUESS
WHAT?
IT WAS JUST LIKE THE BRE-X
STORY.
BECAUSE THIS PIECE OF ROCK IS
AS WORTHLESS AS A BRE-X SHARE
TODAY.
IN THE END, THE ENGLISH AFTER
THEY'D COMBED THROUGH THIS PILE
OF BLACK ROCKS --
DECIDED THE
ONLY THING IT WAS GOOD FOR WAS
BUILDING A WALL.
NOW I'M BACK TO BEING YOUR TOUR
GUIDE AND SKIPPING A FEW MORE
ROOMS IN ORDER TO ARRIVE HERE
AT THE TRAP ROOM.

A slate reads "Trap Room: 1627 to 1893."

Charlotte says THIS IS WHAT PERMANENT
SETTLEMENT IN WHAT IS NOW
CANADA WAS LARGELY ABOUT IN THE
17TH AND 18TH CENTURY.
THE TRAP ROOM IS FILLED WITH
GLORIOUS ARTIFACTS.
ALL THE PARAPHANELIA OF THE FUR
TRADE, INCLUDING PELTS, TRADE
OBJECTS, SNOWSHOES AND CANOES.
IT'S EXTRAORDINARY TO SEE HOW
ONE INDUSTRY DROVE EXPLORATION
AND SETTLEMENT WESTWARD ACROSS
OUR COUNTRY.
THE EUROPEANS ADOPTED INDIAN
TECHNOLOGY TO PENETRATE DEEP
INTO BRITISH NORTH AMERICA, AND
THEY IN TURN INTRODUCED THEIR
OWN TECHNOLOGY TO BAG THEIR
PREY.

A slate appears under the title" Spring Trap: 1785-1850" It reads ," As the fur
trade developed, European technology like this imposing steel trap replaced
traditional native traps." A picture of a metal trap appears.

Charlotte says SOME OF THE THINGS HERE WILL
MAKE YOU CRINGE.
LOOK AT THIS HIDEOUS SPRING
TRAP, WHICH WORKED LIKE A GIANT
MOUSETRAP.
IMAGINE WHAT BRIGITTE BARDOT
WOULD MAKE OF THIS.
[Audience laughs]

Charlotte says WE’RE NOW
ABOUT ONE-THIRD OF THE WAY
THROUGH THE MUSEUM AND YOU
PROBABLY REALIZED THAT IT
CONTAINS AN ALMOST
UNIMAGINEABLE COLLECTION OF
FASCINATING OBJECTS.
NOW I'M GOING TO WALK YOU OVER
TO ONE OF THE ARTIFACTS THAT I
DECIDED TO ZERO IN ON, BECAUSE
OF SOME GUT INSTINCT THAT IT
WOULD TELL US EVEN MORE ABOUT
OUR COUNTRY.

A slate appears under the title "Reliquary featuring the half-skull of Jean De
Brébeuf 1649: Ste. Marie Among Hurons, Ontario." It reads, " This half of
Brebeuf’s skull was awarded to the Jesuits. It can now be venerated in its
reliquary at the Church of the Martyrs near Midland, Ontario." A picture shows
half a skull in a glass casing with ornate golden casing.

Charlotte says HERE, IN THE
ROOM CALLED THE HALL OF MARTYRS
YOU'LL FIND BREBEUF'S SKULL.
I CHOSE THIS ARTIFACT BECAUSE
IT EXEMPLIFIES A
CHARACTERISTICALLY CANADIAN
SOLUTION TO A PROBLEM.
JEAN DE
BREBEUF, WAS THE JESUIT
MISSIONARY WHO WAS TORTURED AND
BURNT ALIVE BY THE IROQUOIS IN
1649.I KNOW LOTS
OF CANADIANS WILL RECALL THE
GHASTLY PICTURES OF BREBEUF'S
MARTYRDOM IN SCHOOL READERS
FROM THE 1950S AND 1960S.
THAT UM, AMAZING CANADIAN
ILLUSTRATOR C.W. JEFFRIES, WHO
AS FAR AS I CAN SEE HAS FORMED
THE CANADIAN IMAGINATION, DREW
A PARTICULARLY STOMACH, TURNING
VERSION.
BUT IT WAS NOT HOWEVER THE
GRUESOME DETAILS OF BREBEUF'S
MARTYRDOM THAT CAUGHT MY
ATTENTION.
I'LL NEVER FORGET AN e-mail FROM
KAREN, THE OTHER WISE
RESEARCHER TELLING ME WHERE I
COULD GO AND SEE THE SKULL IN
ONTARIO AND CATTILY MENTIONING
IT WAS ONLY HALF A SKULL.
I EMAILED BACK WHAT DO YOU MEAN
IT'S ONLY HALF A SKULL?
IT TURNED OUT THAT BREBEUF'S
TORTURES DID NOT END WITH HIS
DEATH.
IT WAS THE SUBSEQUENT STORY OF
THE SKULL THROUGH THE NEXT TWO
AND A HALF CENTURIES AS BREBEUF
HEADED FOR MARTYRDOM THAT I
DECIDED TO WRITE ABOUT FOR MY
ESSAY IN THIS ROOM. THE
VENERABLE BONES WERE ORIGINALLY
TAKEN TO QUEBEC CITY AND LODGED
IN THE JESUIT CHAPEL THERE.
BUT WHEN THE JESUITS
TEMPORARILY LEFT CANADA THEY
GAVE BREBEUF'S SKULL TO THE
CITY'S HOSPITAL NUNS TO PUT IN
THEIR CHAPEL. WHEN THE
JESUITS RETURNED, THE NUNS
REFUSED TO GIVE THEM THEIR
SKULL BACK.
BOTH NUNS AND JESUITS REALIZED
THAT IF BREBEUF BECAME A SAINT
THIS SKULL WAS A VALUABLE
POSSESSION.
IT WAS A NASTY SPAT BETWEEN TWO
HOLY ORDERS.
[Audience laughs]

Charlotte continues BUT IN THE
END IT WAS DECIDED THAT THE
SKULL SHOULD BE SAWN IN HALF.
HALF THE NUNS GOT THE RIGHT
SIDE, THE JESUITS GOT THE LEFT.
IT WAS DONE JUST IN TIME FOR
BREBEUF'S CANONIZATION.
BOTH CHAPELS, ONE IN QUEBEC
CITY THE OTHER NOW IN MIDLAND,
ONTARIO NOW HAVE BONIFIED
SKULLS TO WHICH THE FAITHFUL
CAN PAY HOMAGE AND OFFER
DONATIONS.
ISN'T THIS A TYPICALLY CANADIAN
COMPROMISE?
[Audience laughs]

Charlotte continues OUR HISTORY
IS BUILT ON ACCOMMODATION AND
THE PRINCIPLE, BETTER HALF A
SKULL THEN NO SKULL AT ALL.
[Audience laughing]

Charlotte says IF YOU LOOK
VERY CAREFULLY AT THIS SLIDE
YOU CAN SEE A LINE THROUGH THE
POOR, MARTYR'S FOREHEAD AND THE
YELLOWING STATE OF THE WAX ON
THE MISSING RIGHTS LOBE.
IT ISN'T ONLY MY ESSAYS THAT
GIVE VISITORS TO OUR MUSEUM A
SENSE OF THE LARGER STORY THAT
SOME OF THE ARTIFACTS TELL.

A slate appears under the title " The Death of Wolfe, Benjamin West 1770 London,
England." Beneath six facial expressions of Wolfe next to that a photo of the
death of Wolfe and the title beneath is "Key Identifying the figures in "The
Death of Wolfe, author anonymous."

Charlotte says HERE’S ONE
OF THE BEST, KNOWN PAINTINGS IN
THE CANADIAN ART HISTORY CANON.
A PAINTING THAT RESIDES HERE AT
THE ROM.
"THE DEATH OF WOLFE" BY
BENJAMIN WEST, PAINTED IN 1770.
IN "THE
MUSEUM CALLED CANADA" YOU CAN
NOT ONLY POUR OVER A TWO-PAGE
REPRODUCTION OF THE PAINTING,
BUT YOU CAN ALSO SEE A KEY TO
THE MAIN FIGURES IN THE
PAINTING THAT WAS PUBLISHED SIX
YEARS LATER.

A slate appears under the title "Commemorative Pitcher, Joseph Wedgwood and
Sons, Approx. 1780 Burselem, Staffordshire, England" It reads, " Thanks to the
recent invention of transfer printing to decorative ceramics, West’s patriotic
image could now be mass produced on items like this pitcher." Next there is a
photo of the pitcher with the reprint of the death of Wolfe.

Charlotte says AND YOU CAN ALSO SEE ON THIS
WEDGEWOOD COMMEMORATIVE
PITCHER, ONE WAY THAT THE IMAGE
QUICKLY BECAME WIDELY KNOWN
THROUGHOUT THE ENGLISH SPEAKING
WORLD.
I'VE ALWAYS FOUND GENERAL JAMES
WOLFE A RATHER SAD FIGURE.
HIS SENIOR OFFICERS ALL SNEERED
AT HIM FOR BEING A PARVINEAU.
HE WENT INTO BATTLE IN 1876
RAVAGED BY SYPHILIS AND A LUNG
INFECTION.
HIS FAVOURITE POEM WAS THAT
GLOOMY REFLECTION ON THE
BREVITY OF LIFE --

A slate appears under the title " Title Pages from An Elegy Written in a Country
Church Yard, Thomas Gray, 1751 publications date 1754 London, England" It reads
" This copy of Gray’s Elegy, the popular eighteen- century poem on mortality
(note the shovels, skulls, and the crossbones in the decorative bands above and
below the title), was given to James Wolfe by his fiancée Katherine Lowther,
before he set sail for Canada in 1758. The photo shows the cover of the book in
original print. Another photo of Catherine appears amongst written words on the
book.

Charlotte says "GREY'S
ELEGY WRITTEN IN COUNTRY CHURCH
YARD."
HIS PERSONAL COPY OF THAT POEM
GIVEN TO HIM BY HIS BEAUTIFUL
FIANCEE, CATHERINE LOWTHER NOW
RESIDES AT THE THOMAS FISHER
RARE BOOK LIBRARY AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO.
I DECIDED TO TAKE THIS COPY --
WHICH
INCLUDES WOLFE'S MISERABLE
ANNOTATIONS, AND HE WAS VERY
MISERABLE AT THE TIME AS THE
SUBJECT OF MY ESSAY IN THIS
ROOM.
IT ALLOWED ME TO WRITE ABOUT
THE LEGENDS THAT HAVE ATTACHED
THEMSELVES TO WOLFE OVER THE
YEARS, AND CHANGING ATTITUDES
TO HIS VICTORY AT THE BATTLE OF
THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM.
IN ADDITION
TO ALL THE ARTIFACTS
THEMSELVES, PUTTING THEM ON A
PAGE RATHER THEN A MUSEUM SHELF
ALLOWED US TO ADD MORE LAYERS
AND PERSPECTIVES TO THEM.
WE PUT THEM IN CONTEXT –

A slate shows a golden locket of John A MacDonald and a title "Portrait of John
A. MacDonald." Beneath the locket it reads, " Title page from "Quebec Conference
Resolutions," with doodles by Sir John A. Macdonald, 1864 and a page that has
doodles written on them.

Charlotte says BY PROVIDING
IMAGES AND BACKGROUND HISTORY
THAT ROUNDED OUT THE STORY.
SO HERE, IN
THE CONFEDERATION GALLERY FOR
INSTANCE WE MEET IN THIS GOLD
LOCKET JOHN A. MACDONALD, WHEN
HE WAS A DASHING, YOUNG
KINGSTON LAWYER.
WE SEE HIS DOODLES ON HIS
WORKING COPY OF THE QUEBEC
CONFERENCE RESOLUTIONS.
MACDONALD IS
SAID TO HAVE DRAFTED 50 OF THE
72 CLAUSES IN THE BRITISH NORTH
AMERICA ACT.
BUT EVEN AS HE WAS NUDGING HIS
COLLEAGUES TOWARDS CONSENSUS HE
WAS ALSO SKETCHING WICKED
CARICATURES OF THEM.
[Audience laughs]

A slate appears under the title "Prelude to Confederation, by Rex Woods." It
reads, " This twentieth-century painting shows the Fathers of Confederation on
the deck of SS Queen Victoria, the ship that carried the from Quebec City to the
Charlestown Conference in 1864." A painting shows one boat with a rower heading
toward the ship filled with men in black jackets.

Charlotte says WE CAN ALSO
SEE AS A CONTEXT IMAGE A
PAINTING DEPICTING THE ARRIVAL
OF MACDONALD AND SOME OF HIS
OTHER FATHERS OF CONFEDERATION
AT THE 1864 CHARLOTTETOWN
CONFERENCE.
THAT SHIP HE'S STANDING ON, THE
SS VICTORIA HAD 13,000 DOLALRS WORTH
OF CHAMPAGNE IN ITS HOLD THAT
MACDONALD HAD THOUGHTFULLY
PACKED.
[Audience laughs]

Charlotte says NO WONDER
THE CONFERENCE WENT SO
SWIMMINGLY.
[Audience laughing]

A slate appears under the title "A view of the new Parliament Buildings in
Ottawa in 1880, with the library of Parliament on the left." Along side of the
caption is a black and white photo of the parliament buildings that are gothic
structures.

Charlotte says AND AS
ANOTHER CONTEXT IMAGE WE CAN
SEE AN ARCHIVAL PHOTO OF THE
ORIGINAL PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS
IN OTTAWA TO REMIND US WHERE
ALL THOSE SOLEMN DELIBERATIONS
OF DOMINION MAKING BETWEEN 1864
AND 1867 BLED.
YOU HAVE TO ADMIT THE GUY WHO
PUT THIS COUNTRY TOGETHER AND
MADE IT WORK HAS TO BE
CONSIDERED THE GREATEST
CANADIAN.
[Audience laughing]
[Audience applauding]

A slate appears with images of fur trade products, and contemporary paintings
of farmland and of a buffalo being hunted.

Charlotte says A FEW ROOMS
FURTHER ON HERE IN THE WESTERN
SALON, YOU CAN SEE HOW WE OFTEN
GROUPED THE ARTIFACTS WITH
THEIR CONTEXT IMAGES.
HERE WE HAVE TWO EARLY 19TH
CENTURY METIS ARTIFACTS.
WALL CARDERS ON THE LEFT AND A
METIS SASH ON THE RIGHT.
ACCOMPANIED BY CONTEMPORARY
PAINTINGS ILLUSTRATING ON THE
LEFT, THE KINDS OF DWELLINGS IN
WHICH THE CARDERS MIGHT HAVE
BEEN USED.
AND ON THE RIGHT A BUFFALO HUNT
IN WHICH THE METIS HUNTERS ARE
WEARING SIMILAR SASHES.
BUT SOME ARTIFACTS DEMANDED
THEIR OWN SPACE.

A slate appears under the title " Pictograph Robe, Early 20th century Siksika
(Blackfoot Nation near Calgary, Alberta). It reads, " The "story robe" belonged
to a man called Raw Eater, a distinguished leader in the Siksika tribe. It
portrays a number of different episodes in his life for example after tethering
his horse and going to sleep in his tipi he awakens to discover a Cree warrior
stealing his horse so he give chase." The robe is white with horses painted in
brown and black.

Charlotte says SUCH AS THIS
EXTRAORDINARY PICTOGRAPH ROBE
FROM ALBERTA'S GLENBOW MUSEUM.
THIS ROBE BELONGED TO THE
DISTINGUISHED BLACKFOOT CHIEF,
RAW EATER AND IT READS LIKE A
GRAPHIC NOVEL.
RAW EATER'S
ADVENTURES BEGIN THE TOP LEFT
HAND CORNER WHEN A CREE WARRIOR
TRIES TO STEAL HIS HORSE.
BUT OUR HERO GIVES CHASE.
IN THE BOTTOM, LEFT HAND CORNER
YOU CAN SEE THAT RAW EATER WON
AND HE HAD SOME SPOILS OF
VICTORY.
HE'S BAGGED NOT JUST HIS HORSE,
BUT ALSO THE UNFORTUNATE CREE'S
GUN AND IF YOU LOOK VERY
CAREFULLY HIS SCALP.

The slate appears under the title " Figurines of Sir John and Lady
Franklin Approx., 1850 Staffordshire, England." It reads " These ceramic figures
reflect the folk-hero status of the Franklin after Sir John failed to return
from the Arctic, where his two ships had last been seen tethered to an iceberg
on June 25th, 1845." The two states show a man and lady dressed in a white suit
and a white dress. The lady with a white shawl and the man a white hat.

Charlotte says HERE ARE TWO OF MY FAVOURITE
PERSONALITES FROM CANADIAN
HISTORY, SIR JOHN AND LADY
FRANKLIN.
WHEN SIR JOHN FAILED TO RETURN
FROM HIS 1845 EXPEDITION TO THE
ARCTIC TO FIND THE NORTHWEST
PASSAGE TO ASIA, HIS
INDOMITABLE MOVED INTO ACTION
LIKE A GENERAL AT WAR.
SHE PERSUADED THE BRITISH
ADMIRALTY TO SEND FLEETS OF
SHIPS AT BRITISH TAXPAYER
EXPENSE TO TRY AND FIND HIM.
THE FRANKLINS BECAME FOLK
HEROES, WHICH MEANT THAT AN
ANONYMOUS POTTER IN
STAFFORDSHIRE ENGLAND MOLDED
SOME CRUDE FIGURES OF THEM TO
SELL AT A FAIRGROUND.
FIGURES LIKE THESE WOULD HAVE
SAT ON PARLOUR MANTLEPIECES ALL
OVER BRITAIN AND CANADA,
ALONGSIDE SIMILAR FIGURES OF
QUEEN VICTORIA.
THESE HUMBLE
PIECES OF EARTHENWARE
REPRESENTED FOR ME A GREAT WAY
TO TELL THE FRANKLIN STORY.
ESPECIALLY BECAUSE THE
STAFFORDSHIRE POTTER HAD CAUGHT
THE CHARACTER --
OF THOSE TWO
INDIVIDUALS FAR BETTER THEN HE
PROBABLY EVEN REALIZED.
LOOK AT LADY FRANKLIN'S RIGHT
ARM.
SHOULDN'T SHE HAVE A HANDBAG
HANGING FROM IT SINCE SHE'S A
DEAD RINGER FOR MARGARET
THATCHER?
[Audience laughs]

A slate shows a skull on the forest floor and an advertisement for Cadbury with
men sitting on a sled, one man tethering the dogs and with snow and mountains
behind them. The title reads " An 1896 advertisement for Cadbury’s Cocoa."

Charlotte says AND ONCE
AGAIN "THE MUSEUM CALLED
CANADA" AMPLIFIES THE STORY
WITH ADDITIONAL IMAGES.
A SKULL OF ONE OF FRANKLIN'S
ILL-FATED SAILORS, DISCOVERED
ONLY TEN YEARS AGO IN THE
ARCTIC.
AND AN 1896 ADVERTISEMENT FOR
HOT CHOCOLATE, WHICH
ILLUSTRATES THE HOLD THAT THE
NORTH POLE EXERTED OVER THE
BRITISH IMAGINATION IN THE 19TH
CENTURY.
THERE IS SO MUCH IN THIS
MUSEUM, AND ONLY NOW IN THE
MAPLE LEAF LOUNGE ARE WE SEEING
A SENSE OF OURSELVES AS
CANADIANS EMERGE WITH OUR OWN
STAMPS AND SYMBOLS.

A close up of stamps shows beavers as the national emblem. The title of the
slate is "Three pence Beaver Stamps, Post- 1851 Printing Dominion of Canada." It
reads, " The beaver emerged as a popular symbol of the country even before
Confederation. It was featured on the Dominican of Canada’s first postage stamp
designed by Sandford Flemming, later the chief engineer of the Canadian Pacific
Railway."

Charlotte says HERE'S A PAGE OF THOSE FIRST
STAMPS.
ALTHOUGH THE STAMP'S DESIGNER
SANDFORD FLEMING, LATER
WONDERED WHETHER HE SHOULD HAVE
ELEVATED THE BEAVER TO ICONIC
STATUS.
HE SAID THERE ARE OTHER RODENTS
SUCH AS RATS AND MICE NOT LESS
ACTIVE AND INDUSTRIOUS THEN THE
BEAVER, AND FOR THIS QUALITY
ALONE NO ONE WOULD DREAM OF
SELECTING ONE OF THESE VERMIN
FOR OUR NATIONAL EMBLEM.

A close up of a skirt and top made of buskin cloth and, with a necklace made of
teeth and a red cape. The slate is under the title "Performance Costume worn by
Pauline Johnson, 1892 Made in Winnipeg, Manitoba worn throughout Canada, USA,
and London, England."

Charlotte says THERE ARE A FEW OF MY PERSONAL
FAVOURITES IN OUR MUSEUM, SUCH
AS PAULINE JOHNSON'S
PERFORMANCE OUTFIT.
THE MOHAWK POET WORE THIS
ELABORATE COSTUME IN
PERFORMANCES RIGHT ACROSS
CANADA, THE U.S. AND LONDON IN
THE 1890S AND 1900S.
SHE TRIED TO PROMOTE THE IDEA
THAT INDIAN AND EUROPEAN
IDENTITIES COULD BE INTEGRATED
IN THE NEW CANADIAN IDENTITY.
THE OUTFIT ITSELF SYMBOLIZES
HER OWN HYBRID IDENTITY.
IT CONTAINS SUCH AUTHENTIC
INDIAN ITEMS AS SILVER, TRADE
BROOCHES AND A SCALP AT THE
WAIST.
BUT THE BUCKSKIN SKIRT AND
BODICE WERE SUPPLIED BY THE
COMMERCIAL MAKER OF BRITISH
NORTH AMERICA, THE HUDSON BAY
COMPANY IN WINNIPEG.
WITH CONFEDERATION CANADIANS
BEGAN TO CELEBRATE THEIR OWN
COUNTRY WITH ITS OWN DISTINCT
FLORA AND FAUNA.

A slate appears under the title "Drawing from Studies of Plant Life in Canada by
Catherin Parr Trail. With Illustration by Agnes Fitzgibbon Chamberlain, 1885
Ottawa, Ontario" A picture of a white flower with green leaves appears. It
reads, " Susanna Moodie’s daughter Agnes painted this illustration of a
trillium, flanked by a wild lily of the valley and flowering wintergreen for her
aunts Catherine Parr Trail. The artistic style is Victorian, but her subject is
undeniably and accurately Canadian.

Charlotte says HERE IS AN EXQUISITE
WATERCOLOUR OF AN ONTARIO
TRILLIUM FROM "STUDIES OF PLANT
LIFE IN CANADA" WRITTEN BY
CATHERINE PARR TRAILL, ANOTHER
OF MY OLD FRIENDS FROM AN
EARLIER BOOK.
THE CLOSER
WE GET TO TODAY THE MORE
OVERWHELMING THE CHOICE OF
ARTIFACTS AVAILABLE.
YET, THERE ARE ITEMS HERE THAT
WILL SURPRISE MANY OF THE
MUSEUM'S VISITORS.

A close up of a slate shows a yellow postcard with a black and white photo of a
man in a hospital bed with all of the sentences scratched out for security
purposes.

Charlotte says FROM THE
FIRST WORLD WAR LOOK AT THIS
GOVERNMENT ISSUE POSTCARD SENT
FROM FRANCE BY A YOUNG MAN
CALLED BERT BERRY TO HIS
PARENTS IN CANADA.
IT CONTAINED THE ONLY
INFORMATION THAT THE GOVERNMENT
PERMITTED BERT AND THOUSANDS
LIKE HIM TO SEND HOME FRMM THE
TRENCHES.
AND ONLY A WEEK AFTER BERT SENT
THIS CARD TO HIS PARENTS HE WAS
KILLED AT THE BATTLE OF
PASSIONDALE.
THERE WAS A WAR MENTALITY BACK
HOME TOO, BETWEEN 1914 AND
1918.

A slate appears under the title "Gopher Day Medal 1917 Saskatchewan metal." It
reads, "Because gophers ate precious prairie grain they were considered ‘enemies
of production" and so fair game for mass extermination. On "Gopher Day," "May 1,
1917 school children from 980 Saskatchewan schools set out to shoot, trap,
or poison a reported half a million gophers." A photo shows a wooden plaque with
a gopher in the center.

Charlotte says HERE'S ANOTHER UNEXPECTED ITEM
FROM THOSE YEARS, A GOPHER DAY
MEDAL FROM SASKATCHEWAN.
IN 1917 GOPHERS MENACED THE
HARVEST.
SO AN ARMY OF SCHOOL CHILDREN
SET OUT TO EXTERMINATE THEM.
APPARENTLY THEY TRIUMPHANTLY
PRODUCED ABOUT HALF A MILLION
CARCASSES.
A GHASTLY ECHO OF WHAT WAS
HAPPENING IN EUROPE.
FAST FORWARD TO THE SECOND
WORLD WAR.

A slate reads under the title " Orphan Tag, 1948 Halifax, NS." It reads, "Most
of the child refugees who arrived in Canada from the shattered countries of
Europe were survivors of the concentration camps who had lost both parents and
all their siblings. Few spoke any English, which made identity tags a practical
necessity." The photo caption reads "An unidentified war orphan that arrives to
Canada." A child arrives with a yellow tag with the title "Orphan" and other
refugees follow behind.

Charlotte says COULD ANYTHING SYMBOLIZE THE
MASSIVE DISTICATIONS IN EUROPE
AND THE HOLOCAUST MORE
POIGNANTLY THEN THIS ORPHAN
TAG?
HERE IS THE UNNAMED JEWISH
CHILD WHOSE PARENTS WERE
PROBABLY KILLED IN A
CONCENTRATION CAMP ARRIVING AT
A, AT HALIFAX'S PIER 21 WITH
ONLY THIS LUGGAGE TAG TO
IDENTIFY HIM.
BY NOW I'M SURE YOU'VE REALIZED
I'M ONLY GIVING YOU THE MEREST
GLANCE AT THE RICHNESS OF THIS
MUSEUM.

The slate appears under the title "Family Allowance Advertisement, Designed by
the National Film Board, 1945 Ottawa, Department of Health and Welfare paper."
It reads, " The baby-bonus, explained here with cartoon simplicity, was a state-
sponsored post-war social program introduced to forestall a possible recession
and to counter the growing strength of the political left. It added impetus to
the post-war boom." A black and white cartoon depicts the allowance.

Charlotte says WE'RE INTO THE REALMS OF LIVING
MEMORY NOW AND IN THE 1950S
THANKS TO GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS
LIKE THE FAMILY ALLOWANCE
PROGRAM, CANADA'S ECONOMY
STARTED TO BOOM.
SUDDENLY THERE WAS A WEALTH OF
CONSUMER GOODS, ALL, AVAILABLE
BY MAIL ORDER FROM ANOTHER OF
CANADA'S GREAT COMMERCIAL
ENTERPRISES.
AND I HAD FUN WRITING AN ESSAY
ABOUT ONE OF THE GREATEST
CANADIAN INVENTIONS OF ALL,
TIME, PABLUM.

A slate shows a close up of Pablum and their items that were available on order
form a black and white catalogue. The title reads, " Page from Catalogue T.
Eaton Company, Fall/Winter 1948-49 Toronto, Ontario." It reads, " By the year of
the Eaton’s ad, marketing mavens had already caught on to the demographic and
cultural shift caused by the post war baby boom and the economic upsurge. For
the first time in history, child-rearing was to be treated as a scientific
activity."

Charlotte says ALL KINDS OF CULTURAL
ACTIVITIES BLOSSOMED IN THIS
PERIOD, INCLUDING OUR BOOK
INDUSTRY AND THE, AND THE
STRATFORD FESTIVAL.

A fast clip of slates shows a red sketch of Wayne Gretsky, then another of a
gas canister, which is silver and eroding.

Charlotte says BUT SOME SPORTS AND A
PARTICULAR SPORTSMAN CAME TO
SYMBOLIZE CANADA ABROAD.
I WROTE ABOUT THIS GAS CANISTER
BECAUSE IT DEMONSTRATES
SOMETHING IMPORTANT, WHICH IS
THAT HISTORY IS NOT SOME DEAD
NARRATIVE YOU CAN ONLY FIND IN
BOOKS.
IT'S BEING MADE EVERY DAY.
WE'RE LIVING IN IT.
THIS GAS CANISTER ACTUALLY SITS
ON THE BOOKSHELF OF A FRIEND OF
MY 23-YEAR OLD SON.
THEY BOTH WENT TO THE 2001
SUMMIT OF THE AMERICAS IN
QUEBEC CITY WHERE CLOUDS OF
TEARGAS FROM CANISTERS LIKE
THIS WERE FIRED ON UNARMED
DEMONSTRATORS.
THE CANISTERS BECAME SOUVENIRS
FOR THE PARTICIPANTS, JUST AS
THOSE BEOTHUK PENDANTS WE SAW
EARLIER BECAME SOUVENIRS FOR
EUROPEAN SAILORS 500 YEARS
EARLIER.
IN MY ESSAY THE GAS CANISTER
PROVIDED ME WITH A SPRINGBOARD
FOR A DISCUSSION ABOUT
DIFFERENT KINDS OF
GLOBALIZATION.
BOTH GLOBAL FREE TALK, TRADE
TALKS TO WHICH THE
DEMONSTRATORS OBJECTED.
AND ALSO THE
GLOBAL EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION
ON THE INTERNET, WHICH HAD
PROVIDED MY SON AND HIS FRIENDS
WITH THE INFORMATION ABOUT
WHERE THEY WERE TO MEET TO
PROTEST.
THE LAST COUPLE OF IMAGES I'M
GOING TO SHOW YOU –

A slate appears under the title "Pham The Trung’s Refugee Bag, 1980 Toronto,
Ontario." It reads "The welcoming of 70,000 Vietnamese boat people like Pham,
who fled South Vietnam after it fell to the communists, was hard evidence that
Canadian immigration laws had discarded the last of their no-so-subtle pro-
white, pro-European biases. Canada was in the process of becoming a truly
multiracial society." A close up of the bag shows a black leather bag with the
letters "Pham The Trung R 5001 3210 written on it."

Charlotte says COME FROM
THE FINAL TWO ROOMS OF THE
MUSEUM.
PHAM THE TRUNG'S REFUGEE BAG IS
ONE OF THE ITEMS I WOULD LOVE
TO HAVE WRITTEN AN ESSAY ABOUT,
BUT WE COULDN'T FIND ENOUGH
INFORMATION.
PHAM THE TRUNG WAS ONE OF THE
70,000 VIETNAMESE BOAT PEOPLE
WHO ARRIVED HERE IN 1980.
ALL THE PHYSICAL POSSESSIONS HE
BROUGHT WERE STUFFED INTO THIS
BATTERED LEATHER SATCHEL.
WE ONLY HAD THIS IMAGE OF HIS
BAG.
WE DIDN'T FIND OUT WHERE HE IS
NOW.
BUT HE AND OTHERS HAVE BROUGHT
SO MUCH MORE THEN WHAT WAS
STUFFED IN THAT SATCHEL.
THEY BROUGHT A WHOLE RANGE OF
TRADITIONS, LANGUAGES AND IDEAS
NEW TO CANADA THAT ARE MAKING
US INTO THE MULTIRACIAL SOCIETY
WE KNOW TODAY.
PHAM THE TRUNG IS AS MUCH A
PART OF OUR HISTORY AS THE
LOYALISTS WHO ARRIVED IN THE
LATE 18TH CENTURY, OR THE
MENNONITES WHO ARRIVED IN THE
LATE 19TH CENTURY, AND THEY'RE
ALL IN HERE.
I STARTED THIS BRIEF MUSEUM
TOUR WITH AN IMAGE FROM THE
EAST COAST OF THE JOGGINS
FOSSIL CLIFF.
AND WE'RE ENDING ON THE WEST
COAST WITH A SHOCKING IMAGE OF
CLEAR CUT FOREST NEAR PORT
ALBERNI.

A slate appears under the title "Bullhorn Approx. 1993 Clayoquot Sound, BC."
It reads, " This bullhorn is a veteran of the struggle. International pressure
persuaded UNESCO to designate the area a Biosphere Reserve, but the last of the
virgin forest is still threatened." The photos show a bullhorn with several
stickers and then a view of land deforested against the blue sky.

Charlotte says BUT CHECK OUT THIS BULLHORN.
A VETERAN OF THE BATTLES TO
SAVE OLD GROWTH FOREST IN
CLAYOQUOT SOUND.
IT IS BOTH AN, A RESTING
ARTIFACT AND ALSO A REMINDER
THAT OUR LANDSCAPE LIKE OUR
CULTURE IS CONSTANTLY EVOLVING
AND THAT'S WHAT THIS MUSEUM
REFLECTS.
THE GREAT THING ABOUT "THE
MUSEUM CALLED CANADA" HOWEVER
IS THAT WE'RE NOT LIMITED TO
EARTH BOUND ARTIFACTS.
OUR MUSEUM SHOWS YOU ALL THE
GREATEST STUFF IN OUR COUNTRY
AND IN OUR COLLECTIVE
CONSCIOUSNESS.
AND OF COURSE IT WOULDN'T BE
COMPLETE WITHOUT EVIDENCE THAT
WE ARE BUSY ELBOWING OUR WAY
INTO THE FUTURE WITH A
TYPICALLY, CANADIAN QUIET BUT
FIRM DETERMINATION TO KEEP
MAKING HISTORY AND GO WHERE NO
MAN HAS GONE BEFORE.

[Music plays]

A series of fast slates appears and read "Space Shuttle Remote
Manipulator System (Canada)."
It reads "Planning began 1974 signed over to NASA in 1981." A picture shows parts of the shuttle.
The next one says "Credits in Order of images appearance in presentation: All Chapter Openers and guide text images, Courtesy of the Gallery of Ontario, Photography by Nancy Tong, NAC: National Archives of Canada, NLC: National Library of Canada, Royal Tyrell Museum/Alberta Community Development (pg. 27)."

Charlotte says THANK YOU SO MUCH.

[Audience applauding]

Watch: Charlotte Gray, Author of "The Museum Called Canada"