Transcript: Katherine Slater - Part 1 | Nov 05, 2003

(music plays)

A slate reads “The advice given in Mini-Med School is of a general nature only. Viewers should consult their own medical professional for medical advice specific to their circumstances.”

Against a blurry background of blue and pink pills, a video reel displays pictures of medical gear such as a needle, a scan of a human body and heart rate monitors.

The title of the show slides in: “Mini-Med School.”

Then, Katharine Slater stands on a stage in a university auditorium giving a lecture. She’s in her mid-forties with short blond hair and bangs. She’s wearing a gray blazer over a black shirt, a silver brooch and glasses.

Behind her, a computer screen is projected on a tall white wall. A slide reads “Complete your Nutrition Quiz But don’t look at the answers!”

Katharine says WELL, THANK
YOU VERY MUCH.
AS YOU SEE HERE, I ASKED YOU
FIRST OF ALL IF YOU COULD
COMPLETE YOUR QUIZ.
AND IF YOU FOUND THAT IN YOUR
FILES, ON THE BACK OF IT IS
SOMETHING THAT LOOKS LIKE THAT.

Holding a piece of paper she continues THE QUIZ IS ON THE FRONT.
AND THERE ARE 5 QUICK QUESTIONS.
AND THE FIRST ONE IS, “CHOCOLATE
CONTAINS LESS CAFFEIN THAN...
AND THE CHOICES THAT YOU CAN
HAVE ARE, A 5 OUNCE SERVING OF
BREWED COFFEE, A 5 OUNCE CUP OF
TEA, NEITHER OF THOSE 2, OR BOTH
OF THOSE 2.
AND, ANYBODY LIKE TO GIVE ME AN
ANSWER?
A? NO.
B?
IT'S D, IT'S BOTH A AND B.
A 5 OUNCE CUP OF TEA OR COFFEE
CONTAIN MORE THAN A 1 OUNCE MILK
CHOCOLATE BAR, OR AN 8 OUNCE
CARTON OF CHOCOLATE MILK.
SO THAT'S WHERE WE'RE GETTING
SOME OF OUR CAFFEIN FROM.
WHICH FOOD HAS MORE VITAMIN C,
THE PEPPER, THE BANANA OR THE
BROCCOLI?
IT'S THE PEPPER.
THE RED PEPPER HAS MORE VITAMIN
C.
THE RED PEPPER HAS ABOUT 104
MILLIGRAMS OF VITAMIN C, THE
BROCCOLI, ABOUT 39, AND THE
BANANA, A LOW 10.
THE NEXT QUESTION IS, POTATOES
AND BREADS ARE FATTENING.
IS THIS TRUE OR NOT?

A caption appears on screen. It reads “Katharine Slater. University of Toronto.”

She continues HOW MANY PEOPLE THINK IT'S TRUE,
PUT YOUR HANDS UP.
OKAY, WELL I HATE TO DISAPPOINT
YOU.

The caption changes to “Nutrition on the Menu.”

She continues IT'S A LONG HELD MYTH.
IF YOU LOOK AT YOUR ANSWERS
THERE, THERE'S NO SINGLE FOOD
THAT CAN BE TRULY FATTENING, AND
POTATOES ON THEIR OWN, ACTUALLY
ONLY HAVE ABOUT 88 CALORIES.
IT'S WHAT WE PILE ON TOP OF THE
POTATO THAT MAKES THE
DIFFERENCE.
THE SOUR CREAM AND THE BACON
BITS, AND ALL THAT KIND OF
STUFF.
TRUE OR FALSE, THE STOMACH
CANNOT DIGEST CARBOHYDRATES AND
PROTEINS AT THE SAME TIME.
YOU NEED TO EAT DIFFERENT FOODS
AT EACH MEAL.
WHAT DO YOU THINK?
TOTALLY FALSE.
THERE'S BEEN A LOT OF FAD DIETS
AROUND THIS PARTICULAR AREA, BUT
BASICALLY YOUR BODY COMES
EQUIPPED WITH ALL KINDS OF
ENZYMES AND THEY ACT
SIMULTANEOUSLY ON THE PARTICULAR
FOOD, OR THE PARTICULAR FOOD
NUTRIENT THAT IT WORKS ON.
AND THEN, LAST BUT NOT LEAST,
WHICH ONE HAS THE MOST FIBRE,
THE BREAD, THE SALAD, OR THE
BAKED POTATO.
BAKED POTATO, YOU'RE RIGHT ON
THE MONEY.
SO LOTS OF PEOPLE THINK SALAD IS
THE ONE THAT'S KIND OF GOT THE
MOST FIBRE IN, BUT IN POINT OF
FACT, WE KNOW THAT THAT'S NOT
TRUE.
I WANT TO START OFF WITH A
LITTLE POEM, AND IT SAYS,

She reads “WHEN I WAS A CHILD, I LAUGHED
AND WEPT, AND TIME CREPT.
WHEN I WAS A YOUTH, I WAXED MORE
BOLD, TIME STROLLED.
WHEN I BECAME A FULL GROWN MAN,
TIME RAN, AND WHEN OLDER STILL I
DAILY GREW, TIME FLEW.
SOON I SHALL FIND IN PASSING ON,
TIME GONE.”

She continues AND ON THAT SOMBRE NOTE, YOU
PROBABLY ALL FIND YOURSELF AT A
DIFFERENT POINT ON THAT
CONTINUUM, AND IT'S IN THAT
REGARD THAT I WANT YOU TO KIND
OF THINK OF YOUR NUTRITIONAL
HEALTH.
SO WITH THE KIND OF NUTRITION ON
THE MENU, LET'S LOOK AT OUR 10
MODERN PLAGUES.

She runs a PowerPoint presentation.

She continues THE THINGS THAT ARE REALLY
CAUSING PROBLEMS TODAY.

A slide reads “10 Modern Plagues: Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, obesity, upper respiratory tract infections, cirrhosis, burn out, allergies, bowel diseases, low back problems.”

She continues THEY ARE ALL, OR MOST OF THEM
THEY ARE ALL, OR MOST OF THEM
HAVE A NUTRITION COMPONENT.
NUTRITION FIGURES VERY LARGELY
IN THE VAST MAJORITY OF THESE
DISEASES, AND WHAT A LOT OF THEM
ARE CALLED, ARE NON COMMUNICABLE
DISEASES.
SO COMPARED TO THE EARLY 1900s,
WHEN PEOPLE WERE DYING OF...... THOSE KINDS OF DISEASES,
WERE ALL COMMUNICABLE.

The slide changes to “Leading causes of death in 1900 and 2000’s. 1900: pneumonia, diarrhea and enteritis, nephritis, cancer, bronchitis, diphtheria. 2000’s: approximately 74 percent chronic diseases such as C.V.D., cancer, etc. 16 percent heredity, 10 percent medical care.”

She continues AND NOWADAYS WHAT WE'RE FINDING
IS 74 PER CENT OF PEOPLE ARE
DYING FROM CARDIOVASCULAR
DISEASE, COMPLICATIONS FROM
DIABETES, THE NON COMMUNICABLE
DISEASES, OF WHICH NUTRITION HAS
A MAJOR ROLE.
SO THAT'S THE REASON NUTRITION
TONIGHT IS REALLY IMPORTANT IN
TERMS OF THE WHOLE SPECTRUM OF
EVERYBODY'S HEALTH.
HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS REFLECT THE
SAME KIND OF THING, AND YET WE
DO KNOW THAT CANADIANS...

The caption changes to “Canadians still smoke, drink heavily, drink and drive, never exercise, are obese, are underweight, do not wear seatbelts, are very stressed.”

She continues AND IF YOU LOOK AT THESE
CHARACTERISTICS, THEY'RE ALL
THINGS THAT WE HAVE PERSONAL
CONTROL OVER.
WE CAN DO SOMETHING ABOUT THEM.
AND FIRST THING I'M GOING TO DO
IS GET AWAY WITH SOME OF THE
FACTS AND FIGURES TO KIND OF PUT
THIS ACTUALLY IN CONTEXT.
NOW THIS REPORT THAT I'VE TAKEN
THE INFORMATION FROM HERE, WAS
TAKEN FROM THE WORLD HEALTH
ORGANISATION IN MARCH 3, OF THIS
YEAR WAS WHEN IT WAS PUBLISHED.
SO YOU'VE NOT GOT SOME PRETTY UP
TO DATE INFORMATION, WHERE
THEY'VE KIND OF TAKEN ALL THE
STUDIES THAT HAVE BEEN DONE, HAD
EXPERT PANELS LOOK AT THEM, AND
COME OUT WITH THIS INFORMATION.
SO THIS PARTICULAR DOCUMENT
SHOWS A LOT OF INFORMATION
THAT'S BEEN LOOKED AT AND
SYNTHESISED, AND I'VE TRIED TO
ENCAPSULATE IT DOWN TO JUST A
COUPLE OF SECONDS HERE.

A new slide appears. It reads “The Burden of Chronic Diseases. 2001-chronic diseases contributed approximately 60 percent of the 56.5 million total reported deaths in the world and approximately 46 percent of the global burden of disease. The burden of NCDs is expected to increase to 57 percent by 2020. Almost 50 percent of the total chronic disease deaths are attributable to cardiovascular diseases. Obesity and diabetes are also showing worrying trends, not only because they already affect a large proportion of the population, but also because they have started to appear earlier in life.”

She continues WORLD WIDE, NOT JUST NORTH
AMERICA.
WE ALSO KNOW THAT 50 PER CENT OF
ALL DEATHS RIGHT NOW, ARE DUE TO
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, HENCE
ALL THE BIG CAMPAIGNS THAT YOU
SEE AROUND THAT PARTICULAR
TOPIC.
AND WE ALSO KNOW THAT WORLD
WIDE, DIABETES AND OBESITY ARE
ON THE INCREASE.
THE OTHER THING THAT I FOUND
QUITE SPECTACULAR WHEN I SAW
THIS DATA, AND IT REALLY KIND OF
KNOCKED MY SOCKS OFF, WAS
THAT...

The slide changes to “In 5 out of 6 WHO regions deaths from chronic diseases dominate mortality statistics. HIV-AIDS, malaria, TB and other infectious diseases predominate in sub-Saharan Africa. .”

She continues HIV/AIDS, AND PNEUMONIA AND
THINGS LIKE THAT, ARE REALLY
ONLY IN THE ONE POCKET IN
AFRICA.
SO EVEN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES,
THAT WE USUALLY HAVE THE
PICTURES OF STICK THIN PEOPLE
WHO ARE STARVING, ARE, IN POINT
OF FACT ALSO HAVING HUGE
PROBLEMS WITH THE NON
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES.

The slide continues “But 79 percent of deaths attributable to chronic diseases are already occurring in developing countries. By 2020, chronic diseases will account for almost 75 percent of all deaths, and that 71 percent of deaths due to ischaemic heart disease (IHD), 75 percent of deaths due to stroke, and 70 percent of deaths due to diabetes will occur in developing countries.”

She continues OF WHICH CARDIOVASCULAR
DISEASE, OF WHICH ISCHAEMIC
HEART DISEASE IS JUST ONE PART
OF THAT LOT, IS 71 PER CENT, AND
THEN THE RISING DEATHS FROM
STROKE AND COMPLICATIONS FROM
DIABETES.
SO REALLY, WHAT WE HAVE HERE IS
A REAL PROBLEM WHEREBY THE
THINGS THAT PEOPLE ARE DYING OF
ARE THINGS THAT PEOPLE CAN
CONTROL TO A CERTAIN EXTENT, AND
YET NUTRITION IS A HUGE PART OF
THAT.
SO ARE WE CALMLY GOING TO GO
DOWN THE ROAD TO IMMINENT
DISASTER IN THESE
NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES, OR ARE
WE GOING TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT
IT?
AND THE MESSAGE THAT I'M GOING
TO TELL YOU THIS EVENING, IS,
YOU CAN DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT.
BUT ONE THING I WANT YOU TO
REMEMBER.
CANADIANS ARE ONE OF THE BIGGEST
INSURED SETS OF PEOPLE IN THE
WORLD, AND THEY DON'T THINK
ANYBODY IS RISKLESS.
AND SO EACH ONE OF YOU HERE
TONIGHT DOES HAVE SOME KIND OF
RISK YOU COULD DO SOMETHING
ABOUT IN TERMS OF YOUR
NUTRITIONAL HEALTH.
SO WHAT CAN YOU CHANGE AND WHAT
CAN'T YOU CHANGE?
WELL ON THAT CONTINUUM, I BEGAN
WITH TONIGHT, WELL YOU CAN'T
CHANGE YOUR AGE.
WELL YOU COULD CHANGE YOUR
GENDER, BUT MOST PEOPLE DON'T
WANT TO.

[laughing]

She continues AND YOU CAN'T CHANGE WHO YOUR
PARENTS WERE.
SOMETIMES WE'D LIKE TO DO THAT,
TOO, BUT WE CAN'T DO THAT.
SO GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY IS
SOMETHING THAT WE CANNOT CHANGE.
SO THOSE ARE THE GIVENS.
YOU CAN'T DO ANYTHING ABOUT
THAT.
BUT WHAT THEY'VE FOUND IS, THERE
ARE CERTAIN THINGS, RISKS THAT
ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THESE
NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES THAT WE
CAN DO SOMETHING ABOUT.

A slide under the title “Chronic disease risks associated with age and gender” appears on screen. It reads “Behavioural factors: diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Biological factors: dyslipidemia, hypertension, overweight and hyperinsulinaemia. Societal factors, which include a complex mixture of interacting socioeconomic, cultural and other environmental parameters.”

She continues I'LL TALK A LITTLE BIT FIRST
ABOUT SOCIETAL FACTORS, BUT
BIOLOGICAL FACTORS ARE THINGS
LIKE DYSLIPIDEMIA, WHICH IS
BASICALLY A DISRUPTION OF YOUR
LIPIDS IN TERMS OF THE FACT
THEY'RE NOT FUNCTIONING PROPERLY
WITHIN YOUR SYSTEM,
HYPERTENSION, OVERWEIGHT, EXCESS
INSULIN IN THE SYSTEM WHICH
WE'RE SEEING MORE AND MORE OF,
AND WE'RE NOT QUITE SURE WHY.
AND WE KNOW BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS,
YOU CAN CHANGE YOUR DIET, YOU
CAN CHANGE TOBACCO USE, AND YOU
CAN CHANGE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION,
AND ONE THING THAT'S FUNNY TO
HAVE IN HERE IN A NUTRITION
TALK, IS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, BUT
THE TWO GO TOGETHER.
THEY ARE LIKE 2 SIDES OF A
PENNY, AND YOU CAN'T LEAVE OUT
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BECAUSE IT
DOES HAVE SUCH A MAJOR FACTOR
WHEN YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT
NUTRITION AS WELL.
SO HAVING SAID THAT, YOU NEED TO
START INVESTING RIGHT NOW.
I DON'T CARE WHERE YOU ARE, HOW
OLD YOU ARE, YOU CAN REALLY MAKE
CHANGES RIGHT NOW, AND PLAN TO
BE MUCH MORE NUTRITIONALLY
HEALTHY IN THE FUTURE.
BUT THE OTHER THING THAT I WANT
TO LET YOU KNOW IS, THAT MANY
PEOPLE COME OUT AND THEY HAVE A
LOVELY PRESCRIPTION.
YOU JUST DO A, B, AND C, AND
YOU'LL GET D, AND IT WILL BE
WONDERFUL.
BUT EACH OF YOU ARE VERY
DIFFERENT AND UNIQUE
INDIVIDUALS.
YOU ALL HAVE LIKES AND DISLIKES,
YOU ALL ENJOY DIFFERENT KINDS OF
FOODS.
SOME OF THEM WILL BE THE SAME,
AND SOME WILL BE DIFFERENT.
SO REALLY WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO IS
START PUTTING TOGETHER A PLAN
THAT'S GOING TO BE UNIQUE TO
YOU.
AND THAT'S NOT IMPOSSIBLE, IT'S
FAIRLY DOABLE.
BUT LET'S GO BACK, FIRST OF ALL,
TO SOME OF THE RISK FACTORS THAT
I SPOKE ABOUT THAT HAVE BEEN
IDENTIFIED.
IF YOU LOOK AT THE WHOLE THING
THAT'S GOING ON IN NUTRITION,
YOU'RE CONSTANTLY BOMBARDED.
ONE WEEK, SOMEBODY'S SAYING,
“DON'T EAT EGGS,” AND THEN THE
NEXT WEEK SOMEBODY'S SAYING
CARROTS CAN BE, YOU KNOW, TOO
MANY OF THOSE CAN DO YOU HARM.
AND PEOPLE ARE GETTING QUITE
FRANKLY FED UP.
WHAT DO I DO?
AND THE ANSWER IS, IT'S NOT ALL,
“DO.”
ACTUALLY, IT'S THE PETUNIAS AND
THE BEGONIAS.
THERE IS HOPE THERE.
SO WHAT I'M GOING TO TRY AND DO
IS GIVE YOU SOME INDICATIONS OF
WHAT THE BEST SCIENTISTS IN THE
WORLD HAVE COME UP WITH WHAT THE
HOPE IS.
SO FIRST OF ALL, WE'VE GOT THE
SOCIETAL FACTORS, THINGS THAT
ARE GOING ON IN OUR SOCIETY THAT
MAKE A DIFFERENCE TO PEOPLE'S
NUTRITION, AND I'M NOT GOING TO
DWELL ON THIS TOO MUCH, BECAUSE
I WANT TO COME DOWN TO THE
INDIVIDUAL STUFF, BUT INCOME AND
PRICE REALLY DO MAKE A LOT OF
DIFFERENCE TO WHAT PEOPLE EAT,
PARTICULARLY IN NORTH AMERICA.
AVAILABILITY IN SOME PARTS OF
THE WORLD IS ANOTHER FACTOR, BUT
INCOME AND PRICE DO TEND TO
SHAPE THAT.
IN TERMS OF THE LEVELS OF
EVIDENCE THAT I'M GOING TO TALK
ABOUT...
WHAT THE EXPERTS HAVE COME UP
WITH ARE 4 LEVELS.
THEY'VE LOOKED AT ALL THESE
STUDIES THAT HAVE BEEN DONE TO
DATE, AND THERE IS THE VERY BEST
EVIDENCE, WHERE THEY CAN SAY 2
TIMES 2 DEFINITELY EQUALS 4,
WITH THE RESEARCH THEY'VE GOT,
IS VERY CONVINCING EVIDENCE.
THE NEXT LEVEL DOWN IS PROBABLE.
THERE'S POSSIBLE EVIDENCE WHERE
IT MAY HAVE AN EFFECT, BUT
THEY'RE NOT REALLY SURE, AND THE
LAST ONE IS, THERE ISN'T
SUFFICIENT EVIDENCE.
IT'S NOT THERE.
SO IN TERMS OF THOSE SOCIETAL
RISK FACTORS THAT I SPOKE ABOUT,
THEY DO THINK THAT PROBABLY,
WHICH IS THE FIRST ONE DOWN THE
SCALE FROM CONVINCING, IT'S NOT
TOTALLY CONVINCING, BUT IT'S
HIGH UP THERE, THEY DO THINK
THAT...

A new slide reads “Evidence supporting societal risks factors. Probable: heavy marketing of energy dense foods and fast food outlets, adverse social and economic conditions for women. Possible: high proportion of food prepared outside the home.”

She continues AND THAT'S KIND OF, OH YEAH
RIGHT, WE KNOW THAT, BUT LOOK AT
THE CONSUMPTION OF HIGH ENERGY
DENSE FOODS, PARTICULARLY IN
CANADA.
THERE'S ALSO THE OTHER SIDE OF
THE COIN WHEREBY ADVERSE SOCIAL
CONDITIONS, PARTICULARLY FOR
SINGLE PARENT WOMEN HEADED
FAMILIES, WE DO SEE MUCH MORE
NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS AS WELL AS
HEALTH IN GENERAL PROBLEMS IN
THAT PARTICULAR COMPONENT OF
SOCIETY.
SO WE KNOW THAT THOSE WOMEN ARE
NOT BEING WELL NOURISHED, WE
KNOW THAT THEY RE FEEDING THEIR
CHILDREN BEFORE THEMSELVES, AND
IT'S A HUGE PROBLEM, AND AS
YOU'VE PROBABLY SEEN IN TORONTO
WITH ALL THE FOOD DRIVES, YOU'LL
KNOW THAT, AND IT'S HAVING AN
EFFECT ON THEIR NUTRITIONAL
HEALTH.
ANOTHER POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTOR TO
BAD NUTRITIONAL HEALTH, IS
HIGH PROPORTION OF FOOD
PREPARED OUTSIDE THE HOME.
AND IF YOU THINK ABOUT IT, THAT
GOES HAND IN GLOVE WITH THE
HEAVY FAST FOOD OUTLETS.
YOU TEND TO EAT MORE, YOU TEND
TO HAVE BIGGER PORTIONS, AND YOU
DON'T HAVE THE BREADTH OF
NUTRIENT INTAKE, VERY OFTEN,
THAT YOU WOULD IF YOU COOKED
SOMETHING AT HOME.
I'M GOING TO MOVE--
I'M NOT GOING TO DWELL ANY MORE
ON THE SOCIETAL STUFF NOW, I
WANT TO MOVE A LITTLE BIT TO THE
BEHAVIOURAL RISK FACTORS, AND
THE FIRST ONE I WANT TO DEAL
WITH IS ALCOHOL.
AND WHAT THEY HAVE FOUND IS,
REGARDLESS OF ALL THE STUDIES
THAT YOU'VE HEARD, WHAT'S GOOD,
WHAT'S BAD, WHAT SHALL WE DO…

The slide changes to “Alcohol: there is convincing evidence that high intake of alcohol increases risk for some cancers, stroke and osteoporosis.”

She continues THEN YOU'RE GOING TO HAVE
PROBLEMS WITH SOME OF THOSE
NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES.
AND THE MAIN ONES ARE CANCER,
STROKE AND OSTEOPOROSIS.
QUICK QUESTION.
I'VE GOT TWO SUBSTANCES HERE,
ONE IS SUGAR, AND THE OTHER ONE
IS FLOUR.
HOW MANY OF YOU THINK THAT THESE
ARE ONE OF THE MOST DANGEROUS
SUBSTANCES ON THE EARTH TODAY IN
TERMS OF NUTRITION.
CAN I HAVE A SHOW OF HANDS?
HOW MANY PEOPLE THINK THAT FLOUR
AND SUGAR ARE REALLY NOT GOOD
THINGS.
PROBABLY ABOUT A THIRD OF THE
AUDIENCE, OKAY.
IN POINT OF FACT, JUST LET YOU
KNOW THERE'S VERY LITTLE
EVIDENCE TO SHOW THAT
CARBOHYDRATES, OF WHICH FLOUR
AND SUGAR ARE JUST 2, HAVE ANY
KIND OF IMPLICATION IN A LOT OF
THE NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES,
PARTICULARLY FOR CARDIOVASCULAR.
NOW HAVING SAID THAT, I WILL SAY
THAT ONE THING THAT YOU HAVE TO
UNDERSTAND IS, THE AREA OF
NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE IS STILL
VERY YOUNG.
WE'RE PROBABLY WHERE NEWTON WAS
IN THE 1600s, AND THAT'S THE
REASON THAT YOU KEEP GETTING ALL
THESE CONFLICTING MESSAGES.
BECAUSE THE SCIENTISTS DO SOME
WORK, THEY GET A LITTLE PART OF
THE PICTURE, AND IT'S LIKE A BIG
JIGSAW PUZZLE THEY'RE TRYING TO
PUT TOGETHER.
THEY PUT ANOTHER PIECE IN, AND
GO YES, IT'S A CASTLE.
AND THEY PUT ANOTHER 2 PIECES IN
AND GO, NO, IT'S NOT A CASTLE,
MAYBE IT'S A BRIDGE, WE DON'T
KNOW.
SO THAT'S THE REASON THINGS
CHANGE.
WE KEEP ADDING TO THE BODY OF
KNOWLEDGE, AND WE DON'T HAVE A
REALLY GOOD, GOOD PICTURE YET.
BUT JUST TO SAY THAT
CARBOHYDRATES HAVE BEEN SHOWN,
THAT THEY DON'T HAVE A LOT OF
EVIDENCE AT THIS POINT IN TIMES,
THAT THEY ARE REAL BADDIES, IN
TERMS OF FOODS THAT WE EAT.
AND ALSO IRON WHICH IS ONE OF
THE MINERALS, THEY DON'T HAVE
HUGE EVIDENCE THAT THAT IS
EITHER.
SO THEY DO HAVE SOME EVIDENCE,
THAT...

A new slide appears. It reads “Diet continued. Possible evidence: large portion sizes: for obesity. Fats rich in lauric acid: for CVD. Beta-Carotene supplements: for CVD. Total fat intake: for diabetes. Trans fatty acids: for diabetes. Animal fats: for cancer. Nitrosamines: for cancer. High sodium intake: for osteoporosis. Low protein intake (in older people): osteoporosis. High protein: for osteoporosis.”

She continues AND THAT'S KIND OF AN EASY
EQUATION.
WHICH IS A PARTICULAR KIND OF
FATTY ACID IS IN FOODS, DO
CONTRIBUTE TO CARDIOVASCULAR
DISEASE.
SOME OF YOU MAY REMEMBER ABOUT FIVE
YEARS AGO, THEY WERE DOING EXTRA
SUPPLEMENTS OF BETA-CAROTENE,
WHICH IS A PRECURSOR FOR VITAMIN
A, AND THEY HAD TO STOP THE
STUDY BECAUSE THEY FOUND THAT IT
WAS A VERY--
THAT IT WAS HARMING SOME PEOPLE,
SO ALL THE PEOPLE WHO WERE
OD'ING ON CAROTENE AND GETTING
ORANGE HANDS FROM THE EXTRA
SUPPLEMENTS, WERE PROBABLY DOING
THEMSELVES MORE HARM THAN GOOD.
WE KNOW THAT TOTAL FAT INTAKE
HAS AN EFFECT ON DIABETES AND
THAT TRANS-FATTY ACIDS, I'LL
TALK ABOUT THESE A LITTLE BIT
MORE LATER ON, DO ALSO HAVE
IMPLICATIONS FOR DIABETES, AS DO
ALL ANIMAL FATS.
NITROSAMINES WHICH ARE A
PRESERVATIVES THAT ARE PUT IN
CERTAIN KINDS OF MEATS, A WORRY
FOR CANCER.
SODIUM IS A CONCERN, AS IS LOW
PROTEIN FOR OLDER PEOPLE, AND
HIGH PROTEIN FOR THOSE WITH
OSTEOPOROSIS.
SO THERE'S A LOT OF STUFF THAT
WE DO KNOW THERE MAY BE SOME
IMPLICATIONS FOR.
THERE'S PROBABLE EVIDENCE, WHEN
WE MOVE UP THAT CHAIN, SO BEFORE
WE GET TO CONVINCING, THAT
SATURATED FATS--
SATURATED FATS ARE USUALLY THE
ONES THAT ARE HARD AT ROOM
TEMPERATURE.
CHOLESTEROL DOES MAKE A
DIFFERENCE, WE KNOW THAT FOR
SURE, AND THOSE PEOPLE THAT LOVE
COFFEE, THAT MAKES A DIFFERENCE
AS WELL.
PRESERVED MEATS, A LOT OF THOSE
CAN BE--
HAVE AN IMPLICATION FOR CANCER.
AND VERY HOT FOOD, IF PEOPLE
CONSTANTLY EAT THINGS VERY
THERMALLY HOT, LIKE THE DEGREE
OF TEMPERATURE, NOT THE DEGREE
OF SPICINESS, THAT CAN MAKE A
DIFFERENCE AS WELL, AS CAN SUGAR
SWEETENED DRINKS.
IN A SIMPLE CAN OF COCA-COLA,
SOMETHING LIKE THIS, YOU'VE
PROBABLY GOT THE EQUIVALENT OF
BETWEEN 9 AND 11 TEASPOONS OF
SUGAR.
SO PEOPLE THAT GUZZLE DOWN A
SUPER-SIZE LITRE FULL, IMAGINE
HOW MUCH THEY'RE TAKING IN, IN
TERMS OF HIGH QUANTITIES OF
SUGAR.
SO IT'S LIKE YOUR GRANDMOTHER
USED TO TELL YOU, IT'S
MODERATION IN ALL THINGS, IN
TERMS OF A LOT OF THINGS WE'RE
FINDING OUT IN TERMS OF
NUTRITION.
WHERE THE CONVINCING EVIDENCE
IS, WHERE THEY CAN DEFINITELY
SAY, IT DOES MAKE A DIFFERENCE,
THEY ARE DEFINITELY SAYING...

A slide appears on screen. It reads “High intake of energy dense micro-nutrient poor foods. High sodium intake: fro CVD. Mystric and palmitic acids: for CVD. Trans fatty acids: for CVD.”

She continues ALSO HAVE AN EFFECT.
SO WE KNOW THOSE ARE THE
CONVINCING THINGS THAT ARE ALL
FACTORS IN YOUR NUTRITIONAL
HEALTH.
THEY ALSO KNOW THAT THE
SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE, WHICH MEANS
YOU'RE NOT METABOLISING THE
NUTRIENTS AS YOU SHOULD, ALSO
MAKES A DIFFERENCE, AND OBESITY
ITSELF IS A RISK FACTOR FOR
DIABETES.
SO ASK YOURSELF ARE YOU A COUCH
POTATO OR A MOUSE POTATO IN
THESE TECHNOLOGICAL AGES.
SOME OF THESE STATISTICS REALLY
SCARE ME.
WE KNOW THAT...

A slide reads “60 percent of Canadian children do not meet fitness standards. Canadian children watch over 6.5 hours of TV a day.”

She continues AND THAT'S NOT COUNTING
VIDEO GAMES AND THINGS LIKE
THAT.

The slide continues “50 percent males and 75 percent females cannot walk up and downstairs for longer than 6 minutes without straining their cardiovascular system. Children do 75 percent less exercise today compared to children in 1890. Not a single Canadian province recommends daily physical activity in high school.”

She continues SO THEY'RE SITTING DOWN, EATING
JUNK FOOD AND GETTING FAT.
AND WE ARE DOING THAT, TOO, AS
ADULTS AS WELL.
SO UM, WE'RE A SOCIETY--
ARE WE MISSING THE OBVIOUS
ESSENTIALS, YOU KNOW, LIKE WE'VE
GOT ALL THE GEAR, WE'VE GOT ALL
THE EXERCISE THINGS, BUT DO WE
EVER USE THEM?
YOU KNOW, WE'VE GOT IT, BUT WE
FORGET THE ESSENTIALS.
SO IN THAT REGARD, THE
PRESCRIPTION IS FAIRLY EASY --
TAKE A HIKE.

The slide changes to “Start some sort of exercise.”

She continues WHETHER IT'S A WALK, WHETHER
IT'S UM...
YOU KNOW ON THESE OPTICAL, YOU
KNOW, THESE BIKES AND THOSE
SORTS OF THINGS.
DO SOMETHING, BECAUSE THERE'S
CONVINCING EVIDENCE THAT IT WILL
MAKE A DIFFERENCE TO YOU IN
CONJUNCTION WITH YOUR
NUTRITIONAL HEALTH.
SO, PARTICIP-ACTION WAS QUITE
RIGHT, AND YOU NEED TO BUILD
YOUR ASSETS.
SO FIRST OF ALL, WHAT I WANT YOU
TO DO NOW, IS I WANT EVERYBODY
TO STAND UP.
IT'S THE 7th INNING STRETCH.
AND I WANT YOU TO THINK BACK
THROUGHOUT THE DAY, BECAUSE
PRESUMABLY MOST OF YOU HAVE
EATEN SUPPER NOW.
AND I WANT YOU TO THINK IN YOUR
OWN HEAD WHAT YOU HAVE EATEN
DURING THE DAY, FROM THE TIME
YOU GOT UP TO THE TIME NOW.
PRESUMING YOU WON'T HAVE
ANYTHING ELSE TO EAT.
SO HOW MANY OF YOU HAD 2 TO 3
SERVINGS OF MEAT OR ALTERNATE,
AND IF YOU ANSWER NO, YOU SIT
DOWN.
AND THAT WOULD BE...
IT COULD BE 100 GRAMS, WHICH IS
ABOUT YOUR PALM AMOUNT OF FISH
OR MEAT OR POULTRY.
IT COULD BE AN EGG, AS A
SERVING, IT COULD BE 2
TABLESPOONS OF PEANUT BUTTER.
SO MOST PEOPLE HAVE HAD THEIR
MEAT AND ALTERNATE INTAKE.
OKAY, HOW MANY PEOPLE HAVE HAD,
IF YOU'RE AN ADULT, WHICH YOU
ARE, 2 TO 4 SERVINGS OF MILK.
IF YOU SAY NO, YOU SIT DOWN.
AND A SERVING OF MILK WOULD BE 2
SLICES, CHEESE SLICES, IT COULD
BE THREE QUARTERS OF A CUP OF YOGHURT, OR
IT COULD BE A CUP OF MILK.
IF YOU HAVEN'T HAD THAT, YOU SIT
DOWN.
1 CUP-- YOU NEED 2 CUPS, LIKE
ONE CUP OF MILK WOULD BE ONE
SERVING, AND YOU NEED 2 TO 4
SERVINGS.
OKAY, NEXT ONE.
HOW MANY OF YOU HAVE HAD, I
WOULD SAY BETWEEN 5 TO 12
SERVINGS OF BREADS OR CEREALS,
AND A SERVING WOULD BE ONE SLICE
OF BREAD, IT MIGHT BE ABOUT A
SMALL BOWL OF CEREAL IN THE
MORNING, IT COULD BE HALF A
BAGEL, SO YOU NEED BETWEEN 5 TO
10 TO 12.
HOW MANY OF YOU HAVE HAD THAT?
IF YOU HAVEN'T HAD THAT, YOU SIT
DOWN.
HOW MANY HAVE GOT STANDING?
OKAY, LAST ONE.
THIS WILL SORT THE WHEAT FROM
THE CHAFF.
HOW MANY OF THOSE LEFT STANDING,
HAVE HAD BETWEEN 5 TO 10
SERVINGS OF VEGETABLES AND
FRUIT, AND A SERVING OF FRUIT
WOULD BE A SMALL MEDIUM BANANA,
A PIECE OF MELON, A HALF A CUP
OF JUICE.
HOW MANY PEOPLE DO WE HAVE LEFT
STANDING HERE?
I CAN LITERALLY COUNT THEM.
WE HAVE 1, 2, 3, 4....
14, 15, 16...
WE'VE GOT ABOUT 30 PEOPLE
STANDING AND THOSE--
YOU CAN ALL SIT DOWN NOW.
AND THOSE PEOPLE WHO ARE LEFT
STANDING ARE THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE
ACTUALLY EATEN ACCORDING TO
CANADA'S FOOD GUIDE.
AND MOST PEOPLE GROAN WHEN THEY
HEAR CANADA'S FOOD GUIDE,
BECAUSE IT'S SOMETHING THEY HAD
IN HIGH SCHOOL, AND THEY'VE
FORGOTTEN ABOUT IT.
BUT IN POINT OF FACT, THE GUIDE
HAS BEEN DEVELOPED TO HELP
PEOPLE EAT AS NUTRITIOUSLY AS
POSSIBLE.
NOW I'M NOT GOING TO BELABOUR
THE FOOD GUIDE AT ALL, BUT JUST
TO SHOW YOU IN TERMS OF
NUTRITIONAL HEALTH WITH ALL THE
PEOPLE HERE, WE'VE PROBABLY GOT
ABOUT 30, 35 PEOPLE WHO HAVE
EATEN ALL THE FOODS THAT WOULD
RECOMMEND THEM TO BE PERFECTLY
HEALTHY AS FAR AS THEIR
NUTRITIONAL STATUS IS CONCERNED.

A reads “To be continued next week.”

A slate pops up. It reads “For more information about Mini-Med School at the University of Toronto visit us on the web at: www.tvo.org.”

The end credits roll.

Mini-Med School Producer, Wodek Szemberg.

Executive Producer, Rudy Buttignol.

Logos: CEP Local 72 M and Canadian Media Gold.

A Production of TVO Ontario.

Copyright The Ontario Educational Communications Authority 2003.

Watch: Katherine Slater - Part 1