Video Transcript

(music plays)

A fast clip in sepia shows a man unfolding an old map while a few rocks fall to the floor. Then a close-up of a hand shows the illusion that it is grabbing a huge rock rising in the distance. The title of the show appears on the rock as if printed on a coin - “Time Team.”

An aerial view shows a medieval castle near a lake.

Tony drives a SUV along a path. He is in his sixties with receding gray hair. He’s wearing a dark jacket.

A caption reads “Tony Robinson.”

Tony says CASTLES IN
WALES: THEY'RE SYMBOLS OF
WARLORDS, PRINCES, SIEGES, AND
BLOODY BATTLES.
BUT THIS WEEK, WE'RE GOING TO
A CASTLE THAT IS WAY OFF THE
BEATEN TRACK, AND IS PROVING
SOMETHING OF A MYSTERY.
UPTON CASTLE IS THOUGHT TO BE
MEDIEVAL AND ABOUT
700 YEARS OLD.
BUT NO ONE KNOWS FOR SURE, NOT
EVEN THE PEOPLE WHO LIVE IN IT.

Pru says WE DON'T KNOW
ANYTHING ABOUT THE HISTORY,
REALLY.
IT'S ALL GUESSWORK.

Tony says WE NEED TO FIND OUT
WHEN THE CASTLE WAS BUILT, AND
WHAT IT LOOKED LIKE BACK THEN.
AND GET TO GRIPS WITH THE
EQUALLY MYSTERIOUS CHURCH OR
CHAPEL THAT STANDS NEARBY.
IT'S GOING TO BE AN ACTION
PACKED THREE DAYS.

Watching the excavator dig, Neil says I'M NOT FEELING TO
MOAT, ARE YOU?

Phil says A LITTLE BAG HERE
WITH SOME WATER IN IT.

Danni says OOH.

Phil says LITTLE COOEY NOISES.

Danni says FANTASTIC.

Tony says WE COULD BE DEALING
WITH THE BEST PART OF A
THOUSAND YEARS OF HISTORY.
THREE DAYS, FINGERS CROSSED.

Theme music plays. Fast sepia-tone clips show men digging out hidden objects from the soil such as a vase, a ring, and a skull. Then, the opening sequence of the hand grabbing the rock plays again.

Part of the team walks down a forest.

John is in his fifties with short receding grey hair and a beard. He’s wearing a black zip sweater, a blue checked shirt and a pair of glasses.

John says THERE ARE LOTS OF
TOWERS.

Tony says 8 A.M., DAY ONE OF THE
DIG.
THREE OF OUR CHIEF
INVESTIGATORS, SITE DIRECTOR
NEIL HOLBROOK, GEOPHYSICS
WIZARD, JOHN GATER, AND
HISTORIC BUILDINGS' EXPERT,
RICHARD K. MORRISS ARE TAKING
THEIR FIRST LOOK AT UPTON
CASTLE.

Neil is in his forties, clean-shaven with brown hair. He’s wearing a black zip jacket over a checked shirt.

Neil says IT'S A HOUSE.
IS IT A HOUSE? IS IT A CASTLE?

Richard is in his early fifties, clean-shaven, with blond hair. He’s wearing glasses, a black jacket and light trousers.

Richard laughs and says IT'S A BIT OF
EVERYTHING.
ALL THIS BIT LOOKS TO BE SORT
OF POST MED AND PROBABLY
GEORGIAN.

Neil says SO 18TH -

Richard says 19TH CENTURY, RIGHT.

Neil says RIGHT.

Pointing to a tower, Richard says BUT THEN YOU'VE
GOT A BREAK THERE IN THE
MASONRY, AND THEN THAT BIT
LOOKS REAL.

Neil says REAL MEDIEVAL.

Richard says YEAH, YEAH.

Neil says IT'S JUST NOT QUITE
WHAT I WAS THINKING.
I WAS THINKING, COMING TO A
CASTLE, I WAS EXPECTING TO
SEE...
NOT A HOUSE, WHICH IS WHAT IT
LOOKS LIKE.

(music plays)

Tony says WE'RE IN THE HEART OF
PEMBROKESHIRE ON THE WESTERN
EDGE OF SOUTH WALES.
UPTON CASTLE IMMEDIATELY
STRIKES US AS A RIGHT OLD
MISHMASH.

An animated map of Great Britain appears. It homes in on Wales. Two white dots read "Pembroke" and "Upton Castle."

Tony continues FROM SOME ANGLES, IT LOOKS
EXACTLY LIKE A MEDIEVAL
CASTLE.
BUT FROM OTHERS, IT LOOKS MUCH
MORE LIKE A 19TH CENTURY MANOR
HOUSE.

Fast clips of the castle flash by.

Tony continues THE SMALL CHURCH, OR CHAPEL,
THAT STANDS A SHORT DISTANCE
AWAY ON THE OTHER SIDE OF A
HIGH WALL, IS PRETTY PUZZLING,
TOO.
THE AGE AND ORIGINS OF THIS
BUILDING ARE BOTH UNCLEAR, AS
IS THE IDENTITY OF THE PEOPLE
WHOSE EFFIGIES SIT ON TOP OF
TOMBS INSIDE.
BUT FIRST THINGS FIRST.
THE CASTLE IS OUR PRIORITY.
THOUGH BEFORE WE'VE EVEN PUT A
SPADE IN THE GROUND, NEIL'S
GOT DOUBTS ABOUT WHETHER ANY
OF THE BUILDING IS MEDIEVAL.

John, Phil, Richard, Neil and Tony lean on the hood of the SUV.

Tony says THIS IS A BIG PROBLEM, ISN'T IT?
WE'VE GOT TO TRY AND FIND OUT
EVERYTHING WE CAN ABOUT A
CASTLE WHICH NOBODY SEEMS TO
KNOW MUCH ABOUT AT ALL.

The caption changes to "Neil Holbrook. Time Team Site Director."

Neil says IT'S CONFUSING, ISN'T
IT?
Looking at a plan, he continues HAVE WE GOT A MEDIEVAL CASTLE
WITH LOTS OF LATER ADDITIONS?
OR IS IT ACTUALLY JUST
SOMEONE'S FAKE HOUSE PLAYING
AT BEING A CASTLE?

Tony says YEAH, WHEN I DROVE UP
HERE, THE WHOLE THING LOOKS
LIKE IT COULD BE MADE BY A
VICTORIAN CHOCOLATE
MANUFACTURER.

Neil says YEAH.
IT COULD BE A COMPLETE FAKE,
COULDN'T IT?
IS IT REAL OR IS IT FAKE?

The caption changes to "Richard K. Morriss. Architectural Historian."

Richard says A BIT OF BOTH.
WE'VE GOT GENUINE MEDIEVAL
BITS HERE.
BUT THE IDEA IS, YOU KNOW, WE
NEED TO GET RID OF THE
EXTENSIONS ON PAPER,
THEORETICALLY, ON PAPER, NOT
ACTUALLY, THEY MIGHT GET A BIT
UPSET, AND WORK OUT THE EXTENT
OF IT.

Tony says WHERE DO YOU START?

Richard says JUST LOOKING AT
THE PLAN FIRST, I MEAN, TO ME,
YOU'VE GOT THIS FRONT RANGE
HERE, IT JUST SCREAMS OUT
COURTYARD HERE IN THAT AREA.

Neil says THAT'S THE FIRST
TEST, ISN'T IT?

The caption changes to "Phil Harding." Phil is in his sixties with long blond hair. He wears a cowboy hat and a military jacket.

Phil says ABSOLUTELY.
I MEAN, IF YOU'VE GOT THAT AS
A HYPOTHESIS, THEN REALLY WE
NEED TO BE ABLE TO GET SOME
TARGETS.

Tony says ALL RIGHT, THAT'S THE
COURTYARD.
ANYTHING ELSE?

Richard says WELL, WE NEED TO
KNOW WHERE THIS BUILDING
STANDS ON THAT KIND OF CASTLE
FORTIFIED HOUSE BOUNDARY.
LOOKING AT THE FRONT OF IT,
WHERE THE ENTRANCE IS, THERE'S
SOME EVIDENCE THERE I CAN SEE
OF POSSIBLY A DRAWBRIDGE
ACROSS A MOAT.

Neil says IF WE GET A DRAWBRIDGE
PIT HERE, WHICH THEN PROVES
THAT THE CASTLE HAS GOT A MOAT
AROUND IT, TO ME, THAT SAYS THIS
IS A REAL CASTLE, BUILT TO
WITHSTAND ATTACK AND SIEGE
AND NOT JUST SOMEONE'S
FAKE CASTLE.

Richard says YEAH.

Phil says SO AT LEAST WE'VE GOT
A STRATEGY.

Tony says WE HAVE A STRATEGY,
BUT WE ONLY HAVE THREE DAYS,
AND IT'S A BIG BUILDING.
RICHARD'S CONVINCED THAT SOME
OF THE BUILDING, AT LEAST, IS
GENUINELY MEDIEVAL.
BUT WE NEED PROOF.

(electronic music plays)

Tony continues WE'RE GOING TO PUT IN ONE
TRENCH IN FRONT OF THE CASTLE
TO LOOK FOR A MOAT, AND TWO AT
THE REAR, TO TRY TO FIND
TRACES OF A COURTYARD.
A colourful 3D animation of the castle shows two small white rectangles and a square.

Tony continues TIME TO CALL IN THE PEOPLE
WHO'LL BE DOING ALL THE
DIGGING, OUR REGULAR LINEUP
OF EAGER ARCHAEOLOGISTS.
HOT TO TROT AS EVER, THEY GET
DOWN TO WORK RIGHT AWAY IN THE
AREA BEHIND THE CASTLE, WHERE
WE THINK THERE MIGHT HAVE BEEN
A MEDIEVAL COURTYARD.

The team starts to shovel dirt.

Phil says YOU COULD HAVE THIS
LIKE A LITTLE SENTRY BOX.

Raksha is in her thirties with short dark hair. She’s a wearing blue cardigan, a green scarf and blue jeans.

Raksha says WHEN HAVE I EVER
STOOD STILL FOR MORE THAN FIVE
MINUTES?
LET'S BE HONEST.

Phil says WELL, IT'S USUALLY
YOUR MOUTH THAT'S MOVED BEFORE
ANYTHING ELSE, IN'IT, EH?

They laugh.

Tony says PHIL, RAKSHA AND THE
OTHERS ARE PUTTING IN THE
FIRST OF THE MANY TRENCHES
THEY'LL BE OPENING UP OVER THE
NEXT THREE DAYS.
BUT I'M GOING TO TRACK DOWN
THE BRAVE, OR PERHAPS THAT
SHOULD BE FOOLHARDY PEOPLE,
WHO ARE LETTING US TRASH THEIR
GARDEN.
WOULD YOU LET THE
TIME TEAM
INTO YOUR HOUSE?
I'M NOT SURE I WOULD.
Tony opens the castle’s front door and continues PARTICULARLY IF I HAD A PLACE
LIKE THIS.
IT'S NOT A BAD GAFF, IS IT?
I THINK THE KITCHEN IS THROUGH
HERE.

Pru, Steve and Tony sit at table. Pru is in her sixties with short gray hair. She’s wearing a light striped shirt.

Pru serves Tony a cup of tea.

Tony says THANK YOU.
YOU TWO ARE BONKERS, YOU KNOW
THAT, DON'T YOU?

Pru says YEAH.

Steve is in his mid-sixties, clean-shaven with receding gray hair. He’s wearing a purple sweater.

Steve says POSSIBLY.

Tony says YOU MUST HAVE KNOWN
THAT A PLACE LIKE THIS WOULD
BE A MONEY PIT.

The caption changes to "Pru Barlow."

Pru says WELL, WE'VE
DONE UP QUITE A FEW HOUSES IN
THE PAST, BUT I DON'T THINK
WE'D EVER TAKEN ON A CHALLENGE
QUITE AS BIG AS THIS.

Tony says STEVE AND PRU BARLOW
BOUGHT UPTON CASTLE IN 2007
HAVING STUMBLED ACROSS THE
PLACE AS TOURISTS.
IT WAS A SORT OF RETIREMENT
PROJECT FOR THEM AFTER SELLING
THEIR HAMPSHIRE COMPANY.

Tony says WHAT WAS IT LIKE WHEN
YOU MOVED IN?

Pru says ANTIQUATED.

The caption changes to "Steve Barlow."

Steve says THAT'S TO SAY
THE LEAST.
PRU WOULDN'T DRINK THE WATER
HERE FOR THE FIRST YEAR WE
WERE HERE BECAUSE OF THE LEAD
PIPES, AND THE SO-CALLED
RESERVOIR HAD A DEAD RAT IN IT
WHEN WE ARRIVED WHICH WAS
BLOCKING OFF THE WATER.
SO SHE WAS CARRYING WATER FROM
OUR DAUGHTER'S HOUSE.

Tony says WHAT IS IT YOU WOULD
LIKE US TO FIND OUT?

Pru says SO MANY PEOPLE
WHEN THEY COME HERE, THEY ASK
US ABOUT THE HISTORY.
WE DON'T KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT
THE HISTORY, REALLY.
IT'S ALL GUESSWORK.
SO WE'RE HOPING YOU GUYS WILL
BE ABLE TO FIND OUT SOMETHING
A BIT MORE CONCRETE FOR US
ABOUT THE ORIGINS AND THE AGE
OF IT.
I MEAN, THAT WOULD BE
WONDERFUL TO KNOW A LITTLE BIT
MORE ABOUT IT.

Tony says WE'D LOVE TO BE ABLE
TO TELL STEVE AND PRU
EVERYTHING THEY WANT TO KNOW.
AND AROUND AT THE FRONT OF THE
CASTLE, WE MAY BE GETTING A
STEP CLOSER TO DOING JUST THAT.

Neil says TAKE THIS BIT OF GRASS
OUT.

The excavator crane digs a trench.

Tony says NEIL'S FIRST SHOT IS
A DEEP TRENCH IN A PLACE WHERE
A MEDIEVAL MOAT MIGHT ONCE
HAVE BEEN.
THEY'RE HOPING TO SEE SIGNS
OF DIFFERENT COLOURED SOIL
WHERE THE MOAT WOULD HAVE BEEN
FILLED IN.
BUT THE DEEPER THE DIGGER
GOES, THE LESS THERE IS TO
SEE.

Ian drives the excavator crane. He’s in his sixties, with receding gray hair and clean-shaven. He’s wearing a dark blue zip jacket over a blue pullover.

Ian says THAT'S BACK TO THE
TARMAC, NEIL.

Neil says I'M NOT FEELING MOAT,
ARE YOU?

The caption changes to "John Gater. Time Team Gephysicist."

John says YOU'RE NOT GOING TO
HAVE A MOAT OUT THERE.

Neil says SO, JOHN, GIVEN WHERE
WE THINK THE DRAWBRIDGE IS
HERE, WE'RE PRETTY CONFIDENT
IT SURELY WOULD BE WHERE YOU
ARE NOW IF IT WAS COMING
THROUGH.

John says YOU JUST NEED TO
CLEAN THAT, BUT I'M 99 PERCENT
WITH YOU THAT WE HAVEN'T GOT A
MOAT.

Neil says THIS IS QUITE A SMALL
TRENCH, BUT ACTUALLY, WHAT
IT'S TOLD US IS QUITE MAJOR,
ISN'T IT?
THAT THAT'S ACTUALLY A FAKE
DRAWBRIDGE.
IT'S NOT REAL.
IT'S JUST FOR SHOW.
THESE GUYS ARE TRYING TO LOOK
LIKE AN IMPOSING CASTLE, BUT
PERHAPS REALLY IT WAS MORE OF
A FORTIFIED HOUSE.

Tony says IT SEEMS THAT NEIL IS
STILL UNCONVINCED THAT UPTON
HAS ANY RIGHT TO CALL ITSELF A
REAL CASTLE.
AND WE'RE CERTAINLY IN THE
DARK OVER ITS DATE.
SO WHILE HE SUPERVISES THE
HUNT FOR EVIDENCE UNDERGROUND,
I'M TAKING CASTLE EXPERT
RICHARD, AND OUR HISTORIAN,
SUZIE LIPSCOMB, TO MEET ONE OF
UPTON'S FAMOUS NEIGHBOURS.
JUST THREE MILES DOWN THE ROAD
LIES THE TOWN OF PEMBROKE, AND
ITS AMAZING NORMAN CASTLE.
UNLIKE UPTON, THERE'S NO
DOUBTING THE STATUS OF THIS
PLACE.
IT'S ONE OF THE FINEST
EXAMPLES OF CASTLE DESIGN TO
BE FOUND ANYWHERE IN WALES.

Suzie, Richard and Tony walk into another castle.

Tony says THIS IS A PROPER NORMAN
CASTLE, ISN'T IT?

Richard says IT'S PROPER, YEAH.

Tony says THIS IS POWER.
THIS IS DEFENCE.
WORK ON PEMBROKE CASTLE BEGAN
SOON AFTER THE NORMAN INVASION
OF BRITAIN IN 1066.
IT'S ONE OF THE MOST
TERRIFYING STRUCTURES THE
NORMANS EVER BUILT.
IMAGINE WHAT THE LOCALS MUST
HAVE THOUGHT WHEN THIS FIRST
WENT UP.

Richard says APART FROM BEING
CONQUERED, THEY'VE ALSO GOT
THIS HUGE CASTLE BUILT ON THE
BEST AND HIGHEST PART OF THE
LANDSCAPE.
AND THIS IS ONLY THE BITS
WE'VE GOT LEFT.
BECAUSE THIS WOULD HAVE BEEN
FULL OF OTHER BUILDINGS ALL
AROUND THE COURTYARD HERE.

Now, they walk along a green field.

Richard continues THEN THEY GO AND BUILD THAT IN
THE 12TH CENTURY.
THAT ROUND TOWER ISN'T JUST A
KEEP.
IT'S A SYMBOL.
IT'S A SYMBOL OF POWER.
IT'S SAYING, WE ARE POWERFUL.
WE CAN DO THIS.

Tony says CONQUERING WILD AND
MOUNTAINOUS WALES PRESENTED
THE NORMANS WITH A FAR GREATER
CHALLENGE THAN LOW-LYING
ENGLAND.
THEY NEVER TOOK THE NORTH OF
THE COUNTRY, AND STRUGGLED FOR
YEARS FURTHER SOUTH.
WHAT ABOUT HERE?
PEMBROKESHIRE IS A HECK OF A
LONG WAY AWAY FROM THE NORMAN
POWER BASE, ISN'T IT?

The caption changes to "Doctor Suzannah Lipscomb. Historian." Suzie is in her thirties with long curly blond hair. She’s wearing a dark jacket over a pale pink shirt.

Suzie says IT IS, BUT IT'S EASY
TO REACH BY BOAT.
SO THAT'S HOW THEY CONQUERED
PEMBROKESHIRE, BECAUSE THEY CAME
IN BY SEA.
IN FACT, THERE WERE SO MANY OF
THEM HERE THAT IN THE END, IT
WAS KNOWN AS LITTLE ENGLAND
BEYOND WALES.

Tony says OH, I'VE HEARD THAT
EXPRESSION.

(dramatic music plays)

Tony continues PEMBROKE CASTLE WAS DESIGNED
TO PROTECT LITTLE ENGLAND FROM
ATTACK.
BUT WITH SO MANY UNCONQUERED
WELSHMEN AROUND, THE NORMANS
COULDN'T JUST BUILD ONE
CASTLE.
THEY HAD TO BUILD LOTS OF
THEM, RIGHT ACROSS
PEMBROKESHIRE.

Unrolling a map, Suzie says HAVE A LOOK AT THIS.
YOU CAN SEE THIS LINE IS THE
DIVIDE BETWEEN THE ANGLICIZED
SOUTH AND THE WELSH NORTH.
AND YOU CAN SEE IT'S FULL OF
CASTLES PROTECTING IT.
YOU CAN SEE THEY'RE
EVERYWHERE.

Tony says DOES OUR CASTLE SHOW
UP HERE?

Suzie says IT DOES.
IT'S HERE.
UPTON IS THERE.
AND IT'S SURROUNDED BY OTHER
CASTLES LIKE HAVERFORDWEST,
PEMBROKE, AND TENBY.
SO IT'S WELL PROTECTED, AND
REALLY AT THE HEART OF LITTLE
ENGLAND BEYOND WALES.

Tony says SO UPTON MAY HAVE
FORMED PART OF A NORMAN
DEFENCE NETWORK.
BUT FOR THAT TO BE TRUE, WE
MUST PROVE IT'S A GENUINE
MEDIEVAL CASTLE.

An aerial view features a magnificent medieval castle surrounded by trees.

Tony continues AND WE CERTAINLY DON'T KNOW
WHAT IT ORIGINALLY LOOKED LIKE.
THE TWO TRENCHES THAT HAVE
GONE IN AT THE REAR OF THE
BUILDING WHERE THERE MIGHT
ONCE HAVE BEEN A MEDIEVAL
COURTYARD MAY TELL US A LOT
MORE.
TEAM LEADER, NEIL, IS EAGER TO
FIND OUT WHAT THEY'VE PRODUCED
SO FAR.

Neil says CASSIE, I HAVEN'T BEEN
HERE FOR A WHILE.
HOW'S THE TRENCH GOING?

Cassie is in her mid-thirties with brown hair tied-up. She’s wearing a gray beret and a green T-shirt.

Cassie gets up and says WELL, NOT BRILLIANT
YET.

The caption changes to "Cassie Newland. Time Team Archaeologist."

Cassie continues WE'VE GOT THIS SORT OF THIN
RUBBLE LAYER STUFFED FULL OF
GORGEOUSNESS.
LOOK AT THESE.
HOW ABOUT THAT FOR SLIPWARE.

Neil picks a small piece from a tray and says SO, WHAT DATE IS THAT?

Cassie says I MEAN, THAT CAN BE
17TH CENTURY.
THIS STUFF IS SLIGHTLY
EARLIER.
THAT'S IMPORTED FROM SPAIN,
VERY SNAZZY GLAZED
EARTHENWARE, ALL REALLY
SOLIDLY 17TH, 18TH CENTURY.

Neil says OKAY.

Cassie says AND THEN WHEN YOU
PUT THE SLOTS THROUGH TO
ESTABLISH WHETHER WE'VE GOT A
COURTYARD WALL, AND WHAT
HAPPENS WITH THIS WALL, YOU'RE
BACK IN THE 19TH CENTURY
AGAIN GETTING BRICK FRAGMENTS,
AND THINGS LIKE THAT.

Neil says SO YOU'VE GOT 19TH
CENTURY MATERIAL UNDERNEATH
17TH CENTURY MATERIAL.
WHICH IS THE WRONG WAY AROUND,
ISN'T IT?

Cassie says BACKWARDS
STRATIGRAPHY, BRILLIANT.
JUST WHAT YOU ALWAYS WANT.

Neil says SO I GUESS SOMEONE'S
COME ALONG HERE AND DUMPED
SOME EARLIER DEPOSITS IN THE
19TH CENTURY.

Cassie says THAT'S WHAT IT
LOOKS LIKE.
KIND OF HAS TO BE, REALLY.

Tony says THE 19TH CENTURY
DEPOSITS THAT CASSIE HAS RUN
INTO HAVE PREVENTED HER FROM
UNCOVERING ANY EVIDENCE
RELATING TO THE CASTLE'S
MEDIEVAL ORIGINS.
AND SHE'S NOT THE ONLY ONE WHO
IS STUCK.
PHIL AND RAKSHA HAVE RUN INTO
SIMILAR DIFFICULTIES, CAUSING
NEIL SOME CONCERN.
HE NEEDS TO STAND BACK NOW AND
CONSIDER THE WHOLE SITE.
ONE OF THE BEST TOOLS FOR THAT
IS THE LASER BASED SURVEY
SYSTEM KNOWN AS LIDAR.

Neil and Emma sit at a table looking at a computer screen. Emma is in her thirties with brown hair. She’s wearing a brown zip sweater.

Neil says I KNOW YOU'VE BEEN
LOOKING AT THE LIDAR DATA.
WHAT'S THAT SHOWN US?

The caption changes to "Emma Wood. Time Team Geophysicist."

Emma says IT SHOWS US ONE OR
TWO FEATURES.
THIS IS SHOWING WITH THE TREES;
WE CAN STRIP THEM OFF.
FOR ME, WHAT I CAN SEE MOST IS
THIS STREAM RUNNING PAST THE
CASTLE.

Neil says RIGHT.
THOSE ARE VERY CLEAR, AREN'T
THEY?
THOSE ARE THE SUNKEN LAWNS OUT
THE SIDE.

Emma says YEAH, YEAH.

Tony says THE SUNKEN LAWNS AT
THE REAR OF THE CASTLE ARE THE
RESULT OF MAJOR LANDSCAPING
THAT WAS CARRIED OUT HERE IN
VICTORIAN TIMES.
THE LIDAR IMAGES SUGGEST THAT
THE VICTORIANS CHANGED THE
SITE IN A RADICAL AND
PROBLEMATIC WAY.
AND THAT'S BORNE OUT BY A
PICTURE NEIL STUMBLED ACROSS
IN THE CASTLE'S ARCHIVES.

Neil points to an old picture of the castle and says THIS IS THE AREA
BEFORE THE VICTORIAN
LANDSCAPING.
YOU SEE HOW THE GROUND JUST
FALLS AWAY NATURALLY?
THEY'VE CUT THAT RIGHT BACK TO
MAKE THEIR SUNKEN LAWNS.
AND THEY PRESUMABLY MOUNDED
THIS UP TO MAKE A FLAT SORT OF
COURTYARD AREA, WHICH IS WHERE
CASSIE IS DIGGING.
SO IT'S NO WONDER SHE'S DOWN
ABOUT TWO METRES AND STILL
GOING.
THEY'VE ACTUALLY MADE OUR LIFE
VERY DIFFICULT BY JUST HOW
MUCH THEY REALLY HAVE CHANGED
THIS LANDSCAPE.

Tony says END OF DAY ONE AND
QUITE FRANKLY, IT'S BEEN A
PRETTY FRUSTRATING DAY HERE
AT UPTON CASTLE.
WE PUT THAT TRENCH IN THIS
BECAUSE WE THOUGHT THERE MIGHT
BE A MOAT GOING AROUND THE
CASTLE, BUT WE HAVEN'T FOUND
HIDE NOR HAIR OF IT YET.
NOR HAVE WE LOOKED INSIDE THESE
HUGE TOWERS YET, ALTHOUGH,
HOPEFULLY THAT'S SOMETHING
WE'LL BE DOING TOMORROW.
WE PUT A COUPLE OF TRENCHES IN
HERE, ONE OVER THERE, AND ONE
OVER THERE, TO TRY AND
ESTABLISH WHETHER OR NOT WE'D
GOT SOME KIND OF MEDIEVAL
COURTYARD, BUT QUITE FRANKLY,
THE VICTORIANS DID SO MUCH
LANDSCAPING HERE THAT THEY'VE
DESTROYED ANY EVIDENCE THERE
MIGHT HAVE BEEN.
SO TOMORROW, WE'RE GOING TO GO
HERE BECAUSE IF IT TURNS OUT
THIS LITTLE CHAPEL IS OLDER
THAN THE CASTLE, THEN THAT
COULD BE THE KEY TO THE SITE
ITSELF.

(soft music plays)

Tony says BEGINNING OF DAY TWO
AT UPTON CASTLE IN SOUTH
WALES, WHERE WE'RE TRYING TO
MAKE SENSE OF THE HISTORY OF
THIS BEAUTIFUL CASTLE.
BUT QUITE FRANKLY, SO FAR,
WE'VE DRAWN PRETTY MUCH OF A
BLANK, HAVEN'T WE, RICHARD.
YOU ASKED US TO PUT IN A
TRENCH THERE IN ORDER TO
ESTABLISH WHETHER THERE WAS A
MOAT AROUND THE CASTLE.
IS THERE?

Richard says APPARENTLY NOT.

Tony says YOU ALSO THOUGHT
THERE MIGHT BE A DRAWBRIDGE
HERE BECAUSE OF THOSE HOLES.
HAVE WE GOT A DRAWBRIDGE?

Richard says DOESN'T SEEM TO BE.

Tony says DOESN'T SEEM TO BE A
DRAWBRIDGE, DOESN'T SEEM TO BE
A MOAT.
TWO TRENCHES YOU'VE PUT IN
AROUND THE BACK OF THE CASTLE
TO ESTABLISH WHETHER OR NOT
THERE IS A MEDIEVAL COURTYARD.

Richard says DOESN'T SEEM TO BE.

Richard laughs.

Tony says DOESN'T SEEM TO BE
EITHER.
AND HOW MUCH OF THE FRONT OF
THE CASTLE DO YOU THINK IS
REALLY OLD?
THIS IS RIDICULOUS!

Chuckling, Richard says IT'S REAL.

Tony says OH, IT'S REAL.
Tony runs towards a wall and continues I CAN FEEL IT'S REAL.

Richard says IT'S STILL MEDIEVAL.
IT'S BEEN TARTED ABOUT A BIT,
BUT MOST OF THE CLUES ARE
GOING TO BE INSIDE THIS CASTLE.
AND I JUST NEED SOME TIME
INSIDE THE BUILDING, REALLY.

Tony says DAY ONE DID SEEM TO ME
TO BE PRETTY MUCH OF A TRAVESTY.
IN YOU GET.
AND DON'T COME OUT 'TIL YOU'VE
FIND SOMETHING OLD!
OH, DEAR.
I'VE JUST GIVEN RICHARD CARTE
BLANCHE TO HAVE A GOOD OLD
NOSE AROUND IN SOMEONE ELSE'S
HOME.
WE NEED HIM TO USE ALL HIS
BUILDING DETECTION SKILLS.
OUR ARCHAEOLOGICAL ATTEMPTS TO
PIN DOWN THE CASTLE'S ORIGINAL
MEDIEVAL LAYOUT HAVE RUN,
WELL, INTO THE GROUND.

Richard inspects the fireplace of a cozy kitchen and walks across a dining room.

Tony continues THE TRENCHES WE'VE PUT IN TO
FIND THE MEDIEVAL COURTYARD
ARE STILL BEING WORKED.
BUT THERE'S NO POINT DIGGING
ANY NEW ONES BECAUSE THE
VICTORIANS HAVE DESTROYED SO
MUCH.
NEIL HOLBROOK HAS DECIDED TO
BROADEN HIS FOCUS, TO TRY AND
UNDERSTAND THE WHOLE SITE,
AND I WANT TO MAKE SURE I
UNDERSTAND WHY.
WHAT ARE YOU DOING AROUND THE
BACK OF THE CHAPEL, GUYS?

Neil says WELL, TONY, WE'RE
HOPING THIS COULD BE THE
EARLIEST BUILDING ON THE SITE.
THIS COULD ACTUALLY PREDATE
THE CASTLE.

Tony says WHY DO YOU THINK IT
MIGHT BE EARLIER?

Neil says WELL BECAUSE IT'S A
CHAPEL.
IT'S QUITE LARGE.
AND IT'S ALSO NOT ON THE SAME
ALIGNMENT AS THE CASTLE.

Tony says SO WHAT CAN YOU SEE
THAT LOOKS OLD HERE?

Phil says WELL, ONE OF THE
THINGS THAT'S OBVIOUS IS THIS
BLOCKED-UP DOORWAY.
Phil approaches a wall and says THIS NICE WOUNDED ARCH.
NOW, THAT DOES LOOK VERY EARLY.
AND IT'S CLEARLY BEEN BLOCKED
UP.
WHAT WE CAN ADD IS ADDITIONAL
INFORMATION UNDER THE GROUND
BY DIGGING SOME SMALL HOLES.

Tony says SO WHERE ARE YOU
GOING TO PUT THESE TRENCHES?

Phil says ONE OF THE PLACES
WILL BE HERE TO ACTUALLY TRY
AND SEE IF THERE ARE ANY
ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES BELOW
GROUND LEVEL, WHICH MIGHT GIVE
US A DATE FOR THE DOORWAY AND
THEREFORE, JUST HOW OLD THIS
PHASE OF THE BUILDING IS.
BUT ALSO, TO PLACE ONE IN HERE.
BECAUSE YOU CAN SEE THERE
LOOKS TO BE A JOIN COMING DOWN
THE WALL IN HERE.
NOW, IS THAT WALL OLDER THAN
THAT WALL?
OR IS THAT WALL OLDER THAN
THAT WALL?
WE MAY BE ABLE TO RESOLVE THAT
BY GETTING DOWN TO THE BOTTOM.

Tony says SO NEIL AND PHIL PLAN
TO DIG TWO TRENCHES NEXT TO
THE CHAPEL.
THEY WANT TO DISCOVER WHEN IT
WAS BUILT, AND WHETHER OR NOT
BOTH PARTS OF THE BUILDING
WERE CONSTRUCTED AT THE SAME
TIME.
THEY'RE CONVINCED THAT
FINDING THESE THINGS OUT WILL
ENABLE THEM TO GET A MUCH
BETTER FIX ON THE ENTIRE SITE.
AND ANOTHER MEMBER OF THE TEAM
IS FOCUSSING ON THE CHAPEL,
TOO.
HISTORIAN SUZIE LIPSCOMB HAS
ASSEMBLED ALL THE DOCUMENTS
SHE CAN FIND THAT REFER TO
EARLY UPTON.
SHE'S DISCOVERED THAT A NORMAN
FAMILY CALLED THE MALEFANTS,
OWNED THE PLACE FOR OVER 200
YEARS.
THE LITTLE CHURCH MUST HAVE
SERVED AS THEIR FAMILY CHAPEL.
ARE THE PEOPLE BURIED IN THE
CHAPEL MALEFANTS?
OWNER PRU BARLOW WOULD LOVE TO
KNOW.

Pru opens the chapel’s red front door and Suzie follows her.

Pru says IT'S QUITE
INCONGRUOUS, REALLY, THAT THIS
CHAPEL SHOULD BE HERE WITH
THESE MARVELLOUS EFFIGIES.

Suzie says OH, WOW.
AND YOU THINK THIS IS A
MALEFANT?

Pru says WELL, WE THINK
IT'S THE MALEFANTS BECAUSE THE
MALEFANTS WERE SUPPOSEDLY
CONNECTED WITH UPTON.
IT WOULD BE INTERESTING TO
KNOW WHICH MALEFANT IT IS.

Suzie says WELL, I THINK I CAN
HELP BECAUSE IT'S REALLY EASY
TO DATE THESE THINGS.
I'VE DONE A BIT OF RESEARCH
ON IT.
AND WE CAN TELL FROM SORT OF
ASPECTS OF THE ARMOUR WHAT
PERIOD THIS IS.
IT LOOKS LIKE HE'S WEARING A
JUPON WHICH WAS THE FASHION
FOR THE LATE 14TH CENTURY.
IT'S OVER THE ARMOUR, IT'S
VERY CLOSE FITTING TO HIS BODY.
WE CAN SEE THE ARMOUR BECAUSE
WE CAN SEE THE CHAINMAIL
COMING OUT HERE, JUST UNDER
THE WAIST AND THIS ELABORATE,
CEREMONIAL BELT.
AND IF YOU LOOK HERE, THESE
ARE CALLED GADLINGS, AND THEY
ARE -

Pru says KNUCKLE DUSTERS.

Suzie says YEAH, KNUCKLE
DUSTERS.
SO I THINK WE CAN CONFIDENTLY
SAY IT'S FROM THE LATE 14TH
CENTURY.
WHICH MEANS, IF HE'S A
MALEFANT, HE'S VERY LIKELY TO
BE SIR WILLIAM MALEFANT, WHO
DIED IN 1362.

Pru says GOSH.

Suzie says BUT THERE'S ANOTHER
ONE, ISN'T THERE?

Pru says YES, THERE IS
ANOTHER ONE DOWN HERE, WE
THINK, IS PROBABLY HIS WIFE.

Suzie says BUT IT'S UP HERE.

Pru says IT'S UP HERE,
AWAY FROM THE OTHER ONE, WHICH
IS PERHAPS STRANGE THAT THEY
ARE NOT TOGETHER.

Suzie says WELL, THEY COULD BE
SEPARATE BECAUSE THEY'VE BEEN
MOVED, OR IT COULD BE THAT
ACTUALLY SHE'S OF A HIGHER
STATUS BECAUSE THIS IS CLOSER
TO THE ALTER, WHICH WOULD FIT
WITH HER BEING SIR WILLIAM
MALEFANT'S WIFE MARGARET,
BECAUSE SHE WAS OF A HIGHER
STATUS, WASN'T SHE?

Pru says SHE WAS.
SHE WAS A LADY OF MEANS,
APPARENTLY.

Suzie points to the tomb and says AND ACTUALLY, THIS
MAKES SENSE THAT IT WOULD BE
HIS WIFE BECAUSE, AGAIN, WE
CAN TELL FROM DRESS.
SHE'S WEARING A KIRTLE AND THE
GOWN ON TOP OF THAT, AND IT'S
VERY CLOSE FITTING AROUND THE
BODY, AS YOU CAN SEE.
AND WE CAN DATE THAT TO THE
LATE 14TH CENTURY BECAUSE
EARLIER IN THE CENTURY, SHE
WOULD HAVE BEEN WEARING A
WIMPLE THAT WOULD HAVE COVERED
HER NECK.
I THINK WE CAN PRETTY MUCH SAY
THAT IS LADY MARGARET
MALEFANT.

Pru says GOSH.
THAT'S REALLY INTERESTING TO
KNOW ALL THAT.

Tony says THAT'S GREAT.
WE'VE DISCOVERED THAT THE TWO
MAIN EFFIGIES ARE MEMBERS OF
THE MALEFANT FAMILY WHO LIVED
DURING THE 14TH CENTURY.
BUT WAS THAT WHEN THE CASTLE
WAS BUILT?
WE'RE ALL LOOKING TO RICHARD
TO DELIVER SOME ANSWERS.
HE'S ONLY HALFWAY THROUGH HIS
EXHAUSTIVE CASTLE SURVEY, BUT
HE'S MAKING PRETTY GOOD
PROGRESS.

Phil scrapes a wall using his trowel.

Phil says OH, LOOK.
THAT'S NICE, IN NIT?
IS THAT WHAT YOU WANTED?

Richard says THAT'S EXACTLY
WHAT I WANTED.
YEAH, YEAH.

Tony says RICHARD HAS ASKED
PHIL TO INVESTIGATE THIS
ARCHED OPENING AT THE REAR OF
THE CASTLE BECAUSE HE THINKS
IT COULD BE A MEDIEVAL
DOORWAY.
IT LOOKS LIKE THEY FOUND THE
PROOF.

Phil says SO THE HINGES ARE
GOING TO BE UP HERE.
AND IT'S GOING TO OPEN
INWARDS.

Richard says IT'S GOING TO OPEN
INWARDS.

Phil says THEN THE CATCH WILL
BE SOMEWHERE HERE.
AND THEN THAT LITERALLY SEALS
THE DOOR.

Richard says YEAH.

Phil says SO THIS WOULD BE AN
INTERNAL DOOR THROUGH FROM A
COURTYARD TO GET INTO THE MAIN
ACTUAL MAIN CASTLE ITSELF?

Richard says YEAH.
FROM THE COURTYARD AREA OUT
HERE, YEAH.

Phil says SO YOU'LL BE STANDING
WHERE THE COURTYARD IS.

Richard says I AM ON THE
COURTYARD.

Phil says AND I AM ACTUALLY
WALKING INTO THE CASTLE.

Richard says YEAH.

Tony says RICHARD SEEMS TO HAVE
DEMONSTRATED THAT UPTON CASTLE
DID POSSESS A COURTYARD AFTER
ALL.
AND HE'S NOT DONE YET.
INSIDE THE TWO GREAT TOWERS AT
THE FRONT OF THE CASTLE, THE
LOCATION NOWADAYS OF A
MASSIVE WOOD STORE, HE'S MADE
AN EQUALITY EXTRAORDINARY
FIND.

Richard and Tony walk into the castle.

Richard says TONY, YOU WANTED
MEDIEVAL, I'VE GOT MEDIEVAL
UPSTAIRS.

Tony says IT MAY WELL BE A
RUNDOWN STORAGE AREA TODAY,
BUT RICHARD BELIEVES THAT THIS
PART OF THE BUILDING HAD A
VERY ILLUSTRIOUS PAST.

Tony climbs a ladder.

Tony says OH, WOW.
THAT'S A BIT SPECIAL, ISN'T
IT?

Richard says IT IS.

Tony says IT'S NOT 19TH
CENTURY.

Richard says REAL STUFF.

Tony says PRESUMABLY, THIS IS A
MEDIEVAL FIREPLACE.

Looking up, Richard says YUP.
THAT'S A MEDIEVAL FIREPLACE.
EARLY 14TH CENTURY.

Tony says SO WOULD THERE HAVE
BEEN A FLOOR JUST BELOW THAT?

Richard says YES.
AND THIS OLD LADDER HERE IS
CONVENIENTLY SITTING ON
CORBELS THAT WOULD HAVE HELD
THE GREAT FLOOR BEAMS GOING
ACROSS THE PLACE.

Tony says WOW.
SO THE FLOOR WE'RE STANDING ON
NOW, THAT'S NOT AS OLD.

Richard says NO.
THIS IS COMING IN THE 19TH
CENTURY, PROBABLY, AS PART OF
THE STABLES.
SO YOU'VE GOT BASICALLY ONE
CHAMBER ABOVE THE OTHER, AND
THIS WOULD BE THE POSHEST.
SO THIS IS THE GREAT HALL AT
THE TOP.

Tony says THINGS ARE REALLY
HOTTING UP NOW HERE AT UPTON
CASTLE.
RICHARD'S NEW DISCOVERIES HAVE
PROVED THE CASTLE IS GENUINE.
AND TAKEN US A STEP CLOSER TO
FINDING OUT WHAT IT LOOKED
LIKE WHEN IT WAS BUILT.
AND IF THAT'S NOT EXCITING
ENOUGH, IMPORTANT DISCOVERIES
ARE ALSO BEING MADE IN THE
CHURCHYARD OUTSIDE THE CHAPEL.

Now, Tony stands by a trench.

Tony says THESE ARE THE TRENCHES YOU PUT
IN TO WORK OUT HOW OLD THE
CHAPEL IS, AND WHETHER IT'S
OLDER THAN THE CASTLE, RIGHT?

Neil says YEAH.

Tony says SO HOW HAVE WE GOT
ON?

Neil says THEY'RE BOTH GOING
REALLY WELL, TONY.
IN MATT'S TRENCH, WE'VE
ACTUALLY DUG DOWN NOW AND
EXPOSED THE BASE OF THE
DOORWAY.
AND THAT MATCHES THE FLOOR
LEVEL INSIDE THE CHAPEL.
SO THAT'S REALLY NICE.
THAT HELPS TO BUILD THAT
PICTURE.
THIS IS A FANTASTIC TRENCH
WHERE PHIL'S BEEN DIGGING
BECAUSE CAN YOU SEE YOU'VE GOT
THE BIG WALL HERE, AND THIS
BIT HAS BEEN ADDED ON TO THAT
BIT.

Tony says HOW CAN YOU SEE THAT,
PHIL?

Lying down on the ground, Phil says THERE'S TWO THINGS.
FIRSTLY, WE'VE GOT THIS BIG
STONE HERE WHICH IS CLEARLY
RELATED TO THAT WALL OVER
THERE.
THIS STONE HERE, WHICH BELONGS
TO THIS WALL, AND YOU CAN SEE
IT'S RIDING UP OVER THE TOP OF
THIS STONE.
SO THIS STONE, WHICH IS PART
OF THIS WALL HERE, HAS TO BE
LATER THAN THAT ONE, WHICH IS
PART OF THAT ONE.

Neil says AND THAT'S GREAT
BECAUSE IT SHOWS THIS IS THE
EARLY PART OF THE CHURCH, AND
IT'S STILL QUITE LARGE.
SO MAYBE THAT MATCHES WITH OUR
THEORY FOR HAVING A LARGE
CHURCH BEFORE THE CASTLE.
COME WITH ME, TONY.
BECAUSE WHAT I WANT TO DO NOW
IS OPEN ANOTHER TRENCH.
BECAUSE WHEN YOU HAVE EARLY
CHURCHES, IT'S A VERY COMMON
FEATURE THAT THEY ACTUALLY SIT
WITHIN CIRCULAR CHURCHYARDS.
IGNORE THESE WALLS.
THESE ARE MUCH, MUCH LATER IN
TIME.
SO COME ON DOWN HERE.

Tony says RIGHT.
THE PLACE WE'RE HEADING FOR IS
A LARGE WALLED GARDEN, ABOUT A
HUNDRED YARDS FROM THE CASTLE
ITSELF.
NEIL HOPES TO FIND CLUES HERE
ABOUT THE AGE OF THE CHAPEL,
WHICH COULD OPEN UP THE
EARLIEST HISTORY OF THE SITE.

Neil says SO WE'RE GOING TO DIG
A TRENCH THROUGH HERE.
SEE IF WE CAN FIND A DITCH OR
SOMETHING.
IF WE COULD GET A CIRCULAR
CHURCHYARD THAT WOULD PROVE
THAT IS PRE CASTLE, AND ALSO,
PAUL HAS BEEN FURTLING AROUND
IN THE POTATO BEDS.

Paul's in his forties, clean-shaven and bald. He wears a gray T-shirt and matching trousers.

Paul says I CERTAINLY HAVE.

Tony says AND WHAT YOU GOT?

The caption changes to “Paul Blinkhorn. Time Team Pottery Expert.”

Paul says MORE MEDIEVAL POTTERY
THAN THE ENTIRE FIELD TEAM PUT
TOGETHER.

Tony says NOW, WHEN YOU SAY
MEDIEVAL, WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

Paul says 13TH, 14TH CENTURY.

Paul shows Tony two small pieces on the palm of his hand.

Tony says WHERE DID YOU FIND
THAT?

Paul says ONE FROM JUST DOWN
THERE, AND TWO FROM THE POTATO
BED.

Tony says SO THIS IS COMPLETELY
NEW EVIDENCE IN A COMPLETELY
DIFFERENT PART OF THE SITE.
WE'RE GOING TO PUT A TRENCH IN
HERE TO SEE WHETHER THIS AREA
LINKS IN WITH THE CHAPEL, AND
GIVEN THAT WE'VE ALREADY FOUND
MEDIEVAL POTTERY HERE, WHO
KNOWS WHAT WE MIGHT FIND AFTER
LUNCH.
WE'RE IN THE MIDDLE
OF A CHALLENGING SECOND DAY
HERE AT UPTON CASTLE IN
PEMBROKESHIRE.
A NEW TRENCH IS BEING OPENED
UP IN A LARGE WALLED GARDEN,
WHERE SMALL PIECES OF MEDIEVAL
POTTERY TURNED UP JUST BEFORE
LUNCH.

Steve and Paul stand by a trench.

Steve says DEFINITELY A
SEAM OF YELLOW CLAY OVERLYING
THE RED STONE UNDERNEATH.

Paul says RIGHT.

Tony says WE'RE HOPING TO FIND
THINGS HERE THAT WILL SHED NEW
LIGHT ON THE EARLIEST HISTORY
OF THE SITE.
BUT IT'S NOT THE ONLY NEW
TRENCH ON THE GO.
BACK IN THE CHURCHYARD, OUR
CHIEF INVESTIGATOR, NEIL
HOLBROOK, HAS OPENED UP NO
FEWER THAN FOUR NEW TRENCHES
IN THE HOPE OF FINDING OUT
MORE ABOUT THE CHAPEL'S
EARLIEST PHASE.
THIS HAS BROUGHT THE TOTAL
NUMBER OF TRENCHES WE'VE DUG SO
FAR TO A PRETTY IMPRESSIVE TEN.

The animated castle shows several white rectangles and squares.

Neil says YOU GOT THAT YELLOWY
MATERIAL.

Tracey is in her forties with long red braids and bangs. She’s wearing a blue jeans and a dark shirt.

Digging, Tracey says YEAH, THAT'S GOOD.

Tony says THAT'S AN AWFUL LOT
OF HOLES.
WHILE NEIL'S GRAPPLING WITH
THEM, I'M GOING TO FIND OUT
WHETHER SUZIE'S FILLED IN MORE
BLANKS ON THE CASTLE SIDE OF
THE STORY.

Tony and Suzie sit in a living room.

Suzie says YEAH.
I'VE BEEN FINDING SOME GOOD
STUFF.
I'M GLAD YOU'RE HERE.
I WANTED TO SHOW YOU.
THERE'S SOME INTERESTING
ACCOUNTS THAT TELL US
SOMETHING ABOUT WHAT'S BEEN
GOING ON HERE.
Holding a document, she continues THIS IS FROM 1307, AND YOU'VE
GOT MENTIONS OF PEMBROKE AND
OTHER CASTLES NEARBY,
INCLUDING OPETON, WHICH IS
UPTON IN A DIFFERENT SPELLING.
AND THIS IS A LITTLE BIT
LATER.
THIS IS 36, EDWARD III, WHICH
IS 1362.
AND IT'S CHARGING FEES TO
WILLIAM MALEFANT.
HE IS THE CHAP YOU CAN SEE IN
EFFIGY IN THE CHAPEL.

Tony says AH, YES, YES, YES.
SO WHAT DO THESE TWO LITTLE
SNAPSHOTS TELL US?

Suzie says WELL, THEY SAY THERE
IS SOMEONE HERE RENTING LAND
AS A TENANT OF A LORD, SO
PROBABLY A MINOR LORD.
BUT THEY DON'T GIVE US ALL THE
DETAIL WE'D LIKE.

Tony says SO WHEN DO WE FIRST
GET SOMETHING MORE VIVID ABOUT
UPTON CASTLE?

Suzie says AH, WELL, WE'VE GOT
THIS FROM THE EARLY 15TH
CENTURY.
THIS IS AN ACCOUNT OF THE
UPRISING OF OWAIN GLYNDWR WHO
WAS, OF COURSE -

Tony says THE GREAT WELSH HERO.

Suzie says THAT'S THE ONE, YES.

Tony says SOMETIMES CALLED THE
LED A FEROCIOUS REBELLION
AGAINST ENGLISH RULE AT THE
START OF THE 15TH CENTURY.

A black and white drawing shows a man wearing a long robe sitting on a throne.

Tony continues ENGLISH SPEAKING LANDOWNERS
HERE IN PEMBROKESHIRE WERE
PETRIFIED HE WAS GOING TO
MARCH IN AND ROB THEM OF
EVERYTHING THEY'D GOT.
SO A RESISTANCE PLAN WAS
HASTILY DRAWN UP.
THE OWNERS OF UPTON CASTLE
SEEM TO HAVE BEEN CLOSELY
INVOLVED.

Suzie says THE CRUCIAL THING IS
HERE, THREE PEOPLE ARE NAMED
TO RAISE 15 POUNDS, TWO
SHILLINGS AND EIGHT PENCE,
LOTS AND LOTS OF MONEY, AND
ONE OF THEM IS HENRY MALEFANT.

Tony says AND DO WE KNOW WHICH
MALEFANT HE WAS?

Suzie says YES, HE'S THE SON
OF THE CHAP WE'VE GOT IN
EFFIGY.

Tony says SO AT THIS REALLY
SIGNIFICANT TIME IN WELSH
HISTORY, UPTON IS PLAYING
QUITE A SIGNIFICANT PART.

Suzie says IT IS, ABSOLUTELY.
IT'S A CENTRAL COG.
IT'S MAKING SURE OWAIN GLYNDWR
DOESN'T GET HIS WELSH
INDEPENDENCE.

Tony says SO UPTON DID PLAY ITS
ROLE IN THE DEFENCE OF LITTLE
ENGLAND, BUT HOW CLOSE ARE WE
TO DISCOVERING ITS REAL AGE
AND ORIGINAL SIZE?

(relaxing music plays)

Tony continues RICHARD MORRISS HAS HAD PLENTY
OF TIME TODAY TO PIECE
TOGETHER ALL THE EVIDENCE TO
COME UP WITH A DEFINITIVE
VERDICT ON WHEN THE PLACE WAS
BUILT, AND JUST HOW BIG AND
IMPRESSIVE IT WAS AT THAT TIME.
I RECKON IT'S TIME TO PIN HIM
DOWN.

Tony walks into the castle and says RICHARD, YOU SAID YOU WANTED
TWO HOURS IN ORDER TO CRACK WHAT
THIS HOUSE WAS REALLY ABOUT.
YOU'VE HAD DOUBLE THAT.
WHAT HAVE WE GOT?

Richard says I'M NOW CONVINCED
IT'S DEFINITELY GENUINE
MEDIEVAL STUFF, EARLY 14TH
CENTURY.

Tony says BUT WITHOUT A
DRAWBRIDGE.

Richard says NOT NECESSARILY
WITHOUT A DRAWBRIDGE.
WE'RE IN THE ENTRANCE HERE.
AND THIS HAD TO BE THE ONLY
WAY INTO THE CASTLE LOOKING AT
THE REST OF IT.
AND ABOVE US, A VERY TALL,
VAULTED CEILING, WHICH IS
STONE, POSSIBLY MEDIEVAL.
AND ABOVE THAT, IS A MEDIEVAL
CHAMBER THAT DOESN'T SEEM TO
HAVE VERY BIG WINDOWS, BUT
DOES SEEM POSSIBLY TO BE A
WINDING HOUSE FOR A DRAWBRIDGE.

An animated recreation shows what Richard mentions.

Tony says AH.
OVER... NOT A MOAT?

Richard says NO, NO, IT COULD
BE A PIT OF SOME DESCRIPTION.

Tony says SO THESE TWO LITTLE
HOLES HERE, WE COULD REINSTATE
THEM AS POSSIBLY WHERE THE
CHAINS CAME THROUGH.

Richard says I'M REASONABLY
CONVINCED, ANYWAY.

Tony says WHAT ELSE HAVE YOU GOT?

Richard says WELL, IT DOES LOOK
LIKE THIS PLACE IS A LOT
BIGGER THAN WE THINK IT.
I CAN TELL.
IF YOU COME THROUGH HERE, INTO
THIS SPACE...
YOU GET SOME IDEA OF WHAT'S
GOING ON.

They walk into a spacious living room and sit on a blue coach.

Richard continues BECAUSE WE'RE QUITE A
DISTANCE FROM THE ENTRANCE.
Pointing to a map, he continues THERE'S THE ENTRANCE WE'VE
JUST COME THROUGH.
THERE'S THE TOWER BLOCK.
AND WE'RE RIGHT IN THE BACK
HERE, BUT LOOK, WE'RE IN A
VAULTED SPACE.
SO IT'S POSSIBLY STONE VAULTED
MEDIEVAL CEILING.
AND IF YOU LOOK AT THE PLAN
HERE, THE WALLS OF THE
KITCHEN, WHICH IS NEXT DOOR,
ARE EXTRAORDINARILY THICK.
SO THAT COULD BE MEDIEVAL, AS
WELL.
AND YOU CAN SEE THE LOGIC OF
SUGGESTING A COURTYARD DOWN
HERE, WHICH HAS BEEN
COMPLETELY WIPED OUT BY ALL
THE VICTORIAN LANDSCAPING.

Tony says SO RICHARD BELIEVES
THAT WHEN UPTON CASTLE WAS
BUILT BACK IN THE 14TH
CENTURY, IT LOOKED, NOT LIKE
THIS, BUT LIKE THIS.

The animated castle appears. First, as a long building to finally get smaller.

Tony continues SHORN OF ALL ITS LATER
ADDITIONS, IT STANDS REVEALED
AS A SMALL, BUT WELL-BUILT
MEDIEVAL CASTLE WITH AT LEAST
THREE TOWERS, A LARGE
COURTYARD, AND SUBSTANTIAL
LIVING QUARTERS.
THE AGE AND ORIGINAL
APPEARANCE OF THE CASTLE ARE
NOW PRETTY MUCH SORTED OUT.
BUT THERE'S STILL WORK TO BE
DONE.
OUR LEAD ARCHAEOLOGIST, NEIL
HOLBROOK, BELIEVES THE CHAPEL
MAY HAVE PREDATED THE CASTLE,
AND COULD HAVE BEEN AT THE
CENTRE OF AN EARLY SETTLEMENT.
OUR CHALLENGE NOW IS TO FIND
OUT IF HE'S RIGHT.
EVERYONE'S BEEN HOPING THAT
THE TRENCH IN THE WALLED
GARDEN WOULD PRODUCE IMPORTANT
CLUES.
SADLY, THOUGH, THAT PARTICULAR
HOLE ISN'T MUCH HELP.

Neil says IAN.

Ian says HI-YA, NEIL.

Neil says THIS TRENCH WE HAD
HOPES FOR, BREAK OF SLOPE,
HOPEFUL FEATURE; WHAT YOU GOT?

Crouching in a trench, Ian says I'VE GOT A VERY, VERY
PECULIAR FEATURE.
I'VE NEVER SEEN ANYTHING QUITE
LIKE IT BEFORE.

Tony says THE TRENCH HAS THROWN
UP CONFUSING EVIDENCE WHICH NO
ONE CAN REALLY INTERPRET.
A BIG DISAPPOINTMENT.
BUT THERE'S BETTER NEWS IN THE
CHURCHYARD NEXT DOOR.
THE NEW TRENCH THAT PHIL AND
RAKSHA HAVE BEEN WORKING ON
HAS TURNED UP A REALLY
EXCITING FIND.

Phil says NOW, LOOK, I'VE GOT A
LITTLE BAG HERE WITH SOME
WATER IN IT WHICH OUGHT TO
GIVE YOU A BIT OF A CLUE THAT
WHAT I'M HOPING TO SHOW YOU IS
ACTUALLY WINDOW GLASS.
I THINK WE'VE GOT 'EM HERE
NOW, YEAH.

Danni’s in her thirties with blond hair in two braids. She’s wearing a plaid blue shirt.

Danni says OOH.

Phil says COOEY NOISES.

The caption changes to "Dannie Wootton. Time Team Small Finds Expert."

Danni says FANTASTIC.
WELL, LOOK AT THAT.
YEAH, WELL, THIS LOOKS LIKE
WINDOW GLASS.
WE'VE GOT A NICE CLEAR BIT
HERE, AND THEN THIS IS A
REALLY LOVELY BEAUTIFUL BIT OF
STAINED GLASS.
ISN'T THAT LOVELY.
IT'S KIND OF REDDY YELLOWY
COLOUR, WHICH IS BEAUTIFUL.

Phil says NOW, THE CRUCIAL
THING IS, CAN YOU DATE THE
STAINED GLASS?
IS IT MEDIEVAL WINDOW GLASS?

Danni says WELL, IT PROBABLY IS.
WE'RE TAKING IT FROM A
MEDIEVAL CONTEXT, AREN'T WE?
AND WE'VE GOT THE CHAPEL JUST
HERE.
SO I THINK THERE'S EVERY
CHANCE IT'S MEDIEVAL GLASS.

Phil says I MEAN, I WAS JUST
OVER THE MOON ABOUT IT BECAUSE
I THINK FOR THE FIRST TIME
NOW, IT'S JUST BEGINNING TO
ADD A LITTLE BIT OF EXTRA
DETAIL TO WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT
WHAT THIS BUILDING LOOKED LIKE
IN THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD.
WE KNOW IT HAD WINDOWS, AND WE
KNOW IT HAD GLASS IN IT.
BUT NOW WE CAN ACTUALLY START
TO SAY THEY'VE GOT STAINED
GLASS WINDOWS IN THERE.
AND IT'S JUST SUCH A NICE
ADDITIONAL FEATURE OF THIS
BUILDING.

An animation reconstructs a round-arched window from the piece found.

Danni says IT BRINGS IT TO
LIFE, DOESN'T IT?
THAT WAS LOVELY.

(piano music plays)

Tony says WITH RATHER NICE
FINDS STARTING TO APPEAR,
THERE IS A DISTINCTLY UPBEAT
TONE TO THE TRADITIONAL END OF
DAY TWO MEETING OUTSIDE,
AFRAID SO, THE LOCAL PUB.

The team have a drink outdoors.

Tony says WELL, DAY ONE WAS PRETTY
FRUSTRATING, BUT WE'VE HAD A
PRETTY GOOD DAY TODAY, HAVEN'T
WE?

Phil says I THINK WE REALLY
HAVE.
I'M JUST SO OVERJOYED TO
ACTUALLY BE ABLE TO NAIL THE
FACT THAT WE'VE GOT TWO CLEAR
PHASES IN THAT CHAPEL.
AND WE'RE ACTUALLY NOW
BEGINNING TO GET SOME FINDS
WHICH ACTUALLY TELL US WHAT
THAT 13TH, 14TH CENTURY CHAPEL
WAS.

Tony says YOU'RE THE BOSS.
HOW'S IT BEEN FOR YOU?

Neil says I'M FEELING MUCH
BETTER TODAY.
LAST NIGHT I WAS A BIT DOWN IN
THE DUMPS TO BE FRANK.
BUT TODAY, ACTUALLY ALL THE
TRENCHES DELIVERED GOOD
ARCHAEOLOGY.
AND THOSE ONES IN THE
CHURCHYARD, REALLY
INTERESTING.
THE VICTORIANS MADE A RIGHT
MESS OF THIS SITE
ARCHAEOLOGICALLY, BUT THE ONE
AREA THEY DIDN'T TOUCH WAS THE
GRAVEYARD.
SO BY HOMING IN ON THERE, I
THINK WE CAN GET THESE ELUSIVE
GLIMPSES OF THE EARLIEST
OCCUPATION.

Tony says SO EVERYONE'S FEELING
OPTIMISTIC.
BUT WE'RE NOT HOME AND DRY
JUST YET.
WE STILL DON'T KNOW WHEN THE
CHAPEL WAS BUILT, OR IF A
SETTLEMENT EXISTED HERE AT
THAT TIME.
ONE DAY TO GO, THEN, AND LOTS
TO FIND OUT.
CHEERS, GENTLEMEN.

All of them say CHEERS.

Tony says BEGINNING OF DAY
THREE HERE AT UPTON CASTLE,
ALTHOUGH QUITE FRANKLY, WE'RE
TURNING OUR BACK ON THE CASTLE
TODAY BECAUSE IT'S PRETTY MUCH
DONE AND DUSTED.
RICHARD RECKONS HE KNOWS WHAT
THE SHAPE OF IT NOW, AND ALSO
THE APPROXIMATE DATE.
SO NOW, WE'RE GOING TO SEE IF
WE CAN KIND EVIDENCE OF WHAT
WAS HERE BEFORE THE CASTLE,
WHICH WILL HELP US UNDERSTAND
WHY THE CASTLE WAS BUILT HERE
IN THE FIRST PLACE.
AND SO FAR, IN PHIL'S TRENCH -
MORNING, PHIL.

Phil says MORNING, TONY.

Tony says WE'VE GOT A ROOF
TILE, AND IT'S GLAZED.
SEE THAT LITTLE BIT OF GLAZING
THERE?
THAT MEANS IT'S POSH.
AND IT'S OLD.
ALTHOUGH QUITE HOW OLD, WE'RE
NOT SURE YET.
WE'RE ALSO GOING TO BE
FIDDLING AROUND INSIDE THIS
CHAPEL.

Tony walks into the chapel and says RICHARD, HAVE WE GOT ANY IDEA
HOW OLD THE CHAPEL IS YET?

Richard says WELL, WE'VE GOT
BITS OF EVIDENCE.
THERE'S AN ACCUMULATION.
THE OBVIOUS THING IS THIS FONT
HERE.
THIS IS GOING TO BE AROUND
1200.
IT'S QUITE CRUDE, BUT IT'S
PUCKER FOR THAT SORT OF DATE.

Tony says WHAT ABOUT THE DOORS?

Richard says WELL, THE DOORWAYS
ARE INTERESTING BECAUSE WE'VE
GOT OPPOSING DOORWAYS.
WE'VE GOT THE MAIN ENTRANCE
THERE, BUT WE'VE ALSO GOT A
BLOCKED ONE IN THE NORTH WALL.
AND THAT TYPE OF PLAN FORM IS
QUITE TYPICAL OF CHURCHES OF
THE 12TH AND VERY EARLY 13TH
CENTURY.
SO ALL THOSE BITS OF EVIDENCE
TO ME SUGGEST WE'VE GOT A
CHAPEL HERE THAT COULD BE
AROUND 1200.

Tony says I SUPPOSE THIS IS TOO
EARLY FOR DOCUMENTARY
EVIDENCE.

Suzie says NOPE, NOT AT ALL.
IN FACT, GERALD OF WALES, HAVE
YOU HEARD OF HIM?

Suzie turns to grab a document.

Tony says YES.

Suzie says GREAT HISTORIAN.
THERE'S AN ACCOUNT WHERE HE
HAD A DISPUTE OF OSBERT, THE
ARCHDEACON OF CAERNARFON.
AND IN THE ACCOUNT, HE
MENTIONS THERE ARE CHURCHES
AND CHAPELS IN SEVERAL AREAS
NEAR HERE, INCLUDING UCKETUNE,
WHICH IS ANOTHER VARIANT
SPELLING FOR UPTON.
SO IT DOESN'T TELL US ANYMORE
THAN THERE IS AN
ECCLESIASTICAL SITE HERE, BUT
THIS IS WRITTEN BETWEEN ABOUT
1190 AND 1210, WHICH FITS IN
PERFECTLY, RICHARD, WITH WHAT
YOU ARE SAYING.

Tony says SO OLD DOCUMENTS AND
STANDING REMAINS BOTH SUGGEST
THAT THE OLDEST PART OF THE
CHAPEL, WHERE WE'RE STANDING
NOW, WAS BUILT AT THE START OF
THE 13TH CENTURY, 100 YEARS
BEFORE THE CASTLE.
THIS IS IMPORTANT INFORMATION,
BUT THAT'S NOT THE END OF THE
STORY FOR NEIL AND HIS TEAM.

Neil says TRACEY, I'VE BEEN
PUTTING LOTS OF HOPE INTO THESE
TWO TRENCHES.

Tony says THE MAIN THING THAT
NEIL IS KEEN TO DISCOVER IS
WHETHER SOME KIND OF
SETTLEMENT WENT WITH THE
CHAPEL.
AND IF IT DID, WHAT DREW PEOPLE
TO THIS PARTICULAR SPOT.
HE'S NOT EXACTLY DROWNING IN
FINDS THAT COULD HELP HIM FIND
OUT.

(music plays)
It starts to rain.

Tony says BEFORE LONG, THOUGH, WE COULD
ALL BE DROWNING IN SOMETHING
ELSE.
THIS WEATHER IS PUTTING A BIT
OF A DAMPER ON IT, ISN'T IT?

Neil says I FEEL SLIGHTLY
DESPERATE, IF YOU WANT THE
HONEST TRUTH.
IT SEEMS AS IF ALL THE
ARCHAEOLOGY IS COALESCING
AROUND THE CHURCHYARD.
WE HAVE TO GET ANSWERS IN
THERE.
ARE WE GOING TO FIND SOME OF
THIS PRE-CASTLE ARCHAEOLOGY
WE'VE BEEN SEARCHING FOR SO
HARD?
AND I THINK IF YOU ASK ME
HONESTLY, IT'S TOUCH AND GO IN
THIS WEATHER.

Tony says TIME TEAM OFTEN
COMES INTO ITS OWN AT TIMES
LIKE THIS, OF COURSE.
THERE'S NOTHING LIKE A
DOWNPOUR TO BRING OUT
EVERYONE'S BRITISH PLUCK.
BUT I HAVE TO ADMIT, WE DON'T
OFTEN GET RAIN LIKE THIS.
THE GEOPHYS BOYS, WHO ARE
SURVEYING THE CHAPEL FLOOR TO
TRY TO CONFIRM THE BUILDING'S
AGE, ARE MANAGING TO STAY DRY.
BUT EVERYONE ELSE IS HAVING TO
GRIT THEIR TEETH AND SUCK UP
WHATEVER THE WEATHER GODS
DECIDE TO THROW AT THEM.

Tony and Phil stand in a tent.

Tony says IF THE RAIN WAS ONLY COMING
DOWNWARDS, WE'D HAVE A CHANCE
OF STAYING DRY, BUT IT'S
SHEETING SIDEWAYS NOW.

Phil says IT'S ABSOLUTELY FOUL
OUT THERE.
THANK THE LORD FOR THIS COVER.

Tony says YEAH, BUT YOU HAVE
STOPPED DIGGING DOWNWARDS,
HAVEN'T YOU?
AND YOU'RE NOT AT THE BOTTOM
YET.

Phil says NO, WE'RE NOT AT THE
BOTTOM YET.
I MEAN, WE'VE CLEARED OFF ALL
THE LAYERS WHICH RELATE TO THE
CHAPEL.
WE'RE NOW INTO GRAVE FILL.
THIS IS A CHURCHYARD.
PEOPLE HAVE BEEN DYING HERE
FOR CENTURIES.
THEY'RE ALL GOING TO BE IN
HERE.
AND WE SIMPLY HAVEN'T GOT THE
TIME TO DEAL WITH THEM.

Tony says SO IT'S JUST AN EERIE
COINCIDENCE THAT YOU STOPPED
DIGGING DOWNWARDS AT EXACTLY
THE MOMENT WHEN THE RAIN
STARTED RAINING EVEN HARDER?

Phil says NOT AT ALL.
I MEAN, WE COULD CARRY ON;
WE'VE GOT A COVER.
WE COULD CARRY ON.
WE'RE THE LUCKY ONES.
WE'VE GOT A COVER.

Tony says YEAH, DOESN'T STOP
THIS SIDEWAYS RAIN, THOUGH.
WHILE PHIL'S BEING DOING HIS
BEST TO AVOID DISTURBING HUMAN
BURIALS, ANOTHER MEMBER OF THE
TEAM HAS COME ACROSS ONE THAT
COULD BE VERY GOOD NEWS.
"TIME TEAM'S" TRACEY HAS
UNCOVERED A HUMAN SKELETON
THAT'S GOT EVERYONE VERY
EXCITED, INDEED.

The caption changes to "Tracey Smith. Time Team Archaeologist."

Tracey and Tony crouch in a trench.

Tracey says I THINK WE CAN GO
AHEAD AND LIFT THE TWO OF THE
LOWER ARM BONES THAT WE CAN
SEE THERE JUST CROSSING OVER
THE PELVIS.

Tony says CAN YOU TELL MUCH
ABOUT THE PERSON THE BONE
BELONGED TO?

Tracey says THEY LOOK ADULT.
THAT'S ONE THING I CAN SAY.

Tony says PHIL WAS ANXIOUS TO
AVOID RELATIVE RECENT BURIALS.
BUT THE CONTEXT IN WHICH THIS
ONE'S FOUND MAKES IT PLAIN IT
DATES FROM THE MEDIEVAL
PERIOD.
THAT'S COME UP BEAUTIFULLY,
HASN'T IT?

Tracey says ACTUALLY, YES,
CONSIDERING THE STATE OF SOME
OF THE BONE WE'VE HAD, THAT'S
ACTUALLY QUITE GOOD.
POP THAT ONE GENTLY IN THERE.

Tony says THE INDIVIDUAL WE
FOUND MIGHT HAVE BEEN ALIVE
BEFORE THE CASTLE WAS BUILT,
AT THE START OF THE 14TH
CENTURY.

Tracey says HERE WE ARE.
THAT'S ONE OF THE EARLIEST
OCCUPANTS OF THIS PLACE.

Tony says CAN YOU PASS THE BOX?
HERE WE ARE.
NOW, WE'LL TAKE THOSE OFF TO
BE CARBON DATED.
THEN HOPEFULLY, WE'LL BE ABLE
TO TELL WHETHER THIS PERSON
WAS AROUND BEFORE THE CASTLE
WAS BUILT, WHICH WOULD BE
REALLY GOOD INFORMATION.
AND NOW WE KNOW FOR SURE,
AFTER CARBON DATING, THAT THE
BODY DOES INDEED DATE FROM THE
PRE-CASTLE ERA.
SO WHAT WAS UPTON LIKE IN THAT
FARAWAY TIME?
AIDED AND ABETTED BY RICHARD
AND SUZIE, WHO HAVE BOTH COME
UP TRUMPS OVER THE PAST THREE
DAYS, I'M GOING TO TRY TO
CONJURE UP THE SCENE.

Suzie, Richard and Tony sit under a large tree.

Tony says IF WE'D BEEN SITTING AROUND
THIS TREE IN, LET'S SAY THE
YEAR 1200, WHAT WOULD WE HAVE
SEEN ALL AROUND US?

Richard says WELL, I THINK WE
WOULD HAVE HAD THAT LITTLE
STONE CHAPEL THERE ALREADY.
AND YOU DON'T BUILD A CHAPEL
IN THE MIDDLE OF NOWHERE, SO
THERE WOULD HAVE BEEN SOME
SORT OF SETTLEMENT AS WELL,
POSSIBLY TIMBERFRAME BUILDINGS.
I THINK THE SIGNIFICANT THING
IS IT'S UP-TON ; IT'S NOT A
WELSH NAME ; IT'S NOT A CELTIC
NAME.

Tony says SO THIS WAS A NEW
NAME THAT WAS BROUGHT IN BY
THE INVADERS, AS IT WERE.

Richard says EXACTLY THAT, YES.

Suzie says BUT THAT DOESN'T
MEAN IT WASN'T ON THE SITE OF
AN EARLIER WELSH SETTLEMENT,
OR EARLIER WELSH RELIGIOUS SITE.
BECAUSE WE'RE SITTING UNDER
THIS BEAUTIFUL YEW TREE.
AND YEW TREES WERE OFTEN PUT
IN PLACES OF RELIGIOUS
IMPORTANCE.
SO IT COULD BE THAT ACTUALLY
THIS PLACE HAS BEEN
SIGNIFICANT FOR A VERY LONG
TIME, AND THERE HAVE BEEN
GENERATIONS OF WOODEN
BUILDINGS HERE BY THE WELSH,
AND THEN LATER, BY THE
NORMANS.

Tony says WHY, THOUGH, WOULD
ANYONE WANT TO FOUND A
SETTLEMENT IN AN OUT-OF-THE-WAY
PLACE LIKE THIS?
SPOTTING A SILTED UP RIVER
INLET OR CREEK IN THE CASTLE'S
GROUNDS HAS GIVEN RICHARD A
VITAL CLUE.

A stream runs gently.

Tony says WHY MIGHT PEOPLE HAVE COME
HERE IN THE FIRST PLACE?

Richard says WELL, I THINK IT'S
QUITE A GOOD STRATEGIC SITE.
IT'S UP THE CREEK, SO TO
SPEAK.
BUT WE CAN NEVER OVERESTIMATE
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE RIVER
SYSTEMS HERE.

Tony says UPTON CASTLE LIES
JUST A FEW MILES AWAY FROM
MILFORD HAVEN, A GREAT ESTUARY
INTO WHICH MANY RIVERS FLOW.
RICHARD BELIEVES THAT THESE
WATERWAYS DREW PEOPLE TO UPTON
THROUGHOUT THE MEDIEVAL
PERIOD, AND MAYBE EVEN BEFORE.

Richard says THEY WERE THE
MEDIEVAL MOTORWAYS.
THEY GOT YOU IN, THEY GOT YOU
OUT.
AND IF YOU CONTROLLED THOSE,
YOU CONTROLLED ALL THIS PART
OF WALES.
SO I THINK IT'S PROBABLY BEEN,
THESE SITES HAVE BEEN
IMPORTANT FOR MILLENNIA.

Tony says I BUY THAT THEORY, I
THINK.
BUT I'D STILL LIKE TO KNOW FOR
SURE HOW OLD THE CHAPEL IS.
AND THE GEOPHYSICS GUYS ARE
CURRENTLY MY BEST HOPE OF
FINDING OUT.
THEY'VE BEEN EXAMINING THE
RADAR IMAGES PRODUCED BY THEIR
SURVEY OF THE CHAPEL FOR A
COUPLE OF HOURS NOW.
SO FAR, THEY HAVEN'T FOUND
ANYTHING THAT COULD PIN THE
AGE OF THE CHAPEL DOWN.
BUT A REGULAR LOOKING SHAPE
AMONG ALL THE FUZZY BLOBS MAY
BE OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE.

John approaches Jimmy, who is sitting looking at a computer screen displaying several graphs.

John says THAT'S AN APSE.

Jimmy is in his forties, with a short beard. He’s wearing a gray cap and a dark sweater.

Jimmy says NO, THAT'S PROBABLY
WISHFUL THINKING, ISN'T IT?

John says THAT'S CLEAR.

Tony says AN APSE IS A SEMI
CIRCULAR EXTENSION COMMON IN
13TH CENTURY RELIGIOUS
BUILDINGS, BUT PRETTY RARE IN
ONES ERECTED LATER ON.
FINDING EVIDENCE OF ONE UNDER
THE FLOOR OF THE CHAPEL WOULD
PROVE, ONCE AND FOR ALL, THE
MAIN PART OF THE BUILDING IS
NORMAN.
BUT IS THERE REALLY ANYTHING
THERE?

John, Richard and Jimmy walk into the chapel.

John says RICHARD, WE'VE GOT A
BIT OF A DILEMMA.
WE BOTH AGREE WE'VE GOT A
COUPLE OF BURIALS THERE.

Richard says RIGHT.

John says BUT WHEN IT COMES TO
THIS END, JIMMY AND I MAYBE
DISAGREE.
I THINK WE HAVE SOMETHING THAT
DOES THAT.
THAT LOOKS A BIT APSE LIKE.

Richard says I WOULD THINK THAT
WAS BRILLIANT.
I WOULD LOVE THAT.

John says JIMMY'S NOT QUITE SO
CONVINCED AS I AM.

Richard laughs.

The caption changes to "Jimmy Adock. Time Team Geophysicist."

Holding a special electronic device, Jimmy says WELL, YEAH, CALL ME
AN OLD SKEPTIC, BUT IT JUST
SEEMS A BIT TOO GOOD TO BE
TRUE.

John says LOOK AT THE RESULTS.
THAT LOOKS LIKE A CURVING
RESPONSE TO ME.

Richard says IT LOOKS PERFECT.

John says YOU'D EXPECT ONE OF
THESE CHAPELS TO AN APSE THEN?

Richard says IT'S CERTAINLY
VERY COMMON FOR THESE SORT OF
CHAPELS TO HAVE APSES LIKE
THAT.
AND THEY TEND TO GET
DEMOLISHED WHEN THEY WERE
EXTENDED WITH A FULL CHANCEL.
SO THAT'S PERFECT FOR A
BUILDING AROUND 1200.

John says GIVEN THAT NOBODY IS
GONNA DIG IT, I THINK WE CAN
SAY THERE'S AN APSE.

Jimmy says WELL, HAVING GOT AN
EXPERT OPINION, I COULD BE
SWAYED IN THAT DIRECTION, I
THINK.

Tony says SO THANKS TO
GEOPHYSICS, AND OF COURSE GOOD
OLD-FASHIONED ARCHAEOLOGY, WE
NOW KNOW FOR CERTAIN WHAT
STOOD ON THIS SPOT AROUND 800
YEARS AGO AT THE START OF THE
13TH CENTURY.
THERE WAS NO GREAT CASTLE HERE
THEN, JUST A SIMPLE RURAL
SETTLEMENT DOMINATED BY A SMALL
STONE CHAPEL.
IT DIFFERED IN SEVERAL
RESPECTS TO THE ONE WE SEE
TODAY.
THE ORIGINAL NORMAN CHAPEL HAD
AN APSE INSTEAD OF A CHANCEL
AND TWO ENTRANCES, NOT ONE.
IT WAS PLAIN, PROBABLY
THATCHED, AND WAS LATER
EXTENDED.
THEN, RICHLY COLOURED STAIN
GLASS ADORNED SOME OF ITS
WINDOWS, AND ITS ROOF WAS
COVERED WITH EXPENSIVE GLAZED
TILES.
CLUSTERED AROUND IT WERE
ALMOST CERTAINLY A NUMBER OF
SIMPLE TIMBERFRAME DWELLINGS,
THE HOMES OF ENGLISH SPEAKING
PEOPLE WHOSE LIVES WERE
DOMINATED BY AGRICULTURE AND
CHRISTIAN FAITH.

(music plays)
An animation recreates the dwellings transformation process Tony explains.

Tony continues WHERE WE'RE STANDING NOW
WOULD HAVE BEEN PART OF THE
APSE, THAT'S THE VERY TIP,
OF THE ORIGINAL NORMAN CHAPEL,
WOULDN'T IT?

Neil says YEAH.
THIS AFTERNOON, GEOPHYSICS,
THROUGH THE RADAR, ACTUALLY
FOUND THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE
APSE UNDER THIS FLOOR.
AN AMAZING DISCOVERY.
AND THAT PROVES THIS CHAPEL IS
NORMAN.

Tony says BUT IT WAS QUITE A
STRUGGLE TO GET THERE.

Neil says HASN'T IT?
IT'S BEEN A ROLLER COASTER
THREE DAYS.
WE'VE HAD UPS AND DOWNS AND
FALSE CLUES, BUT IT'S ALL COME
TOGETHER, AS SO OFTEN ON
TIME TEAM, ON THE LAST AFTERNOON.

Tony says IT'S BEEN QUITE AN UP
AND DOWN THREE DAYS FOR YOU,
TWO, AS WELL, HASN'T IT?

Pru says IT CERTAINLY HAS.
IT'S REALLY AMAZING TO HAVE
FOUND IT OUT AT THE END, YEAH.

Tony says YOU'VE GOT SO MANY
THINGS TO BE ABLE TO IMPRESS
YOUR FRIENDS WITH.

Pru says YES.
WE REALLY HAVE, YES.

Steve says NOT ONLY THE
CHAPEL, AND THE AGE OF IT, BUT
THE FACT PART OF THE HOUSE WE
LIVE IN, WE'VE DISCOVERED WERE
PARTS OF THE ORIGINAL CASTLE.

Tony says THAT'S QUITE NICE TO
KNOW, ISN'T IT?

Steve says VERY NICE,
YES.

Tony says THREE DAYS AGO, WHEN
WE CAME HERE, WE CONCENTRATED
ALMOST SOLELY ON THE CASTLE.
BUT WE NOW REALIZE IT WASN'T
THE CASTLE, IT WAS HERE, THAT
WAS NOT JUST A PLACE OF
WORSHIP, BUT WAS THE VERY
CENTRE OF THE COMMUNITY.

A close-up view shows a wall Crucifix.

The theme music plays as the end credits roll.

Presenter, Tony Robinson.

Editor, Nick Kershaw.

Head of Production, Val Croft.

Executive producer, Philip Clarke.

Produced and directed by Sophie Elwin Harris and Jeff Morgan.

Series producer, Tim Taylor.

Copyright 2013, Videotext communications Ltd.

The Picture House Television Co. Ltd.The Speaker says Thank you.
Supplementary.