Video Transcript

(music plays)

A fast clip in sepia shows a man unfolding an old map while a few rocks fall to the floor. Then a close-up of a hand shows the illusion that it is grabbing a huge rock rising in the distance. The title of the show appears on the rock as if printed on a coin - “Time Team.”

Tony Robinson is in his sixties, clean-shaven, with receding, white hair. He’s wearing a black zip sweater and matching trousers.

An aerial view shows a large field enclosed by trees.

Tony says THIS SLOPE
COULD ONCE HAVE BEEN PART OF AN
ANCIENT CAPITAL IN A RATHER
UNLIKELY PLACE, THE ELY HOUSING
ESTATE HERE IN SOUTH WALES.
THE HILL IS CALLED CAERAU.
IT'S PRETTY MYSTERIOUS, AND NO
ONE'S EVER DUG IT BEFORE.

A caption appears on screen. It reads “Tony Robinson.”

Tony continues BUT IT MAY WELL ONCE HAVE BEEN
A VITAL FORTRESS FOR THE WELSH
TRIBES WHO LIVED HERE 2,000
YEARS AGO.
THIS MIGHTY FORT, BUILT ON A
HILL, MAY HAVE BEEN THE CENTRE
OF POWER FOR THIS ENTIRE
REGION.

Francis says I'M REALLY EXCITED
ABOUT IT, TONY.

Francis is in his sixties, with a blondish beard and receding blond hair. He’s wearing a light grey sweater under a brown down vest.

Tony says UNTOUCHED BY SPADE OR
TROWEL FOR CENTURIES, WILL WE
BE THE FIRST TO UNRAVEL ITS
SECRETS?

Molten metal pours into a mold.

Jimmy is in his forties, clean-shaven with receding hair. He’s wearing black-rimmed glasses and a windproof jacket.

Jimmy says I'M HOPING THAT'S A
LITTLE CLEARER FOR YOU.

Francis says I CAN'T BELIEVE IT.

Tony says IT'S DOWN TO OUR TEAM
OF ARCHAEOLOGISTS TO SOLVE THE
MYSTERY OF THIS HILL.
COULD THIS BE THE LONG-LOST
CAPITAL OF SOUTH WALES?
AND IF IT IS, WILL WE BE ABLE
TO FIND IT IN THREE DAYS?
SEE, THE THING ABOUT LONG-LOST
PLACES IS YOU NEVER QUITE KNOW
WHAT YOU'RE GOING TO FIND, DO
YOU?

Theme music plays. Fast sepia-tone clips show men digging out hidden objects from the soil such as a vase, a ring, and a skull. Then, the opening sequence of the hand grabbing the rock plays again.

Francis, Phil and Niall climb a path.

Francis says WELL, SO HERE WE
ARE, PHIL.
THIS IS OUR HILLFORT.

Phil is in his sixties with long blond hair. He wears a brown vest over a military jacket and a hat.

Phil says THERE'S NOTHING QUITE
LIKE IT, IS THERE?
YOU'RE WALKING UP THROUGH THE
ENTRANCE OF A HILLFORT WITH
RAMPARTS TOWERING UP ON EITHER
SIDE OF YOU.
ABSOLUTELY IMMENSE.

Niall is in his fifties, with receding hair and a beard. He’s wearing a blue zip jacket.

Niall says YOU KNOW, IT'S A BIG
HILLFORT.
IT'S ONE OF THE BIGGEST IN
SOUTH WALES.
IT'S A MAJOR CENTRE.

Francis says YEAH, BUT THE
THING IS, NIALL, IT'S BIG.
SO WE'VE GOT TO GET CRACKING.

Niall says ABSOLUTELY.

Francis says COME ON.
COME ON, PHIL.

Phil says ORDERING, ORDERING.

Tony says ALSO MAKING THEIR WAY
UP TO THE FORT ARE OUR
GEOPHYSICS TEAM.
THEIR TASK?
TO SURVEY THIS VAST HILLTOP IN
SEARCH OF AN ANCIENT TRIBAL
CENTRE THAT MAY LIE HIDDEN
HERE.

Jimmy says OH, WOW.
YOU WOULDN'T HAVE THOUGHT IT
WAS THIS OPEN UP HERE WHEN YOU
WERE CLAMBERING UP THE
RAMPARTS, WOULD YOU?

Emma says NO, YOU WOULDN'T.
SO THIS IS ABOUT 5 HECTARES.

Jimmy says THAT'S TEN FOOTBALL
PITCHES IN OLD MONEY, ISN'T IT?

Emma says YEAH, YEAH.

Tony says CAERAU, WHICH MEANS
FORTS IN WELSH, OVERLOOKS
CARDIFF, CAPITAL OF MODERN
WALES.
BUILT ATOP THIS MASSIVE HILL,
TREES NOW COVER THE
SPECTACULAR EARTHWORKS THAT
GIVE OUR SITE THE CLASSIC
PROFILE OF AN IRON AGE HILL
FORT.
BUT MORE THAN THAT, ITS SIZE
AND COMMANDING POSITION
SUGGEST IT COULD HAVE BEEN THE
OLD CAPITAL AND BUSY HUB FOR
THE WELSH CLANS OF THE AREA.
“TIME TEAM” SITE DIRECTOR
FRANCIS PRYOR HAS SEEN WHAT HE
BELIEVES COULD BE AN IRON AGE
DITCH, AND IT'S GOT HIM VERY
EXCITED.

An animated map of Great Britain homes in on Wales. An area reads “Cardiff.”

The caption changes to “Professor Francis Pryor. Time Team.”

Francis says I MEAN, LOOK, YOU
REALLY SEE IT.
IT'S INCREDIBLE CLEAR OVER
THERE.

Niall says YEAH, NO, IT'S A
REALLY NICE DITCH.

Phil says MIND YOUR BACKS.

As the walk, Tony approaches them driving an SUV.

Tony says FRANCIS, YOU'RE THE
BOSS THIS WEEK.
IS THIS PLACE REALLY AS
MYSTERIOUS AS IT'S CRACKED UP
TO BE?

Francis says WELL, I DON'T
THINK IT'S MYSTERIOUS, TONY,
SO MUCH AS UNEXPLORED.
WE KNOW IT'S A HILLFORT.

Tony says IT'S A HILLFORT.
SO IT IS IRON AGE THEN?

The caption changes to “Professor Niall Sharples. Iron Age Expert.”

Niall says YES, IT'S IRON AGE.
THAT GIVES US A LOT OF TIME TO
PLAY WITH.
IS IT STARTED AT THE BEGINNING,
600, 500, B.C.?
OR IS IT STARTED MUCH LATER,
300, 200?
COULD BE, EITHER ONE.

Tony says WHAT SORT OF THING
ARE YOU EXPECTED TO FIND?

Francis says WHAT WE'RE LOOKING
FOR TONY IS WHERE PEOPLE
ACTUALLY LIVED.
THAT'S OUR MAIN OBJECTIVE.
BUT INITIALLY, WE WANT TO FIND
THE EARLIEST FEATURE ON THE
SITE.
AND I THINK OUR BEST BET LIES
REALLY JUST DOWN THERE, IN
THAT DITCH.
YOU CAN SEE IT AS CLEAR AS
ANYTHING.

An animated curved strip appears in front of them.

Tony says WE'RE GOING TO DO THE
GEOPHYS FIRST THOUGH, SURELY.

Francis says WE DON'T NEED
GEOPHYS.

Tony gets out of the car and says FRANCIS, 20 YEARS OF
TIME TEAM, WE GEOPHYS, AND
THEN WE DIG THE TRENCH.

Francis says WE ARE GOING TO BE
DOING A TRENCH HERE.

Tony says HANG ON A SECOND.
YOU GOT A CANE HERE.
AND ONE RIGHT OVER THERE WHERE
YOU ARE.
THIS IS A ZONKING GREAT
TRENCH.

Phil says IT'S A ZONKING GREAT
DITCH.

Francis says YEAH, THE THING IS
TONY, WE'VE GOT TO GET ON AND
DIG IT.

Tony says YEAH.

Francis says SO WOULD YOU MIND
PLEASE GOING SOMEWHERE ELSE.

Tony says OH YEAH, BLAME ME,
WON'T YA?

Francis says BYE, BYE.

Tony says WITH YOU THREE JUST
WANDERING AROUND IN THE GRASS.

(action music plays)

Tony continues THE TEMPTATION TO DIVE
STRAIGHT IN AT CAERAU IS TOO
MUCH FOR ANY RED-BLOODED
ARCHAEOLOGIST TO RESIST.
THIS HUGE SITE COULD DATE BACK
TO THE BEGINNING OF THE IRON
AGE IN WALES, AS EARLY AS 800
YEARS B.C.
IF THIS WAS AN IRON AGE
CAPITAL, OUR ANCESTORS WOULD
HAVE LIVED HERE IN LARGE
NUMBERS AND LEFT EVIDENCE
BEHIND.
DITCHES ARE A GOOD PLACE TO
LOOK FOR ARTIFACTS THAT HAVE
ROLLED IN OR BEEN THROWN AWAY.
FRANCIS IS CONVINCED THE
CURVING DITCH HE'S DIGGING IS
IRON AGE.
THE TURF'S BARELY OFF, AND IT
LOOKS LIKE HE COULD BE RIGHT.

Over an animated aerial view of trees enclosing a field, a small white rectangle reads “Trench 1.”

An excavator crane digs a trench. Francis and Matt stand nearby.

Francis says VERY OFTEN WHAT
HAPPENS WITH IRON AGE DITCHES,
YOU HAVE COLLAPSE OVER THE
YEARS COMING IN.
SO YOUR ACTUAL EDGE OF THAT
DITCH IS WHAT, TWICE AS FAR
BACK AS WE RECKONED?

Matt says YEAH.

Francis says VERY ENCOURAGING.
NICE WIDE DITCH.
NATURAL APPEARING OVER THERE.
BANK.
IT'S JUST WHAT WE EXPECTED.

(magical music plays)

Tony says CLUES TO THE
IMPORTANCE OF THIS SITE LIE
ALL AROUND US: RAMPARTS.
THE MASSIVE BANKS AND DITCHES
THAT SURROUND THIS HILL.
THEY'RE PART OF WHAT'S ALWAYS
DRAWN IRON AGE SPECIALIST
NIALL SHARPLES TO CAERAU.
FOR YEARS, HE'S BEEN DYING TO
DIG HERE.

Tony and Niall take a walk down the woods.

Tony says WE'VE BEEN TALKING BLITHELY
ABOUT THIS PLACE BEING A HILL
FORT, BUT WE HAVEN'T ACTUALLY
SAID WHAT A HILLFORT IS, HAVE
WE?

Niall says NO, WELL, IT'S A
DIFFICULT QUESTION, THAT'S
WHY.
WE'RE PROBABLY EVEN AVOIDING IT.

Tony says WELL, IT'S A HILL AND
IT'S A FORT, RIGHT?

Niall says WELL, MAYBE.
IT'S DEFINITELY ON A HILL.
WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY FORT?

Tony says WELL, SOMEWHERE WHERE
THERE ARE SOLDIERS, SOMEWHERE
WHERE THERE ARE DEFENSIVE
STRUCTURES.
WE CAN SEE THAT THERE ARE
RAMPARTS HERE, CAN'T WE?
SO WHAT WERE THESE RAMPARTS
FOR?

Niall says I THINK, AT A SIMPLE
LEVEL, THEY ARE CREATING AN
ENCLOSURE THAT DEFINES AND
GIVES IDENTIFY TO THE PEOPLE
WHO LIVE WITHIN IT.

Tony says DEFINING A COMMUNITY
SEEMS LIKE A BIT HIPPY DIPPY
TO ME.

Niall says WELL, NO.
PEOPLE IN THE PERIOD BEFORE
THIS, IN THE BRONZE AGE,
PEOPLE WERE LIVING IN SMALL
FARMSTEADS IN THE FIELDS, IN
THE LANDSCAPE.
AT THE END OF THE BRONZE AGE,
THERE'S A MAJOR TRANSFORMATION
AND PEOPLE GATHER TOGETHER AT
THESE PLACES, PROBABLY QUITE
SPECIAL PLACES, AND THEN THEY
SURROUND THEMSELVES IN THESE
RAMPARTS AND DITCHES.

Tony says BUT WHY WOULD YOU
DEFINE YOURSELF IN SUCH AN
INCREDIBLY MILITARY WAY?

Niall says IT'S NOT NECESSARILY
A MILITARY WAY.
THAT'S THE WAY YOU LOOK AT IT.
I'D BE VERY, VERY SURPRISED
IF WE FOUND A SPEAR INSIDE
THIS HILLFORT, OR ANY WEAPON.

Tony says YOU'RE MAKING IT
SOUND LIKE SOMETHING BUILT BY
SOCIAL SERVICES.
JUST BECAUSE IT TOOK A LOT OF
PEOPLE TO BUILD IT, DOESN'T
MEAN IT WAS A COMMUNITY PROJECT,
DOES IT?

Niall says IT'S A BIG STATEMENT
OF A SENSE OF BELONGING, AND
IT'S A SENSE OF PRIDE.
COMMUNITY PRIDE.
WE ARE A COMMUNITY WITH
STRONG, VIBRANT.
WE'VE GOT LOTS OF RESOURCES,
WE'VE GOT LOTS OF MANPOWER.
YOU KNOW, WE CAN BUILD A MAJOR,
IMPRESSIVE MONUMENT THAT IS
GOING TO PUT ALL OUR
NEIGHBOURS INTO THE SHADE.
THEY ARE GOING TO LOOK AT OUR
RAMPARTS AND SAY, GOSH, THAT'S
IMPRESSIVE, I DON'T WANT TO
TANGLE WITH THEM.
THEY ARE A REALLY IMPORTANT
GROUP OF PEOPLE.

Tony says THE GEOPHYSICS' TEAM
IS USING MAGNETOMETRY TO
SURVEY CAERAU.
IT'S A TECHNIQUE THAT USES
MAGNETIC WAVES TO LOCATE
DISTURBANCES DEEP IN THE SOIL.
WE'RE LOOKING FOR CIRCULAR
FEATURES, TRACES OF IRON AGE
ROUNDHOUSES THAT MAY HAVE LAIN
BURIED FOR MORE THAN
2,000 YEARS.
FRANCIS HAS ASKED THE TEAM TO
SURVEY A STRIP RUNNING ACROSS
THE MIDDLE OF THE HILLFORT.
IF THERE REALLY WERE LOTS OF
PEOPLE LIVING HERE IN THE IRON
AGE, THERE SHOULD BE EVIDENCE
IN THE GEOPHYS.
AND THE FIRST SET OF RESULTS
ARE ALREADY IN.

Over the animated aerial view of trees enclosing a field, a light orange area appears. The caption changes to “Test Area.”

Jimmy shows Phil and Francis a map of the area.

Jimmy says THIS IS WHAT WE'VE
GOT.
NOW, WE DID HAVE A BIT OF A
WISH LIST THIS MORNING WHICH
WAS GOING TO BE LOTS OF
ARCHAEOLOGY, POSSIBLY SOME
RING DITCHES.

The caption changes to “Jimmy Adcock. Time Team Geophysicist.”

Francis says YUP.

Phil says SO HOW MANY WISHES
HAVE YOU FULFILLED?

Jimmy says NOT QUITE AS MANY AS
YOU'D HAVE HOPED, I'M AFRAID.

Phil says LIKE, NONE?

Jimmy says YEAH, WE'RE VERGING
ON NONE.
IT'S UP FOR DEBATE.

Phil says FRANCIS, YOU WANTED
ROUNDHOUSES.

Francis says YES.
YES, I DID.
UM, YEAH, IT'S...
IT'S NOT EXACTLY IRON AGE
LONDON, IS IT?

Jimmy says NOT REALLY.

Phil says I MEAN, AM I
IMAGINING SUMMAT, OR IS THAT
SOMETHING THERE.
TELL ME THERE IS SUMMAT THERE.
COME ON, JIMMY, TELL ME
THERE'S SUMMAT THERE.

Jimmy says ALL RIGHT, YES,
THERE IS SOMETHING CURVING
THROUGH THERE.

Phil says WELL, CAN YOU DROP US
IN ON THAT?

Jimmy says THINK I CAN MANAGE IT.

Francis says OKAY, LET'S GO FOR
IT.

Tony says IT'S NOT MUCH TO GO
ON, BUT THEN IRON AGE
ARCHAEOLOGY ISN'T FOR THE
FAINT-HEARTED OR THE
SHORTSIGHTED.
ROUNDHOUSES, THE TYPICAL
HOMES OF THE PERIOD, WERE MADE
OF WOOD, MUD AND THATCH.
AND AFTER LONG CENTURIES
ROTTING IN THE GROUND, THERE'S
NOT MUCH LEFT TO SEE.

An animation reconstructs an old roundhouse.

Tony says WHILE PHIL'S OPENING UP TRENCH 2
BACK AT OUR FIRST TRENCH,
FRANCIS IS HOPING HIS
ARCHAEOLOGIST'S GUT INSTINCT
HAS BEEN PROVED RIGHT.
IF THIS REALLY TURNS OUT TO BE
AN IRON AGE DITCH, IT WILL
HELP US DATE THE HILLFORT.

The team members shovel dirt into wheelbarrows.

Francis says I THINK, YES, I
THINK WE'VE GOT A DITCH THERE.

Niall says YEAH, NO PROBLEM.

Francis says SO THAT'S YOUR
DITCH, MATT.
IT'S NOT EXACTLY DEFENSIVE, IS
IT?

The caption changes to “Matt Williams. Time Team Archaeologist.” Matt is in his forties, clean-shaven with shaggy brown hair. He wears a red windproof jacket, a blue safety helmet and blue jeans.

Matt says NO.
THE GREY SILT WE THOUGHT WAS
THE DITCH FILL IS ACTUALLY THE
TOP OF THIS NATURAL BOULDER
CLAY HERE.
SO WE CARRIED ON BACK THIS
WAY, AND YOU CAN SEE THE DARK
DITCH FILL THERE.

Niall says IT'S REALLY CLEAR.

Matt says LOVELY EDGE THERE.
AND IT GOES ALL THE WAY TO HERE.

Niall says HOW DEEP DO YOU
THINK IT'S GOING TO BE?

Using his pick on the ground, Matt says I'VE BEEN NIBBLING
AWAY THE EDGE ALONG HERE.
AND IT'S GOING AT ABOUT 45
DEGREES, SO YOU'RE MAYBE
TALKING HALF A METRE DEEP.
FOLLOWS THAT.

Niall says NO FINDS, ANYTHING
LIKE THAT?

Matt says ABSOLUTELY NOTHING.
THE FILL OF THIS DITCH IS
REALLY SOLID.
IT'S ALMOST THE SAME AS THE
CLAY THERE.
SO I THINK IT IS VERY COMPACT
AND VERY OLD.
BUT THE PROOF IS REALLY GOING
TO BE IN THE EXCAVATION, ISN'T
IT?

Francis says YEAH, IT WILL.
GET CRACKING.

Tony says AT THE BASE OF THIS
HILLFORT IS ELY, THE BIGGEST
HOUSING ESTATE IN CARDIFF.
UNAWARE THAT AN ANCIENT
CAPITAL MIGHT BE IN THEIR
BACKYARD, SOME OF THE ELY
RESIDENTS HAVE TURNED UP
HOPING TO FIND OUT SOMETHING
ABOUT THIS PLACE.

Young women mold clay on a table.

The caption changes to “Paul Blinkhorn. Time Team Pottery Expert.” Paul is in his fifties and clean-shaven. He’s wearing a black patterned woollen hat, an earring and a jacket over a gray hooded sweatshirt.

Paul says SO WHAT'S IT LIKE?
I MEAN IT'S FANTASTIC, ANCIENT
CAERAU ON YOUR DOORSTOP.

Ashley is in her teens with dark hair tied-up. She’s wearing a red and blue jacket.

Ashley says DIDN'T EVEN KNOW ABOUT IT,
REALLY.

Paul says DIDN'T YOU?

A girl with brown hair says I KNOW.
IT WAS HIDDEN.
BECAUSE NOT MANY PEOPLE KNEW
ABOUT IT BEING HERE.
AND AFTER ALL THIS, A LOT OF
PEOPLE KNOW ABOUT IT NOW.

Tony says OVER THE NEXT FEW
DAYS, WE'RE HOPING TO TELL
THE LOCAL PEOPLE IF AND WHEN
CAERAU WAS OCCUPIED, AND
EXACTLY WHAT WAS GOING ON UP
HERE.
SO WE BETTER HURRY UP AND FIND
SOMETHING.
ONE OF THE ARCHAEOLOGISTS JUST
CALLED ME OVER AND SAID,
THERE'S A HOUSE IN TRENCH 2.
A HOUSE IN TRENCH 2.
SO I CAME OVER HERE, AND LOOK.
THERE'S SWATHES OF BROWN SOIL
AND A FEW STONES DOTTED AROUND.
WHERE'S YOUR FLIPPING HOUSE,
MATE?

Phil says ACTUALLY, I COULDN'T
HAVE PUT IT BETTER MYSELF,
TONY.
THERE ARE SWATHES OF BROWN
SOIL, BUT IT REALLY TAKES THE
EYES OF A SKILLED
ARCHAEOLOGIST TO ACTUALLY PICK
OUT WHAT'S IN THE TRENCH.

Tony says WE'VE ONLY GOT YOU
HERE.

Phil says WELL, I'M GONNA HAVE
TO DO THEN, AIN'T I?
LOOK, IF YOU REMEMBER, WHEN
YOU LOOKED AT THE GEOPHYSICS,
DO YOU REMEMBER THERE WAS THAT
CURVING THING WHICH WE THOUGHT
WAS PROBABLY THE WALL LINE OF
THE ROUNDHOUSE?
WELL, WE THINK WE'VE ACTUALLY
LOCATED THAT IN THIS TRENCH.
Phil uses a stick to point at the trench and says THE GIVE AWAY IS YOU'VE GOT
ONE EDGE COMING ALONG THERE.
AND YOU CAN SEE ON THIS SIDE,
IT'S SOMEWHAT GRITTIER.
IN HERE, IT'S CLAYIER.
AND YOU'VE GOT THE OTHER EDGE
COMING AROUND HERE AND
SWINGING AROUND IN THIS
DIRECTION.
AND WE THINK THAT IS EITHER
THE FOUNDATION OF A ROUNDHOUSE,
OR MAYBE A DRIP GULLY.

Tony says WE'RE LOOKING FOR A
HUGE COMMUNITY, AREN'T WE?

Phil says YES.
BUT HUGE COMMUNITIES LIVE IN
HOUSES.
IF WE ARE RIGHT IN THINKING
THAT THIS IS OUR HOUSE, WE ARE
BEGINNING TO ACTUALLY GET A
GRIP OF THAT COMMUNITY.

Tony says IT IS ALL A BIT
TENUOUS, ISN'T IT?

Phil says IT IS NOT TENUOUS,
YOU OLD CYNIC.

Tony laughs.

Tony says IF THIS WAS A CAPITAL
PACKED WITH PEOPLE, WE REALLY
NEED TO FIND THEIR HOUSES AND
DATE THEM.
FRANCIS THINKS THE DWELLINGS
NEXT TO THE RAMPARTS COULD BE
BETTER PRESERVED.
BECAUSE OVER TIME, SOIL
TUMBLES DOWN ONTO THE HOUSES,
PROTECTING THEM FROM LATER
PLOUGHING.

Francis says JIM.

Jimmy says AFTERNOON.

Tony says GOT ANY MORE RESULTS
FOR US?

Tony and Francis approach Jimmy, who leans on the hood of the SUV parked in the site.

Jimmy says CERTAINLY HAVE.
YOU REMEMBER, FRANCIS, THAT
AFTER THIS MORNING'S EFFORTS,
WE WERE SORT OF GRASPING AT
STRAWS.
HOPEFULLY...

Jimmy shows them a dotted map of the area on a computer screen.

Tony and Francis say WHOA!!

Jimmy says IS THAT BETTER?
THAT MORE WHAT YOU'RE AFTER?

Francis says OH, I CAN'T
BELIEVE IT.
WE'VE GOT, WHAT, ONE, TWO,
THREE, FOUR...
FIVE...
SIX ROUNDHOUSES I'D GUESS
THERE?

Jimmy says OPTIMISTIC.
BUT I'M WITH YOU, YEAH, YEAH.

Francis says I MEAN, I CAN'T TELL
YOU, JIMMY, I THINK THAT IS-

Tony says YOU MAY CHANGE YOUR
MIND OVERNIGHT, BUT AT FIRST
GLANCE, WHERE DO YOU RECKON
YOU'LL WANT TO DIG TOMORROW?

Francis says WELL, OBVIOUSLY,
GO FOR THAT ROUNDHOUSE.
IT'S OBVIOUSLY IN SUCH GOOD
CONDITION.

Tony says TEN MINUTES AGO WE
HAD A DRIP TRAY, AND NOW WE'VE
GOT PRACTICALLY A WHOLE
CIVILIZATION.
WELL, WE'LL HAVE TO PROVE IT
TO FIND OUT, WON'T WE?
AND THAT MEANS DIGGING...
TOMORROW.

(music plays)

Tony says BEGINNING OF DAY TWO
HERE IN SOUTH WALES, AND
YESTERDAY WE SPENT THE WHOLE
DAY SEARCHING FOR SOME SIGNS
OF IRON AGE LIFE IN THIS EMPTY
FIELD, AND FOUND VIRTUALLY
NOTHING AT ALL, UNTIL AROUND
ABOUT 5:30 P.M., JIMMY FROM
GEOPHYS CAME UP WITH THAT.
Holding the graph, Tony continues ISN'T THAT BEAUTIFUL?
LOTS OF INTERESTING LINEARS
AND CIRCLES AND MYSTERIOUS
SHAPES.
FOR AN ARCHAEOLOGIST, THIS IS
JUST ABOUT AS MUCH FUN AS YOU
CAN HAVE WITH YOUR CLOTHES ON.
SO HOW ARE YOU GOING TO START
YOUR FUN-FILLED DAY, MATE?

Francis says WELL, WE'VE GOT A
DREAM SITE HERE, TONY.
LOOK, THE GEOPHYS HAS SHOWN UP
A ROW OF HOUSES, SNUGGLED UP
AGAINST THE BACK OF THE
RAMPARTS, WHICH IS WHAT YOU
OFTEN FIND ON HILLFORTS.
AND THEN LOOK AT THAT ONE,
THAT'S THE BEST PRESERVED OF
THEM ALL.
SO WE'RE PUTTING A TRENCH IN
THAT FROM THE FRONT DOOR,
WHICH IS HERE.
SO WE'RE GOING TO DO THAT HALF
THERE.

Tony says BUT YOU THINK THESE
AREN'T THE ONLY ROUNDHOUSES
HERE, DON'T YOU?

Niall says YEAH.
I THINK THERE'S ANOTHER ROW
RUNNING ALONG HERE.
AND THERE'S CERTAINLY ONE THERE.
THERE'S ANOTHER ONE IN THERE.
ANOTHER ONE THERE.
ANOTHER ONE THERE.
I'M QUITE HAPPY.
I THINK THAT'S A ROW OF HOUSES.

Tony says IT'S SO FUNNY BECAUSE
YESTERDAY I WAS REALLY TAKING
THE MICKEY OUT OF YOU FOR THIS
IDEA THIS WAS AN IRON AGE
COMMUNITY RATHER THAN AN
ACTUAL MILITARY FORT.
BUT IF YOU'VE GOT TWO ROWS OF
HOUSES LIKE THAT, THAT IS THE
BEGINNING OF A COMMUNITY?

Niall says YEAH.
I'M HAPPY.
THIS PROVES WHAT I WAS SAYING
IS RIGHT.
WE'VE GOT A COMMUNITY HERE.
I MEAN, IF YOU COUNT THEM UP.
I MEAN, WE'VE GOT AT LEAST
FIVE ON THIS ROW, FIVE OR SIX
IN THIS ROW.
WE'VE GOT AT LEAST TEN HOUSES.
EIGHT TO TEN PEOPLE IN A
FAMILY?

Francis says YEAH.

Niall says SO THAT'S -

Francis says 80-100 PEOPLE.

Tony says AND THAT'S JUST ONE
CORNER OF THE FIELD.

Niall says THAT'S JUST ONE
CORNER.

Tony says EXCELLENT.

Niall says I'M REALLY HAPPY.
I THINK THAT'S -

Francis says BUT WE'VE GOT TO
FIND SOMETHING, TONY.
WE HAVEN'T FOUND ANYTHING YET.

Niall says WE HAVE.
WE FOUND A BURNT STONE.
WE'RE QUITE EXCITED.

Francis says WE'RE QUITE.

Tony says ONLY AN ARCHAEOLOGIST
COULD GET THAT EXCITED ABOUT
THIS AMOUNT OF BURNT STONE.
THE BURNT LIMESTONE, TOGETHER
WITH OUR STUNNING GEOPHYS'
RESULTS, HAVE CONVINCED FRANCIS
THAT HE'S FOUND AN AREA
THAT WAS VERY DENSELY POPULATED
BY IRON AGE STANDARDS.

The excavator crane continues digging.

Tony continues IT COULD BE THE FIRST STEP TO
PROVING CAERAU WAS A VERY
IMPORTANT SITE.
BUT THE MINUTE THE TOPSOIL IS
OFF, DISAGREEMENT FOLLOWS.
GEOPHYSICS' HEAD JOHN GATER
THINKS HE CAN SEE THE MARKS OF
THE ROUNDHOUSE IN THE GROUND.
BUT FRANCIS IS CONVINCED THAT
THE JAGGED EDGES THEY ARE
SEEING WERE CAUSED BY ICE AGE
GLACIERS 10,000 YEARS AGO.

Francis says THERE'S A FEATURE
THERE AT THE VERY END.
THAT'S SHOWING UP NICE AND
CLEARLY.
THAT'S A PROPER FEATURE.
IT'S GOT POTTERY ON IT.
THERE'S NOTHING IN THERE WHICH
IS ARCHAEOLOGICAL, HONEST.
LOOK AT THE EDGE OF THAT,
JOHN.
SEE THE WAY IT WAVERS LIKE THAT?
THAT'S CUT BY ICE.

John stands by Francis. John is in his fifties with short receding grey hair and a beard. He’s wearing a dark jacket, a pair of glasses and a construction helmet.

The caption changes to “John Gater. Time Team Geophysicist.”

John says I THINK THAT IS THE
DITCH OF THE ROUNDHOUSE, AND
THAT'S THE BREAK, THAT'S THE
ENTRANCE THERE.
Pointing at a graph, SO THE GREEN IS THE EDGE OF
THE TRENCH WHERE WE ARE
STANDING, AND THAT ANOMALY
THERE IS THAT ANOMALY.
AND YOU'RE SAYING THAT'S
GLACIAL?

Francis says YEAH.

John says SO IT'S PURE
COINCIDENCE THAT THAT IS AT
THE END OF THAT RING.

Francis says YEAH.

John says WELL, I DON'T BELIEVE
YOU.

Francis says YOU DON'T?

John says NO. I TAKE MY HAT OFF
TO YOU IF IT IS.

Francis says NO, IT IS.
IT IS, JOHN, IT IS.
THERE IS NO ARCHAEOLOGY THERE,
TAKE MY WORD FOR IT.
SO WE'LL HAVE TO COME BACK
HERE THEN.
AND THEN ONCE WE'VE FOUND IT,
WE CAN FOLLOW IT, IF WE WANT.
BUT I THINK THE KEY THING NOW
IS TO FIND IT.
BECAUSE WE'RE LOST UNTIL WE DO.

Tony says IF FRANCIS IS RIGHT,
WE HAVEN'T GOT OUR ROUNDHOUSE
YET.
BUT HE'S NOT GIVING UP.
HE'S NOW EXTENDING THE TRENCH
TO TRY AND FIND IT.

(soft music plays)
An aerial view of the city and a road appears.

Tony says WE KNOW NEXT TO NOTHING ABOUT
THIS SITE.
AND VERY LITTLE ABOUT THE IRON
AGE IN THIS PART OF WALES
EXCEPT THAT IT LASTED FOR 800
YEARS.
BUT THERE ARE CLUES ABOUT THE
NATURE OF THE PEOPLE WHO LIVED
IN THE AREA, AND PERHAPS ON
OUR HILLFORT ITSELF.
IT'S A BEAUTIFUL MAP, ISN'T
IT?
LOOKS LIKE MIDDLE EARTH.

The caption changes to “Professor Ray Howell. Historian.” Ray unrolls a colourful map on the hood of the SUV. He’s in his sixties, clean-shaven with receding blond hair. He’s wearing a dark woollen hat, a green hooded sweatshirt and a jacket.

Ray says IT IS, IT'S
A CRACKER.
IT DOES A BIT, DOESN'T IT?

Tony says WHAT DOES IT
REPRESENT?

Ray says WELL,
WHAT IT'S SHOWING US IS THE IRON
AGE TRIBES OF WALES, OR AT
LEAST IT SHOWS US HOW THE
ROMANS DESCRIBED THE IRON AGE
TRIBES OF SOUTH WALES.
WE HAVE A WONDERFUL ACCOUNT
FROM THE ROMAN HISTORIAN
TACITUS AND HE GIVES US
THIS PICTURE.
AND THIS IS A NICE SORT OF
REPRESENTATION OF THAT.

Tony says WHERE ARE WE?

Ray says WE'RE
JUST HERE.
THIS IS CAERAU.

Tony says SO WE'RE DEEP IN THE
HEART OF THESE PEOPLE, THE
SILURES.

Ray says
ABSOLUTELY IN THE HEARTLAND OF
THE SILURES, THAT'S RIGHT.

Tony says WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT
THE SILURES?

Ray says THE
ROMANS TELL US QUITE A BIT
ABOUT THEM, IN SOME DETAIL
ABOUT THE FEROCIOUS RESISTANCE
THE SILURES MOUNTED TO THE
ROMAN ADVANCE.
A 25-YEAR GUERRILLA WAR.

Tony says WHAT DO YOU THINK IS
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OUR
HILLFORT AND THE SILURES
DEFENCE OF THEIR OWN
TERRITORY, GENERALLY?

Ray says WELL, IT
COULD BE QUITE IMPORTANT
BECAUSE IT'S BIG; IN THE SCHEME
OF THINGS, AND IN THE TERMS OF
SOUTH WALES, IT'S ONE OF THE
BIGGER HILLFORTS.
AND I THINK WE SHOULD REALLY
BE THINKING OF THE SILURES AS A
SORT OF CLAN-BASED TRIBAL
CONFEDERATION.
SO YOU WOULD HAVE HAD
IMPORTANT REGIONAL CENTRES.
AND IT MAY WELL BE THAT WE'RE
STOOD IN THE MIDDLE OF ONE
HERE AT CAERAU.

Tony says WE'VE NOW GOT THREE
TRENCHES UP AND RUNNING IN OUR
SEARCH FOR HOUSES AND FINDS.
SO FAR, MATT'S DITCH TRENCH
HAS GIVEN US NOTHING.
BUT HELP IS NOW AT HAND.

Paul gets out of a car and says BROUGHT YOU SOME
REINFORCEMENTS, MATE?

Tony says THANKS.
HOW MANY HAVE YOU GOT?

A group of students runs to meet them.

Paul says HUH?

Tony says HOW MANY YOU GOT?

Paul says OH, A FEW.

Tony says THE KIDS FROM ELY ARE
COMING TO DIG IN OUR TRENCHES.
MAYBE THEY'LL BRING US GOOD
LUCK.

Matt says THERE IS STILL A BIT
OF CLEANING TO DO IN THERE, IN
ALL THAT MUDDY CLAY.
THEN WE'LL GET INTO THE
FEATURES AND SEE IF WE CAN
FIND SOME REALLY GOOD STUFF.

Tony says YOU'RE GOING TO GET
SO MUDDY.
IS THAT A PROBLEM?

Students say NO.

Tony says NOT FOR YOU TWO?

Ashley and the girl with brown hair say NO.

Tony says GREAT.
GET STUCK IN THERE, OFF YOU
GO.

Matt says SO TROWELS ON THE
GROUND, FACING THAT WAY.
PRESS DOWN, AND PULL, SCRAPE,
SCRAPE, SCRAPE.
THAT'S IT.

Tony says MATT AND RAKSHA DON'T
HAVE ANY TROUBLE PUTTING THEM
ALL TO WORK.
NOTHING LIKE A BIT OF SLAVE
LABOUR TO MOVE THIS EXCAVATION
ALONG.

Matt says YEAH, WATCH YOUR TOES.
THAT'S IT.

Tony says BUT WHO WERE THESE
ANCESTORS THAT OUR KIDS ARE
DIGGING FOR?
WE KNOW THEY SPOKE AN ANCIENT
CELTIC LANGUAGE, AND WE KNOW
THIS LANGUAGE BECAME MODERN
WELSH.
AND THEY'VE LEFT BEHIND
COLOURFUL EVERYDAY OBJECTS,
SOME OF WHICH ARE KEPT IN THE
NATIONAL MUSEUM OF WALES.

The animated map of Wales appears. The caption changes to “Silures.”

Danni and Ray stand in a room in front of a wooden table. Danni’s in her thirties with blond hair. She’s wearing a plaid blue shirt and gloves.

Danni says HI, ASHLEY AND KIYA.

Tony says WE'RE TAKING TWO OF
OUR DIGGERS, ASHLEY AND KIYA,
BOTH ELY BORN AND BRED, TO SEE
THEM.

Danni says BUT YOU NEED TO PUT
YOUR GLOVES ON.

Tony says CAERAU HASN'T GIVEN
US ANY FINDS YET, BUT SOME OF
THESE IRON AGE ARTIFACTS WERE
FOUND CLOSE TO OUR FORT.

Danni says THIS STUFF IS 2,000
YEARS OLD.
THESE OBJECTS HERE ARE ALL
FROM ONE HOARD.
THEY WERE ALL FOUND TOGETHER.

The caption changes to “Dannie Wootton. Time Team Finds Expert.”

Ray says PEOPLE
HAVE ACTUALLY BROUGHT THINGS
TOGETHER, DEPOSITED THEM, PUT
THEM INTO THE GROUND, MAYBE AS
A SORT OF A RITUAL ACT GIVING
THEM TO THE GODS.
AND A LOT OF THESE HOARDS FROM
THIS PART OF THE WORLD, THEY
RELATE TO HORSES.
SO I THINK WE CAN SAY HORSES
WERE REALLY IMPORTANT TO THESE
PEOPLE.
IF YOU CAN IMAGINE BIG CARTS,
CHARIOTS WITH THOSE THINGS
MOUNTED IN THE HORSE
TRAPPINGS, WOULD HAVE BEEN
REALLY COLOURFUL.
AND THAT REALLY DOES SAY
SOMETHING ABOUT HOW
SOPHISTICATED THEY WERE.
AND I THINK THAT'S IMPORTANT
FOR US TO REMEMBER.

Danni says CAN YOU SEE THIS
OVER HERE?
WHAT'S THIS?

Kiya is ten years old with short blond hair. He’s wearing a gray sweater with a cartoon motif.

Kiya says THAT'S AN IRON AGE
PINT, IN'IT?

Danni says BIG MUG, ISN'T IT?
TANKARD.

Ray says IT'S THE
RIGHT IDEA, ISN'T IT?
I THINK IT'S A LITTLE BIT MORE
THAN A PINT.

Danni says YEAH.
FOUR PINTS.
FOUR PINTS.
AND I THINK THE IDEA IS, ISN'T
IT, RAY, THAT THEY USED TO
SHARE THESE.

Ray says I THINK,
I THINK YOU'D WANT TO SHARE
THAT AROUND, A BIT.
MIGHT BE A BIT MUCH OTHERWISE.

Dannie laughs.

Tony says THESE PRECIOUS
OBJECTS TELL US THAT THE IRON
AGE PEOPLE FROM THIS AREA
LIVED LIVES FULL OF RITUAL AND
COLOUR.
TO GET A SENSE OF HOW
CHALLENGING IT WAS TO MAKE
OBJECTS LIKE THIS, WE'RE GOING
TO MAKE OUR OWN COMMUNAL
DRINKING CUP TO DISCOVER A BIT
MORE ABOUT IRON AGE
TECHNOLOGY.
CASSIE IS GOING TO HELP METAL
WORKER, DAVE CHAPMAN, MAKE A
BRONZE HANDLE FOR THE CUP.
AND THE PROCESS STARTS BY
GETTING METAL FROM STONE.

Cassie Newland and David Chapman stand in the field. David throws green particles into a furnace on the ground.

The caption changes to “Cassie Newland. Time Team Archaeologist.” Cassie is in her late thirties with brown hair tied-up. She’s wearing protective glasses, a red hooded sweatshirt under a light jacket.

Cassie says THIS IS GOING TO
SOUND LIKE A BIT OF A STUPID
QUESTION, BUT THIS IS THE IRON
AGE, SO WHY BRONZE?

David Chapman is in his fifties with receding gray hair. He’s wearing a brown suede jacket.

David says WELL, THEY
ARE USING BRONZE QUITE
EXTENSIVELY AS A DECORATIVE
METAL.
IT'S A REALLY BEAUTIFUL METAL
THAT TAKES LOVELY SHAPES.

The caption changes to “David Chapman. Experimental Archaeologist.”

David continues AND YOU CAN CAST BRONZE,
WHEREAS YOU CAN'T CAST IRON.
SO YOU CAN GET REALLY NICE
DECORATIVE SHAPES.
SO ANY SHAPE YOU CAN MAKE IN
WAX, YOU CAN THEN CAST INTO
BRONZE.

Tony says BRONZE IS AN ALLOY OF
COPPER AND TIN.
LOCALLY MINED MALACHITE IS A
GOOD SOURCE OF COPPER ORE.
BUT TO EXTRACT OR SMELT THE
PURE COPPER, WE NEED MORE THAN
JUST HEAT.

David says IT'S
ACTUALLY ABOUT CREATING CARBON
MONOXIDE, WHICH IS BONDING
WITH THE CARBON IN THE STONE,
TO CREATING CARBON DIOXIDE IN
COPPER METAL.
SO WE'RE FORCING A CHEMICAL
REACTION TO TAKE PLACE.

Tony says WHETHER YOU'RE
SMELTING NOW, OR 2,000 YEARS
AGO, EXTRACTING METAL FROM ORE
IS A COMPLEX PROCESS.
DAVE'S USING RAW MATERIAL FROM
THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT, IN THIS
CASE TURF FROM OUR TRENCHES TO
CONTROL THE GASES INSIDE THE
FURNACE.
THE CARBON MONOXIDE REACTS
WITH THE ORE, SEPARATING IT
INTO PURE COPPER AND THE WASTE
PRODUCT, SLAG.

Using a metal nipper, David grips the burned copper out of the embers.

David says THERE WE GO.
GOT SOME ON THE BOTTOM THERE.

Cassie says THAT BIT THERE?

David says YEAH.
THAT'S THE COPPER.

Cassie says IT'S VERY SOLID,
ISN'T IT?

David says SO WHAT WE'LL
DO IS PUT IT IN THE WATER.

Tony says AT THIS STAGE, THE
COPPER IS STILL ATTACHED TO
THE SLAG.
[sizzling]

David says OH, LOVELY.

Tony says AFTER COOLING, THE
COPPER CAN BE KNOCKED OUT.

David says THERE YOU GO.

Cassie hammers the copper.

Cassie says LOADS OF SOLID
STUFF.

Tony says IT'S A BIG EFFORT FOR
A SMALL AMOUNT OF COPPER.
WE'VE GOT A LOT OF WORK TO DO
BEFORE WE'RE READY TO CAST OUR
BRONZE HANDLE.
THE CUP IS UNDERWAY, BUT IT
WOULD BE GREAT TO FIND A REAL
IRON AGE ARTIFACT.
AND IT LOOKS LIKE FRANCIS'
FIRST HUNCH ABOUT WHERE TO DIG
WAS A GOOD CALL.
FRANCIS?
THE WHOLE FIELD IS ABUZZ WITH
ARCHAEOLOGISTS SAYING THAT AT
LAST WE'VE GOT A SIGNIFICANT
FIND.
IS THIS IT?

Francis says IT IS, TONY.
AND IT IS A CRACKER OF A FIND.
I'M REALLY EXCITED ABOUT IT.

Tony says IT LOOKS JUST LIKE A
PIECE OF ROCK TO ME.

Francis says WELL, IT IS A
PIECE OF ROCK, TONY.
IT WOULD HAVE BEEN A MUCH
LARGER PIECE OF ROCK.
THIS IS A QUERN.
IT'S A CORN GRINDING STONE.
ONE OF THE THINGS ABOUT THESE
QUERNS IS THEY WERE QUITE
SOPHISTICATED BITS OF KITCHEN
EQUIPMENT.

Tony says GO ON.

Francis says THIS WOULD HAVE
BEEN PART OF A MUCH LARGER
THING.
THIS IS THE TOP STONE THERE.
WOULD BE ANOTHER ONE ON THE
BOTTOM ON WHICH IT WOULD HAVE
RESTED LIKE THAT.
THEN YOU POUR THE GRAIN
THROUGH THAT GROOVE THERE,
WHICH IS ACTUALLY A HOLE.

Tony says OH, YOU CAN REALLY
SEE THAT CURVED SHAPE IN
THERE, CAN'T YOU?

Francis says YEAH.
SO THAT GOES IN THERE.
AND IT MEETS THE BOTTOM STONE.
AND THEN YOU CAN SEE, LOOK,
THERE'S ANOTHER GROOVE THERE.
AND THEN THAT DISTRIBUTES THE
GRAIN AFTER IT GRINDS.
AND THEN AFTER, I DON'T KNOW,
A COUPLE OF GENERATIONS OF
USE, PLANES OF WEAKNESS
DEVELOPMENT, AND EVENTUALLY
THE THING CRACKS, AND THEY SAY
SOMETHING RUDE IN IRON AGE,
AND THEY THROW IT INTO THE
DITCH.

An animation recreates a rudimentary device for grinding grains. It consists of two round flat stone blocks, placed on top of the other. The smaller block on top features a hole and a crank.

Tony says BUT WHY ARE YOU SO
EXCITED ABOUT THIS?
IT IS, FRANKLY, JUST A BROKEN
THING IN THE BOTTOM OF A
DITCH.

Francis says I'LL TELL YOU WHY.
THIS TELLS US THAT THERE WERE
PEOPLE ACTUALLY LIVING HERE.
THEY WERE MAKING FLOUR IN THE
HOUSES, WHICH WERE PROBABLY
JUST OVER THERE.
SO IT'S VERY, VERY IMPORTANT.
NOW, MATT, WHERE EXACTLY DID
YOU FIND IT?
IT'S IMPORTANT TO GET THIS
RIGHT.

Matt says IT WAS JUST IN THE
BOTTOM OF THE DITCH, JUST
ABOUT THERE.

Tony says AND WHY IS THAT SO
SIGNIFICANT?

Francis says WELL, AS YOU CAN
SEE, IT'S A BIG THING, AND IT
WAS FOUND RIGHT AT THE BOTTOM
OF THE DITCH.
SO I DON'T THINK IT WAS
SOMETHING THAT WAS LYING
AROUND THAT ACCIDENTALLY
SLIPPED IN.
I THINK THIS WAS THROWN IN
THERE WITH RUBBISH.
SO IT HAS TO DATE THE DITCH.

Tony says MATT, YOU KNOW WHY HE
IS SO TRIUMPHANT?
THIS IS HIS TRENCH THAT HE
STUCK IN BEFORE GEOPHYS.
AND IT'S TURNED UP TRUMPS.
YOU'RE BANG ON THE MONEY.

Francis says YES.
IT'S REALLY BEEN GOOD, TONY.
I'M REALLY EXCITED ABOUT IT,
TONY.

Tony says THIS BRILLIANT, LATE
IRON AGE FIND DATES OUR DITCH.
AND IT'S PROOF IRON AGE PEOPLE
WERE GRINDING CORN HERE AT
CAERAU.
AND WHERE PEOPLE WERE GRINDING
CORN, THEY WERE VERY LIKELY TO
BE LIVING, AND EVEN FARMING IN
THE SURROUNDING LANDSCAPE.
BUT TO PROVE THAT THIS PLACE
WAS SOME SORT OF IRON AGE
CAPITAL, WE NEED EVIDENCE OF
LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE LIVING
HERE.
AND THAT MEANS FINDING PLENTY
OF ROUNDHOUSES.
YET, HALFWAY THROUGH OUR TIME
HERE, THERE IS STILL NO
DEFINITIVE EVIDENCE OF A
SINGLE ONE.
THE PRESSURE'S ON.
WE'RE AT CAERAU HILLFORT IN
SOUTH WALES, A MASSIVE
UNEXPLORED SITE.
WE'RE LOOKING FOR EVIDENCE
THAT THIS PLACE WAS ONCE SOME
SORT OF IRON AGE CAPITAL.
WE'RE HALFWAY THROUGH DAY TWO.
AND EVEN THOUGH WE'VE GOT THIS
FANTASTIC GEOPHYS, QUITE
FRANKLY, WHAT'S BEEN COMING
OUT OF SOME OF OUR TRENCHES
HAS BEEN LESS THAN INSPIRING.

The animated aerial view of trees enclosing the field appears. The caption changes to “Trench 4.”

Tony continues SO WE'RE PUTTING IN TRENCH 4
HERE OVER THE OVAL ENCLOSURE,
WHICH YOU CAN SEE ON THE
GEOPHYS.
AND THIS IS RIGHT AT THE
ENTRANCE TO THE WHOLE IRON AGE
HILLFORT.
SO HOPEFULLY, WE'LL GET
SOMETHING HERE THAT IS PRETTY
EXCITING.
WE'VE ALREADY PUT IN THREE
TRENCHES TO TRY AND GET A
SENSE OF HOW MANY PEOPLE MAY
HAVE LIVED HERE AND WHEN.
WITH THE HELP OF THE LOCAL
KIDS FROM ELY, WE FOUND A
SINGLE LATE IRON AGE CORN
GRINDING QUERN, WHICH POINTS
TO IT BEING A DOMESTIC SITE.
BUT SO FAR ON THIS GIANT
HILLTOP, WE'VE FOUND NO HOUSES.
IT'S BEEN A WHILE SINCE I'VE
CAUGHT UP WITH PHIL.
HE'S ALWAYS FIRMLY BELIEVED
HE'S GOT A ROUNDHOUSE IN HIS
TRENCH.
BUT IS HE ANY CLOSER TO
PROVING IT?

On the animated aerial view of trees enclosing the field, the caption changes to “Phil’s trench.”

Tony parks a cart and says PHIL.

Phil says TEA, ABOUT TIME, TOO.

Tony says TEA'S UP, MATE.

Phil says OKAY.
CLEAR UP YOUR LOOSE, WE'LL
HAVE A CUP OF TEA.

Tony says GIVE ME SOME GOOD
NEWS, MATE.
I'VE BEEN LOOKING AROUND THE
OTHER TRENCHES.
YOU CAN'T SEE A THING.

Phil says YOU'RE SO NEGATIVE.
YOU WANT SOMETHING POSITIVE?

Tony says YES, PLEASE.

Phil says WELL, I CAN
POSITIVELY TELL YOU THAT THAT
RING DITCH, THAT FOUNDATION
GULLY, OR WHATEVER IT WAS, IS
NOT A FOUNDATION GULLY OR A
RING DITCH.

Tony says I THOUGHT YOU WERE
GOING TO GIVE ME SOME GOOD
NEWS?

Phil says BUT I AM!
I'M GOING TO BE REALLY,
REALLY POSITIVE.
I THINK I CAN SAY POSITIVELY
THAT WE DO HAVE A BUILDING IN
THIS TRENCH.

Tony says AND WHERE IS THE
BUILDING?

Phil says IT'S ACTUALLY IN
FRONT OF YOU.
WHERE CALLIE IS, YOU SEE,
SHE'S GOT DIGGING A POST HOLE
THERE.

Tony says YEAH.

Phil says ABOUT A FOOT BEHIND
HER FEET, THERE IS A GREY
PATCH, ANOTHER POST HOLE
THERE.
WE'VE GOT ANOTHER ONE, LOOK,
THERE'S A GREY PATCH THERE
WITH ANOTHER POST HOLE.
AND THAT ALL TIES IN WITH THIS
FEATURE THAT I'M DIGGING HERE.

An animation places small concentric circles in the trench.

Phil continues NOW, I'VE MEASURED THEM UP.
THE DISTANCES BETWEEN THEM ARE
THE SAME.
THE DISTANCES THAT WAY ARE THE
SAME.
THEY FORM A REGULAR RECTANGLE.
NOW, WHETHER OR NOT THAT'S A
RECTANGULAR BUILDING OR PART
OF SOMETHING ROUND, I DON'T
REALLY KNOW.
IS THAT POSITIVE ENOUGH FOR
YOU?

Tony says THAT'S POSITIVE.
FRANCIS.

Francis says YES?

Tony says WE'VE GOT A BUILDING
HERE.

Francis says BRILLIANT.

Tony says MIND YOU, IT IS A
STRUGGLE FINDING ANYTHING
HERE.

Phil says IT IS INCREDIBLY
DIFFICULT TO SEE ANY FORMS OF
FEATURES IN THIS BROWN SOIL.

Francis says THAT'S NOT TO BE
WONDERED AT.
THE THING IS, PHIL, 10,000
YEARS AGO, THIS WAS GLACIATED.
THERE WERE GLACIERS DOWN HERE.

Phil says YEAH.

Francis says FROZEN.
AND EVERY TIME THE ICE FROZE,
IT WOULD OPEN UP WEDGES IN THE
GROUND, AND IT WOULD BRING THE
CLAY UP FROM BELOW, AND IT
WOULD MESS AROUND WITH THE
NATURAL.
AND THAT'S WHY IT'S A DOG'S
BREAKFAST.

Tony says ALL RIGHT, DON'T GIVE
US A LECTURE.
JUST DRINK YOUR TEA.

Phil says WHERE IS MY TEA?
NEVER MIND GORDON BENNETT,
WHERE'S MY TEA?

Francis says THERE'S YOUR TEA,
SIR.

Tony says OH, LOOK, PLEASE TAKE
THE TEA BAG.

Francis says OH, I'M SO SORRY.

(music plays)

Tony says POSITIVE THINKING IS
ALL VERY WELL, BUT THE REALITY
IS THAT PHIL'S TRENCH REMAINS
INCONCLUSIVE.
OUR BUILDING COULD BE ROUND,
COULD BE RECTANGULAR, COULD BE
IRON AGE.
BUT WE'VE GOT NO FINDS AND NO
DATE.
IT'S GAME OVER AT TRENCH 2.
BUT IT'S NOT TIME TO GIVE UP
ON CAERAU JUST YET.
AND WE'VE ALSO GOT A REPLICA
IRON AGE DRINKING CUP TO MAKE.
DAVE HAS ADDED A SMALL AMOUNT
OF TIN TO THE COPPER WE
SMELTED EARLIER, AND HE'S
MELTING THEM IN A CRUCIBLE TO
MAKE BRONZE.
IT'S ALMOST READY TO POUR INTO
MOULDS, WHICH CONTAIN WAX
REPLICAS OF THE HANDLES AT THE
CARDIFF MUSEUM.
SO IS IT READY, DAVE?

David says GETTING
THERE NOW.
IT'S GOOD AND HOT FROM OVER
HERE.
I ALWAYS THINK THIS IS A VERY
MAGICAL PROCESS.

Tony says IT MUST HAVE SEEMED
SO THEN, MUSTN'T IT?

David says MUST HAVE.
EVEN AFTER A THOUSAND YEARS
YOU STILL GET EXCITED ABOUT IT.

Tony says YOU CAN IMAGINE THE
PEOPLE WHO DID IT MUST HAVE
HAD REALLY HIGH STATUS IN THE
COMMUNITY.

David says I SHOULD
THINK SO YEAH.

Cassie says AND KEPT VERY QUIET
ABOUT HOW YOU ACTUALLY DID IT.

Tony says YEAH.
OUR BRONZE IS NOW READY TO
POUR INTO THE MOULDS TO CREATE
CLASSIC IRON AGE-STYLE
HANDLES.
FANTASTIC COLOUR, ISN'T IT?
HOW LONG BEFORE IT WILL COOL
DOWN?

David says ABOUT TEN
MINUTES.
YOU CAN SEE BRONZE HAS A
CONSISTENCY OF CHOCOLATE AT
THIS TEMPERATURE.
GOOD.
THERE YOU GO, TONY, PERHAPS
YOU'D LIKE TO DO THE HONOURS
AND KNOCK IT OUT.

David hands Tony a hammer.

Tony says WITH THIS SIDE?

David says GENTLY.

Cassie says YEAH, GENTLY, 'COS
IT'S VERY PRETTY.

Tony says OH YEAH.
IT IS FRAGILE, ISN'T IT?

David says THERE'S OUR
CASTING.
CAN YOU SEE THE EDGE OF THE
CASTINGS THERE?

Tony says YEAH.
A QUICK WASH AND BRUSH UP, AND
THE HANDLES ARE VERY NEARLY
THERE.

Tony crouches by a bucket cleaning the metal handle.

Tony continues HERE WE ARE.
PROBABLY AROUND 2,000 YEARS
SINCE SOMETHING LIKE THIS WAS
MADE ON THIS SITE.

(soft music plays)

Tony says 2,000 YEARS AGO
CAERAU WOULD HAVE LOOKED VERY
DIFFERENT.
TREE COVER IS HIDING ITS MOST
DRAMATIC FEATURES.
ITS RAMPARTS CAN ONLY BE SEEN
USING MODERN LIDAR TECHNIQUES,
WHICH INVOLVE FIRING LASER
PULSES FROM A PLANE AT THE
SITE.
THESE ALLOW US TO SEE THROUGH
THE TREES AND REVEAL THE GIANT
BANKS AND DITCHES.
WHETHER, AS NIALL HAS ALWAYS
BELIEVED, THEY WERE FOR
SHOWING OFF, OR WERE
DEFENSIVE, THE ONE THING THESE
RAMPARTS DEFINITELY DO IS ENSURE
PEOPLE ENTER THROUGH THE FRONT
DOOR.

An animated green layer covers an aerial view of the land.

Tony continues FRANCIS PUT TRENCH 4 OVER
THE FEATURE AT THE ENTRANCE TO
SEE IF IT'S A PART OF OUR IRON
AGE STORY.

Francis says OH YEAH, YOU'VE
NEARLY BOTTOMED THAT, IAN,
HAVEN'T YOU?

Ian crouches in a big rectangular trench divided in four areas. He is in his fifties, clean-shaven with short hair. He’s wearing a black hat, glasses and a dark blue zip jacket.

Ian says OH YEAH, FRANCIS.
YEAH.
WHAT I'VE GOT, I'VE GOT THE
SIDES NOW.
AND THESE STONES ARE LINING
THE SIDE.
AND THE BOTTOM IS PROBABLY
UNDERNEATH THESE STONES DOWN
HERE.

Francis says FANTASTIC.
I MEAN, THOSE STONES STRIKE ME
VERY MUCH AS IF THEY ARE IN
SITU.
THEY'RE PLACED THERE, ALMOST.

The caption changes to “Ian Powlesland. Time Team Archaeologist.”

Ian says OH YEAH.
THEY ARE NOT TUMBLED IN.
THESE ARE DEFINITELY BEEN
PLACED ON THE SIDES OF THE
DITCH ALL THE WAY AROUND.
THERE'S ONE BEHIND ME AS WELL.

Francis says AND WHAT SORT OF
DATE IS THIS?

Ian says WELL, WE'VE GOT TWO
BITS OF POT OUT OF THIS.
WE'VE GOT ONE WHICH IS ALMOST
CERTAINLY ROMAN, THAT ONE
THERE.
THAT'S OUT OF THE TOP.

Ian hands David a small rock.

Francis says YEAH.
THIS IS ROMAN, ISN'T IT?
IT'S FAIRLY HARD AND FAIRLY
FRESH.

Ian says THEN WE'VE GOT THIS
VERY DELICATE HANDMADE PIECE
THERE.

Francis says YEAH, YEAH, THAT
LOOKS IRON AGE.
AND THE ROMAN ONE IS NICE AND
FRESH, AND THIS IS FAIRLY
WEATHERED.
THAT'S BEEN LYING AROUND ON
THE SURFACE, HASN'T IT?

Ian says ALMOST CERTAINLY, YES.

Francis says THIS LEADS ME TO
THINK THIS IS ALMOST CERTAINLY
ROMAN.
WOULDN'T YOU AGREE?

Ian says IT'S LOOKING THAT WAY.
AND INTERESTINGLY, I MEAN,
WE'VE GOT ALSO WHAT LOOK
LIKE TWO POST HOLES HERE
EITHER SIDE OF THE ENTRANCE.

Francis says SO THEY COULD BE
GATE POSTS.

Ian says COULD BE GATE POSTS,
OR MAYBE FENCE POSTS.

Francis says YEAH, YEAH.
IT'S LOOKING MORE AND MORE
LIKE A ROMAN FARM.
BUT OF COURSE, WHEN WE SAY
ROMAN, WE ACTUALLY MEAN THE
ROMANS WOULD BE ACTUALLY THE
SAME PEOPLE AS WERE HERE IN
THE IRON AGE, JUST WEARING
ROMAN CLOTHES.

Ian says ROMANO WELSH.

Francis says ROMANO WELSH,
YEAH, SMASHING.

Tony says A ROMANO BRITISH
CATTLE ENCLOSURE AT THE
ENTRANCE TO OUR FORT IS NOT
WHAT WE WANTED.
WHEN WE SAY ROMANO BRITISH, WE
MEAN THE PERIOD THAT FOLLOWS
THE IRON AGE, WHEN THE ROMANS
OCCUPIED BRITAIN AND OUR WELSH
TRIBES HAD STARTED TO ABSORB
ROMAN WAYS.
BUT AT LEAST WE FOUND MORE
EVIDENCE THAT THIS SITE WAS
PRIMARILY DOMESTIC.
Walking among trees, Tony continues TO BE HONEST, WE'VE ALL BEEN A
BIT DISAPPOINTED TODAY AT THE
LACK OF FINDS.
OF COURSE, THERE HAVE BEEN
SOME, AND WHAT THEY'VE DONE IS
TO PROVE THAT THIS IS
DEFINITELY A LATE IRON AGE
SITE.
BUT THAT'S ABOUT IT, REALLY.
THE TRUTH IS THAT FROM THIS
HUGE SITE, THIS MASSIVE
HILLFORT, THE CLOSEST WE'VE GOT
TO THE DENSE POPULATION HINTED
AT BY GEOPHYS ARE A FEW
UNDATABLE POST HOLES.
HAVE WE BEEN DIGGING IN THE
WRONG PLACE?

The team digs and shovel dirt.

Tony says FOR THE LAST TWO DAYS WE'VE
BEEN SEARCHING FOR AN IRON
AGE CAPITAL UP HERE ON THIS
HILL.
BUT WE'VE BEEN THWARTED BY THE
GEOLOGY AND THE THICK BROWN
STICKY CLAY.
THE GEOPHYS HAS BEEN
ABSOLUTELY FANTASTIC, ALTHOUGH
IT'S OFFERED US WHAT SEEMS
LIKE A WHOLE MIRAGE OF LITTLE
HUTS AND SETTLEMENTS, AND
WE'VE GOT A FEW FINDS WHICH
ARE PRETTY GOOD, TOO.
BUT WHAT WE HAVEN'T GOT IS A
DATE FOR THE TIME WHEN THIS
PLACE WAS AT ITS HEYDAY.
AND THAT'S WHAT WE ARE GOING
TO TRY AND NAIL DOWN TODAY.
IF THERE WERE LARGE NUMBERS OF
PEOPLE LIVING ON THIS FORT,
THEY WOULD SURELY HAVE LEFT
EVIDENCE OF THEIR DAILY LIVES.
BUT WE'RE SIMPLY NOT FINDING IT.
SO FRANCIS HAS COME UP WITH A
NEW PLAN THAT INVOLVES LOOKING
FOR IRON AGE OVENS.
I DON'T UNDERSTAND.
IF WE WANT TO NAIL DOWN THE
DATING, WHY IS OUR LAST THROW
OF THE DICE GOING TO BE
LOOKING AT AN OVEN?

Francis says AH, BECAUSE, TONY,
WE'VE DONE THAT END OF THE
SITE, WE'VE DONE THIS SIDE OF
THE SITE, WHAT WE HAVEN'T DONE
IS THIS HUGE AREA OVER HERE.

Tony says THE MIDDLE.

Francis says THE MIDDLE.
Pointing to a black and white map of the area, Francis continues AND THAT IS COVERED, AS YOU
CAN SEE ON THE GEOPHYS, BY
THESE OVEN KILNY THINGS.

Tony says ALL RIGHT.
DO YOU THINK BY THE END OF THE
DAY, YOU CAN GIVE US SOME
ROBUST DATING?

Phil says WE ARE EMPLOYING THE
RIGHT TECHNIQUES TO DO IT.

Tony takes some time and says THAT'S NOT AN ANSWER,
REALLY, IS IT?

Phil says YES, IT IS.
IT'S A VERY POLITICAL ANSWER.

Tony says IT STANK OF POLITICS,
THAT ANSWER.

Phil chuckles.

Tony says SHOULD WE GET THE DIGGER BACK
ON?

Francis says YEAH.
OKAY, KERRY.

Tony says WHETHER THEY ARE
OVENS OR KILNS, THESE FEATURES
SHOWING UP ON THE MAGNETOMETRY
COULD BE A SIGN OF A BUSY,
OCCUPIED PART OF THE SITE.
SO IT'S OUR LAST DITCH EFFORT
TO FIND MORE EVIDENCE OF
OCCUPATION AT CAERAU, AND AN
EXACT DATE.
BUT WHEN MATT ACTUALLY DIGS
SOME OF THESE HOT SPOTS, THE
ANOMALIES TURN OUT TO BE
ROMANO BRITISH SLAG.
PROVING THAT LOTS OF PEOPLE
WERE WORKING UP HERE DURING
THE ROMAN PERIOD.
BUT IT DOESN'T HELP US IN OUR
SEARCH FOR OUR IRON AGE PEOPLE.
YET, JUST WHEN ALL SEEMS LOST,
CAERAU SURPRISES US.
WE THINK WE MAY HAVE FINALLY
FOUND SOME PROMISING FEATURES
IN THE ROUNDHOUSE TRENCH.
DITCH ENDS.
FEATURES WHICH WOULD HAVE
FORMED THE FRONT DOOR TO A
ROUNDHOUSE.

Tracey removes rocks with a pickaxe. She is in her forties with long red braids and bangs. She’s wearing blue jeans and a black sweater.

An animation highlights her trench and another in front of her in brown.

Tony continues FRANCIS EXTENDED THIS TRENCH
YESTERDAY, AND IT SEEMS TO
HAVE PAID OFF.
IT'S A REAL BREAKTHROUGH.
AND THAT'S NOT ALL.
IF WE'VE GOT SOLID PROOF OF
ONE ROUNDHOUSE, ALL THE OTHER
CIRCULAR SHAPES THAT SHOWED UP
ON THE GEOPHYS ARE ALMOST
CERTAINLY ROUNDHOUSES, TOO.
BUT WE STILL NEED DATING
EVIDENCE.
WITH TIME RUNNING OUT, EVEN
SITE DIRECTOR FRANCIS HAS
PICKED UP HIS TROWEL.
HE'S GOT A POST HOLE, A
FEATURE YOU'D EXPECT TO FIND
IN A ROUNDHOUSE, AND EVEN
BETTER, THERE'S POTTERY IN IT.
BUT IS IT ENOUGH TO DATE THE
HOUSE?

Francis says LOOK WHAT WE'RE
GETTING OUT OF HERE.
RIGHT ON THE TOP.

Francis shows Tracey a tray with some pieces.

Tracey says OOH.

Francis says IT'S ONLY BODY
SHERDS, BUT -

Tracey says THAT'S IRON AGE,
THOUGH, ISN'T IT?

Francis says THEY'VE GOT TO BE
IRON AGE.
SO IF THIS POTTERY MATCHES THE
STUFF THAT NAOMI IS GETTING,
THAT'S FANTASTIC BECAUSE IT'S
A STRAIGHT LINE GOING THROUGH
THE FRONT DOOR, ISN'T IT?

Tracey says PRETTY MUCH, YEAH.
I MEAN, YEAH, IT'S GETTING
OVER THAT WAY.

Francis says SO THAT WOULD SORT
OF INDICATE THAT THESE TWO
FEATURES PROBABLY ARE PART OF
A HOUSE.
RIGHT-O.
I'M GOING TO DO A BIT MORE
DIGGING BECAUSE I WANT TO MAKE
THE MOST OF THIS.

Tracey laughs.

Tony says FRANCIS REASONS THAT
HIS POST HOLE, AND A PIT
OUTSIDE THE DOOR THAT NAOMI IS
DIGGING, LINE UP WITH EACH
OTHER, PUTTING HIM RIGHT IN
THE HEART OF OUR ROUNDHOUSE.

An animation shows a grid with two sets of concentric circles in a hollowed area. They read “Naomi’s Pit” and “Francis’s Pit.”

Tony continues THE POT SHERDS HE'S FINDING
HAVE GRIT IN THEM, WHICH MEANS
THEY ARE IRON AGE.
BUT TO GIVE US AN ACCURATE
DATE, WE NEED BIGGER PIECES.
IF WE KNOW THE SHAPE OF THE
POT, WE CAN DATE IT, AND DATE
OUR ROUNDHOUSE.
OUR IRON AGE COMMUNAL CUP IS
ALMOST FINISHED.
WE'VE MADE A WOODEN VESSEL THE
SAME SIZE AS THE ONE IN THE
MUSEUM OF WALES, AND WE ARE
NOW FITTING THE BRONZE HANDLE
SMELTED FROM SCRATCH ON THIS
HILL.

An old blond man shows the finished handle in the large wooden cup.

The old blond man says IT HOLDS IT.

David says BRILLIANT.
EXCELLENT.

Cassie says DOES IT HOLD IT
WITH FOUR PINTS OF BEER IN IT?

The old blond man says IF YOU'RE OFFERING.

Cassie says WHAT DO YOU RECKON,
RAY?

Ray says I THINK
IT'S CRACKING.
IT'S A WONDERFUL OBJECT.
CONGRATULATIONS TO BOTH OF
YOU.
IT TELLS US SOMETHING ABOUT
THESE PEOPLE, DOESN'T IT?
YOU KNOW, TALKS ABOUT COMMUNAL
ACTIVITIES AND FEASTING.

Cassie says WELL, YOU HOPE IT
WAS COMMUNAL.
BECAUSE IF YOU HAD THAT TO
YOURSELF, YOU'D BE QUITE ILL,
I THINK.

Ray says ABSOLUTELY.
IT MIGHT BE TEMPTING TO TRY,
BUT I THINK YOU'D PROBABLY
WANT SOME HELP WITH IT,
WOULDN'T YOU?

(enchanting music plays)

Tony says BACK AT OUR ROUNDHOUSE,
THE FINDS ARE COMING
THICK AND FAST.
AND IN THE NICK OF TIME, NAOMI
HAS FOUND SOMETHING WE HOPE
PAUL BLINKHORN, OUR FINDS'
EXPERT, CAN DATE.

Paul says HI, NAOMI.

Naomi crouches in a trench. She is in her thirties with short black hair. She’s wearing glasses, a black hat and a black zip jacket.

Naomi says HELLO, PAUL.

Paul says I HEAR RUMOURS OF
POTTERY.

Naomi says THE RUMOURS ARE TRUE.
AND IT'S NOT JUST ANY OLD
POTTERY.
I THINK IT'S THE POTTERY WE
ARE LOOKING FOR.

Paul says OOH, I SAY.
YES, THAT'S DEFINITELY IRON
AGE.
SEE THE ANGLE, THAT'S GONNA
COME AROUND SOMETHING LIKE
THAT.
THAT'S A BIG POT.
THAT'S THE BASE OF A STORAGE
JAR OR SOMETHING.

Naomi says IT IS A NICE SIZE
POT, YEAH.

Paul says AND IT'S IN GOOD
NICK.
AND THERE IS MORE OF IT.
SO THAT'S NOT STUFF - IT'S IN
A FEATURE, YEAH?

The caption changes to “Naomi Sewpaul. Time Team Archaeozoologist.”

Naomi says YEAH, I'M EXCAVATING
THIS POST HOLE HERE, AND WE
HAVE GOT ANOTHER LARGE PIECE
HERE IN SITU, WHICH IS ALMOST
READY TO COME OUT.

Paul says OH, GREAT STUFF.
I'LL HANG AROUND THEN.

Tony says NAOMI HAS FOUND A
LARGE SECTION OF POT FROM A
POST HOLE AT THE ENTRANCE TO
THE ROUNDHOUSE.

Using a trowel, Naomi gently draws a piece out of the ground.

Paul says NICE.

Naomi says LOOK AT THAT.
IT'S A PROPER LITTLE -

Paul says YEAH, YEAH.

Naomi says LOOKS LIKE - I'VE
GOT A TEACUP LIKE THAT.

Paul says IT'S TINY, ISN'T IT?
YEAH, IT'S A DIFFERENT POT, I
THINK.
ALMOST CERTAINLY.
I THINK YOU'VE GOT A FULL
PROFILE.
IT'S ALL THE WAY UP TO THE
RIM.

Niall says I HEAR YOU'VE GOT
SOMETHING INTERESTING, PAUL.

Paul says I THINK YOU'LL LIKE
THIS, NIALL.

Niall says NOW WE ARE TALKING.
THIS IS GOOD.

Paul says NAOMI'S GOT A POST
HOLE DOWN THERE.
AND SO FAR WE'VE HAD A LITTLE
PIECE OF A BASE OF WHAT LOOKS
LIKE A BIG STORAGE JAR.
THAT'S A BIG VESSEL BY THE
LOOK OF IT.
BUT WE'VE ALSO GOT THIS.
THESE TWO BITS JOIN TOGETHER.
IT'S A TINY LITTLE CUP.

Niall says GORGEOUS.

Paul says ISN'T IT?

Niall says AND YOU KNOW WHAT?
I DON'T THINK THAT'S MIDDLE TO
LATE.

Paul says YOU THINK THAT MIGHT
BE EARLY?

Niall says I THINK THAT'S
EARLY.
THIS IS PROBABLY THE ONLY
COMPLETE PROFILE OF AN EARLY
IRON AGE VESSEL THAT I'VE EVER
SEEN FROM SOUTH WALES.

Paul says YOU'RE JOKING.

Niall says THERE ARE NOT VERY
MANY OF THEM.
NO, NO.

Paul says WHAT STRUCK ME ABOUT
IT, THIS IS INTERESTING AS
WELL, YOU'VE GOT THIS BIG
SHERD OF THIS BIG JAR AND THIS
LITTLE CUP WITH IT.
IT'S ALMOST LIKE A
REPRESENTATION OF A DRINKING
KIT.
YOU'VE GOT YOUR BIG POT WITH
YOUR BEER OR WHATEVER IN, AND
THEN YOU'VE GOT YOUR LITTLE
CUP FOR SCOOPING OUT.
AND IT'S RIGHT IN THE TOP.

Niall says MORE OF IT STILL IN
THERE?

Paul says YEAH, YEAH, YEAH.

Niall says OH, EXCELLENT.
IT'S ALL NICELY FITTING
TOGETHER, ISN'T IT?

Tony says SO THIS UNASSUMING
PIECE OF POTTERY, THIS TINY
CUP, WITH ITS DISTINCTIVE
PROFILE FROM BOTTOM TO TOP,
TURNS OUT TO BE THE KEY TO THE
WHOLE DIG.
IT'S THE MOST COMPLETE EARLY
IRON AGE CUP EVER FOUND IN
SOUTH WALES.
NOT ONLY IS IT A TRULY
SPECTACULAR FIND IN ITS OWN
RIGHT, IT CONCLUSIVELY DATES
OUR SITE TO THE EARLIEST PART
OF THE IRON AGE.
A JOB WELL DONE.
WE CAME HERE LOOKING FOR AN
IRON AGE CAPITAL.

(piano music plays)

Tony continues IN ONE TINY AREA OF OUR SITE,
WE FOUND A TERRACE OF ROUND
HOUSES FROM THE VERY EARLY
IRON AGE, AROUND 800 B.C.
THAT COULD HAVE HOUSED A
HUNDRED PEOPLE.
GLACIERS, LATER INDUSTRY, AND
PLOUGHING MAKE CAERAU DIFFICULT
TO READ.
BUT IF THE REST OF THE SITE
WAS AS HEAVILY POPULATED AS
THIS ONE LITTLE CORNER, WE
COULD BE LOOKING AT HUNDREDS,
OR EVEN THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE
LIVING HERE AT ITS HEIGHT.
LOOKS LIKE OUR HILLFORT COULD
BE THE ANCIENT BUILDING CO-OP
OF NIALL'S DREAMS.

While Naomi continues digging, an animation places a roundhouse near her. Then, a zoom-out shot shows several roundhouses forming a community on the area.

Tony continues IT'S A PLACE WHERE PEOPLE HAD
KITCHEN ACCIDENTS AND
PERFORMED DRINKING RITUALS IN
THE HOME.
OUR ROMANO BRITISH FARMSTEAD
PROVES THIS HILL CONTINUED TO
BE OCCUPIED ON INTO THE ROMAN
PERIOD BEFORE BEING ABANDONED.
IT'S TIME TO CELEBRATE THE
COMMUNITY OF CAERAU PAST AND
PRESENT.

Francis speaks in front of the local people.

Francis says WHAT HAS AMAZED ME
IS THE SHEER LENGTH OF TIME
THAT THIS PLACE HAS BEEN
OCCUPIED.

Tony says HOW LONG DO YOU
THINK?

Francis says A THOUSAND YEARS.

Tony says PHIL?

Phil says FOR ME, IT'S THE
SHEER FACT WE'VE BEEN ABLE TO
FIND BUILDINGS.
WE ALL NEED SOMEWHERE TO LIVE.
YOU ONLY GOT TO LOOK DOWN
THERE AND SEE THE HOMES OF SO
MANY PEOPLE.
THAT, TO ME, IS THE IMPORTANT
THING, THAT THERE IS A REAL
LIVE SETTLEMENT ON THAT HILL,
ALL THOSE THOUSANDS OF YEARS
AGO.

[cheering and applauding]

Tony says AND HERE WE HAVE THE
TIME TEAM
TANKARD.
AND BY US ALL DRINKING FROM IT,
WE'LL BOND TOGETHER AS A
COMMUNITY.
[cheering]
LOVELY.

Tony hands the tankard to the local people and they drink.

The theme music plays as the end credits roll.

Presented by Tony Robinson.

Editor, Madoc Roberts.

Executive producer, Philip Clarke.

Produced and directed by Caroline Allward.

Series producer, Tim Taylor.

Copyright 2013, Videotext communications Ltd.

The Picture House Television Co. Ltd.

Logo: DRG