Transcript: Bob Rae, former Premier of Ontario, on JS Bach | Mar 27, 2004

Bob Rae stands behind a lectern. He is in his sixties, clean-shaven, with short white hair, and is wearing a black suit, pale blue shirt, and spotted brown tie.

Bob Rae says LET ME FIRST OF
ALL CONGRATULATE THE
UNIVERSITY AND THE FACULTY FOR
THEIR LEADERSHIP IN BRINGING
US TOGETHER.

A caption appears on screen. It reads "Honorable Bob Rae. Former Premier of Ontario. J.S. Bach in the World Today. University of Toronto, January 12-26, 2004."

Bob Rae says AND TO SAY THAT I
AM DELIGHTED THAT Mr. RILLING
IS WITH US, NOT ONLY THIS WEEK
BUT NEXT WEEK WHEN HE'S GOING
TO BE PERFORMING WITH THE
TORONTO SYMPHONY.
AND THIS
CELEBRATION OF THE MUSIC AND
LIFE OF BACH IS A WONDERFUL
OPPORTUNITY FOR US TO REFLECT
ON NOT ONLY HIS GENIUS AND
EXTRAORDINARY MUSICAL GIFT
THAT HE SHARED WITH THE WORLD,
BUT ALSO TO REFLECT A LITTLE
BIT ON THE PROFOUND NATURE OF
HIS MUSIC AND HOW THROUGH THIS
EXTRAORDINARY LEGACY HE'S LEFT
US, THERE ARE SOME REAL
QUESTIONS POSED ABOUT, IF YOU
LIKE, THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN
THE MAGNIFICENCE AND THE DEPTH
AND PROFUNDITY OF HIS MUSIC
AND THE BARBARITY OF THE WORLD
IN WHICH WE HAVE LIVED OVER
THE LAST SEVERAL HUNDRED YEARS.
AND THIS REALLY IS THE GREAT
CONTRADICTION, I THINK, IN OUR
LIVES THAT WE HAVE TO REFLECT
ON FOR WHICH I HAVE NO ANSWER
OR EXPLANATION ONLY QUESTIONS.
FIRST OF ALL TO TOUCH ON SOME
THINGS I DO KNOW A LITTLE BIT
ABOUT.
IT'S PERHAPS WORTHWHILE FOR US,
GIVEN THAT THIS IS A COOPERATIVE
VENTURE WITH THE CENTRE FOR
PEACE AND CONFLICT STUDIES, TO
REFLECT A LITTLE BIT ON HOW
CONFLICT HAS CHANGED... THE
NATURE OF CONFLICT HAS
CHANGED... SINCE BACH'S TIME,
SINCE THE TIME OF HIS WRITING
AND THE WORLD IN WHICH HE
LIVED AND WORKED.
NOT ONLY HOW THE CONFLICT HAS
CHANGED BUT ALSO HOW IT HAS IN
EFFECT STAYED THE SAME.
HE WAS, OF COURSE, WRITING AT A
TIME WHEN CONFLICT WAS REALLY
ESSENTIALLY OF TWO KINDS,
BETWEEN NATIONS... WE ALL, I
THINK, RECOGNIZE THE TREATY OF
WESTPHALIA IN THE MIDDLE OF THE
17th CENTURY AS THE TIME AT
WHICH THE NATION STATE, IN
EFFECT, BECAME THE KEY
SOVEREIGN ENTITY AND FROM THAT
TIME FORWARD TO REALLY THE END
OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR WE
LOOKED TO THE NATION STATE AS
THE ESSENTIAL VEHICLE OF OUR
POLITICAL DREAMS AND HOPES.
AND OF COURSE WE'VE SEEN THE
PRICE OF NATIONALISM, THE COST
OF IT AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH
IT HAS DOMINATED OUR WORLD AND
THE EXTENT TO WHICH CONFLICT
HAS, FOR A VERY CONSIDERABLE
TIME, BEEN DEFINED AS THE
CONFLICT BETWEEN NATIONS.
ONE WOULD ALSO
HAVE TO SAY THAT ALONG WITH
THAT OF COURSE HAS BEEN A VERY
LONG TRADITION OF ATTEMPTING
TO RESOLVE CONFLICT BETWEEN
NATIONS AND TO TRY AND CREATE
SOME KIND OF INTERNATIONAL
COMITE AS ONE WOULD SAY.
THAT IS TO SAY
SOME SORT OF INTERNATIONAL
ORDER OF WHICH THE TREATY OF
WESTPHALIA IS PERHAPS THE BEST
EXAMPLE OF THAT TIME WHERE
THERE WAS A GENUINE EFFORT TO
SAY HOW CAN WE CREATE SOME
ORDER, SOME RULES, SOME LAWS
WHICH WILL IN FACT RESOLVE THE
KINDS OF CONFLICTS WHICH
CLEARLY WERE EMERGING AT THAT
TIME.
THE SECOND KIND OF CONFLICT OF
COURSE WHICH WE ASSOCIATE WITH
THE 17th CENTURY IS RELIGIOUS
CONFLICT.
I OFTEN FIND IT IRONIC THAT
EUROPEANS OR THOSE OF US WHO
FEEL OURSELVES TO BE PART OF
THE BROADER EUROPEAN
CIVILIZATION ATTEMPT TO
LECTURE THE REST OF THE WORLD
ABOUT THE BARBARITY OF
RELIGIOUS CONFLICT.
ONE ONLY HAS TO LOOK BACK AT
OUR OWN PAST TO REALIZE AND
RECOGNIZE THE DEPTH TO WHICH
PEOPLE WERE PREPARED TO GO IN
TERMS OF, IF YOU GO TO OXFORD
WHERE I WAS A STUDENT, YOU
WILL SEE LITTLE MONUMENTS ALL
OVER THE PLACE TO PEOPLE WHO
WERE BURNED AT THE STAKE
BECAUSE THEY HAD SOME
PARTICULAR VIEW ABOUT THE ROLE
OF THE CHURCH OR SOME
THEOLOGICAL ARGUMENT WHICH
FRANKLY NONE OF US TODAY OR
VERY FEW OF US TODAY WOULD
HAVE ANY SENSE OF WHAT IT WAS
ABOUT.
BUT NEVERTHELESS THESE WERE
THE ANIMATING, DRIVING
EMOTIONS OF THAT TIME.
AND WHEN WE LOOK AROUND THE
WORLD TODAY AND TRY TO COME TO
TERMS WITH THE LEVEL OF
CONFLICT, THE INTENSITY OF IT
AND THE SHEER BARBARITY OF IT,
WE HAVE TO REFLECT ON THE FACT
THAT MUCH OF IT IS MOTIVATED
BY RELIGIOUS AND QUASI
RELIGIOUS IDEOLOGICAL BELIEFS
WHICH ARE SAID TO BE
INCOMPATIBLE WITH THE BELIEFS
OF THE PERSON SITTING NEXT TO
YOU.
AND THIS OF COURSE IS A RIDDLE
WHICH WE HAVE NOTHING TO
LECTURE ANYBODY ABOUT BECAUSE
WE'RE VERY MUCH PART OF THIS
CONFLICT.
BUT NEVERTHELESS ONE ONLY HAS
TO LOOK AROUND THE WORLD TODAY
TO RECOGNIZE THAT THE
INTENSITY OF THIS CONFLICT IS
QUITE PROFOUND.
INDEED IT IS EVEN MORE
PROFOUND THAN ONE WOULD HAVE
SEEN IN 300 YEARS AGO OR 350
YEARS AGO BECAUSE THE
TECHNOLOGY HAS EVOLVED.
IT'S NOT THAT WE'RE ANY MORE
EVIL THAN PREVIOUS GENERATIONS
OR THAT WE ARE MORE CIVILIZED,
IT'S JUST THAT OUR CAPACITY TO
DESTROY OTHER PEOPLE IS ALMOST
LIMITLESS.
AND IT'S ALMOST LIMITLESS
BECAUSE OF THE NATURE OF THE
TECHNOLOGY WHICH HAS DEVELOPED.
AND ONE ONLY HAS TO REFLECT ON
THE CALAMITOUS LEVEL OF
VIOLENCE THAT ONE SEES IN SO
MANY SOCIETIES TODAY TO
RECOGNIZE THAT THE LEVEL OF
VIOLENCE IS INTENSIFIED AS I
SAY NOT BY THE INTENSITY OF
BELIEF ALONE, BUT BY THE
SCIENTIFIC CAPACITY WE'VE
DEVELOPED TO DESTROY NOT
SIMPLY ONE OTHER PERSON BUT
HUNDREDS, THOUSANDS, INDEED
MILLIONS WITH A SINGLE
TECHNOLOGICAL SHIFT.
IT'S ALSO, I THINK, IMPORTANT
TO REFLECT FOR A MOMENT ON THE
FACT THAT WHEREAS MOST OF THE
CONFLICTS THAT WE SAW IN
EUROPE AND INDEED IN MUCH OF
THE WORLD BETWEEN THE TIME
THAT BACH WAS WRITING HIS
MUSIC AND THE END OF THE
SECOND WORLD WAR WERE
CONFLICTS BETWEEN COUNTRIES.
AND WHAT IN A SENSE TAKES US
BACK ALMOST TO THE EUROPE OF
THE POST MIDDLE AGES, OF THE
REFORMATION AND CONFLICT
BETWEEN CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM
WHICH GOES BACK NOW A THOUSAND
YEARS, IS THE FACT THAT THE
KEY CONFLICTS THAT WE SEE IN
THE WORLD TODAY ARE CONFLICTS
WITHIN COUNTRIES RATHER THAN
BETWEEN COUNTRIES.
IF YOU LOOK AT THE SUDAN, IF
YOU LOOK AT THE CONFLICT THAT
TOOK PLACE IN INDIA, THE
INDIAN SUBCONTINENT AT THE END
OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR.
YOU LOOK AT CONFLICTS WITHIN
THE SOVIET SYSTEM.
IF YOU LOOK AT THE LEVEL OF
VIOLENCE COMMITTED BY REGIMES,
MAO'S REGIME IN CHINA.
IF YOU LOOK AT THE CONFLICTS
WE'VE JUST WITNESSED IN
CENTRAL AFRICA,
BURUNDI, RWANDA, AND AGAIN THE
LEVEL AND INTENSITY OF
VIOLENCE INVOLVED, ONE HAS TO
COME TO GRIPS WITH THE FACT
THAT THESE ARE CONFLICTS
BETWEEN NEIGHBOURS.
AND THEY'RE OFTEN CONFLICTS
BETWEEN PEOPLE WHO IN ANOTHER
TIME AND ANOTHER GENERATION
WERE QUITE HAPPY TO LIVE NEXT
DOOR TO ONE ANOTHER.
THIS OF COURSE IS NOT NEW,
THERE ARE ALL SORTS OF STORIES
THAT ARE TOLD FOR EXAMPLE OF
COMMUNITIES IN EASTERN EUROPE
WHERE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS
LIVED SIDE BY SIDE FOR SEVERAL
HUNDREDS OF YEARS IN THE SAME
TOWN, IN THE SAME VILLAGE,
WHERE ALL OF A SUDDEN PEOPLE
WERE TURNED ON AND EXPOSED TO
DEATH AND DESTRUCTION IN A
SPACE OF 24 HOURS.
WE HAD SIMILAR STORIES
EMERGING FROM THE CONFLICT IN
THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, WHERE
THE INTENSITY OF THE CONFLICT
IS FELT AT A VERY PERSONAL AND
VERY EMOTIONAL LEVEL.
ONE BRIEF POINT IS TO SAY THAT
THOSE COUNTRIES THAT HAVE
MANAGED TO RESOLVE TO FIND
WAYS OF RESOLVING CONFLICT
BETWEEN AND AMONG PEOPLE WHO
FEEL DIFFERENTLY, LIVE
DIFFERENTLY, PRAY DIFFERENTLY,
LOOK DIFFERENTLY, SMELL
DIFFERENTLY, IS PERHAPS
SOMETHING WE SHOULD REFLECT ON.
AND HOW CAN WE TAKE THE
SUCCESSFUL EXAMPLES OF
CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND THE
SUCCESSFUL EXAMPLES OF
SOCIETIES WHICH MANAGED TO
ABSORB DIFFERENCE AND IN THE
END CELEBRATE IT AND FIND A
WAY TO CHANNEL WHATEVER
HOSTILITIES EXIST IS PERHAPS
ONE OF THE MODEST
CONTRIBUTIONS THAT A COUNTRY
LIKE CANADA CAN MAKE TO THIS
GREAT NEW DEBATE THAT IS
EMERGING IN THE WORLD AS TO
HOW DO WE PREVENT CONFLICT,
HOW DO WE IDENTIFY ITS SOURCES
AND HOW DO WE COPE WITH ITS
COSTS AND CONSEQUENCES?
MY FINAL POINT IS INTENDED, I
HOPE, TO PROVOKE A DISCUSSION.
AND IT'S NOT BECAUSE I HAVE AN
ANSWER TO THE QUESTION.
IT'S BECAUSE DOREEN MENTIONED
THE FACT THAT I WAS AT OXFORD.
AND I SHALL ALWAYS REMEMBER A
LECTURE THAT WAS GIVEN BY A
REMARKABLE INTELLECTUAL NAMED
GEORGE STEINER.
I'M SURE MANY OF YOU KNOW HIM
BETTER THAN I DO.
BUT HE'S A LINGUISTIC
PHILOSOPHER, A PHILOSOPHER OF
CULTURE AND A VERY INTERESTING
AND PROVOCATIVE MAN.
AND HE WAS RAISING THE
QUESTION WHICH I WOULD POSE IN
MY OWN WAY, WHICH IS THIS
THEORY THAT THERE ARE ADVANCED
CULTURES WHICH PRODUCE GREAT
MUSIC, THAT ARE SO-CALLED
ADVANCED CIVILIZATIONS THAT
PRODUCE GREAT MUSIC AND GREAT
ART.
AND THESE CIVILIZATIONS ARE TO
BE CONTRASTED WITH CONDITIONS
OF BARBARITY.
AND WE MAKE DISTINCTIONS
BETWEEN PEOPLE THAT ARE
CIVILIZED BECAUSE THEY LISTEN
TO GREAT MUSIC AND PEOPLE WHO
COMMIT BARBAROUS ACTS WHO ARE
UNCULTURED AND WHO DO NOT HAVE
ACCESS TO THE GREAT CULTURE.
AND IF ONLY THEY HAD ACCESS TO
GREAT CULTURE THEN THEY WOULD
BE MORE CIVILIZED.
IT SEEMS TO ME WHAT STEINER
WAS SAYING AND I'LL SAY IT IN
MY OWN WAY, IS THAT IN THE
20th CENTURY WE HAVE AMPLE
EVIDENCE THAT PEOPLE CAN GO
FROM LISTENING TO THE GREATEST
MUSIC IN THE WORLD AND THEN
TURN TO TURN ON A GAS OVEN IN
A CONCENTRATION CAMP.
THAT THERE IS A CONTRADICTION
WHICH LIES WITHIN EACH ONE OF
US AND NO PARTICULAR CULTURE
CAN SAY OH, WE'RE ALOOF FROM
THAT, WE'RE IMMUNE FROM THAT.
WE HAVE ACCESS TO GREAT
VALUES, WE WOULD NEVER DO
THESE THINGS.
AND WE HAVE TO WRESTLE WITH
THIS QUESTION OF HOW IT IS
THAT CULTURE DOES NOT
NECESSARILY AND DOES NOT
ALWAYS IGNOBLE OR AFFECT ALL OF
PEOPLE'S LIVES.
THAT'S THE FIRST THOUGHT.
AND THE SECOND THOUGHT I'VE
HAD IS JUST AS THERE'S A MUSIC
OF PEACE, THERE'S ALSO A MUSIC
OF WAR.
I CAN REMEMBER SOMEBODY ONCE
SUGGESTED WHEN WE WERE TALKING
ABOUT THE EFFECT OF
NATIONALISM IN A CLASS THAT I
WAS ATTENDING YEARS AGO AND
THIS VERY INTERESTING
PROFESSOR AT OXFORD SAID WHY
DON'T YOU AS A PROJECT LOOK AT
THE WORDS OF ALL THE NATIONAL
ANTHEMS OF THE WORLD.
AND LISTEN TO THE MUSIC.
AND THEN ASK YOURSELF THE
QUESTION WHAT ARE THEY...
CLEARLY WHAT THEY'RE TRYING TO
DO IS WHIP PEOPLE UP INTO A
STATE OF FERVOUR, INTO A STATE
OF FEELING SUPERIOR, INTO A
STATE OF MOVING FORWARD.
WE ALL KNOW, ONE DOESN'T HAVE
TO BE A PROFOUND PSYCHOLOGIST
TO UNDERSTAND THAT MUSIC
PROFOUNDLY AFFECTS OUR MOODS.
IT PROFOUNDLY AFFECTS OUR
STATE OF MIND.
IT PROFOUNDLY AFFECTS OUR
EMOTIONS.
AND THAT'S WHY IN TOTALITARIAN
STATES THEY MAKE VERY
EFFECTIVE USE OF MUSIC AND OF
ART AND OF PROPAGANDA AND OF
CREATING A WHOLE ETHOS IN
WHICH PEOPLE ARE WHIPPED UP IN
ONE DIRECTION OR THE OTHER.
I DON'T SAY THIS BECAUSE, AS I
SAY, I DON'T HAVE ANY ANSWERS.
AND I DON'T HAVE A PARTICULAR
PROFOUND SENSE, I CAN'T
EXPLAIN IT.
STEINER CAME IN AND SAID, YOU
KNOW, HOW CAN SOMEBODY WHO IS
A GUARD IN A CONCENTRATION
CAMP, HOW COULD HE LISTEN TO
BEETHOVEN AT 11:00 AND AT
12:00 GO AND TURN ON THE OVEN?
I DON'T HAVE THE ANSWER TO
THAT QUESTION, I DON'T KNOW.
AND WE CAN POSE, WE COULD DO
IT IN ANY SIMILAR CULTURES IN
SIMILAR SITUATIONS.
BUT THE ONE THING I THINK WE
HAVE TO CONTRA... IF YOU LIKE
DISTINGUISH IS IN COMING BACK
TO THE THEME OF THIS WEEK AND
OF NEXT WEEK, THE CELEBRATION
OF BACH.
WHAT I THINK IS INSPIRING...
SO INSPIRING ABOUT BACH IS THE
PROFOUND CONNECTION BETWEEN
HIS RELIGIOUS CONVICTION WHICH
WAS NOT AN EXCLUSIVIST OR
NARROW RELIGIOUS CONVICTION,
IT WAS OBVIOUSLY A CHRISTIAN
CONVICTION, AND HIS WHOLE
MUSIC CAN ONLY BE UNDERSTOOD
IN THE CONTEXT OF A RELIGIOUS
BELIEVER, BUT IT WAS THE WAY
IN WHICH HIS MUSIC ITSELF
CREATES A MOOD OF PROFOUND
REFLECTION.
AND THE BEST ONE CAN SAY, IT
SEEMS TO ME, IS THAT HE IS
ASKING US TO REFLECT ON WHAT
IN HIS TIME AND CULTURE WERE
THE MOST PROFOUND AND TRAGIC
EVENTS THAT HAD SOME HUGE
SYMBOLIC VALUE FOR HIM AND FOR
THE CULTURE HE REPRESENTED.
AND ASKED US TO REFLECT ON IT
AND TO UNDERSTAND IT AND TO
LEARN FROM IT.
AND I THINK THAT'S THE BEST WE
CAN ASK.
I DON'T THINK WE CAN ASK ANY
MORE FROM AN ARTIST.
CERTAINLY IT WAS NOT INTENDED
TO PROVOKE.
IT WAS NOT INTENDED TO MAKE US
FEEL GOOD OR FEEL BETTER NOR
WAS IT INTENDED LIKE THE MUSIC
OF SAY, FOR COMIC CONTRAST,
JOHN PHILIP SOUSA, IN TERMS
OF THE MARSHAL FEELING TEDDY
ROOSEVELT GOT EVERY TIME HE
LISTENED TO THE MUSIC.
SO, I GUESS WHAT I WOULD SAY
IN CONCLUSION IS JUST TO
SUMMARIZE WHAT I TRIED TO SAY.
FIRST WE HAVE TO UNDERSTAND
THAT WE COME FROM A
CIVILIZATION THAT HAS ONE AND
THE SAME TIME BEEN SUBLIME IN
THE MUSIC AND CULTURE IT HAS
CREATED AND AT THE SAME TIME
HAS BEEN ABSOLUTELY BARBAROUS
IN ITS TREATMENT OF ITS FELLOW
HUMAN BEINGS.
AND THIS IS A FACT WE HAVE TO
COME TO TERMS WITH.
THE 20th CENTURY, NEED I
REMIND PEOPLE IN THIS AUDIENCE,
WAS THE MOST VIOLENT CENTURY
IN RECORDED HISTORY.
THERE HAS NEVER BEEN A CENTURY
IN WHICH SO MANY PEOPLE DIED
AT THE HANDS OF THEIR FELLOW
HUMAN BEINGS.
AND YOU KNOW I
OFTEN WONDERED, THOUGHT, IT
WOULD BE IRONIC IF KARL MARX
AND JOHN STUART MILL WERE TO
MEET REBORN SOMEWHERE IN
LONDON IN A COFFEE SHOP AND
REFLECT ON HOW WRONG THEY BOTH
HAD BEEN.
MARX AND MILL BOTH
WRITING AT ROUGHLY THE SAME
TIME, MIDDLE OF THE 19th
CENTURY, BOTH, FOR ALL THEIR
DIFFERENT VIEWS, BOTH
PROFOUNDLY BELIEVED THE
FOLLOWING THINGS: HISTORY WAS
A LOGICAL EXTENSION OF
CIVILIZATION AND AS DIFFERENT
AS IT MIGHT BE ONE COULD
ALWAYS BE ASSURED THAT
WHATEVER CAME NEXT WOULD BE
BETTER THAN WHAT WENT BEFORE.
THAT THERE WOULD BE A LOGICAL
PROGRESSION, THERE WOULD BE A
LOGICAL EXTENSION OF PROGRESS
AND OF FREEDOM.
THEY WOULD DEFINE PROGRESS AND
FREEDOM IN DIFFERENT WAYS.
BUT THAT SENSE OF EVOLUTION
THAT WAS PROFOUND IN BOTH OF
THEM AND REINFORCED BY WHAT
THEY THOUGHT WERE THE
DISCOVERIES OF DARWIN, WOULD
HAVE BEEN VERY MUCH ON THEIR
MINDS.
THAT'S THE FIRST THING.
THE SECOND THING THEY WOULD
HAVE BELIEVED, THEY DID
BELIEVE AND THEY BOTH SHARED
WAS THAT RELIGION AND
NATIONALISM WERE BASICALLY
OBSCURANTIST FORCES WHICH
WOULD BE DIMINISHED BY THE
IMPACT OF RATIONALITY.
AND THAT RATIONAL PEOPLE WOULD
ABANDON BOTH POWERFUL ETHNIC
FEELING, LINGUISTIC FEELING,
RACIAL FEELING AND FEELINGS OF
NEEDING TO HAVE POWERFUL
RELIGIOUS BELIEFS TO MOTIVATE
AND DRIVE THEM.
AND THEY WOULD LOOK AT THE
WORLD SINCE THEIR DEATH AT THE
END OF THE 19th CENTURY AND
REFLECT ON HOW WRONG THEY HAD
BEEN.
NOW THEY MIGHT NOT BECAUSE
MOST PEOPLE HAVE DIFFICULTY
ADMITTING THEIR MISTAKES.
BUT IT IS AN IRONY THAT THE
TWO MEN WHO PROBABLY HAD MORE
INFLUENCE ON THE INTELLECTUAL
LIFE OF THE 20th CENTURY IN
TERMS OF A PASSIONATE BELIEF
WERE BOTH COMPLETELY WRONG
ABOUT BOTH THOSE THINGS.
WHAT DO WE FIND?
WE FIND THAT IN FACT THINGS
DON'T ALWAYS GET BETTER,
SOMETIMES THEY GET WORSE.
THAT ONE LEVEL OF CIVILIZATION
IS NOT ALWAYS FOLLOWED BY A
HIGHER ONE.
AND SECONDLY WE FIND THAT
RELIGION AND NATIONALISM, ARE
TODAY, AT THE BEGINNING OF THE
21st CENTURY, SOME OF THE MOST
COMPELLING AND POWERFUL
EMOTIONAL FORCES IN THE WORLD
TODAY.
AND SO IT SEEMS TO ME THAT THE
TASK OF THOSE OF US WHO CARE
ABOUT PEACE AND WHO CARE ABOUT
CIVILIZATION AND CARE ABOUT
VALUES AND CARE ABOUT ENDING
CONFLICT STILL HAVE TO WRESTLE
WITH THESE QUESTIONS AND
PERHAPS OUR ANSWERS WILL BE A
LITTLE LESS SIMPLY OPTIMISTIC,
IF YOU LIKE, OR RUTHLESSLY
CERTAIN, THAN THOSE OF SOME OF
OUR INTELLECTUAL ANCESTORS.
THANK YOU.

Watch: Bob Rae, former Premier of Ontario, on JS Bach