Transcript: Prostate, Underground Railroad | Apr 07, 2003

(Music plays)

A title appears inside the shape of a house: more to life. Words spin against a red and orange background: health, family, home, money, fitness, life. Fast clips show images related to the previous concepts, such as a dollar bill, a wheat field, and strands of DNA.

In animation, the title appears inside the shape of a house: "more to life."

Then, Mary Ito sits in a studio with textured yellow walls.

Mary is in her late thirties, with short black hair and bangs. She's wearing a floral print blouse and a choker necklace.

She says I'M MARY ITO. WELCOME TO MORE TO LIFE. LATER IN THE SHOW, THE INSPIRING STORY ABOUT AWE HOW THOUSANDS OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN SLAVES FOUND FREEDOM IN CANADA. BUT FIRST, DETECTIVE ANDY FROM NYPD BLUE SWEATS OVER IT AND ARCHIE BUNKER, HEY SQUIRMED IN HIS EASY BOY AT THE MERE MENTION, PROSTATE CANCER. A SLOW-GROWING CANCER BUT STILL KILLS THOUSANDS OF MEN N EACH YEAR IN CANADA. HERE TO FILL US IN ON THE FACT SYSTEM DR. NEIL, HEAD OF UROLOGY AT UNIVERSITY HEALTH NETWORK AND ALSO OF THE GEN TAL URNARY PROGRAM AT PRINCEY ES MARGARET HOSPITAL.

NEIL IS IN HIS EARLY FORTIES, CLEAN-SHAVEN, WITH SHORT CURLY DARK HAIR. HE'S WEARING GLASSES, A BLACK SUIT, CHECKERED BLUE SHIRT, AND BURGUNDY TIE.

MARY CONTINUES MAYBE YOU HAVE RECEIVED A POSITIVE PS TESTIFY AND WOR ED ABOUT INTIMATE RELATIONS AFTER SURGERY. PLEASE GIVE US A CALL WITH YOUR QUESTIONS.

A CAPTION READS "416-484-2727. 1-888-411-1234." THEN, IT CHANGES TO "MORETOLIFE@TVO.ORG"

MARY CONTINUES WELCOME.

Neil says THANK YOU.

Mary says I WONDER IF YOU COULD PROVIDE US FIRST OF ALL WITH CONTEXT AS FAR AS HOW SERIOUS PROSTATE CANCER IS.

THE CAPTION CHANGES TO "DOCTOR NEIL FLESHNER. ONCOLOGIST, UROLOGIST."

Neil says PROSTATE CANCER HAS BEEN GIVEN A REPUTATION AS, MENTIONED AS A SLOW GROWING CANCER AND PERHAPS ONE PEOPLE DON'T NEED TO WORRY ABOUT. IN FACT, QUITE THE OPPOSITE IS TRUE. IT'S THE MOST COMMONLY DIAGNOSED CANCER IN MEN. SO ONE IN SEARCH NOW, MEN, IT IS NOW ESTIMATED WILL LIKELY DEVELOP PROSTATE CANCER IN THEIR LIFETIME. EVEN THOUGH, IT AGAIN, HAS THIS REPUTATION OF NOT LIFE-THREATENING, ABOUT ONE OF FOUR MEN DIAGNOSE WIDE IT WILL DIE FROM IT. IT'S A VERY COMMON CANCER AND BECAUSE ABOUT 25 PERCENT OF MEN WITH IT DIE FROM IT. IT REPRESENTS THE SECOND MOST COMMON CAUSE OF CANCER DEATHS AMONG MEN AFTER LUNG CANCER. EVEN THOUGH LUNG CANCER IS LESS COMMON. IT KILLS MORE BECAUSE IT IS A MORE AGGRESSIVE TUMOR BUT PROSTATE CANCER IS NUMBER 2. IT'S A MAJOR PLAYER IN MALE CANCERS.

Mary says ARE WE LOOK AT A CERTAIN AGE GROUP OF MEN?

Neil says TYPICALLY, IT'S A DISEASE OF MEN IN THEIR 60'S, 70'S, 80'S BUT WE'RE NOW WITH PSA TESTING AND EFFORTS ON EARLYY DETECH, WE ARE NOW INCREASINGLY DETECTING THAT THIS DISEASE IN MEN IN THEIR 50'S AND EVEN 40'S.

Mary says SO YOU SAY THE MAJORITY ARE IN THE OLDER SENIORS CATEGORY BECAUSE IT DOES HAVE A REPUTATION AS WELL AS, YOU KNOW, YOU PROBABLY HAVE A BETTER CHANCE DYING OF OLD AGE OR SOMETHING ELSE THAN PROSTATE CANCER.

Neil says RIGHT. I THINK THAT IS TRUE. AND IT EMPHASIZES THE FACT THAT THREE OF FOUR MEN DIAGNOSE WIDE IT WILL NOT DIE FROM IT AND THAT REFLECTS THAT IN SOME CASE ITS DOES GROW SLOWLY AND MEN MEN, IF YOU WILL, OUTLIVE THE CANCER. THERE NATURAL CAUSES WILL KILL THEM BEFORE THE PROS KATE CANCER DOES. IT ALSO INCLUDES MEN WHO HAVE HAD SUCCESSFUL CURATIVE TREATMENT FOR PROSTATE CANCER LIKE SURGERY OR RADIATION THERAPY.

THE CAPTION CHANGES TO "TODAY'S TOPIC: PROSTATE CANCER."

MARY SAYS I WANT TO GET INTO THAT LATER. CAN WE LOOK AT THE FACTORS INVOLVED. WHAT WOULD BE THE FACTORS INVOLVED WITH A MAN DIAGNOSED WITH PROS TAT CANCER.

THE PHONE NUMBERS AND EMAIL REAPPEAR BRIEFLY.

Neil says THE MAJOR RISK FACTORS REALLY ARE, BEING MALE SKPRX AGING AS WE JUST ELUDED TO. BUT, THE OTHER MAJOR FACTOR SEEM TO BE HAVING A FAMILY HISTORY. SO IF YOU HAVE PARTICULARLY A FIRST DEGREE RELATIVE, A FATHER OR A BROTHER WITH PROSTATE CANCER OR SON. THEN YOU WOULD BE AT HIGH RISK FOR THE DISEASE. THE MORE EFFECT... AFFECTED RELATIVES, THE HIGHER YOUR CHANCES. TWO BROTHERS AND FATHER AND UNCLE. YOUR RISK AS HIGH AS 50 OR 60 PERCENT YOU WILL DEPUTY PROSTATE CANCER IN YOUR LIFETIME. THE OTHER MAJOR ONE, LIFESTYLE RELATED FACTORS, DIETARY FAT THAT SEEMS TO BE INCREASINGLY RENING NIZED AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PROSTATE CANCER.

MARY SAYS DIETARY FAT?

Neil says ABSOLUTELY. SO THOSE TRADITIONAL NORTH AMERICAN DIETS PARTICULARLY THOSE THAT WERE CONSUMED IN THE 70'S AND 80'S RBLTION SOME ODD 40 TO 45 PERCENT OF CALORIES WERE DERIVED FROM FAT, SEEM TO BE A BIG PLAYER.

MARY SAYS THAT'S INTERESTING. THERE IS SUCH AN INTEREST NOW IN DIETARY FACTORS IN OTHER CANCERS. YOU SAY SEEM TO BE. HOW STRONG IS THE EVIDENCE?

Neil says IT'S ACTUALLY QUITE STRONG FERMENT THE BIG PART OF OUR RESEARCH IS LOOKING AT DIET AND PROSTATE CANCER. IF YOU LOOK AT THE EVIDENCE IT'S QUITE CONSISTENT AND MUCH STRONGER THAN THE TRA DIGAL CANCER YOU MAY ASSOCIATE WITH DIETARY FAT INTAKE LIKE BREAST CANCER OR COLON CANCER. MUCH MORE CONSIST SKPENT STRONG FOR PROSTATE CANCER.

MARY SAYS THAT IS INTERESTING. IF YOU LOOK AT DIETS THEN, DOES IT ALSO RELATE TO CULTURE BECAUSE CERTAIN CULTURES MAY NEED MORE DIETARY FATS THAN OTHERS.

Neil says GREAT QUESTION. THERE ARE AREAS OF THE WORLD WHERE THERE'S VERY LITTLE PROSTATE CANCER PARTICULARLY IN ASIA AND CHINA AND JAPAN AND A LOT OF EFFORTS AND STUDY IS DONE ON JAPAN WITH VERY MODERN HAEMINGTS REGISTRYS AND CANCER DETECTION... HEALTH REGISTRIES AND CANCER DESECTION. THERE IS A MAJOR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PROSTATE CANCER PARTICULARLY IN JAPAN AND NORTH AMERICA. IN FACT, THE CHANCE OF DYING FROM PROS KATE CANCER IN JAPAN IS 1-20TH OF THAT IN NORTH AMERICA. IF YOU LOOK THEN AT THE QUESTION... IS THIS GENES OR ENVIRONMENT?

MARY SAYS RIGHT.

Neil says AND LOOK AT THE JAPANESE AMERICANS OR JAPANESE KA NAD DWRANS AND SURE ENOUGH, THEY VIRTUALLY GET THE SAME RIFBLING OF PROSTATE CANCER AS SORT OF NATIVE CANADIANS, IF YOU WILL. IN FACT, IT LTED APPEAR NOT GENES AND IT IS MUCH MORE LIKELY RELALTED TO SOMETHING IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND LIKELY DIET IS THE BIG PLAYER BECAUSE AS YOU MOVE DOWN THE GENERATIONS AND, YOU KNOW, SECOND GENERATION, THIRD GEN RAING ADOPTS THE MORE SORT OF, DOMESTIC DIETARY PATTERNS. YOU START TO SEE THE INCREASED RISK.

MARY SAYS I AM FASCINATED BY MIGRATION AND HOW DISEASE AFFECT CERTAIN CULTURES FERMENT DOES THAT USUALLY SHOER SHOW UP IN THE FIRST GENERATION OR THE SECOND GENERATION. HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE?

Neil says THAT IS A GOOD QUESTION. THE RISKS START TO GO UP AS RESIDING IN NORTH AMERICA FOR AS MUCH AS 11 YEARS. SO EVEN THE INDIVIDUALS THEMSELVES THAT IMMIGRATE, WHO IMMIGRATE WILL HAVE THIS. HAVING SAID THAT, BY GENERATION 2, IT'S ABOUT, YOU ARE ABOUT HALF OF THE RISK AND BY THE THIRD GENERATION, IT'S BASICALLY INDISTINGUISHABLE. SO IT REALLY SEEMS TO FOLLOW WHAT YOU WOULD EXPECT IN TERMS EVER CULTURAL PRACTICES.

MARY SAYS WHAT ABOUT TESTOSTERONE. DOES THAT PLAY A ROLE?

Neil says WE KNOW HISTORICALLY, UN ICH. NOT ANYMORE BUT CLAIMED DID NOT GET PROSTATE CANCER. SO CLEARLY NEED THE MALE HORMONE AS A CO FACTOR. HAVING SAID THAT, A LOT OF EMPHASIS ON RISK FACTORS FOR PROSTATE CANCER. THE OTHER ONE I DEFLECTED TO RISK WAS RACE. PEOPLE OF AFRICAN DESCENT HIGH RISK FOR PROSTATE CANCER AND ALSO ON AVERAGE MORE AGGRESSIVE CANCERS. WE DON'T KNOW IF THIS RELATES TO DIET BECAUSE THERE ARE DIFFERENT IAL DIETARY OR IF THIS IS GENETIC BUT SOME EVIDENCE FOR DIFFERENT, SUBTLE DIFFERENCE IN HORMONE METABOLISM BETWEEN KAUATIONS, ASIANS AND AFTER CAN PEOPLE.

Mary says SO, AFRICANS HAVE A HIGHER RISK...

Neil says AND A MORE AGGRESSIVE TYPE OF PROSTATE CANCER.

Mary says WHEN YOU SAY AFRICANS THOUGH, DO WE HAVE TO DIFFERENTIATE AFRICANS THAT ARE BORN HERE AND AFRICANS IN AFRICA.

Neil says AFRICANS IN AFRICA, WE THINK HAVE A VERY LOW RATE BUT IT IS PARTICULARLY THE NORTH AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN AFTER CANS. AND AGAIN, WE DON'T UNDERSTAND WHY THAT SEEMS TO BE. BUT IT MAY RELATE TO DIET. THIS HIGH DIETARY FAT INTAKT IN AFRICA.

MARY SAYS RIGHT. LET US REMIND OUR VIEWERS. THE SUBJECT IS PROSTATE CANCER. AND MY GUEST IS DR. NEIL. IF YOU HAVE QIS AT ALL REGARDING RESEARCH, TREATMENT, SCREENING, PERHAPS YOU ARE INTERESTED IN A PSA TEST. PERHAPS YOU HAVE BEEN TO SEE YOUR DOCTOR RECENTLY AND HAVE QUESTIONS. PLEASE GIVE US A CALL WITH ALL OF YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT PROSTATE CANCER. THE NUMBER IS...

A CAPTION READS "416-484-2727. 1-888-411-1234."

MARY CONTINUES WE'LL ALSO TAKE YOUR E-MAIL QUESTIONS AT...

THE CAPTION CHANGES TO "MORETOLIFE@TVO.ORG."

MARY CONTINUES YOU KNOW ACCIDENT I ENINGZED IN A JOKING WAY ABOUT ARCHIE BUNKER AND ANDY, THEY MISPRO TUS. PROSTRATE. DO YOU GET THAT.

Neil says MANY CALL IT A PROSTRATE. BUT IT IS PROSTATE. AND PROSTRATE BEING A PO ZUING.

Mary says IF YOU ARE TALKING TO A MAN ABOUT IT. DO THEY EVEN KNOW WHAT IT IS? OR WHERE IT IS?

Neil says PROBABLY NOT. I DENT THINK PEOPLE KNOW WHAT A PROSTATE IS. A PROSTATE GLAND IS A MALE REPRODUCTIVE GLAND. TYPICALLY THE SIZE OF A WALNUT. AND THEN AS... IT SITS AROUND THE URETHA, THEURENARY PASSAGE WAY BETWEEN THE BLADDER AND THE OUTSIDE WORLD AND IT SITS UNDERNEATH THE BLADDER.

A CROSS-SECTION DIAGRAM OF THE MALE HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM APPEARS ON SCREEN. IT HIGHLIGHTS THE LOCATION OF THE BLADDER, THE PROSTATE AND THE URETHRA.

NEIL CONTINUES SO, IT IS MAIN FUNK, SO YOU CAN SEE IT THERE. AGAIN, UNDERNEATH THE URNARY BLADDER AND SURROUNDS ALMOST LIKE A DONUT, IF YOU WILL, THE CANAL. SO THE URINE HAS TO PASS THROUGH THE PROSTATE IN ORDER TO MAKE IT OUTSIDE. NOW THE PROSTATE HAS REALLY TWO MAJOR FUNCTIONS. ONE IS THAT IT SECRETES A FLUID, PROSTATE FLUID THAT HELPS SPERM TRAVEL FASTER. THAT'S WHY IT IS A MALE REPRODUCTIVE GLAND. AND SO IT DOES HELP IN THE REPRODUCTIVE PROCESS. AND THE OTHER MAJOR FUNCTION AS AN ANTIBACTERIA, ANTIINFECTIVE. IT DOES SECRETE CERTAIN CHEMICALS THAT SEEM TO PROTECT THE BLADDER IN PARTICULAR FROM THE OUTSIDE WORLD TO INFECTION. SO IT HAS A DEFENSE ORGAN AS WELL.

MARY SAYS THAT'S INTERESTING. CAN I ASK YOU SOMETHING THERE? IF IT AS AN ANTIBACTERIA FUNCTION, DOES THAT MEN MEN DON'T SUFFER FROM BLADDER INFEKS VERY AUFERN.

Neil says ABSOLUTELY RIGHT.

Mary says WOMEN DO. SO WE DON'T HAVE ANYTHING LIKE THAT.

Neil says CORRECT. URENARY TRACT INFECTION IN WOMEN ARE A COMMON PROBLEM AND ARE ACTUALLY QUITE RARE AND IF MALES HAVE URNARY TRACT IB INFECTIONS AUFERN IT IS AN INDICATION OF SOME SORT OF AN TOM KAL PROBLEM AS OPPOSED TO WOMEN WHERE IT IS JUST A FUNKAL PROBLEM.

Mary says I WONDER WHY THAT HAPPENED.

Neil says YOU WILL HAVE TO ASK A HIGHER ORDER ABOUT THAT.

MARY SAYS THAT IS VERY CURIOUS THOUGH. AND WHAT ABOUT AS FAR AS, YOU KNOW, MEN GETTING CHECKED.

Neil says THERE IS A LOT OF CONTROVERSY ABOUT GETTING CHECKED. SO IN GENERAL, I THINK IT IS IMPORTANT TO REALIZE THAT THERE ARE SORT OF THREE MAJOR CONDITIONS THAT AFFECT THE PROSTATE. THERE'S INFLAMMATION OF THE PROSTATE. THERE'S PROSTATE CANCER, OF COURSE. AND THE MOST COMMON IS BENIGN PROS THET IB HYPER PLA SIA. NONCANCER ENLARGEMENT, JUST GRAY HAIR AND WRINKLES. EVERYONE GETS IT BUT SOME GET MORE THAN OTHERS. AND THAT TENDS TO MAN FFT FEST AS URNARY PROBLEMS. MEN START TO NOTICE IT TAKES AWHILE TO GET THE STREAM STARTED OR UP AT NIGHT OR GOING TO THE BATHROOM MORE FREQUENTLY. TYPICAL SYMPTOM OF A MAN ENTERING 50'S, 60'S AND 70'S. THAT ALMOST ALWAYS A SYMPTOM OF BENIGN ENLARGEMENT. NOW, MEN NEED TO GET CHECKED, MORE AND MORE EVIDENCES IS INDICATING THAT THE EARLIER WE FIND PROSTATE CANCERS, THE MORE CURABLE THEY ARE. SO IT'S NOT REASONABLE OR RATIONAL TO WAY WAIT FOR SYMPTOMS AND THAT'S...

Mary says WHAT ARE SYMPTOMS?

Neil says THERE REALLY ARE NONE AM THE SYMPTOMS ARE TYPICALLY TALKED ABOUT THEEN BARGEDEN LARGED PRS TAT. IF YOU HAVE A PROSTATE CANCER CAUSING THOSE SYMPTOM ITS TENDS TO BE QUITE AN ADVANED. SO THE VAST MAJORITY OF TIME, PROSTATE CANCER IS A SYMPTOM ATTIC DISEASE. SO IF YOU LOOK AT IN THE PICTURE BEING SHOWN, THE NORMAL PROSTATE YOU CAN SEE SURROUNDS THE URETHA AND WHEN IT IS CANCER, THE NODULES IN THE PROSTATE AND YOU CAN SEE THAT JUST BEHIND THE PROSTATE TO THE RIGHT ON THE PICTURE, IS THE RECTUM. AND IT IS BY PUTTING A FINGER IN THE RECTUM BY YOUR DOCTOR AND EXAMINING THE PROSTATE, YOU CAN DETECT LUMPS OR BUMP OS THE PROSTATE THAT HAS BEEN HISTORICAL TEST FOR PROSTATE CANCER UP UNTIL THE EARLY 1990'S WHEN THE PSA TEST CAME INTO PLAY. NOW THE PROBLEM WITH THE FINGER TEST AND EVERYONE SHOULD HAVE IT DONE PROBABLY STARTING AFTER AGE 40 IS THAT, IN MOST OF THOSE CASES WHEN WE ONLY HAD THE FINGER TEST, ABOUT 2 THIRDS OF CASES WERE INCURABLE WHEN WE FOUND THEM. AND THAT'S VERY DIFFERENT COMPARED TO THE STATISTICS TODAY.

A DIAGRAM COMPARES A NORMAL PROSTATE WITH A CASE OF PROSTATE CANCER, WHERE THE PROSTATE IS ENLARGED AND DEFORMED.

MARY SAYS LET'S GO TO AN E-MAIL. WE HAVE AN E-MAIL FROM FRANK.

TEXT POPS UP ON SCREEN THAT READS "I JUST RECENTLY HAD A POSITIVE PSA TEST. OTHERWISE I'M A COMPLETELY HEALTHY 68-YEAR-OLD. WHAT ARE MY TREATMENT OPTIONS? FRANK, BROCKVILLE."

Neil says WELL, FIRST OF ALL, IMPORTANT THING FOR FRANK TO KNOW IS HAVING A POSITIVE PSA DOES NOT MEAN HE HAS CANCER. I MEAN, IT JUST RAISES A FLAG. AND LIKE I ELUDED TO. SOMETIMES THE BENIGN ENLARGEMENT OF THE PROSTATE CAN RAISE PSA LEVELS AND SO CAN INFEKS OR INFLAMMATION OF THE PROSTATE. THERE ARE MANY CAUSES FOR ELEVATED, ONLY WITH WHICH OF ONE IS CANCER. THE NEXT STEP IS DEEMED ABNORMAL IS A PROSTATE BIOPSY. THAT'S WHERE AN RAULT SOUND PROBE IS PUT THROUGH THE REKT SKPUM THROUGH THE PROBE, SIX TO 12 LITTLE NEEDLE SAMPLES ARE TAKEN OF TISSUE FROM THE PROSTATE THAT'S LOOKED UNDER A MICROSCOPE BY A POINGT OL GIST AND HE OR SHE WILL SAY YOU HAVE CANCER OR NOT FERMENT AND IF HE DOES HAVE CANCER, AND AGAIN, THIS WOULD STILL REPRESENT THE MI NORTH OF PATIENTS WITH A HIGH PSA. THEN, ONE WOULD HAVE TO CHOOSE A TREATMENT PATH AND THIS GETS VERY COMPLICATED BECAUSE, AGAIN, THERE ARE FACTORS RELATED TO BOTH THE DISEASE AND RELATED TO THE PATIENT HIMSELF. SO LET ME JUST GO THROUGH THAT. YOU HAVE TO KNOW ABOUT THE PATIENT'S GENERAL HEALTH. ARE THEY PERFECTLY HEALTHY? HAVE THEY HAD STROKES AND HEART ATTACK SNS WHAT YOU WANT TO GAUGE IS WHAT YOU THINK THE 15 YEAR LIFE EXPECTANCY IS. THAT A IMPORTANT BECAUSE EVEN THOUGH THE CANCERS ARE SLOW GROWING, MOST WENT HARM YOU FROM 12 TO 20 YEARS SO GET AN IDEA THAT A PATIENT IS GOING LIVE THAT LONG BEFORE ONE RECOMMENDS A PARTICULAR TREATMENT PLAN.

MARY SAYS RIGHT.

Neil says NEXT THING IS THE DISEASE FACTORS. AS HE HAS THE TISSUE REMOVED, LOOKED ADD URPD THE MICROSCOPE AND IF LOOKED AT UNDER THE CANCER, ASSIGNS A SCORING. HOW AGREASEIVE IT LOOKS UNDERSTAND THE MIKE SOAP. THE MORE WARRANT A DIFFERENT TYPE OF TREATMENT THAN THOSE THAT MAY BE LET'S AGGRESSIVE. WE WATCHED... WATCHFUL WAITING. SNOOLT THAT A TYPICALLY FOR THE SLOWEST GROWING CANCERS FOUND EARLY IN OTHERWISE OLDER OR ILL PATIENTS, BECAUSE, THAEN, THEY MAY ESCENT IALLY DIE BEFORE THE CANCER IS TO HARM THEM NOOCHLT AND THE THEN THE SECOND TREATMENT WHICH IS THE CURATIVE TRIP TREATMENT WOULD BE SURGERY, RADICAL... OR RADIATION THAT CAN BE GIVEN BY C TREATMENTS, THE BRKRHY AND LASTLY FOR THE MORE ADVANCED DOISS, WE TALK ABOUT HORMONE THERAPY. WITH DRAWING THE TESTOSTERONE IN THE BODY THAT CAN CAUSE THE MAJORITY OF CANCER CELLS TO SHRIVEL UP AND DIE.

Mary says THIS IS SOMETHING I AM CONFUSE BODY HERE. THE PRBLTION SSA KNOWN AS A CANCER SCREENING TEST, RIGHT? BUT, YOU SIDES THAT THE MINORITY OF CASES THAT COME BACK POSITIVE ARE ACTUALLY CANCER.

Neil says RIGHT.

MARY SAYS DOES THAT...

Neil says WELL, I MEAN, I THINK IF YOU LOOK AT AB NOMAL MAMMOGRAMS FOR BREAST KAERNS. IT MAY NOT BE THE SAME. IT MAY REPRESENT OTHER TYPE OF LEASE IONS OR FALSE POSITIVES. SO, SO IN MANY CASES, SCREENING TESTS ARE ONLY A SCREEN, THAT'S WHAT THEY ARE. SO THEY REPRESENT ONE LEVEL OF A FILTER TO TRY TO SORT OUT WHO IS AT RISK OR NOT.

MARY SAYS BUT IF IT COMES BACK POSITIVE. ALL OF THOSE PEOPLE HAVE TO GO ON TO GET BIOPPOSITE ES ANYWAY, RIGHT.

Neil says BUT REALLY IT IS A SMALL MINORITY. IF YOU ADMINISTERED 100 PSA TO PEOPLE AT 60 IN THE STREET, ONLY THREE OR FOUR OR MAYBE 8 WOULD HAVE A HIGH PSA AND SCREEN OUT THE OTHER 92 PATIENTS NOT AT RISK.

MARY SAYS YOU WOULD YOU SAY EFFICIENT TOOL?

Neil says ABSOLUTELY. THE BEST CANCER DIAGNOSEEST TEST.

Mary says WHY SO MUCH DEBATE ABOUT PSA?

Neil says THE DEBATE DOESN'T NECESSARILY REVOLVE AROUND THE TEST CHARACTERISTIC. I THINK THE PHILOSOPHICAL DEBATE, THE POTENTIAL TO OVERDETECT AND OVERTREAT. SO RBLTION FOR EXAMPLE, IF A MALE IS OTHERWISE DEFT RINED TO DIE AT SAGE FIF AND WE FOUND AT AGE 68 AND NEVER NEEDED TO BE TREATED. WE HAVE IDENTIFIED THIS PERSON EARLIER. WILL... AND NOW CANCER. AND HE MAY UNDER GO AN UNNECESSARY PROCEDURE. FRIDAY WHETHER IT IS SURGERY, RAID QAING AND OF COURSE THE ANXIETY AND COST TO SOCIETY AND INDIVIDUAL COST TO SOCIETY ASSOCIATE WIDE UL ALL OF THAT. THERE IS A POTENTIAL BECAUSE IT IS SUCH A IN DISEASE TO OVER TREAT AND... OVER DETECT. THE WONL WAY YOU CAN KNOW IF THE PSA WORKS, HALF GET THE PSA AND HALF DON'T AND SEE IF MORE DIED FROM PROS KATE CANCER AT END. NOW GIVEN THE NATURAL HISTORY OF PROSTATE CANCER. THAT WILL TAKE A GENERATION TO COMPLETE.

MARY SAYS THAT HADN'T BEEN DONE? IT HAS BEEN DONE WITH MAMMOGRAMS?

Neil says THAT WAS A KMOL DIFFERENT CONTEXT. AND TR'S NEW DEBATE ABOUT MAMMOGRAPHY.

MARY SAYS YES, YES.

Neil says I THINK THE EVIDENT IS POFERNT AMS SNA... FINDS THEM AT AN EARLY STAGE WHEN CURABLE AND TREAT ANNUAL. WE ARE HAVING LESS DEATHS FROM PROS KATE CANCER. IF DEATHS ARE QUITE PLUMMETING FROM... THAT IS A QUESTION MARK. WE STILL DENT IF IF GREDY CUTS THE DRATS.

Mary says WE SOLE DIN UPON TO THE HIGHEST GREE OF EVIDENT.

Neil says FOR SPACH AND THE UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF PROS TAET CANCER MAY MAKE THIS NOT DOING TMENT THE STUDIES ARE UNDERWAY. HOW MANY MEN WOULD BE WILLING TO ACCEPT TO BE AND OMIZED TO FOT GET A PSA OR SNEAK OFFER AND GET IT ON THE SIDE.

Mary says THERE'S THE WHOLE ETHICAL SIDED TO THIS.

Neil says AND EVERYTHING'S POINTING THAT WAY. BUT FERK THE REAL PURISTS WOULD SAY, THAT'S STILL NOT ENOUGH PROOF, SKBRUFT BECAUSE OUR DIETS ARE GETTING BETTER OR TAKING MORE VITAMINS OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT.

Mary says THAT'S DIFFICULT. LET'S TAKE ANOTHER CALL HERE. WE HAVE BRYAN ON THE LINE FROM BRACHL TON. HI. GO AHEAD.

The caller SAYS MY QUESTION IS, 25 PERCENT OF THE PROSTATE DIAGNOSIS WILL DIE, IS THIS BECAUSE OF THE FACT THAT THEY ARE LATE? NEGLECTED TO HAVE REGULAR PHYSICALS TO DETECT IT?

Neil says THAT IS A VERY GOOD QUESTION. 25 PERCENT HISTORICALLY DIE FROM ONE OR TWO REASONS. ONE BECAUSE THE DISEASE IS DIAGNOSED TOO LATE, MEANING, AGAIN, THE FINGER TESTS HISTORICALLY DOES NOT PICK UP CANCERS AT AN EARLY STAGE. SEE THERE ARE STILL PEOPLE THAT DON'T GET THE PSA TEST AND STILL PRESENT WITH INCURABLE BECAUSE IT IS TOO LATE. ALSO PATIENTS WITH SMALL CANCER DETECTED EARLY BUT THE BIOLOGY EVER THEM IS SO AGGRESSIVE THAT EVEN THROUGH THE BEST SORT OF MOST AGGRESSIVE SURGERY RADIATION, SOMETIMES BOTH IN COMBINATION, WE STILL JUST CAN'T PULL IT OFF. AND THERE A SMALL SUBSET OF PATIENTS THAT HAVE JUST BIOLOGICALLY VERY AGGRESSIVE CANCERSS.

Mary says NOW, A MAN WANTED TO GET A PSA TEST, RIGHT? HE HAS TO PAY FOR IT, DOESN'T HE?

Neil says HE DOES. THIS CONTINUES TO BE A DEBATE. AGAIN, IT RELATES TO SOME OF THE CONTROVERSIES WE TALKED ABOUT. BUT, AGAIN. IT CAN BE A DOUBLE EDGE SPORT. YOU MAY PICK UP A CANCER THAT WON'T HARM YOU AND IT IS IMPORTANT FOR TOUS VERY RESPONSIBLY USE PRA SYSTEM A SIGHTINGS N. MY VIEW. THEEST... AND AT AGE 75, STOP DOING IT. MORE LIKELY TO FIND SOMETHING THAT WILL NOT HARM SOMEONE. I DON'T THINK AN 80 YEAR OLD MAN SHOULD REALLY BE GOING OUT AND HAVING A PRA. BECAUSE THEN YOU ARE RUNNING HIM THROUGH A KAS SADE OF DIAGNOSIS TESTS AND DEZUING SAYS THAT YOU DON'T EVEN NEED...

Mary says HI GEORGE. GO AHEAD.

The caller SAYS I WOULD LIKE TO ASK THE DOCTOR A QUESTION. I AM A 72 YEAR OLD MALE AND IN 98 I HAD MY PROSTATE CLEANED OUT AND I WAS PERFECT FOR TWO YEARS. MY UR NATION WAS PERFECT. AFTER TWO YEARS IT STARTED SLOWING DOWN ACCIDENT SLOWING DOWN, ALL OF A SUDDEN, I COULD HARDLY UR NAT. SO THE DOCTOR PUT ME ON PILL, NEITHER KIND WORKED FOR ME. SO THEN I WENT BACK LAST APRIL AND HE MADE AN INCISION IN MY BLADDER. THAT WAS GOOD FOR A COUPLE OF MONTHS. THEN I HAD, AGAIN, I HAD TO PUT THE CASTER ON. NOW I AM ALMOST... JUST A WEEK AGO TODAY. MY LOCAL FAMILY PHYSICIAN SENT ME TO A DOCTOR IN LONDON AND HE CHECKED ME OUT AND TUESDAY IS ALL FINE BUT WANTS TO CHECK MY BLADDER. WELL, MY LOCAL UR OL GIST TOLD ME MY BLADDER IS SLOW AND WEAK. SO I WONDER IF THE DOCTOR GOT ANY IDEA IF THAT CAN BE FIXED.

Neil says RIGHT. SO WHAT THE CALLER IS REFERING TO BASED ON WHAT CAN I TELL IS NOT A CANCER PROBLEM. IT'S A BENIGN PROBLEM WHERE HE HAD HAD A SCRAPING OF THE PROSTATE DONE TO RELIEVE SOME OF THE BLOCKAGE AND MAYBE GOT SCAR TISSUE AFTER WARDS AND CONTINUES TO HAVE URNARY PROBLEMS. SO THIS REALLY IS NOT A PROSTATE CANCER ISSUE.

MARY SAYS IS THIS A COMMON THING TO GET IT SCRAPED.

Neil says IT WAS MUCH MORE COMMON. NOW WE HAVE MEDICATIONS TO TRY TO HELP WITH THEM. BUT, AGAIN, THIS IS NOT A PROSTATE CANCER PROBLEM.

Mary says WHAT ABOUT EARLY TREATMENT? IS THERE EVIDENCE, GOOD EVIDENCE THAT EARLY TREATMENTS SAVES LIVES?

Neil says OKAY. GREAT QUESTION. IFY WERE SITTING HERE SEARCH MONTHS AGO ACCIDENT I WOULD SAY NOT YET. THERE HAS BEEN A DRA MAT IBLING DEVELOPMENT IN ALL OF THIS. THOSE THAT HAVE BEEN MUND ENTS FOR THIS DISEASE VTS TREATMENT... THAT YOU COMPARED NO TREATMENT TO TREATMENT. BUT ACTUALLY IN SEPTEMBER 12TH OF LAST YEAR, IN 2002 AM... DID NOT TREAT PROSTATE CANCER AGGRESSIVELY AND IN THAT STUDY THEY HAD ABOUT 700 MEN, THAFL WHO RECEIVED... AND THE WATCHFUL AND WAITING...

Mary says THAT BEING SURGERY.

Neil says RIGHT. AND FOR THE FIRST TIME EVER, THIS PROVED WHAT WE ALL BELIEVED BUT IT PROVED THAT, INDEEDS THE CHANCE OF DYING FROM PROSTATE CANCER WAS LESS HAD YOU ELECTED FOR SURGERY. AND SECONDLY, THE CHANCE EVER HAVING DISEASE SPREAD TO THE BONES WAS LESS. NOW THIS SPRIT DOESN'T OCCUR UNTIL 6 YEARS AFTER DIAGRICULTURE NOSE IS. WHICH IS WHAT YOU WOULD EXPECT.

Mary says SIX YEAR, FERMENT, IS THAT LONG ENOUGH?

Neil says NO, WE NEED LONGER. I SUS PIKT AS TIME GOES OVER 8 AND 10 YEARS AND THE DATA ARE UPDATED. WE WILL SEE A BIG. THAT WAS A... THE GODFATHER OF UR LOGICAL CANCER HAD A FAMOUS STATEMENT, IS CURE POSSIBLE FOR THOSE IN WHOM IT IS NECESSARY? AND WE NOW KNOW THAT THE ANSWER IS YES. WE CAN SAVE LIVES BY DOING RED RADICAL... AND IN ORDER TO DO THIS, YOU HAVE TO BE ANL TO FIND THE CANCERS. SO IT WOULD MAKE A CASE FOR EARLY DETECH AS WELL.

Mary says I THOUGHT THERE WAS A VERY INTERESTING TWIST TO THIS STUDY BECAUSE WHEN THEY LOOKED AT THE ALL OVERALL SURVIVAL RATES THERE WAS REALLY NO DIFFERENCE.

Neil says AGAIN, THAT'S NOT SURPRISING. BECAUSE ONLY A SMALL PROPORTION HAVE ACTUALLY DIED IN BOTH GROUPS. BUT IT... WHAT IS REALLY INTERESTING. IF YOU LOOK AT THE ME TAFT EES SURVIVAL. A HUGE DIFFERENCE. 18 PERCENT RAW DIFFERENCE IN THE SURVIVAL. WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?

MARY SAYS I AM GLAD YOU ASKED.

Neil says ONCE YOU HAVE DISEASE IN THE BONES OF PROSTATE CANCER. IT IS INCURABLE. ALL MEN WILL DIE IN TWO TO THREE YEARS. SO ONCE THOSE DATA MATURE ANOTHER TWO TO THREE YEARS, CLEARLY AN OVER OVERALL SURVIVAL DIFFERENCE AS WELL. THOSE MEN WITH DISEASE IN THEIR BONES WHO DED NOT HAVE THE... THOSE... SNAREY...

Mary says EXTENDED LONGER.

Neil says LOOK A LITTLE BIT LONGER. MOST OF US HAVE NO DOUBT THERE IS WILL BE DIFFERENCE.

Mary says I HOPE SO.

Neil says BECAUSE THIS IS TOO GOOD. WHEN A LOOKED AT IT RBLTION I ABOUT ABOUT U BASED ON THOSE STATISTICS YOU WILL STILL DIE ANY WAY FROM SOMETHING ELSE. A SMALL PROPORTION DIE. IT IS STILL TOO SMALL. GIVE IT A FEW MORE YEARS.

Mary says LET'S TALK ABOUT TREATMENTS. BRACH THERAPY. WHAT IS HAPPENING WITH THAT.

A blurry black and white picture appears in which gloved hands press multiple needle-like objects against human skin.

Neil says ONE WAY OF DELIVERING RADIATION THERAPY WHERE SEEDS, RADIO ACTIVE PALETTES ARE IMPANT SPOD THE PLOT CANS... AND SO WHAT YOU ARE SEE TLING, JUST TO ORIENT YOU IS A MALE PATIENT IS SORT OF SITTING FROG LEG, SPREAD LEG EL. LYING FLAT ON THE TABLE AND WHAT YOU SEE THARX BLACK SQUARE A TEMP PLATE, UP AGAINST THE... THE SPACE BETWEEN THE SCROT UM AND THE ANUS. SO IT IS BEING COVERED BY THE TOWEL WITH THE SURGEON'S LEFT HAND AND THE ANUS DOWN BELOW. WHAT IS HAPPEN SUGGEST THESE RADIO ACTIVE PELLETS ARE BEING PLACE THE THROUGH THE SKIN DIRECTLY INTO THE PROSTATE, USUALLY WITH AN ULTRASOUND IN THE RECTUM TO, YOU KNOW GUIDE ALL OF THIS. AND THEN THE RIDE EGG TREATMENT IS DELIVERED THAT WAY. THAT'S HOW THE THERAPY IS DELIVERED. SO IT'S JUST ANOTHER WAY OF GIVING BRACHN THERAPY.

Another picture appears showing white spots under a white butterfly-shaped object against black.

Neil continues HERE'S A PICTURE. THE CT SCAN SHOWING THE SEEDS DEPOSITS IN THE PROSTATE AND THE PROS KITE TAT BEING THAT ROUNDISH ORGAN. SO YOU CAN SEE THE OUTLINE BY LOOKING AT THE SHAPE OF THE SEEDS THEMSELVES. SO THAT'S TYPICALLY ONE WAY OF GIVING RAID YAING. WHEN'S HAPPENING WITH IT. I THINK, ASSUMED VERY NICE SORT OF ROLE. GOOD RISK PROSTATE CANCERS, SO, EARLY DETECTION AND SLOWER GROWING. AND IT HAS BECOME A STANDARD TRIP OF TREATMENT THAT WE ALSO OPERATE IN PATIENTS AND AND WE HAVE RECENT REE COMMENCED A RANDOMIZED TRIAL COMPARING SURGERY TO BRACHY THERAPY AND IT HAS BEEN VERYFUL...

Mary says ARE THERE LESS SIDE EFFECTS WITH THE BRACHY THERAPY.

Neil says WE DENT REALLY UNDERSTAND KNOW FERMENT IT TESTIMONY FIRST CAME ON THE HORIZON. NOW QUITE A BIT OF EXPERIENCE WITH IT. WE'RE LEARNING THAT THE SIDE EFFECTS MAY NOT BE THAT DIFFERENT THAN SURGERY. IT'S JUST THAT THE... IT'S A DIFFERENT SYMPTOM COMPLEX, IF YOU WILL, THE SYMPTOMS AFTERWARDS ARE SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT FROM SURGERY OR EXTERNAL BUT THEY'RE QUITE COMPARABLE AND ONE OF THE GOALS IS TO COMPARE THE SYMPTOMS AS L. I THINK THE REAL BENEFIT RIGHT NOW OVER AND ABOVE THE THERAPY IS THE FACT THAT IT IS DONE IN ONE DAY AS OPPOSED TO 42 TREATMENTS THAT YOU WOULD NEED FOR EXTERNAL TREATMENTS AND COME BACK TO THE HOSPITAL EVERY DAY FOR EIGHT WEEKS.

Mary says RIGHT. THOSE PELLETS, RIGHT. THERE COULD BE UP TO 100. IS THAT RIGHT?

Neil says SOMETIMES 120, AS HIGH AS THAT.

MARY SAYS WHAT HAPPENS TO THEM.

Neil says THEY DECAY BECAUSE THEY'RE RADIO ACTIVE SOURCES SO OVER ABOUT A YEAR, THEY WILL HAVE NO MORE RADIO ACTIVE AT ALL AND THEY JUST SORT OF SIT THERE.

MARY SAYS HARM MANSLAUGHTER?

Neil says HARMLESS AS FAR AS WE KNOW.

MARY SAYS LET'S TAKE ANOTHER CALL. GAR Z ON THE LINE FROM LONDON. HI. GO AHEAD.

The caller says YES, I HAVE TWO QUESTIONS. I JUST WANTED TO KNOW IF TAKING THE HERBAL REMEDY IS OF ANY VALUE? AND THE SECOND ONE IS, I HAVE A FRIEND THAT HAD HIS PROS DATE REMOVED FIVE KBREERS AGO AND STILL IN THE 10'S. ARE YOU NEVER ABLE TO HOLD YOUR WATER WORKS AGAIN? THAT'S IT.

Neil says GOOD QUESTION. LET ME FIRST TALK ABOUT... AN HERBAL BLEND FERMENT IT'S BEEN USE BIDE THE INDIANS AND FLORIDA AND SOUTHERN GEORGIA FOR 400 YEARS TO TREAT URNARY PROBLEMS AND IT HAS NOW BEEN PRUFERN TO ACTUALLY HAVE A BENEFICIAL ROLE IN BENIGN PROSTATE ENLARGEMENT SO IT DEFINITELY DOES RELIEVE THE SYMPTOMS WITH BENIGN PROSTATE. NO EVIDENCE WHAT SO EVER THAT IT IS BENEFICIAL OR PREVENTS OR AUGMENTING THE TREATMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER. SO. IT MAY HAVE A ROLL IN CERTAIN PATIENTS. WHO HAVEEN TARNLED BUT NOT FOR CANCER. THE ONLY OTHER THING, BUYER BEWARE, PUBLISHED ABOUT A YEAR AGO, WHERE WE WENT OUT AND PURCHASED IN THE STORES AND HAD IT INDEPENDENTLY ANALYZED AND THREE OF SEARCH ACTUALLY CONTAINED NONE WHAT SO EVER. SO YOU HAVE TO BE CAREFUL ABOUT THAT. AND IN TERMS OF COMPLICATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH RADICAL PROS. URNARY INCONTINENT IS ONE OF THEM. WE CONTINUE TO GET BETTER AT THIS BUT ESSENTIALLY IT SHOULD ONLY BE 6 TO SEARCH PERCENT OF MEN HAVE SIGNIFICANT URNARY PROBLEMS AFTER A SURGERY FOR PROSTATE CANCER. EITHER THERE WERE SOME EXTENT YATING ZURKS OR WOFERN THOSE UNFORTUNATE SIX OR SEARCH PERCENTS THAT HAVE A PROBLEM. THERE IS TREATMENT AABLE AND SFRU... AND...

Mary says THERE ARE MANY MEN THAT ARE FEARFUL ABOUT SURGERY OR BRACHY THERAPY BECAUSE OF THE SIDE EFFECTS. WHALD BE THE MAJOR ONES BE.

Neil says I THINK... WE CONTINUE TO GET BETTER AT THIS AND IN YOUNG PATIENTS COMING WHO ARE... WHO ARE MIF NOTHING TO THE OPERATION, IF WE ELECT SURGERY ABOUT 50 TO 60 PERCENT CAN HAVE PRESERVED ELECTS. - AND A DIFFERENT PATTERN. YOU ARE USUALLY FIND FOR THE FIRST TWO OR THREE OR FOUR YEARS AND THEN THE PROBLEM SETS IN AS OPPOSED TO SURGERY WHERE YOU WILL HAVE NOTHING FOR THE FIRST SIX TO TWEFERL MINUTE MONTHS AND THEN IT MAY COME BACK. YOU HAVE A DIFFERENT PATTERN OF ERECT AISLE DYSFUNCTION BUT THAT IS A BIG ONE. I MEAN, IT'S IMPORTANT TO KNOW THOUGH WHETHER YOU HAVE SURGERY OR RADIATION, THERE ARE TREATMENTS AVAILABLE WHETHER IT IS VIAGRA, SHOTS, PELLETS, I MEAN, THERE ARE TREATMENTS. BUT, IT IS THE NATURAL EREK, IF YOU WILL, THAT MAY BE LOST.

MARY SAYS SO THAT'S INTERESTING. SO LET'S SAY USING TREATMENT. WHAT PERCENTAGE OF MEN WOULD BE TOTALLY IMPOTENT?

Neil says VIRTUALLY NONE. WE CAN VIRTUALLY GUARANTEE AN ERECTION FOR ALMOST ANY MALE. THE QUESTION IS HOW FAR DO YOU WANT TO GO? SOME MEN HAVE, YOU KNOW... WOMEN ARE ADVERSE TO A LOT OF THESE, YOU KNOW,AL TERN TIFER TREATMENTS.

MARY SAYS DO YOU EVER HAVE MEN THAT GIVEN THE CHOICE PREFER TO DO SOMETHING NOTHING.

Neil says YES.

Mary says BECAUSE THEY ARE SO CONCERNED.

Neil says ABSOLUTELY. WE SEE THAT WITH SOME MEN, PARTICULARLY WHEN YOU HAVE A DISEASE THAT MAY NOT HARM THEM FOR 12 OR 20 YEARS FERMENT YOUNG VERY ACTIVE PATIENTS AND SUCH AN IMPORTANT PART OF THEIR LIFE. THEY DON'T WANT TO... THEY'LL TAKE THEIR CHABSS, IF YOU WILL. AND AGAIN, WE'RE LUCK THAE WE HAVE A TEST TO MONITOR THEM AND WE CAN AT LEAST HELP THEM AS LONG AS THAT IS THEIR CHOICE. AND BUT, YOU KNOW, OVER TIME, MANY OF THOSE PATIENTS, READ AND SURE ENOUGH ABOUT ONE IN THREE OF THEM OVER A YEAR OR TWO THE SAY ENOUGH AND IT IS TIME TO TREAT.

MARY SAYS LET'S TAKE A LOOK AT ANOTHER E-MAIL HERE FROM DAVID

A question reads "Is there any indication that North Americans living in maritime regions, who also have a higher proportion of fish and seafood in their diets, have a lower risk of developing cancer? David, Sault Ste. Marie."

Mary says GOOD QUESTION.

Neil says IF YOU LOOK AT THE RATES WITHIN CANADA, IT DOES NOT APPEAR TO BE A DIFFERENCE. I SUSPECT BECAUSE HAVING BEEN OUT EAST MYSELF MANY TIMES, MOST OF THE FISH IS FRIED.

MARY SAYS THERE'S YOUR FATS RIGHT THERE.

Neil says AND SO, THERE'S NO EVIDENCE THAT I AM AWARE OF TO MY, YOU KNOW, ACROSS CANADA INCIDENCES ARE ABOUT THE SAME. WHEN YOU ADGIST DIFFERENT FOR AGE AND RACE.

Mary says AND WHAT ABOUT FISH AND SEA FOOD.

Neil says SOME EVIDENCE THAT FISH EATERS ARE RELATIVELY PROTECTED. WE DON'T KNOW IF THIS RELATES TO THINGS LIKE VITAMIN D WHICH IS THERE'S SOME FDZ FOR VITAMIN D, FOUND PARTICULARLY IN FATTY TYPE FRBS. OF COURSE THAT'S BEFORE MILK WAS FORT FIED WITH VITAMIN D. THERE'S EVIDENCE THAT THE OME GA 3'S MAY HAVE BENEFIT, NOT GREAT FERMENT SO, YOU KNOW, IF YOU WEET A LOT OF FISH, TAKES AWAY THE OPPORTUNITY TO EAT FAT AS A PROTEIN OR AS A SOURCE. SO, THERE'S NOT THE STRONG EVIDENCE FOR FISH AS A PROTECTIVE AGENT THE WAY WE HAVE AS FAT.

Mary says I WANTED TO BRING UP OTHER SUPPLEMENTS. THE EARLIER PHONE CALL BROUGHT UP ONE SUPPLEMENT. ONE BOTTOM RLINGT ONES TVITAMIN E. Z LELEMIUM. IN ERMS... OR AUGMENT ORS COMP TIMENTS TOCHLT TRA DIGAL TREATMENT.

Neil says THERE IS NOW QUITE COM PETTING EVIDENCE THAT ANTIAND OTHER TOMATO PRODUCT MAY PREVENT... OR SLOW THE GROWTH OF PROSTATE CANCER. SO JUST TO GIVE YOU BACKGROUND. THERE WAS ONE STUDY DONE IN FINLAND IN THE 1990'S, EARLY 90'S, WHERE THEY HAD 20,000 MEN, A BETACAROT ENT BILL OR A PLACEBO OR TWO PLACEBOS.

Mary says OKAY.

Neil says THEY WERE TRYING TO PREVENT LUNG CANCER AND IT DIDN'T WORK. DIDN'T PREVENT LUNG CANCER BUT MEN RANDOMLY ALLOCATED TO VITAMIN E. ONE THIRD LESS CHANCE OF GETTING PROSTATE CANCER IN FOUR YEARS AND A 40 PERCENT LESS CHANCE OF DYING FROM PROSTATE CANCER IN SIX YEARS. QUITE COMPELLING EVIDENCE BECAUSE FROM A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL, THE GELD STANDARD IN MET KAL INTREPING STUDIES. SO THIS ZUM LARP STUDY OX KURED WITH CELINE AND SKIN KAERNS AND TRYING TO PREVENT SECONDER SKIN CANCER AND A DRAMATIC REDUCTION IN PROSTATE CANCER. IT IS A NUTRIENT IN THE SOIL OF MOST CANADA BEING A LOW AREA. AND MORE TROPICAL CLIMATE AND HAD'S INTERESTING ABOUT THIS IS VITAMIN E, THESE TWO STUDIES ARE SO COMPELLING THAT THIS HAS LEAD TO A CURRENT STUDY, THE SELECT TRIAL. WHICH IS A STUDY IN 32,000400 MEN TRYING TO PREVENT PRS TAT CANCER USING VITAMIN E AND A 200 MILLION STUDY.

Mary says ARE YOU INVOLVE WIDE THIS?

Neil says VERY MUCH SO.

Mary says WHAT'S HAPPENING. TELL ME ABOUT IT.

Neil says WE NOW IN THE SORT OF COOL PHASE. WE HAVE ALREADY ACCRUED OVER 300 PATIENTS AT OUR HOSPITAL AND WE WON'T HAVE AN 0 UNTIL 2011. IT IS A SLOW BUSINESS. ALSO LOOKING AT MEN WITH PRECANCEROUS LEASE IONS IN THE PROSTATE SKPPLT A CANADIAN STUDY I AM SHARING. VITAMIN E AND SELENIUM A FAIRLY ACTIVE LABORATORY LOOKING AT VITAMIN E AND SHOWING THAT IT INDUCES QUITE ZULING 95 CAN'T ARRESTS OF PROSTATE CANCER CELLS. BOTH IN ANIMALS AND IN TEST TUBES. SO QUITE COMPELLING EVIDENCE AND CONTINUING TO GROW FOR THESE TWO AEJTSS, OF COURSE, YOU NEED TO DO THE RANDOMIZED TRIAL AND THAT'S UNDERWAY.

Mary says BECAUSE, YOU KNOW, I... AS A FORMER HEALTH REPORTER, IT LZ ALWAYS BE VERY DISCOURAGING TO MYSELF OR TO THE PUBLIC WHEN WE HEAR ABOUT INCREDIBLE RESULTS TAKING PLACE IN A LAB AND IT NEVER TRANSLATED TO HUMAN, YOU KNOW...

Neil says THAT'S URN EFFICIENT, THAT'S THE PAIR DIME WE USE. WE IS TO START IN ANIMALS AND THEN - THRX IS ONE OF THOSE QUESTIONS THAT WE'RE ACTUALLY GOINGING TO HAVE AN ANSWER BY THE END OF THE DECADE, SOMEWHAT BIAS BUT AUZ AM AM WHICH I SINGLE GREAT NEWS.

Mary says YEAH, DO YOU FEEL THAT, WE HERE IN CANADA TREAT PROSTATE KPSER FROM... I... SO WHO BEING LIKE WHO?

Neil says THE AMERICANS BEING THE MORE AGGRESSIVE. AND THE ENGLISH AND THE EUROPEANS TICHICALLY NOT AGGRESSIVE. PARTICULARLY THE ENINGISH. THE FRENCH AND GERM ANS ARE MORE AGGRESS SNIF.

Mary says MORE OF THE WATCHFUL WAIT SNING.

Neil says YES.

Neil says IN SCANDINAVIA UP UNTIL THE PUB KAING OF THE STUDY, TRADITIONALLY EVERYONE GOT WATCHFUL WAITING. THE HIGHEST DEATH RATES OF PROSTATE CANCER IN THE WORLD.

MARY SAYS INTERESTING. TELL ME WHAT ELSE AS FAR AS ON THE HORIZON. WHAT ELSE YOU ARE LOOKING AT?

Neil says THERE IS... IT'S A VERY EXCITING TIME TO BE STUDYING PROSTATE CANCER. I THINK SOME OF THE VERY EXCITING STUFF, THE NEXT FIVE YEARS IN PARTICULAR, TRYING TO SORT OUT TWO THINGS. WHO NEEDS TREATMENT AND WHO DOESN'T. YOU KNOW, WE JUST TALK BODY THIS. ONLY A QUARTER OF MEN WITH IT DIE FROM IT. I THINK SOME OF THE NEW HIGH THROUGH, TECHNOLOGY, THE GENE CHIP AND GENE ARRAYS, TISSUE AWAYS ARE GOING TO HELP US ANSWER THIS QUESTION. I DO BELIEVE THAT WE ARE NOT FAR AWAY FROM HAVING SOME SORT OF MOLECULAR PROFILE ON PEOPLE'S INDIVIDUAL CANCERS AND USING THAT INFORMATION TO SAY, MR. JONES, YOU DON'T NEED TREATMENT. MR. SMITH, YOU SHOULD FERMENT WE MAY EVEN GOOD AS SAYING, YOU ARE GOING TO DO WELL WITH RAID RAINGD. MR. WILSON, YOU NEED SURGERY.

MARY SAYS THAT INDIVIDUALIZED.

Neil says I MAN COME IN AND ABLE TO GET THIS TEST DONE AND IT WOULD REPLAY PLAY PRESIDENT... AND ALSO FOR GUIDING TREATMENT. I THINK THAT'S WHERE WE'RE HEADING SNOOFERMENT THAT IS VERY EXCITING.

Mary says THANKS SO MUCH FOR COMING IN. HE IS HEAD OF UROLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY HEALTH NETWORK. AND THE GEN TAER URNARY CANCER PROGRAM AT PRINCESS MARGARET HOSPITAL. FOR MORE INFORMATION, VISIT...

a slate reads "Canadian Prostate Cancer Network, www.cpcn.org. 1-866-810-CPCN; 1-866-810-2726."

Mary says NOW CAN YOU HEAR THAT? WELL THAT'S THIS WEEK'S MEDICINE 101, ALL ABOUT SOUND WAVES. THEY BRING US IMAGES FROM PLACES AS VARIED AS THE DEPTH OF THE OCEAN TO THE CENTRE OF A PREGNANT WOMAN'S BELLY. DR. CALDWELL EXPLAINS HOW ULTRASOUND IMAGES ARE MADE.

A clip plays in which Paul Caldwell sits at a desk with different objects.

Paul is in his late forties, with short, receding gray hair and a boxed beard. He's wearing a gray shirt and a patterned brown tie.

A caption appears on screen. It reads "Doctor Paul Caldwell. Family Physician."

Paul says I WANT TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT SUBMARINES AND BATS. NOT THE SANDWICH, AND NOT THE BASEBALL. DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR, A NEW TECHNOLOGY CALLED SONAR WAS DEVELOPED. TO LOCATE THE POSITION OF ENEMY SUBMARINES USING SOUND WAVES. THE SURFACE SHIP WOULD SEND A PULSE OF SOUND DOWN INTO THE DEPTHS, BUT IF THE SOUND WAVES HIT SOMETHING OTHER THAN OING WATER, THEY WOULD BE REFLECTED BACK UP TOWARDS THE SURFACE. SIMPLY BY ANALYZING THE PATTERN OF THESE BOUNCING SOUND WAVES, IT WAS POSSIBLE TO IDENTIFY OBJECTS LIKE SUBMARINES. SONAR WAS A NOVEL USE OF AN OLD IDEA. BATS, USED THE SAME TYPE OF SYSTEM WHILE FLYING AT NIGHT. THEY EMIT SHORT BEEPS OF SOUND FROM THEIR NOSE AS THEY FLY. THE SOUND IS REFLECTED BACK BY NEARBY OBJECTS, AND THE BAT HEARS THE REFLECTED SOUNDS IN HIS EARS AND THEN SWERVES TO AVOID THE OBSTACLE. WELL, AFTER THE WAR, SMCHB HAD THE BRIGHT IDEA OF TAKING SONAR ONE STEP FURTHER. AFTER ALL, WE HUMANS ARE 90 PERCENT WATER SO, WHY NOT APPLY IT TO MEDICINE? THE SAME KIND OF PULSED SOUND PROVED HELPFUL IN IDENTIFYING STRUCTURES IN FLUID IN THE BODY. LIKE THESE STONES IN THE GALLBLADDER.

A short black and white clip shows a sonography revealing small white objects inside soft tissue.

Paul continues THE SOUND TRAVELED WELL IN THE LIQUID VILE AND THEN THE STONES WERE DENSE ENOUGH TO REFLECT THE SOUND WAVES BACK CLEARLY THE BEST SOUND WAS FOUND TO BE HIGH FRE QENS KE AND CALLED THE NEW TECHNIQUE ULTRAOR HIGHER SOUND FERMENT AND NOW, OF COURSE, ULTRASOUND HAS BECOME ONE OF THE MOST VALUABLE DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES. IT IS SAFE, FAST AND ACCURATE.

As he holds up a small handheld device that resembles a shaving machine, Paul continues THIS IS THE PART OF THE ULTRASOUND UNIT THAT TOUCHES YOU, THIS MACHINE SENDS OUT THE SOUND WAVES AND THEN RECEIVES THE REFLECTED WAVES BACK ALMOST INSTAIN TAN YOUSLY. A COMPUTER, ASSEMBLES THE ECHO INTERESTS A PICTURE, DISPLAYED HERE.

In a short clip, a hand holds a sonographer against a human belly, and a live stream showing the internal organs appears on a small monitor.

Paul continues AND REMEMBER WHEN AS A CHILD, YOU SHOUTED OUT YOUR NAME IN THE MOUNTAINS AND THEN WAITED FOR THE ECHO. IT'S THE SAME PRINCIPLE HERE. THE ECHO OF REFLECTED SOUND. BUT SOME OF THE MOST AMAZING BENEFITS OF THESE SOUND WAVES THAT WE CANNOT HEAR ARE SEEN IN OBSTETRICS. THE UNBRN INFANT IS SWIMMING IN ITS OWN POOL OF FLUID, IDEAL FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF THE SOUND WAVES AND SPECTACULAR PICTURES RESULT. AND IF YOU LOOK SLOWSLY. YOU CAN EVEN SEE THE HEART BEATING. AND LOOK AT THIS SEQUENCE OF AN EARLY TWIN PREGNANCY. IT SHOWS TWO SEPARATE SACKS WITH DEPUTYING EMBRYOS. SO, THERE IT IS. FOR MORE TIME SUBMARINES TO BATS TO BABIES. JUST ONE LAST THING. THE NEXT TIME THAT YOU HAVE AN ULTRASOUND, WITH ALL OF THOSE HIGH FREQUENCY SOUND WAVES COURSING THROUGH YOUR BODY. I DARE YOU TO SAY, ECHO.

The sound echoes and the clip ends.

Back in the studio, MARY SAYS THANKS DR. CALDWELL. YOU CAN CATCH HIM ON YOUR HEALTH, EVERY TUESDAY NIGHT AT 7:30.

Music plays as an animated slate reads "More to Life."

Mary SAYS MANY AFRICAN CANADIANS IN ONTARIO CAN TRACE THEIR ROOTS BACK TO THE UNDERGROUND RAIL ROAD. IT CARRIED THOUSANDS OF SLAVES TO A NEW COUNTRY THAT OFFERED THEM FREEDOM.

A clip plays on screen. A close-up shot shows an ad that reads "1200 to 1250 dollars for negroes!!"

As paintings and pictures showing images of slavery flash by, a male voice SAYS THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD WAS THE FIRST GREAT FREEDOM MOVEMENT IN THE AMERICAS. IT WAS THE FIRST TIME THAT GOOD PEOPLE BLACK AND WHITE IN A DIFFERENT RACE AND FAITH WORKED TOGETHER IN HARMONY FOR FREEDOM AND FOR JUSTICE. THE CREATION OF RESPECT AND THE PROMOTION OF DIVERSITY THAT WE TALK ABOUT TODAY CAN EASILY BE EQUATED TO WHAT THE ESSENCE OF THE UNDERGROUND RAIL ROAD WAS IN YESTER YEAR.

The man speaking appears on screen.

A caption appears on screen. It reads "Doctor Bryan Walls, Curator. John Freeman Walls Historic Site and Underground Railroad Museum."

John n his fifties, with glasses, says IT WAS A SECRETIVE ORGANIZATION NEEDLESS TO SAY. BUT AN ORGANIZATION THAT HAS GREAT ENS OPERATIONAL VALUE FOR US TODAY.

The clip ends.

Mary says NOW THAT WAS THE A CLIP FROM A CD ROM ENTITLED MUTUAL RESPECT. IT INTRODUCES THE STORY OF THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD. A NETWORK OF CLANDESTINE PEOPLE AND HOMES THAT HELPED THOUSANDS OF AMERICAN SLAVES FIND FREEDOM IN CANADA. ONE OF THE STOPS ON THE RAIL ROAD WAS THE HOME OF JOHN FREEMAN WALLS, A FORMER SLAVE FROM NORTH CAROLINA. HIS GREAT, GREAT GRANDSON, DR. BRYAN WALLS TURNED THIS ANCESTRAL HOME NEAR WINDSENATOR INTO THE JOHN FREE MAN WALLS HISTORIC SITE AND UNDERGROUND RAILROAD MUSEUM. HE ALSO TOOK THE FAMILY LEGEND AND IMMORTALIZED IT BY RIGHTING THE NOVEL, THE ROAD THAT LEAD TO SOMEWHERE AND HERE TO TELL ABOUT THIS REMARKABLE FAMILY TALE.

Bryan is in his forties, with short curly black hair and a goatee. He's wearing glasses, a black suit, blue shirt and patterned brown tie. A picture of his book appears briefly on screen. The cover is brown and white, and features a drawing of a landscape with meadows and a clear sky.

Mary continues WELCOME.

Bryan says THANK YOU VERY MUCH. I GIVE GOD THE GLORY FOR THIS OPPORTUNITY TO TALK TO YOUR VIEWERS.

Mary says I WANT YOU TO SHARE THE STORY. IT TRULY IS INCREDIBLE. HOW IT WAS THEY CAME TO ESCAPE SLAFER REE?

The caption changes to "Doctor Bryan E. Walls. Walls Underground Railroad Museum."

Bryan says WELL, THEY HAD THE COURAGE THEY TOOK COURAGE AND THEY HAD THE FAITH THAT THEY WOULD BE GIVEN THE STRENGTH TO LITERALLY RUN THROUGH THE WOODS AT NIGHT AND HIDE BY DAY. IF YOU CAN IMAGINE NEIL DOWN AT TIMES AND DRINK OUT OF THE HOOF PRINTS OF CATTLE IN ORDER TO QUENCH THEIR THIRS T AND TRAVEL ON THE UNDERSTAND GROUND RAIL ROAD TO INNER SONGS TO CANADA.

MARY SAYS TAKE US RIGHT BACK AND TELL US, WHO WAS JOHN FREEMAN WALLS, HOW WAS IT THAT HE CAME TO ESCAPE.

Bryan says JOHN FREEMAN WALLS WAS BORN IN 1813 ON A PLANTATION IN ROCKY HAM COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA. THE SAME DAY HIS GOOD FRIEND IN LIFE, DANIEL WALLS WHO WAS A SLAVE MASTER'S WIFE WAS BORN BUT SAVE MASTER SON RATHER BUT UNFORTUNATELY THE MOTHER PASSED AWAY DURING CHILDBIRTH. JOHN'S MOTHER JUBLTHAE CAME FROM THE GUINEA COAST OF AFRICA. WE KNOW SHE WAS REFERRED TO AS A GUINEA WELCOME SUCK ELED BOTHER. THEY GREW UP AS BOYHOOD FRIENDS. JOHN MARRIED UNFORTUNATELY HIS WIFE, SARA WAS SOLD SOUTH. AND DANIEL MARRIED A WONDERFUL LADY BY THE NAME OF JANE KING. AND THEY HAD FOUR CHILDREN ON THE DEATHBED OF DANIEL, HE SAID TO JOHN, JOHN, PLEASE, TAKE CARE OF GENE AND MY FOUR CHILDREN, YOU KNOW, WE HAVE BEEN FRIENDS ALL THROUGH OUR LIFE, JOHN, OBVIOUSLY NODDED TO THAT. JOHN AND JANE FELL IN LOVE, UNFORTUNATELY DURING THIS PERIOD, IT WAS ILLEGAL FOR BLACK AND WHITE BECAUSE JANE WAS IRISH AND SCOTTISH TO MARRY A NORTH CAROLINA, IT WAS A LAW IN THE 1700 AND AGAIN IN THE 1800. SO WHAT THEY KNEW THEY HAD TO DO WAS TO GET OUT OF NORTH CAROLINA. SO WHAT THEY DECIDED WITH JANE BEING INVOLVED IN THE ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT IS TO MAKE THEIR WAY THROUGH NORTH CAROLINA, THROUGH INDIANA, THEY STAYED WITH AB LIINGDIST BY THE NAME OF EPHRAM AND MARY STOUT AND THEN THEY FINALLY MADE THEIR WAY ON INTO ONTARIO RBS CANADA.

A picture pops up briefly showing two men's faces.

Mary says THIS IS A SHOT OF THE TWO OF THEM.

Bryan says YES, THIS IS A POLICE COMPOSITE ARTIST. HE WOULD NEVER GO BACK TO THE UNITED STATES. HE WAS CONCERNED ABOUT HIS SAFETY AND ALSO PSYCHOLOGICALLY IT LEFT A SCAR. BUT, WE HAVE MANY FAMILY MEMBERS THAT ARE IN THE UNITED STATES NOW AND THAT IS ACTUALLY A PHOTOGRAPH OF MY GREAT, GREAT GRANDMOTHER JANE KING WALLS AND WE CERTAINLY ARE PASSIONATE AS A FAMILY TO TELL THEIR STORY WHICH IS ALMOST THE UNFOLDING OF THE TOMB OF TUT IN THE RICH HISTORY HERE IN ONTARIO AND IN CANADA AND CERTAINLY IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS IS A STORE THAE HAS A BEGINNING ACCIDENT MIDDLE AND END. AND IT BEGAN IN THE UNITED STATES, MADE ITS WAY THROUGH THE MIDDLE UNITED STATES AND ENDED UP IN CANADA AND IT HAS A MESSAGE OF MUTUAL RESPECT.

Mary says YES. IT'S AMAZING. WHY DON'T WE ALSO TALK WITH THE UNDERSTAND GRURND RAILROAD ITSELF AND HOW THAT STARTED.

Bryan says THE UNDERGROUND RAIL ROAD. ONE OF MY HEROES, JOHN GRAY SIMCO IN 1973 AND THE FIRST LEGISLATIVE ASSEM BLEL OF UPPER CANADA AS ONTARIO WAS CALLED. SHOULD NO LONGER BE DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN THOSE OF EUROPEAN ANCESTORY AND AFRICAN ANCESTORY. HE PLANTED THE SEED THAT ALLOWED FOR THE UNDERGROUND RAIL ROAD TO HAPPEN. BECAUSE UP UNTIL THAT POINT. THERE WAS SLAVELY IN AARON THEIR TLIRN. NM BUT BECAUSE OF THAT LEGISLATION, FINALLY, AFTER THE WAR OF 18 TWIFL AND SO ON. I WOULD IMAGINE THE SOLDIERS WENT BACK AND SAID THAT THEY DIDN'T SEE ANY SLAVERY IN CANADA. THE WORD SPREAD THROUGHOUT THE PLANTATIONS AND THEN IN 1804, QUAKER ABOLITIONISTS REALLY GOT INVOLVED, LEVY WAS ONE SKM IN DEFINITELY ROUTES BEGIN TO COME INTO. NOT ONLY AARON BUT, YOU KNOW, FORTUNATELY, IN THIS AREA OF OUR NECK EVER THE WOODS, ONTARIO, TO AREN'T OWE, OF COURSE, AND SARRIN AWE THE AREA... FOUR STAING TERMINALS OF THE UNDERGROUND RAIL RYES WITH HAITI VILLAGE, AND... THE REFUGEE HOME SOCIETY WHERE MY ANCESTORS SETTLED. NOW IT'S INTERESTING.

Mary says SO JOHN AND JANE ENDED UP SETTLES IN WHAT IS KNOWN AS LAKE SHORE TOWNSHIP DISTRICT.

Bryan says FORMER MAID STONE, ABOUT 20 MILES INLAND BECAUSE THEY FELT THEY WOULD BE MORE PROTECTED IN CASE A BOUNTY HUNTER SLAVE CATCHER CAME OVER TO TAKE THEM BACK.

Mary says WHEN WAS IT THEY SETTLED?

Bryan says SO, THEY WERE... THEY THOUGHT THEY WOULD BE WELL PROTECTED. WHAT WAS THE ENVIRONMENT LIKE? I MEAN, HERE YOU HAVE A FORMER SLAFER, A PLANTATION OWNER SON WIFE.

Mary says HOW WERE THEY TREATED IN THIS COMMUNITY?

Bryan says I THINK THE BEST WAY TO ANSWER THAT IS THROUGH HIS TOREIAN BY THE NAME OF MALCOM WALLACE THAT HAD GREAT CREDIBILITY AT THE TURN OF THE NINETY-TWO 1920'S CENTURY. AND HE WROTE IN A BOOK CALLED PIONEERS OF THE SCOTT SETTLEMENT. ABOUT THE NEGRO COMMUNITY IN THAT AREA. HE SAID THE MOST PICTURE EFERK FAMILY ON THE... ROAD WAS JOHN FREEMAN WALLS AND JANE KING WALLS WHO WERE EXPANDED ON THE STORY AND NAMES OF THE FOUR WHITE CHILDREN THAT CAME UP WITH HIM AND THE SONG AND THE YOUNG MAN DIED WHEN HE REACHED HERE. AND THEN, WENT ON TO SAY THAT, HOW RESPECTED THEY WERE IN THE OVERALL COMMUNITY FERMENT AND THE AREA, AND I AM SAYING THIS TO SAY, THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY TO SAY THIS, MARY. THIS AREA SKPRX PERHAPS EVEN TORONTO AND ONTARIO, AND CANADA, NEED TO BE MADE AWARE OF THE FACT THAT, THAT WE CAN BE A REALLY A MICRO KOSM OF THE THE WAY THE WORLD SHOULD BE. I COME BACK TO THIS AREA WHERE MY ANCESTORS CAME FROM, BROKE BREAD WITH THEIR WHITE BROTHERS AND SISTERS AND THOSE OF DIFFERENT RACES AND FACE AND LIVED A LIFE THAT WAS HARD BUT CERTAINLY ONE THAT, THAT HAD GREAT REWARD.

Mary says AND TELL US WHAT BECAME OF SOME MEMBERS OF THE WALL FAMILY.

Bryan says I ALWAYS ENJOY THIS PART WHEN WE HAVE VISITORS TO OUR SITE. WE BECOME CONDUCTORS. SEESAW WE SAW THAT EARLIER ON IN THE CLIP. MY AUNT STELLA. I TAKE TIME TO HONOR HER MEMORY. SHE WAS THE KEEPER OF THE ORAL HISTORY. AND SHE PASSED AWAY IN 19...

A picture shows an elderly woman sitting holding a cane. She wears a light blue dress.

Bryan continues THERE SHE IS. THAT'S WHEN SHE WAS 100 YEARS OLD. SHE PASSED AWAY FOR THE VIEWERS INFORMATION IN 1986 AT 102 YEARS OF AGE. I RECALL HER SAYING TO ME, IN AN INTERVIEW AT 100. HOW DID YOU LIVE SO LONG? I JUST LEARNED TO LOVE EVERYBODY. YOU KNOW, SO, THIS IS SOMETHING THAT HELPS US TO LIVE LONGER TO KEEP LOVE IN OUR HEART FOR ONE ANOTHER. SHE ACTUALLY KNEW JOHN AND JANE. SHE WAS 23 WHEN JOHN AND JANE PASSED AWAY. SO SHE BECAME AN INCREDIBLE SOURCE OF INFORMATION WHICH ALUED ME TO TAKE THE FAMILY LEGEND THAT SHE HAD GIVEN ME AN ORAL HISTORY AND THEN OVER FOUR YEARS OF GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH TURN IT INTO FAMILY HISTORY BY ACTUALLY GOING BACK TO NORTH CAROLINA AND DOING THE GENE LOGICAL RESEARCH NOOCHLT.

Mary says WHAT ABOUT YOUR FAMOUS UNCLE?

A grainy black and white picture shows a young man in a boxing pose, with boxing gloves on.

Bryan says MY UNCLE EARL WALLS WAS A FORMER CANADIAN HEAVY WEIGHT BOXING CHAMPION, THIRD CONTENDER IN THE WORLD UNDER THE GREAT ROCKY MARCIA NO.

Mary says IN THE 50'S?

Bryan says AND MY UNCLE EARL AND AUNT STELLA PROTAGONIST TO TELL THE READER THAT, ABOUT THE FORY OF JOHN AND JANE AND THEN BRING IT INTO WHAT IS HAPPENING NOW. URNING EL EARL WAS VERY HELPFUL IN DEVELOPING OF THE HISTORIC SITE, ACTUALLY 30 YEAR RESIDENT OF TORONTO ONTARIO BUT HIS WISH WAS TO BE FINALLY LAID TO REST BESIDE JOHN AND JANE IN THE CEMETERY BESIDE AUNT STEL A, UNFORTUNATELY PASSED AWAY IN 1996 BUT, GAIN, WE HONOR HIS MEMORY. HE WAS A HUMANITARIAN AND DID A LOT OF GREAT WORK IN TORONTO WITH THE VILLAGE. AND JUST A GREAT, GREAT MACHB FERMENT AND HE ALSO STARTED OUR FAMILY EXPANDING OUR TOURIST DESTINATION WHICH IS... AND EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE DESTINATION INTO THE WORK THAT WE DO NOW WITH EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND THE TORONTO POLICE.

A picture shows a sign that reads "Where the underground railroad had its end. John Freeman Walls Historic Site."

Mary says AND NOW IS THIS THE SIGN THAT WE WILL SEE WHEN YOU ENTER THE JOHN FREEMAN WALLS HISTORIC SITE.

Another picture shows a large metal plaque.

Bryan says THIS IS WHAT YOU WOULD SEE AND A HISTORIC PLAQUE THAT READS IN 1846 JOHN FROM THE FREE MAN WALLS A FUJIVE SLAVE FROM NORTH CAROLINA BUILT A LOG CAB IB FROM THE REFUGEE HOME SOCIETY. THE ORGANIZATION FOUNDED BY THE CAN REBUILD, PUBISH OF THE VOICE OF THE TUJ TIF AND THE FAMOUS JOSIAH HANSON. SERVED AS A TERM AFERLT UNDERSTAND GROUND RAIL ROAD AND THE FIRST MEETING PLACE OF THE BAPTIST CHURCH. ALTHOUGH MANY FORMER SLAVES RETURNED TO THE UNITED STATES FOUND THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, WALLS AND HIS FAMILY CHOSE TO REMAIN IN CANADA AND THE STORY OF THEIR STRUGGLES, FORMS THE BASIS OF MY BOOK, THE ROAD THAT LEAD.

Mary says MY MUNCH IS THAT THIS WOULD MAKE A GREAT MOVIE, JOHN AND JANE STORY. ANY INTEREST THERE?

Bryan says I AM HAPPY TO SAY THAT THROUGH WORKING WITH OUR AMERICAN NEIGHBORS AND A GENTLE BY MICKEY YANIC AND MY AGENT AND PRORD PRODUCER WOOMENT WE HAVE MADE IN RODES INTO HOLLYWOOD AND WE'RE NOT ABLE TO MAKE AN ANNOUNCEMENT RIGHT AT THIS POINT IN TIME BUT WE ARE ABLE TO SAY THAT, THIS IS A STORE THAE TRANCE SKENDS RACE, CREED AND COLOR AND IT ALSO IS A STORY THAT IS EQUALLY IMPORTANT TO ANYONE IN THE WORLD WHETHER THEY ARE UNITED STATES, CANADA, ENGLAND, WHEREVER. YOU KNOW, THAT, THAT OUR LOVERS ARE FREEDOM. AND IT HAS THAT COMPONENT THAT, THAT HAD AN OPPORTUNITY TO PITCH TO PEOPLE IN HOLLYWOOD AND I SAID IT TAKES THE BEST QUALITYS OF ROOTS, COMBINES IT WITH A ROCKY, A TRUE LIFE ROCKY AND ACADEMY AWARD WINNING LOVE TRIANGLE OF GONE WITH THE WIND PROPORTIONS.

Mary says THERE YOU GO. WHAT A WINNING FORMULA. WE ARE JUST OUT OF TIME. IF YOU NGED PICK WHO WOULD YOU PICK IN THE ROLES OF JOHN AND JANE? TELL ME. WELL I WOULD DEFINITELY MORGAN FREE MAN FOR JOHN AND JANE, YOU.

They laugh.

Mary says ME? WRONG HERITAGE THERE UNFORTUNATELY.

Bryan says OKAY.

Mary says THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR COMING IN. BEST OF LUCK WITH THE MUSEUM. ALL OF YOUR ONGOING PROJECTS.

Bryan says WE APPRECIATE IT AND CERTAINLY WE'RE ABLE TO USE THIS IN THE SCHOOL SYSTEMS AND ANY SCHOOL TEACHER OUT THERE, ABLE TO PROVIDE THE MATERIALS, REALLY SKPRX ASSISTED PRICE OF FREE OF CHARGE AND JUST CONTACT TV ONTARIO.

Mary says WE'LL GIVE THE INFORMATION RIGHT NOW.

Bryan says THANK YOU SO MUCH. GOD BLESS YOU.

Mary says A RETIRED DENTIST, HE'S THE AUTHOR OF THE ROAD THAT LEAD TO SOMEWHERE. HE'S ALSO THE CURE EIGHTOR OF THE JOHN FREEMAN WALLS HISTORIC SITE.

A slate reads "John Freeman Walls Historic Site. 1-519-258-6253. Undergroundrailroadmuseum.com."

Mary says But that is it for our show today. Thank you for watching and please join each weekday, Monday to Friday, for More to Life at 1 o'clock.

A slate reads "The advice given in the preceding program is of a general nature only. Viewers should consult their own medical professional for medical advice specific to their circumstances.

Watch: Prostate, Underground Railroad