Transcript: Canada by Picasso: The Faces of Federalism | Nov 05, 2006

[Theme music plays]

The opening sequence rolls. The logo of "Big Ideas" featuring a lit lamp bulb appears against an animated green slate.
Then, Andrew Moodie appears in the studio. The walls are decorated with screens featuring lit lamp bulbs, and two signs read "Big Ideas."
Andrew is in his early forties, clean-shaven, with short curly black hair. He's wearing a black blazer over a beige shirt.

Andrew says HELLO, I'M
ANDREW MOODIE, THIS IS
BIG
IDEAS,
AND ON TODAY'S
PROGRAM, WE HAVE A TELLING RE-
EXAMINATION OF THE MECHANISM
THAT MAKES CANADA TICK.
THE FEDERAL STRUCTURE OF CANADA
HAS BEEN THE SUBJECT OF DEBATE
OR DERISION FROM THE MOMENT IT
WAS CREATED IN 1867.
A CONSTANT PUSH AND PULL.
OUR PARLIAMENTARY TRADITIONS
TEND TOWARD CENTRALISATION, AND
FEDERALISM GOES THE OTHER WAY.
NOT TO BE TOO CUTE ABOUT IT,
BUT THE LATEST THREAT TO
FEDERALISM COULD BE ITS
SUCCESS.
IT'S BEEN STRONG ENOUGH TO GIVE
THE PROVINCES VERY SUBSTANTIAL
POWERS AND, BY THE SAME TOKEN,
IT GIVES THEM THE POWER TO
RATTLE THE CAGE.
ALLAN GREGG, CHAIRMAN OF THE
MARKETING FIRM, STRATEGIC
COUNCIL, AND THE HOST OF AN
INTERVIEW PROGRAM ON THIS VERY
NETWORK, IS THE MC OF THIS
CONFERENCE BOARD OF CANADA
SYMPOSIUM ON THE FUTURE OF
FEDERALISM, AND HIS
INTRODUCTION WILL BE FOLLOWED
WITH PRESENTATIONS BY ROGER
GIBBINS, PRESIDENT OF THE
CANADA WEST FOUNDATION, JANICE
STEIN, A POLITICAL SCIENTIST
FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO,
BUT BEST KNOWN TO MANY OF YOU
AS TV ONTARIO'S RESIDENT
FOREIGN AFFAIRS COMMENTATOR,
AND ANTONIA MAIONI, A PROFESSOR
OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT McGILL
UNIVERSITY.
SO, LET'S FIND OUT NOW WHAT THE
CONNECTION IS BETWEEN A VERY
FAMOUS FRENCH PAINTER, AND
CANADIAN FEDERALISM.

A clip plays showing a busy intersection by a huge building resembling a castle, with many windows.

A female voice says
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, ALLAN GREGG.

[Applause]

Allan Gregg stands on a small stage, behind a lectern. He addresses an audience of people mainly in their fifties and sixties. On the stage, a man and two women sit on armchairs.
Allan is in his fifties, with receding gray hair and a goatee. He's wearing a gray pinstripe suit and a white shirt.

He says GIVEN HOW MUCH
DEBATE IN THIS COUNTRY IS
ROOTED IN REGION, REGIONAL
ASPIRATIONS, REGIONAL NEEDS, I
THINK I FEEL COMPELLED TO ADD,
I'M A SON OF THE CANADIAN
PRAIRIES.
I WAS BORN WHERE OUR TOWNS WERE
VERY SMALL, BUT OUR DREAMS WERE
BIG.
AND ANY OF YOU WHO HAVE HAD THE
GOOD FORTUNE TO SHARE THAT
BIRTHRIGHT, WILL KNOW THAT IT'S
AN ABSOLUTELY WONDERFUL PLACE
TO GROW UP.
THERE'S A SENSE OF SPACE, A
SENSE OF FREEDOM THAT IS ALWAYS
WITH YOU, SO EVERYONE, FOR
EXAMPLE, HAS A DOG.
IT'S ALWAYS WONDERFUL FUN.
AND IF THEY RUN AWAY, YOU CAN
STILL SEE THEM FOR TWO WEEKS.

[Audience laughter]

Allan continues 139 YEARS AGO, 80 percent OF OUR
POPULATION WAS RURAL.
GIVEN THIS FACT, IT SHOULD COME
AS NO SURPRISE THAT THE FRAMERS
OF OUR CONSTITUTION GAVE LITTLE
CONSIDERATION TO CITIES, OR
THAT TODAY, THE 80 percent OF THE
POPULATION WHO MAKE UP URBAN
CANADA, HAVE BECOME THE ORPHANS
OF CONFEDERATION.

A caption appears on screen. It reads "Allan Gregg. Chairman, The Strategic Counsel. Fairmont Chateau Laurier, Ottawa. June 1, 2006."

Allan continues WHILE THE
EVIDENCE SUGGESTS THAT JOHN A.
MacDONALD'S PREFERENCE WAS FOR
A STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT, HE
AND HIS COLLEAGUE DISCARDED
MATTERS OF A PURELY LOCAL
NATURE UNDER PROVINCIAL
JURISDICTION.
NEVER CONTEMPLATING THAT HEALTH,
EDUCATION AND WELFARE, CONCERNS
THAT WERE OVERSEEN AT THE TIME,
ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY BY
INDIVIDUALS, CHARITIES AND
RELIGIOUS ORGANISATIONS, THAT
IS, NO ORDER OF GOVERNMENT,
WOULD BECOME THE ISSUES THAT
DOMINATE NOT ONLY FISCAL
BUDGETS, BUT DEBATE AND EMOTION
IN THE 21st CENTURY.
TELECOMMUNICATIONS BARELY
EXISTED.
LEGISLATION COVERING THE
FLEDGLING FIELD, THEREFORE WAS
SHOEHORNED INTO THE RAILWAY
ACT, WHERE IT REMAINED FOR OVER
100 YEARS BEFORE ANYTHING WAS
CHANGED.
GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS,
WESTERN CITIES BLIGHTED BY
HOMELESSNESS OR ABORIGINAL
POVERTY, INTERNET PORNOGRAPHY,
STOCK EXCHANGES, A MYRIAD OF
OTHER FORCES THAT SEIZE THE
POLITICAL AGENDA TODAY, COULD
NOT HAVE BEEN IMAGINED.
SO THESE WISE FATHERS COULD NOT
BE EXPECTED TO OFFER ANY
GUIDANCE TO THE INHERITORS OF
THESE PROBLEMS.
IN OUR FIRST CENTURY, THIS
UNDERSTANDABLE LACK OF
PRESCIENCE DID NOT
FUNDAMENTALLY RETARD OUR
DEVELOPMENT AS A NATION.
WHEREAS ALAN CAIRNS REMINDED
US, "OUR PRE-CHARTER BNA ACT
WAS A LIVING CONSTITUTION, ONE
THAT EVOLVED ORGANICALLY IN
RESPONSE TO THE EBB AND FLOW OF
SHIFTING REALITIES, AS MUCH AS
BY THE SHACKLES OF CODIFIED LAW
OR LEGAL PRECEDENT."
AND SO, RESOURCE OWNERSHIP WAS
SHIFTED, QUITE HAPPILY, TO THE
PROVINCES IN THE 1930s,
RESPONDING TO THE NEED FOR
NATIONAL ENTERPRISE FOLLOWING
THE SECOND WORLD WAR, THE
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WAS GRANTED
AN UNFETTERED SPENDING POWER
THAT ALLOWED OTTAWA TO
INTERVENE IN ALL AREAS OF
JURISDICTION.
A COMPREHENSIVE WEB OF SHARED
COST PROGRAMS WAS SOON SPUN
THAT SHAPED OUR NATIONAL
IDENTITY AND USHERED IN A
PERIOD OF COOPERATIVE
FEDERALISM.
BUT THEN, OUT OF THE QUEBEC
QUIET REVOLUTION, CAME THE
NOTION OF OPTING OUT, AND AN
ORTHODOXY OF PARALLELISM IN
THAT PROVINCE THAT EXISTS TO
THIS DAY.
OVER TIME, PROVINCES HAVE BEEN
GRANTED CORPORATE AND PERSONAL
TAXING POWERS, TAX POINTS HAVE
BEEN TRANSFERRED BETWEEN ORDERS
OF GOVERNMENT, AND WE HAVE
LEARNED TO SHARE A PATRIMONY
OVER IMMIGRATION, ENVIRONMENT,
AND AGRICULTURE.
WITH THE PATRIATION OF THE
CONSTITUTION, AND THE
ENTRENCHMENT OF THE CHARTER OF
RIGHTS, OUR FEDERALISM SEEMS TO
HAVE GROWN LESS ELASTIC, MORE
BRITTLE AND SUBJECT TO REGULAR
TENSIONS THAT PERIODICALLY
SHAKE THE FOUNDATIONS OF OUR
NATION.
THE FAILURE TO BRING QUEBEC
INTO THE CONSTITUTIONAL FAMILY
IN 1982, REVERBERATES TO THIS
DAY.
THE IMPASSE OF MEECH LAKE AND
THE REJECTION OF THE
CHARLOTTETOWN ACCORD,
DEMONSTRATES AT ONE AND THE
SAME TIME, A WIDESPREAD
RECOGNITION OF THE NEED TO
MODERNISE OUR CONSTITUTION, BUT
ALSO A COMPLETE LACK OF
CONSENSUS AROUND HOW THAT COULD
BE ACCOMPLISHED.
FATIGUED WITH THE WHOLE
PROCESS, WE HAVE CHOSEN TO
MUDDLE ALONG FOR THE LAST 13
YEARS, BUT IN THAT TIME WE HAVE
SEEN A WHOLESALE REVERSAL OF
THE FINANCIAL FORTUNES OF OUR
VARIOUS ORDERS OF GOVERNMENT,
AND WITH THAT, A WHOLE NEW SET
OF ISSUES THAT FORM THE FOCUS
OF OUR NATIONAL DISCOURSE.
MOST RECENTLY, MUCH OF THAT
DEBATE HAS EVOLVED AROUND WHAT
MANY PERCEIVED, AND AMONG THEM,
I THINK OUR THREE SCHOLARS AS
YOU'LL HEAR TONIGHT, TO BE A
SERIOUS MISALIGNMENT BETWEEN
FISCAL CAPACITIES AND
RESPONSIBILITIES.
THE ALLEGATION, SIMPLY PUT, IS
THAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IS
AWASH WITH CASH, WHILE THE
PROVINCES LABOUR UNDER THE
BURDEN OF RISING HEALTH CARE
AND EDUCATIONAL COSTS, AND OUR
CITIES STRUGGLE WITH A TAX BASE
TO ANAEMIC TO MEET EITHER THE
NEEDS OF THEIR SWELLING NUMBERS
OR THE COMPETITIVE PRESSURES OF
GLOBALIZATION.
ADDING TO THE STRUCTURAL
VERTICAL IMBALANCE, SO-CALLED,
HAS BEEN AN INCREASING TENDENCY
ON THE PART OF THE CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT TO USE ITS SPENDING
POWER SOMETIMES UNIFORMLY
ACROSS THE COUNTRY, BUT OTHER
TIMES ASYMMETRICALLY IN ONE
REGION AND NOT THE OTHER, TO
INTERVENE INTO AREAS OF
PROVINCIAL JURISDICTION.
CRITICS CLAIM THAT THESE
DEVELOPMENTS, BLUR LINES OF
ACCOUNTABILITY, DIVERT
ATTENTION AND RESOURCES AWAY
FROM PRESSING MATTERS THAT ONLY
THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT CAN
MANAGE, AND CREATE UNDUE
TENSION AND INEFFICIENCIES IN
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL RELATIONS.
DEFENDERS, AND THERE SEEM TO BE
VERY FEW OF THEM THESE DAYS,
CITE THE NEED FOR NATIONAL
STANDARDS, AND MAINTAIN THAT
THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ECONOMIC
PROSPERITY DEMAND NATIONWIDE
INVESTMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
EDUCATION, POST-SECONDARY
EDUCATION, AND CITIES, ALL
AREAS OF PROVINCIAL
JURISDICTION.
LESS DEBATED, BUT OF NO LESS
CONCERN IN SOME QUARTERS, IS
THE EMERGENCE OF A GROWING
HORIZONTAL IMBALANCE, BETWEEN
THE PROVINCES AND THE REGIONS.
INDEED THERE IS AN ARGUMENT
THAT A DEBT-FREE ALBERTA
FUELLED BY AN INSATIABLE WORLD-
WIDE THIRST FOR ITS RESOURCES,
WILL SOON CREATE A CONDITION
WHERE, FOR THE FIRST TIME IN
CANADIAN HISTORY, THERE WILL BE
ONE REGION THAT HAS, AT LEAST
ON ONE CRITERIA, AND ONE
CRITERIA ALONE, FINANCES... NO
REASON TO BE PART OF THE
FEDERATION.
ADD TO THIS A GNAWING DREAD
THAT A TIME WILL PROBABLY COME
WHEN THERE IS NOT A SINGLE
MANUFACTURING JOB IN ONTARIO
THAT ONE DAY WILL NOT BE
PERFORMED AS WELL, AND FOR
LESS, SOMEWHERE ELSE IN THE
WORLD, AND IT BECOMES CLEAR
THAT OUR NATIONAL ECONOMIC
BALANCE IS ON A TECTONIC FAULT
LINE.
AND SO, IN STARK CONTRAST TO
THE TRADITIONAL NATIONAL ETHOS
THAT HELD WE WOULD ALWAYS BE
OUR REGIONAL BROTHER'S KEEPER,
WE ARE NOW HEARING THE GROANS
OF ONTARIO AS IT SHOULDERS THE
LION'S SHARE OF FEDERAL
TRANSFERS, AS WELL AS
CONFLICTING VOICES CALLING
ATTENTION TO EQUALISATION AS A
FLASHPOINT IN FEDERALISM.
IT'S LITTLE WONDER, THEREFORE,
THAT THE THEME OF THESE
LECTURES IS THAT THE FACE OF
MODERN FEDERALISM LOOKS LIKE IT
COULD HAVE WELL BEEN CREATED
AND PAINTED BY PICASSO.
FRACTURED LINES OF JURISDICTION
CREATE JARRING IMAGES OF
DYSFUNCTION, AS CANADA
CONFRONTS GLOBAL PRESSURES WITH
A PAINT BOX THAT HAS NOT BEEN
COMPREHENSIVELY OVERHAULED IN
ALMOST 140 YEARS.
AND THESE ARE ONLY THE
CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES.
BUT AS WE SET TO RECONFIGURE
DIVISIONS OF RESPONSIBILITY IN
THE FABRIC OF FEDERALISM, BNA
PURISTS WHO ONLY LOOK AT
CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES, SHOULD
BE EQUALLY MINDFUL THAT THERE
ARE OTHER CENTRIFUGAL FORCES AT
WORK IN CANADA TODAY THAT ALSO
POSE A THREAT TO OUR COHERENCE
AS A NATION.
FREE TRADE HAS REALIGNED OUR
NATIONAL COMMERCE FROM EAST-
WEST TO NORTH-SOUTH, A FOCUS,
THE RESULT OF WHICH HAS BEEN
THE EVOLUTION OF INCREASINGLY
DISTINCTIVE AND DISSIMILAR
REGIONAL ECONOMIES.
IN 1989, ONLY NEWFOUNDLAND
EXPORTED SIGNIFICANTLY MORE OF
ITS PRODUCTS TO THE UNITED
STATES THAN TO THE REST OF
CANADA.
BY 2001, EVERY PROVINCE, SAVE
MANITOBA, HAD A BIGGER TRADE
BALANCE WITH THE UNITED STATES
THAN WITH THEIR SISTER
PROVINCES.
THIS CONTINUING ACTIVITY
OBVIOUSLY MAKES EAST-WEST LINKS
EVEN MORE TENUOUS, REDUCES THE
INTERDEPENDENCE AND NEED FOR
COORDINATED AND COMPLIMENTARY
TRADE PRACTICES AMONG THE
PROVINCES, AND AS COMPETITORS
IN THE STRUGGLE FOR MORE NORTH-
SOUTH COMMERCE, ALIGNS THEIR
INTERESTS INDEPENDENTLY MORE
OFTEN THAN WITH ONE ANOTHER.
CASCADING VOTER CYNICISM ALSO
HAS WEAKENED OUR NATIONAL
POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS AND
ERODED THEIR ABILITY TO SERVE
AS THE GRAND AGGREGATORS OF
PUBLIC INTEREST.
IN THE MIASMA OF DISDAIN FOR
OUR ELECTED LEADERS, WE SEEM TO
HAVE FORGOTTEN THAT POLITICAL
PARTIES ARE A CENTRAL PART OF
CIVIL SOCIETY.
THESE ESSENTIALLY VOLUNTEER
ORGANISATIONS EXIST, AS MR.
STANFIELD SAID, "A CRUCIBLE OF
CONSENSUS, THEIR PURPOSE TO
ACCOMMODATE BROAD DIFFERENCES
IN THE PROVINCES, INCLUDING
REGIONAL ONES SO THAT DIVERSE
GROUPS CAN BROKER THEIR
DIVERGENT CLAIMS, AND
PARTICIPATE IN CIVIC AFFAIRS AS
PART OF, AND WITHIN A NATIONAL
INSTITUTION RATHER THAN FROM
THE OUTSIDE AS A SPECIAL OR
SINGLE INTEREST GROUP."
THE LOSS OF FAITH IN POLITICAL
AUTHORITY HAS DRIVEN CITIZENS
AWAY FROM DIRECT PARTISAN
INVOLVEMENT.
THE FRAGMENTATION OF OUR PARTY
SYSTEM OVER THE LAST DECADE AND
A HALF, SIMILARLY REFLECTS THE
GROWING VIEW THAT REGIONAL
INTERESTS MAYBE CAN BE BETTER
SERVED BY VOTING FOR POLITICAL
PARTIES DEDICATED TO REGIONAL
RATHER THAN NATIONAL CAUSES.
NOT UNRELATED TO THIS, WE ARE
WITNESSING A GROWING PATTERN OF
CIVIC DISENGAGEMENT.
WHILE THE TIP OF THIS ICEBERG
IS REPRESENTED BY A PERSISTENT
PATTERN OF LOW VOTER TURNOUT
OVER THE LAST TWO DECADES,
COMMUNITARIAN RESEARCHERS HAVE
EXPLORED THE BASE OF THAT
ICEBERG, AND DOCUMENTED OUR
GROWING TENDENCY TO, WHAT THEY
CALL, BOWL ALONG.
THEIR FINDINGS SHOW THAT WHILE
WE MAY BE BOWLING AS MUCH AS
EVER, THE NUMBER OF BOWLING
LEAGUES HAS ACTUALLY DECREASED
40 percent OVER THE LAST TWO DECADES.
SO, TOO HAS OUR INVOLVEMENT IN
PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS,
OUR PROPENSITY TO HAVE
NEIGHBOURS OVER FOR DINNER, AND
VIRTUALLY ANY OTHER KIND OF
COMMUNITY BASED BRIDGING AND
BONDING ACTIVITY THAT YOU'D
CARE TO IMAGINE.
THE PRICE WE PAY FOR THIS WAY
OF LIFE, IS A SOCIAL CAPITAL
DEFICIT, A BREAKDOWN OF TRUST,
AND THE FURTHER HOLLOWING OUT
OF DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS.
YET A FOURTH FACTOR THAT
CREATES A CONSTANT STRAIN ON
OUR NATIONAL FABRIC, AND ONE IT
SEEMS INCREASINGLY POLITICALLY
INCORRECT TO EVEN TALK ABOUT,
IS THE VERY NATURE OF THE
FEDERALIST SYSTEM WE CHOOSE TO
GOVERN OUR AFFAIRS.
FEDERALISM UNQUESTIONABLY MAKES
LOCAL VOICES HEARD, AND ALLOWS
DIVERSITY TO FLOURISH.
BUT THE FACT REMAINS, BY
GRANTING PARALLEL SOVEREIGNTY
IN DIFFERENT AND SOMETIMES
OVERLAPPING AREAS OF
JURISDICTION, TO BOTH THE
PROVINCES AND CENTRAL
GOVERNMENT, WE ENSHRINE A
DIDACTIC BETWEEN THE PART AND
THE WHOLE.
THE FACT IS THAT HIGH OIL
PRICES ARE GOOD FOR ALBERTA AND
SASKATCHEWAN, BUT BAD FOR
ONTARIO.
AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES HELP
MORE RURALLY POPULATED
PROVINCES, AND HURT THE MORE
URBAN ONES, AND SO ON.
PROVINCES BY DEFINITION,
BECAUSE OF THEIR SOVEREIGN
POWERS WITHIN FEDERALISM, AND
BY VIRTUE OF THE VERY
POPULATIONS THAT THEY SERVE,
EXIST TO EXIST THE CAUSE OF THE
PART.
AND IF THAT CAUSE IS AT ODDS
WITH ANOTHER PART, OR EVEN THE
WHOLE, THEY'RE DOING NOTHING
OTHER THAN FULFILLING THEIR
MANDATE WHEN THEY PREACH FOR
THEIR OWN PARISH.
NOW SOME MAY SAY THAT THIS IS
CREATIVE TENSION THAT MAKES
CANADA THE GREAT COUNTRY THAT
IT IS, OR THAT BECAUSE OF OUR
VAST EXPANSE AND DIVERSITY OF
OUR NATION, THIS IS THE ONLY
SYSTEM THAT WOULD WORK.
AND THEY WOULD BE RIGHT.
BUT THE FACT REMAINS, CREATIVE
OR NOT, NECESSARY OR NOT, A
TENSION IS STILL A TENSION.
THESE FORCES, NORTH-SOUTH
COMMERCE, WEAKENED POLITICAL
INSTITUTIONS, WITHERING CIVIC
VIRTUE, AND INHERENTLY
ADVERSARIAL FEDERALISM ALL
EXIST REGARDLESS OF THE ROLE WE
PRESCRIBE FOR OUR DIFFERENT
ORDERS OF GOVERNMENT WHEN
CONSIDERING THE APPROPRIATE
ROLE FOR THE DIFFERENT ORDERS
OF GOVERNMENT, THEREFORE, IT
STRIKES ME THAT AT LEAST ONE OF
THE QUESTIONS WE SHOULD BE
ASKING IS, DOES OUR DIFFERENT
GOVERNMENTS HAVE THE POWER, THE
AUTHORITY AND THE LEGITIMACY TO
STAND UP AND DEAL WITH THESE
CENTRIFUGAL FORCES?
AND IF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
DOES POSSESS THESE TOOLS, WHERE
DOES ITS REACH EXTEND AND WHERE
DOES IT STOP?
HOW CAN PROVINCES, INHERENTLY
CLOSER TO THEIR CONSTITUENCIES
AND MORE ALIVE TO THE REALITY
OF LOCAL EXIGENCIES PARTICIPATE
MEANINGFULLY IN NATIONAL
AFFAIRS AND NATION BUILDING
WITHOUT LOSING THESE INNATE
STRENGTHS?
AND WHAT ABOUT THE SO-CALLED
CREATURES OF THE PROVINCES, THE
CITIES, WHO ALSO HAPPEN TO BE
ACKNOWLEDGED AS THE EPICENTRES
OF INNOVATION AND OUR NATION'S
FUTURE ECONOMIC PROSPERITY,
WHERE'S THEIR SEAT AT THE
TABLE?
SO WITHOUT FURTHER ADO, I WANT
TO INTRODUCE OUR FIRST SCHOLAR,
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, PROFESSOR
ROGER GIBBINS.

[Applause]

The caption changes to "Roger Gibbins. President and CEO, Canada West Foundation."

Roger is in his late sixties, clean-shaven and balding. He's wearing glasses, a black suit, white shirt, and striped gray tie.

He says IF A CAR IS
NOT ALIGNED PROPERLY, THEN YOU
GET A ROUGH RIDE, YOU GET PARTS
WEARING OUT, YOU CAN'T BRING IT
UP TO SPEED, BECAUSE IT BEGINS
TO SHAKE TOO BADLY, AND IF
YOU'RE NOT CAREFUL, IT DRIVES
OFF THE ROAD.
WHILE THE CANADIAN FEDERAL SYSTEM IS NOT
BROKEN, BUT IT IS POORLY
ALIGNED WITH THE REALITIES OF
GLOBALIZATION, SO I BEING WITH
A VERY SIMPLE PROPOSITION.
WELL FUNCTIONING FEDERAL STATES
PROTECT AND NURTURE THEIR
COMMON ECONOMIC SPACE WHILE
GIVING CONSTITUENT COMMUNITIES
ROOM TO BREATHE.
THEN COMES THE PROBLEM,
CANADA'S COMMON ECONOMIC SPACE
IS BEING ERODED BY
GLOBALIZATION AT THE SAME TIME
THAT IT IS BEING ABANDONED BY
THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA.
IN SHORT, CANADIAN GOVERNMENTS
ARE COLLAPSING IN ON, OR
COMPETING FOR THE SOCIAL SPACE
TRADITIONALLY RESERVED OR
OCCUPIED BY PROVINCIAL
GOVERNMENTS, WHILE AT THE SAME
TIME, NEGLECTING OUR COMMON
ECONOMIC SPACE.
GLOBALIZATION PRESENTS GREAT
OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
FOR CANADIANS.
UNFORTUNATELY, OUR EXISTING
FEDERAL SYSTEM IS POORLY
ALIGNED WITH THESE
OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES.
I WOULD SUGGEST, FOR EXAMPLE,
THAT A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
PREOCCUPATION WITH WAIT TIMES
FOR HIP REPLACEMENT SURGERY, IS
NOT A STRATEGY DESIGNED TO
EQUIP CANADIANS FOR THE
OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF
GLOBALIZATION.
WELL IF THIS IS THE PROBLEM, WHAT'S THE
SOLUTION?
IN THE PAPER I RECOMMEND THAT
THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
REENGAGE IN THE MANAGEMENT,
PROTECTION AND PROMOTION OF OUR
COMMON ECONOMIC SPACE.
THAT THE GOVERNMENT FIND THE POLICY
SPACE AND CAPACITY FOR THIS
REENGAGEMENT BY DISENGAGING
ITSELF FROM THE MANAGEMENT OF
THE SOCIAL SPACE BEST LEFT TO
PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTS, AND
THIRDLY, THAT THE GOVERNMENT OF
CANADA RETREAT FROM PLAY SPACE
PROGRAMMING AND FOCUS INSTEAD
ON HIGHLY MOBILE HUMAN CAPITAL.
AND I SUGGEST WHEN THESE
RECOMMENDATIONS ARE BUNDLED
TOGETHER, THEY FOR THE CASE FOR
A NEW NATIONAL POLICY.
NOW IT MAY SEEM STRANGE TO HAVE
A WESTERN CANADIAN ARGUING FOR
A NEW NATIONAL POLICY.
WESTERN CANADIANS ARE VERY WARY
ABOUT THE ADJECTIVE NATIONAL.
WHENEVER YOU SEE NATIONAL AS AN
ADJECTIVE, YOU REACH FOR YOUR
MUSKET.
AND OF COURSE, WHENEVER
ALBERTANS TRAVEL OUTSIDE THE
PROVINCE, THEY TAKE AN OATH TO
MENTION THE NATIONAL ENERGY
PROGRAM AT LEAST TWICE.

[Audience laughter]

Roger continues SO THAT'S ONCE, THAT'S ONCE.
HOWEVER, I ARGUE IN THE PAPER,
THAT A NEW NATIONAL POLICY
COULD BE CONGRUENT WITH THE
WESTERN CANADIAN EXPERIENCE,
AND COULD BE CONGRUENT WITH THE
PUBLIC POLICY REALITIES IN AN
ERA OF NAFTA, WTO AND
GLOBALIZATION.
SO WHAT WOULD A NEW NATIONAL
POLICY LOOK LIKE?
FIRST, THERE'S A NEED FOR A
STRATEGIC FOCUS.
JUST BECAUSE SOMETHING IS
IMPORTANT FOR CANADIANS, DOES
NOT MEAN THAT ITHOULD BE
IMPORTANT FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF
CANADA.
I WOULD ARGUE THAT WE HAVE HAD,
AND HAVE SUFFERED FROM A POLL
DRIVEN NATIONAL AGENDA.
IF SURGICAL WAIT TIMES ARE
IMPORTANT FOR CANADIANS, IN
ROLLS THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT.
THIS IS NO WAY TO PREPARE
CANADIANS FOR GLOBAL
COMPETITION.
SECOND, WE NEED TO GO BACK TO
THE FUTURE.
BACK TO THE CORE ECONOMIC
RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE
NATIONAL GOVERNMENT.
BACK TO SUCH THINGS AS
TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE.
WE HAVE TO LOOK AT
TRANSPORTATION... LOOK AT THE
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM AS
SOMETHING MORE THAN A SOURCE OF
REVENUES, A SOURCE OF TAXES,
AND RENTS.
WE HAVE TO GO BACK TO BUILDING
THE CONNECTIVITY BETWEEN CANADA
AND GLOBAL MARKETS.
I FIND IT APPALLING, FOR
EXAMPLE, THAT WE STILL LACK A
DIVIDED HIGHWAY THAT GOES FROM
COAST TO COAST, NEVER MIND THE
THIRD COAST.
IT'S AS IF SIR JOHN A.
MacDONALD, WHEN ASKED ABOUT
BUILDING A RAILWAY, SAID WELL
LET'S WAIT, THE AMERICANS WILL
BUILD ONE, AND WE CAN BORROW
THEIRS.
I DON'T THINK THE COUNTRY WOULD
BE IN GREAT SHAPE.
WE HAVE TO DEVOTE MORE
RESOURCES TO IMMIGRATION, A
NATURAL FIELD FOR THE FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT.
WE HAVE TO INVEST MORE IN NEW
CANADIANS THAN WE DO, AND WE
HAVE TO MAKE SURE THAT FEDERAL
INVESTMENT FOLLOWS IMMIGRANTS
AS THEY MOVE ACROSS THE
COUNTRY.
AND OF COURSE, THE FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT MUST ADDRESS ITS
VERY DIFFICULT SET OF
OBLIGATIONS FOR ABORIGINAL
PEOPLES, BUT THAT MEANS A
GREATER FOCUS ON URBAN AND OFF
RESERVE ABORIGINAL PEOPLES AND
A GREATER FOCUS ON INDIVIDUAL
SKILLS, RATHER THAN ON
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT.
THIRD, THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA
SHOULD CREATE SOME POLICY ROOM
AND CAPACITY FOR ITSELF BY
PULLING BACK, AND I MEAN
PULLING BACK, NOT WITHDRAWING,
FROM SOCIAL POLICY SPACE MORE
APPROPRIATELY LEFT TO
PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL
GOVERNMENTS.
HEALTH CARE, FOR EXAMPLE, IS
INHERENTLY LOCAL.
WHAT MATTERS TO ME IN HEALTH
CARE ARE THE FACILITIES I HAVE
WITHIN 20 MINUTES OF MY HOUSE
AND WHERE I WORK.
I'M NOT SURE THAT DAYCARE IS A
RESPONSIBILITY, AN APPROPRIATE
RESPONSIBILITY OF THE FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT, AND I'M NOT SURE
THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD
BE INVOLVED IN MICRO-ECONOMIC
MANAGEMENT.
WE HAVE OVER 200 INSPECTORS
FROM OCEANS AND FISHERIES
CANADA IN ALBERTA.
ALBERTA IS A LONG WAY FROM THE
COAST, ANY COAST.
IT'S NOT QUITE CLEAR WHAT'S
GOING ON.
FOURTH, AND PERHAPS THE MOST
CONTENTIOUS, THE GOVERNMENT OF
CANADA SHOULD BECOME MUCH MORE
HEAVILY INVOLVED IN POST-
SECONDARY EDUCATION.
NOT SIMPLY TO FUND RESEARCH,
BUT TO FUND THE SYSTEM AS A
WHOLE.
LET ME GIVE YOU A VERY BRIEF
EXAMPLE HERE.
SASKATCHEWAN HAS EXCELLENT
UNIVERSITIES, THE UNIVERSITY OF
SASKATCHEWAN, AND THE
UNIVERSITY OF REGINA.
THOSE UNIVERSITIES TRAIN PEOPLE
IN SASKATCHEWAN FOR THE
NATIONAL LABOUR FORCE.
THEY, IN A SENSE, OFTEN GIVE
PEOPLE THE SKILLS THEY NEED TO
LEAVE SASKATCHEWAN.
IT MAKES NO SENSE FOR THE
GOVERNMENT OF SASKATCHEWAN TO
SUPPORT THE UNIVERSITY SYSTEM
TO PROVIDE EXCELLENCE, BUT IT
MAKES EVERY SENSE FOR THE
GOVERNMENT OF CANADA TO ENSURE
THAT THERE ARE EXCELLENT
UNIVERSITIES IN SASKATCHEWAN,
AND THEREBY CONTRIBUTE TO THE
NATIONAL LABOUR FORCE.
SO TO SUMMARISE THIS VERY QUICK
PRESENTATION, THERE IS A NEED
FOR A STRATEGIC FOCUS.
WE MUST GET AWAY FROM THE
BELIEF THAT NO MATTER WHAT THE
POLICY NAIL HAPPENS TO BE,
OTTAWA SHOULD BE THE POLICY
HAMMER.
AND WE HAVE TO AVOID THE
CANADIAN DISEASE, WHICH I WOULD
DESCRIBE AS DOING THE RIGHT
THING, BUT DOING IT WITH SO FEW
RESOURCES THAT WE HAVE NO
EFFECT.
AND LET ME GIVE YOU ONE
EXAMPLE, JUST TO PICK ON ONE,
WE HAVE THE PACIFIC GATEWAY
INITIATIVE, BROUGHT IN BY THE
LAST GOVERNMENT, AND CONFIRMED
BY THE PRESENT GOVERNMENT.
THIS IS AN INITIATIVE DESIGNED
TO HELP CANADA CONNECT TO A
MARKET OF ALMOST 3 BILLION
PEOPLE, TO CONNECT TO
INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN
CANADA, AND WE'RE PUTTING INTO
THIS, 491 MILLION dollars OVER EIGHT YEARS.
WORKS OUT TO 2 dollars PER CAPITA PER
YEAR... HALF A LATTE.
I DON'T THINK THAT'S A
PROPORTIONATE RESPONSE TO THE
SCALE OF OPPORTUNITY WE FACE
WITH ASIA PACIFIC MARKETS.
SO WE NEED TO BE BOLDER THAN WE
ARE NOW, WE HAVE TO BE MORE
VISIONARY.
NOW I MENTIONED A HINT OF PLUM,
WHERE DOES THIS SORT OF WHIFF
OF INSTITUTIONAL REFORM COME
IN?
WELL VERY SIMPLY, THE WESTERN
CANADIAN EXPERIENCE SHOWS THAT
WHERE WE GET INTO TROUBLE IS
WHERE WE PURSUE NATIONAL
POLICIES WITH NATIONAL
GOVERNMENTS THAT ARE NOT TRULY
NATIONAL IN CHARACTER.
WITNESS THE NEP... THAT'S
TWICE, I CAN GO HOME.

[Audience laughter]

Roger continues SO TO CONCLUDE, IF THE
GOVERNMENT OF CANADA REFUSES TO
LIMIT ITS TERMS OF POLICY
ENGAGEMENT, IF IT CONTINUES TO
KEEP A FINGER IN EVERY
CONCEIVABLE POLICY POT, THEN WE
WILL CONTINUE TO DO MANY OF THE
RIGHT THINGS BUT WITHOUT ENOUGH
COMMITMENT OR RESOURCES TO MAKE
A DIFFERENCE.
WE NEED FOCUS AND BOLDNESS FROM
THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA, AND
WE NEED A NEW NATIONAL POLICY.
THE ALTERNATIVE IS TO SIT ON
THE CURB WAVING OUR FLAG, AS
THE GLOBAL PARADE PASSES BY.
THANK YOU VERY MUCH.

[Applause]

The caption changes to "Janice Stein. Director, Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto."

Janice is in her sixties, with short gray hair. She's wearing a white blazer over a red blouse.

She says LET ME START
OUT TONIGHT BY AGREEING WITH
MUCH OF WHAT ROGER GIBBINS HAS
HAD TO SAY.
THE ANALOGY OF ALIGNMENT IS ABSOLUTELY CORRECT.
THE CANADIAN FEDERAL
ARCHITECTURE IS OUT OF WHACK,
SERIOUSLY MISALIGNED.
THAT'S WHERE THE PICASSO
ANALOGY COMES FROM, BY THE WAY,
IF YOU WERE WONDERING, IF YOU
LOOK AT A PICASSO PAINTING, THE
TWO SIDES, OR THE PARTS OF IT
DON'T ALWAYS MATCH.
PROVINCES HAVE INSUFFICIENT
REVENUES AND OVERLY BURDENSOME
RESPONSIBILITIES, AND THAT HAS
BEEN THE CASE FOR THE LAST
DECADE.
IT'S WOVEN BACK AND FORTH, BUT
THAT IS CERTAINLY TRUE OF OUR
PROVINCES.
THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, AND I
HAD A WONDERFUL TIME PLAYING
WITH THIS, SPEAKS WITH ONE
VOICE AT HOME, IT IS DEEPLY
MULTILATERALIST, BELIEVES IN
THE RULE OF LAW, SPEAKS OF
GLOBAL REGIMES, COMES BACK HOME
AND REPEATEDLY ENGAGES IN
UNILATERALISM.
THE THIRD AREA, OF COURSE, IS
OUR CITIES, WHICH ROGER HAS
ALREADY TALKED ABOUT.
THEY HAVE NO VOICE, AND
FINALLY, THE MOST SERIOUS
MISMATCH GOING FORWARD, IS
BETWEEN A SURGING GLOBAL
ECONOMY AND A CANADIAN FEDERAL
ARCHITECTURE WHICH IS 150 YEARS
OLD.
THERE IS A LOT OF STRESS AND
STRAIN IN THIS STRUCTURE.
WHERE I DON'T AGREE WITH MY
FRIEND ROGER IS, HOWEVER IN HIS
PRESCRIPTION.
THERE IS A NEATNESS AND AN
ELEGANCE TO IT, SEPARATE THE
ROLES, SEPARATE THE
RESPONSIBILITIES, GIVE THE
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, AND I'LL
USE FEDERAL, NOT NATIONAL, BUT
GIVE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
CONTROL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC
SPACE, AND GIVE THE PROVINCES
RESPONSIBILITIES AND REVENUES
FOR SOCIAL POLICY.
AND I REALLY WANT TO MAKE TWO
POINTS TONIGHT.
WE CAN'T DO IT IN PRACTICE,
IT'S AN UNDOABLE PROJECT.
AND THE SECOND POINT, I DON'T
THINK WE SHOULD DO IT, EVEN IF
WE COULD.
THE REASON WHY, GLOBALIZATION
IS, IN FACT, CREATING A WORLD,
OF MESSY JURISDICTIONAL
OVERLAPS.
ALMOST EVERYWHERE, THE
SOCIETIES THAT THRIVE IN GLOBAL
SOCIETY AND GLOBAL ECONOMY ARE
THOSE WHO NAVIGATE WELL THROUGH
THOSE JURISDICTIONAL OVERLAPS,
ARE CREATIVE AND WORK IN WHAT I
CALL, NETWORK, A GRID.
THEY MOVE ALONG MULTIPLE TRACKS
AT ONE TIME, RATHER THAN TWO
NEATLY DESIGNED CLEAN STRAIGHT
SEPARATE TRACKS.
LET ME GIVE YOU A FEW EXAMPLES OF WHY I
DON'T THINK WE CAN DO IT, AND
ROGER AND ALLAN HAVE ALREADY
MENTIONED ONE, CITIES.
IT IS IN OUR
CITIES IN THIS COUNTRY, THAT
ALL JURISDICTIONS COME
TOGETHER.
WE ALL KNOW THAT CANADA'S
PRODUCTIVITY, INNOVATION WILL
IN FACT DEPEND DRAMATICALLY ON
WHAT HAPPENS TO OUR CITIES OVER
THE NEXT TEN YEARS, AND WHAT
HAPPENS IN OUR CITIES WILL BE A
FUNCTION OF IMMIGRATION.
THAT IS A CONCURRENT
RESPONSIBILITY SHARED BY THE
PROVINCES AND THE FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT.
TODAY, IMMIGRANTS WHO COME TO
CANADA SETTLE OVERWHELMINGLY IN
CITIES.
SETTLEMENT STRATEGIES ARE
PROVINCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES,
AND SO THE PROVINCES AND THE
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT HAVE TO
SPEAK TO EACH OTHER AND HAVE TO
COORDINATE POLICY SINCE
IMMIGRATION AND SETTLEMENT ARE
SIAMESE TWINS.
SO IS CREDENTIALING NEW
IMMIGRANTS, ONE OF THE BIGGEST
CHALLENGES WE FACE IN THIS
COUNTRY IF WE ARE GOING TO MAKE
THE BEST USE OF THE HUMAN
CAPITAL THAT WE HAVE.
HISTORICALLY THAT HAS BEEN A
PROVINCIAL ISSUE AND A FUNCTION
OF PROVINCIAL ASSOCIATIONS.
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION AND
INFRASTRUCTURE, A MIXTURE.
STRATEGIC INFRASTRUCTURE, A
FEDERAL RESPONSIBILITY, OTHER
KINDS OF INFRASTRUCTURE, A
PROVINCIAL RESPONSIBILITY.
CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS, A
MIXTURE OF FEDERAL POLICY
PROVINCIAL INNOVATION, NO CLEAR
DIVIDING LINES AND MANY OF OUR
BEST CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS GET
SUPPORT FROM ALL THREE LEVELS
OF GOVERNMENT.
IF WE TAKE ONLY THAT ONE
EXAMPLE, AND THIS IS A KEY
EXAMPLE, BECAUSE IT WILL DEFINE
OUR CAPACITY TO COMPETE IN THE
GLOBAL ECONOMY TO BECOME MORE
PRODUCTIVE AND MORE PROSPEROUS.
THESE OVERLAPPING JURISDICTIONS
ARE SO ENTANGLED, THAT TO
ATTEMPT TO DISENTANGLE THEM
WOULD NOT ONLY BE AN EXERCISE
IN FUTILITY, WON'T BE THE FIRST
TIME THAT WE CANADIANS HAVE
ENGAGED IN AN EXERCISE IN
FUTILITY, BUT WE WOULD PROBABLY
MISS A LOT OF THE OPPORTUNITIES
THAT COME FROM THE FRACTIOUS
BUMPING UP AGAINST EACH OTHER.
WELL IF I'M SAYING WE CAN'T DO
IT, WHAT CAN WE DO, AND I THINK
WE'RE ON THE WAY TO DOING WHAT
WE NEED TO DO.
WE JUST NEED TO DO IT A LOT
MORE AND A LOT BETTER.
AND WHAT I WANT TO ARGUE
TONIGHT FOR IS WHAT I CALL,
NETWORKED FEDERALISM.
IF YOU THINK, AND I USE THE
ANALOGY OF A MONDRIAN PAINTING,
A GRID, RATHER THAN
MISALIGNMENT, WE NEED TO BE
ABLE TO MOVE ALONG MULTIPLE
ROUTES, AND THAT, OF COURSE, IS
WHAT HAS MADE INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY SO DYNAMIC.
IT IS THE FRONTIER OF
INNOVATION IN THE LAST TEN
YEARS.
IF YOU THINK ABOUT THE INTERNET
FOR ONE EXAMPLE, WHEN YOU SEND
A MESSAGE ALONG THE INTERNET...
E-MAIL, WHAT ARE YOU DOING?
YOU'RE BREAKING UP THAT MESSAGE
INTO MULTIPLE PACKETS OF
INFORMATION THAT MOVE ALONG A
NETWORK, SO IF ONE OF YOU TURNS
OFF YOUR COMPUTER AND THAT NODE
IS OFFLINE, IT DOESN'T MAKE A
DIFFERENCE, THE MESSAGE STILL
GETS THROUGH.
THAT'S, I THINK THE METAPHOR
FOR WHAT WE NEED TO DO TO
CREATE A FAR MORE DYNAMIC
POLICY MAKING STRUCTURE IN OUR
FEDERAL ARCHITECTURE.
WE'RE NOT ALONE IN FACING THIS
CHALLENGE, AND AS I LOOK
WORLDWIDE, WHAT'S DOING IN THE
REFORM OF FEDERALISM WORLDWIDE?
IN AUSTRALIA, THEY CALL IT THE
WHOLE OF GOVERNMENT, IN EUROPE,
THEY TALK ABOUT MULTI-LEVEL
GOVERNANCE, BUT IT'S THE SAME
THING.
IT DOESN'T MATTER WHAT LANGUAGE
WE USE.
FOR HARD AND COMPLEX PROBLEMS,
THE RESOURCES, THE EXPERTISE,
AND THE JURISDICTIONAL LEVEL OF
ALL LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT, HAVE
TO COME TOGETHER ALONG WITH
WHAT ALLAN SPOKE ABOUT, THE
CAPACITY TO INNOVATE AND THE
KNOWLEDGE THAT EXISTS IN THE
PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE
VOLUNTARY SECTOR AS WELL.
WE HAVE TO KNIT TOGETHER RATHER
THAN PULL APART.
HOW WOULD THIS WORK?
LET ME GIVE YOU ONE MORE
EXAMPLE.
WHEN THERE ARE EXCLUSIVE POLICY
JURISDICTIONS, ACCORDING TO OUR
CONSTITUTION, NO PROBLEM,
DEFENCE.
BUT TAKE PUBLIC SECURITY, AN
ISSUE THAT IS MUCH ON OUR
AGENDA.
OUR PREMIERS HAVE JUST LEFT A
SUMMIT IN GIMLEY MANITOBA,
WHERE PREMIERS... PREMIERS ARE
DISCUSSING PUBLIC SECURITY,
BORDERS AND PASSPORTS.
WHY DO THEY DO THIS?
BECAUSE IT IS OF KEY IMPORTANCE
TO THEM, AND THEY'VE MET WITH
GOVERNORS AND OFFICIALS FROM
MEXICO, AND THE CANADIAN PM,
WHO JOINED THE PREMIERS'
MEETING.
THIS ALL IN AN AREA OF FEDERAL
JURISDICTION WHERE, IN FACT,
THE PROVINCES HAVE BEEN A LEAD
PLAYER.
WHEN WE LOOK AT THE ROLL OF
CITIES, AND THE CONFERENCE
BOARD IS LEADING THE WAY HERE,
IT IS ASTONISHING, IN FACT, HOW
MUCH MULTILEVEL GOVERNANCE IS
GOING ON BENEATH THE SURFACE.
AND THE GOVERNMENT OF ONTARIO
HAS TAKEN THE LEAD, I THINK, AT
A PATH BREAKING EFFORT IN THE
NEW CITY OF TORONTO ACT, TO
OFFICIALLY GIVE THE CITY OF
TORONTO SHARED POLICY SPACE,
NOT JUST SERVICE DELIVERY, BUT
ACTUALLY A ROLE IN POLICY
DEVELOPMENT.
LET ME MAKE ONE QUICK LAST
POINT, AND I KNOW I'M RUNNING
OUT OF TIME.
WE NEED SOMETHING ELSE IN THIS
COUNTRY.
OUR SOCIAL NETWORKS, THE STICKY
NETWORKS OF PEOPLE WHO WORK IN
GOVERNMENT, PARTICULARLY THE
SENIOR LEVELS OF THE CIVIL
SERVANTS, ARE BREAKING DOWN.
AND THESE STICKY NETWORKS ARE
CRUCIAL TO THE RUNNING OF WHAT
I CALL NETWORK FEDERALISM.
THEY'RE BREAKING DOWN, TO BE
BLUNT, BECAUSE OUR FEDERAL
CIVIL SERVICE IS NOW PARALYSED.
WE'VE TAKEN A HAMMER OF
ACCOUNTABILITY TO A PEANUT OF A
PROBLEM.
AND WE'VE IGNORED THE MUCH
BIGGER PROBLEM, WHICH IS THE
RISK AVERSITY WHICH OUR BEST
AND MOST TALENTED PEOPLE FACE.
IF WE THINK ABOUT WHAT CAN
CRIPPLE US AS WE SEEK TO
COMPETE, TO BE INNOVATIVE, TO
DRAW ON OUR BEST TALENT, A
PARALYSED AND TERRORISED SENIOR
CIVIL SERVICE IS PROBABLY OUR
BIGGEST HANDICAP GOING FORWARD.
NO CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM WILL
FIX THAT, NO INSTITUTIONAL
REFORM WILL FIX THAT.
A HEALTHY DOSE OF COMMON SENSE
AND TRUST IN THE HIGH QUALITY
OF CIVIL SERVICE THAT WE HAVE
AT THE PROVINCIAL LEVEL, AND
THE FEDERAL LEVEL WOULD BE A
VERY IMPORTANT STEP FORWARD.
TWO LAST COMMENTS DESIGNED TO
PROVOKE, ALL RIGHT?
HERE THEY ARE.
DESPITE MY FRIEND ROGER'S
RESPECT FOR ORDER, AND HE SAYS,
I DISAGREE WITH YOU, JANICE.
I BELIEVE THAT OUT OF CHAOS
COMES CHAOS, I ACTUALLY DON'T.
THE LEADERS, GLOBALLY, IN
INNOVATION, THE SOCIETIES THAT
WILL DO BEST, ARE THOSE WHO
FUNCTION WELL IN AN
ARCHITECTURE OF COMPLEXITY, SEE
THE UNDERLYING PATTERNS,
REORGANISE, RECOMBINE AND MOVE
AHEAD WHEN THEY IDENTIFY THOSE
PATTERNS.
THOSE ARE THE SOCIETIES THAT
WILL ATTRACT THE MOST CREATIVE
PEOPLE, AND THOSE ARE THE
SOCIETIES THAT WILL LEAD IN THE
GLOBAL ECONOMY.
WE CAN BE THAT, BUT WE NEED TO
LOOSEN UP.
HERE'S MY LAST COMMENT.
JURISDICTIONAL ARGUMENTS, OF
WHICH WE ARE SO GOOD IN THIS
COUNTRY, SILO ARRANGEMENTS
REFLECT THE PAST NOT THE
FUTURE.
THEY SLOW ACCESS BY GOVERNMENT
TO NEW INFORMATION, AND NEW
IDEAS.
JUST THINK ABOUT 9-11.
THEY LEAD TO A LAG IN POLICY
RESPONSIVENESS.
WHAT I HAVE CALLED NETWORK
FEDERALISM IS JUST ONE APPROACH
TO BRINGING LAGGER GOVERNMENTS
UP TO SPEED WITH THEIR
SOCIETIES AND WITH THE GLOBAL
ECONOMY.
TIME IS PRESSING, FRIENDS, JUST
IN TIME DELIVERY IS HERE.
THANK YOU.

[Applause]

The caption changes to "Antonia Maioni. Director, McGill Institute for the Study of Canada."

Antonia is in her thirties, with short wavy black hair. She's wearing a black blazer over a white shirt.

She says I GOT
CARRIED AWAY WITH PICASSO AND
HIS BLUE PERIOD.
I ACTUALLY WENT BACK TO MY ART
HISTORY BOOKS, TOOK THEM ALL
OUT AND PORED OVER THEM.
AND THE STORY THAT I WANT TO TELL THIS
EVENING IS ONE ABOUT PICASSO
QUEBEC AND THE BLUE PERIOD.
FOR PICASSO, THE BLUE PERIOD
WAS ONE OF EXCEPTIONAL ARTISTIC
PRODUCTION.
HE ACTUALLY GAINED A GREAT
DEGREE OF COMMERCIAL SUCCESS IN
THIS ERA.
BUT FOR HIM AS AN ARTIST, IT
WAS A TROUBLED PERIOD.
HE WAS SEARCHING FOR HIMSELF.
HIS PAINTINGS ARE VERY
HAUNTING, MELANCHOLY.
IN OTHER WORDS, THE ARTIST HAD
THE BLUES.
AND THE WAY HE EVENTUALLY
EMERGED OUT OF THESE BLUES WAS
TO INVENT CUBISM, WHICH WOULD
BECOME HIS ENDURING LEGACY.
WHEN I WAS ASKED TO FOCUS ON
QUEBEC IN THE CANADIAN
FEDERATION, AND TO THINK ABOUT
QUEBEC IN THIS BLUE PERIOD, I
THOUGHT THAT QUEBEC WAS IN THE
BLUE PERIOD TO STAY.
I THINK THAT NOW QUEBEC IS
EMERGING FROM ITS BLUE PERIOD,
BUT I STILL, IN MY PAPER, TRY
TO POSE A DIAGNOSTIC ON HOW WE
GOT TO WHERE WE ARE.
AND THOSE OF YOU WHO KNOW THAT
I'M ACTUALLY AN EXPERT IN
HEALTH CARE MORE THAN ANYTHING
ELSE, WILL UNDERSTAND WHERE
THAT COMES FROM.
WHY IS IT THAT QUEBEC SEEMS TO
HAVE THE BLUES IN THE CANADIAN
FEDERATION, AND THAT FOR SO
MANY YEARS, NEITHER QUEBEC NOR
CANADA SEEMED TO MOVE BEYOND
THIS PERIOD.
PART OF THE PROBLEM, I WOULD
SUGGEST, HAS BEEN A
MISDIAGNOSIS OF QUEBEC'S NEEDS
FOR LINGUISTIC, CULTURAL AND
FISCAL SECURITY WITHIN THE
CANADIAN FEDERATION, AND OF
QUEBEC'S POLITICAL REALITIES ON
THE GROUND.
MANY, MANY YEARS AGO, PRIME
MINISTER DIEFENBAKER ASKED,
"WHAT DOES QUEBEC WANT?"
IT'S BECOME THIS ICONIC LAMENT
FOR CANADIANS OUTSIDE OF
CANADA, BUT IT SEEMS REALLY
STRANGE TO QUEBECERS NOW, AS IT
DID THEN.
JUST AS ANYWHERE ELSE,
INDIVIDUAL QUEBECERS WANT MANY,
MANY DIFFERENT THINGS.
AND THERE'S A DIVERGENCE OF
OPINION IN QUEBEC ABOUT ITS
ROLE IN, AND RELATIONSHIP TO
CANADA.
THERE'S A DIVERGENCE OF OPINION
IN QUEBEC ABOUT THE
APPARTENANCE
WHICH
NATION THEY ACTUALLY BELONG TO,
BUT THERE'S A CERTAIN
CONVERGENCE AROUND SOME BASIC
ISSUES.
IN ONE FEDERAL ELECTION AFTER
ANOTHER, AND IN ONE REFERENDUM
AFTER ANOTHER, THE MAJORITY OF
QUEBECERS HAVE BEEN REMARKABLY
CONSISTENT ABOUT WHAT THEY
WANT, NAMELY SOME KIND OF
FEDERAL ARRANGEMENT THAT WILL
REFLECT WHAT THEY PERCEIVE TO
BE THEIR COLLECTIVE DIFFERENCE
IN THE CANADIAN FEDERATION.
WHAT REMAINS UNCLEAR IS THE
EXACT FORM OF THOSE POLITICAL
OPTIONS, AND WHAT COULD DRIVE A
FEDERALIST ENGINE IN QUEBEC,
AND IT PRESENTS A REAL
CONUNDRUM.
I DON'T HAVE TO TELL PEOPLE IN
OTTAWA THAT THE MINIMUM AMOUNT
OF CHANGE THAT QUEBECERS AND
MOST OF THEIR FEDERALIST
LEADERS WOULD ADHERE TO, HAS
TURNED OUT TO BE MORE THAN WHAT
THE CANADIAN POLITICAL PROCESS
COULD ACCOMMODATE.
FOR AT LEAST
THE PAST GENERATION, EACH
ATTEMPT TO ADDRESS THESE ISSUES
THAT INITIALLY CAPTURED
QUEBECERS' SUPPORT, STARTED
FROM THE CRUCIAL STEP OF
CHANGING THE FEDERATION IN A
WAY THAT COULD ACCOMMODATE THE
FUNDAMENTAL ESSENCE OF QUEBEC
IN CANADA.
FROM LESTER
PEARSON'S FLEDGLING
ASYMMETRICAL FEDERALISM IN THE
1960s, TO THE PROMISES OF
PIERRE TRUDEAU ON THE EVEN OF
THE 1980 REFERENDUM, TO THE
GRAND DESIGNS OF BRIAN MULRONEY
AT MEECH LAKE, THERE'S A LOT OF
GHOSTS IN THAT PARTICULAR BODY
OF WATER...
AND STEPHEN HARPER'S LESS
GRANDIOSE CONCEPTS OF AN OPEN
FEDERALISM.
IT HAS BEEN THE FAILURE TO LIVE
UP TO THESE EXPECTATIONS THAT
HAS MADE THE BLUES A QUASI-
PERMANENT FIXTURE OF QUEBEC-
OTTAWA RELATIONS IN A WAY, I
WOULD SUGGEST, IS FUNDAMENTALLY
DIFFERENT FROM OTHER FEDERAL-
PROVINCIAL TENSIONS.
AND IT HAS PROVIDED THE FUEL
FOR THE SOVEREIGNTY MOVEMENT TO
REENERGISE ITSELF CONTINUALLY
INSIDE QUEBEC.
WHAT I TRY TO DO IN THE PAPER
IS TO RECAST THE QUESTION, WHAT
DOES QUEBEC WANT, INTO A MORE
ESSENTIAL ONE, "WHAT DOES
QUEBEC NEED?"
PERHAPS WHAT QUEBECERS WANT IS
INDEED WHAT THEY FEEL QUEBEC
NEEDS TO ACHIEVE BROADER AND
MORE FUNDAMENTAL CULTURAL ,
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL GOALS,
AND TO ACHIEVE FUTURE
PROSPERITY.
THE DEMANDS THAT CANADIANS
OUTSIDE QUEBEC OFTEN FIND
EXASPERATING, AND YOU CAN
UNDERSTAND WHY, MIGHT THUS BE
MORE FRUITFULLY UNDERSTOOD AS
NEEDS THAT QUEBECERS SEE AS
ESSENTIAL TO THEIR CULTURAL
AFFIRMATION, THEIR ECONOMIC
PROSPERITY AND THEIR CAPACITY
TO MAKE SOCIETAL CHOICES AND TO
FUNDAMENTALLY BE PART OF CA...
CANADA... EXCUSE ME.
THE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC OPINION
IN QUEBEC REVEAL SOVEREIGNTY
AND FEDERALISM REMAIN TWO
DISTINCT OPTIONS FOR QUEBECERS
AND TWO DISTINCT OPTIONS AROUND
WHICH MANY QUEBECERS FALL.
THE VAST MAJORITY UNDERSTAND
THAT FUNDAMENTAL DISTINCTION,
EITHER QUEBEC IS SOVEREIGN OR
IT IS NOT, IT IS PART OF CANADA
IN SOME WAY, AND THAT BEING
SAID, THERE IS A CONTINUUM
WITHIN WHICH PEOPLE FIND THEIR
PLACE.
AND I THINK THAT IF THIS
ELASTICITY COULD BE STRETCHED
TO THINK ABOUT FEDERALISM NOT
AS AN IDEOLOGY, NOT AS AN END
GAME, BUT AS A MEANS TO ACHIEVE
SOMETHING, THEN WE CAN MAKE
SOME PROGRESS IN THE CANADIAN
FEDERATION.
QUEBEC'S BLUES OBVIOUSLY HAVE
TO BE ADDRESSED FIRST FROM
WITHIN.
AND LAST FALL, THERE BEGAN IN
QUEBEC AN AMAZING DIALOGUE
ABOUT WHERE QUEBEC'S ECONOMIC
AND SOCIAL FUTURE SHOULD BE.
IT WAS A DIALOGUE IN WHICH,
SOME WOULD SAY, QUEBEC NEEDED
SOME CLEAR-EYED THINKING,
LA LUCIDITEE.
OTHERS, WHO WANTED TO SEE
QUEBEC REMAIN FAITHFUL TO IT'S
SOLIDAIRE
PAST.
WHETHER QUEBEC SHOULD HAVE MORE
OR LESS PRIVATE INVESTMENT,
MORE OR LESS ROBUST SOCIAL
PROGRAMS.
THIS DEBATE WAS EXTRAORDINARY
ON MANY LEVELS.
MAINLY BECAUSE IT WAS A NON-
PARTISAN, IT CROSSED THE
PARTISAN DIVIDE, BUT ALSO THAT
THE DEBATE HAPPENED WITHOUT SO
MUCH AS MENTIONING EITHER
SOVEREIGNTY OR FEDERALISM.
IN FACT, THE POINT OF THE
EXERCISE WAS TO DEBATE THE KIND
OF SOCIETY THAT QUEBEC SHOULD
ENDEAVOUR TO BECOME.
IF QUEBECERS ARE READY TO FIGHT
FOR ONE POLITICAL FUTURE OR
ANOTHER, WHAT VISION OF QUEBEC
ARE THEY, IN FACT, FIGHTING
FOR?
I THINK THIS IS THE KIND OF
DEBATE THAT HAS TO HAPPEN IN
CANADA AS WELL.
RECAST IN THIS WAY, THE FUTURE
OF QUEBEC AND CANADIAN
FEDERALISM IS ALSO A QUESTION
OF WHAT DOES CANADA WANT?
I THINK A LARGER QUESTION IS
WHETHER CANADIANS OUTSIDE
QUEBEC ARE WILLING TO ACCEPT
QUEBEC'S NEEDS AS LEGITIMATE.
IS THERE A WAY TO CONSIDER THAT
QUEBEC'S NEEDS ARE REAL AND
NECESSARY FOR CANADA AS A
WHOLE?
IN 1995, THAT'S ONLY 10 YEARS
AGO, IN THE FINAL INSTANCE,
QUEBECERS DID CHOOSE CANADA,
AND SINCE THEN LITTLE HAS
HAPPENED.
I WOULD MAYBE EXEMPT ALL
PRESENT COMPANY FROM THIS ROOM,
BUT THERE HAS BEEN A FAILURE OF
FEDERALIST POLITICAL LEADERSHIP
ABOUT QUEBEC SINCE THEN.
WE'RE ENTERING A POST
REFERENDUM ERA NOW IN WHICH
THAT LOGJAM HAS BEEN BROKEN.
THERE IS A NEW FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT HERE, THERE IS A
REVIVED DIALOGUE BETWEEN QUEBEC
CITY AND OTTAWA.
WE MAY BE AT THAT RUBICON, BUT
HIS BREAKTHROUGH I THINK STANDS
STILL ON SHIFTING SANDS.
NEW GOVERNMENT STRATEGY IN THE
REST OF CANADA SEEMS TO BE AS
MUCH AS POSSIBLE, TO LOWER
EXPECTATIONS, OR TO KEEP THEM
TO A CERTAIN NUMBER, AS WE KNOW
WHAT THAT NUMBER IS.
WHEREAS IN QUEBEC, IT'S THE
OPPOSITE, EXPECTATIONS ARE
SOARING.
STEPHEN HARPER IS THE MOST
POPULAR GUY IN QUEBEC RIGHT
NOW.
IT'S AMAZING AND IT'S TRUE.
IT'S A TRUE STORY.

[Audience laughter]

Antonia continues LET ME GO BACK TO PICASSO.
PICASSO MOVED ABRUPTLY OUT OF
HIS BLUE PERIOD INTO SOMETHING
CALLED THE ROSE PERIOD WHICH IS
WHERE I THINK QUEBEC IS NOW, OR
IS WHERE IT'S HEADING.
THE PREOCCUPATION TO CHART A
FUTURE COURSE, FOR THE ECONOMY
AND SOCIAL PROGRAMS IN QUEBEC,
THE WILLINGNESS TO ENGAGE IN A
DIALOGUE ABOUT OPEN FEDERALISM,
HEARKENS TO THIS OPENNESS, THIS
BRIGHTENING OF COLOURS,
DECENTRALISATION,
RECALIBRATION, POINTS THAT WERE
BROUGHT UP BY MY FELLOW
PANELLISTS ALL POINT TO A NEW
PALETTE OF ROSE COLOURED
FEDERALISM.
I'M WEARING ROSE, TOO, JUST IN
CASE.

[Audience laughter]

Antonia continues MY CONCERN IS THAT THIS ROSY
SCENARIO IS NOT SUSTAINABLE IN
THE LONGER TERM.
IT CERTAINLY DIDN'T LAST LONG
FOR PICASSO.
WHO WENT ON, WHO USED THIS ONLY
AS A TRADITION, TO MOVE ON TO A
REVOLUTION IN CUBISM.
IT WAS NOT A RECALIBRATION, IT
WAS A REVOLUTION.
CUBISM WAS ABOUT RECONCILING
DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES IN TWO
DIMENSIONAL SPACE.
IS THIS WHERE THE CANADIAN
FEDERATION COULD BE HEADED?
THE REALITY IS THAT FRANCOPHONE
QUEBECERS ARE INCREASINGLY
IDENTIFYING THEMSELVES AS
QUEBECERS FIRST, AS
INDIVIDUALS, AND COLLECTIVELY
TO A QUEBEC STATE AND SOCIETY
THAT IS DISTINCT IN POLITICAL,
LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL TERMS.
THIS IS BEING REINFORCED, NOT
SHAKEN BY GLOBALIZATION IN
WHICH BILINGUALISM, FOR
EXAMPLE, BECOMES A TOOL FOR
INTERNATIONAL MOBILITY AND
EXCHANGE NOT SOMETHING RELATED
TO THE CANADIAN IDENTITY.
IT ALSO MEANS THAT IN A
GLOBALIZED WORLD, INDIVIDUALS
ARE SEARCHING FOR A COLLECTIVE
MARKER AND THIS COLLECTIVE
MARKER INCREASINGLY, IS ONE
THAT ASSOCIATES WITH QUEBEC
IDENTITY.
THIS HAS TO BE SEEN AS
SOMETHING MUCH MORE COMPLEX
THAN A SERIES OF SNAPSHOTS
ABOUT THE SUPPORT FOR
SOVEREIGNTY IN QUEBEC.
THE FATAL FLAW IN OUR
DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THE FUTURE OF
CANADIAN FEDERALISM HAS ALWAYS
BEEN TO TRY AND HANG THAT
FUTURE ON READING THE TEA
LEAVES OF THE SOVEREIGNIST
MOVEMENT AND RIDING THE
ROLLERCOASTER OF SUPPORT FOR
SOVEREIGNTY IN QUEBEC'S PUBLIC
OPINION.
FOR YEARS WE HAVE BEEN GAUGING
THE HEALTH OF THE CANADIAN
FEDERATION BY CHECKING THE
PULSE OF SOVEREIGNIST SUPPORT.
IT'S TIME TO BREAK OUT OF THIS.
THE REALITY OF QUEBEC'S
DISTINCTIVE IDENTITY IS WHAT
CREATES THE NEED FOR QUEBECERS
TO BETTER UNDERSTAND WHAT IT
MEANS TO BE PART OF CANADA, BUT
ALSO THE NEED FOR MEANINGFUL
UNDERSTANDING OF QUEBEC'S
DIFFERENCE IN THE REST OF
CANADA.
THE DEMONSTRATION OF THE
BENEFITS OF CANADA IS NOW BEING
REVITALISED IN QUEBEC, IN
OTTAWA.
IT'S GAINING FORCE AND MOMENTUM
THROUGHOUT QUEBEC AND ITS
OPINION LEADERS.
THE TONE OF THIS DIALOGUE IS
MOVING TOWARD WHAT JANICE STEIN
REFERRED TO AS THE RECOGNITION
OF SHARED CHALLENGES.
QUEBEC SOCIETY FACES SIMILAR
CHALLENGES AS ELSEWHERE IN
CANADA, IN TERMS OF INVESTING
IN THE FUTURE.
THE CONTENT OF THAT DIALOGUE,
MEANWHILE, REFLECTS ROGER
GIBBINS' RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A
LESS CONSTRICTING FEDERAL
FRAMEWORK, A MORE ELASTIC
VISION OF FEDERALISM.
NEITHER OF THESE REFLECTIONS,
AND I'M NOT TRYING TO BE A
PARTY POOPER, BUT NEITHER OF
THESE REFLECTIONS GETS TO THE
CRUX OF THE QUESTION ABOUT THE
OPERATIONALISATION OF QUEBEC'S
FUTURE IN THE CANADIAN
FEDERATION.
OPENING QUEBEC TO THE REST OF
CANADA REQUIRES A COMPLIMENTARY
MOVEMENT OF OPENING UP THE REST
OF CANADA TO THE REALITIES OF
MODERN QUEBEC.
THE BASIC ISSUE FOR QUEBECERS
IN THEIR ASSESSMENT OF
FEDERALISM AND SOVEREIGNTY
INVOLVES THE CAPACITY TO
EFFECTIVELY MANAGE THE
POLITICAL INSTRUMENTS THAT WILL
ALLOW THEM TO MAKE FUNDAMENTAL
CHOICES FOR A SOCIETY THAT THEY
SEE AS DIFFERENT IN MORE WAYS
THAN ONE.
IS THERE A WAY TO ACHIEVE THIS?
IT REQUIRES AN ACCEPTANCE OF
QUEBEC FOR WHAT IT IS.
FOR QUEBECERS, THAT IT IS PART
OF A LARGER CANADIAN LANDSCAPE,
FOR CANADIANS OUTSIDE OF
QUEBEC, THAT QUEBEC REPRESENTS
AN IRREVOCABLY DISTINCT PART OF
THAT LANDSCAPE.
AND IT REQUIRES AN ENDURING
COMMITMENT TO RECOGNISE AND
ALLOW FOR THE CAPACITY TO
MANAGE THIS DISTINCTIVENESS.
I KNOW IT'S UNFASHIONABLE, I
KNOW YOU'RE NOT SUPPOSED TO SAY
IT IN POLITE COMPANY, SO I
WON'T MENTION THE "C" WORD.
BUT SOONER OR LATER, THE
CONSTITUTION ELEPHANT IN THE
ROOM, TAKE YOUR PICK, WILL HAVE
TO BE ACKNOWLEDGED.
THE HISTORICAL REALITY IS THAT
LA QUESTION NATIONALE
IN QUEBEC AND THE NATIONAL
UNITY QUESTION IN THE REST OF
CANADA ARE INEXTRICABLY LINKED
UP IN CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES
ABOUT THE SHAPE OF CANADIAN
FEDERALISM.
AS LONG AS THEY ARE IGNORED,
FEDERALISM REMAINS A PARTISAN
WEAPON FOR FEDERALISTS AND
SOVEREIGNISTS ALIKE IN QUEBEC,
AND AS LONG AS THEY REMAIN IN
THE REALM OF POLITICAL GOOD
WILL, THEY ARE UNLIKELY TO
PROVIDE MUCH PROMISE FOR THE
FUTURE.
AS EXPECTATIONS ARE REVIVED IN
QUEBEC, I'M TELLING YOU, THAT
GUY, STEPHEN HARPER IS A REAL...
EVERYONE LIKES HIM, THINKS HE'S
GREAT, QUEBECERS THOUGH, SEE
THIS AS THE
OUVERTURE DU
BAL
NOT AS THE END OF
THE PARTY.
WHAT WILL HAPPEN TO POLITICAL
SENTIMENT IN THE REST OF THE
COUNTRY AT THAT POINT?
IT WILL TAKE A LOT MORE
INSPIRED LEADERSHIP FROM OTTAWA
AND ELSEWHERE IN CANADA AND A
MUCH STRONGER FEDERALIST
LEADERSHIP IN QUEBEC, WHICH IS
REALLY NOT DOING SO WELL, TO
SHAPE A DURABLE FUTURE FOR
CANADIAN FEDERALISM.
AS I SAID, PICASSO'S BLUE
PERIOD AND HIS ROSE PERIOD,
WERE ULTIMATELY FOLLOWED BY AN
ARTISTIC REVOLUTION.
THE PASSAGE TOWARD CUBISM WENT
FAR BEYOND A SIMPLE REMIX OF
EXISTING COLOURS.
IT REQUIRED LETTING GO OF PAST
CONVENTION AND CONSTRICTION, A
RECONCILIATION OF OPPOSING
PERSPECTIVES IN MULTI-
DIMENSIONAL SPACE.
WHAT WILL FOLLOW QUEBEC'S BLUE
PERIOD?
WILL THE RECOGNITION OF
QUEBEC'S NEEDS AND THE ENDURING
FEATURES OF QUEBEC'S IDENTITY
LEAD TO A REFORM OF THE
CANADIAN FEDERAL LANDSCAPE?
CAN WE THEN DEAL WITH THESE
ISSUES, RECOGNISE THEM AS
GERMAINE AND THEN MOVE ON?
OR, WILL THESE NEEDS BE
FULFILLED BY ANOTHER TYPE OF
REMAKING THAT LEADS QUEBEC INTO
ANOTHER KIND OF POLITICAL
OPTION.
THANK YOU VERY MUCH.

[Applause]

Now Allan sits with the lecturers on the stage and says
I WANT TO ASK
ALL THREE OF YOU NOW, NONE OF
YOU TALK ABOUT NATIONAL
STANDARDS.
I MEAN IF YOU LOOKED AT WHAT IS
THE SOURCE OF CANADIAN
IDENTITY, IT'S NOT THE ACTS OF
GREAT MEN OR GREAT WOMEN OR
EVEN GREAT EVENTS.
IT'S USUALLY GREAT PUBLIC
POLICY THAT HAS A COAST TO
COAST APPLICATION THAT
CANADIANS SEE AS REFLECTING
THEIR VALUES.
WHERE IS THE ROLE OF NATIONAL
STANDARDS IN YOUR VISION OF THE
FUTURE OF FEDERALISM.
WE'LL START AGAIN WITH JANICE,
THEN GO TO ROGER AND THEN
ANTONIA.

Janice says WELL ACTUALLY,
NATIONAL STANDARDS ARE KEY.
IN A SENSE, AS ROGER WAS
TALKING ABOUT FUNDS FOLLOWING
IMMIGRANTS AS THEY MOVE TO
DIFFERENT PARTS THE COUNTRIES,
I HOPE I'M NOT BEING UNFAIR,
ROGER, BUT THAT SOUNDED A
LITTLE BIT TO ME LIKE VOUCHERS.
IT'S A VOUCHER KIND OF
ARGUMENT.
AND THE RISK OF VOUCHER
ARGUMENTS IS THAT THEY
DEINSTITUTIONALISE, BECAUSE THE
FUNDING FOLLOWS PEOPLE, AND IT
WEAKENS OUR INSTITUTIONS.
ONE OF THE THINGS WE KNOW ABOUT
GLOBALIZATION, TO PUSH THE
ARGUMENT BACK UP FOR A MOMENT,
IS, THOSE SOCIETIES THAT DO
BEST GLOBALLY, ARE THOSE THAT
HAVE STRONG INSTITUTIONS.
NATIONAL STANDARDS MATTER IN
GLOBAL ECONOMY AND THEY MATTER
A GREAT DEAL.
THE FACT, FOR EXAMPLE, THAT WE
DON'T HAVE A NATIONAL
SECURITIES REGULATORY SYSTEM IN
THIS COUNTRY, WEAKENS OUR
COMPETITIVENESS GLOBALLY.
THE FACT THAT CANADIANS, WHEN
WE TALK TO THEM, WHEN WE WERE
TRAVELLING ACROSS THE COUNTRY,
AND I SURPRISED ANTONIA TODAY,
BECAUSE I TOLD HER IT WAS AS
TRUE OF QUEBECERS AS IT WAS
TRUE OF WESTERNERS AND CENTRAL
CANADIANS.
WHAT DID CANADIANS ASK FOR?
THEY SAID WHEN THEY MOVED
ACROSS THE COUNTRY, THEY GET
THE FACT THAT JOBS ARE MOVING,
AND THEY WANT TO MOVE AS WELL.
BUT WHAT DO THEY WANT?
ACCESS TO THE SAME STANDARDS OF
HEALTH CARE AND EDUCATION
PROVINCE TO PROVINCE TO
PROVINCE.
THEY SEE THEMSELVES AS
CANADIANS AS WELL HAS HAVING
PROVINCIAL LOYALTIES.
WHEN YOU GET PEOPLE AROUND THE
TABLE, THAT'S A KEY PART OF THE
DISCUSSION, WHAT'S THE NATIONAL
STANDARDS?

Allan says ROGER, DO YOU
WANT TO ADD TO THAT?
YOU SAY IN YOUR PAPER, YOU'RE
LOATHE TO EVEN CALL IT A NEW
NATIONAL POLICY BECAUSE THE
WORD "NATIONAL" HAS GOT A REAL
ODOUR ON IT IN WESTERN CANADA.

Roger says YEAH, AND I'M
NOT SURE THAT ODOUR EXTENDS TO
NATIONAL STANDARDS, BUT I MUST
SAY, MY OWN SENSE OF IDENTITY
WITH THE COUNTRY IS NOT ROOTED
IN NATIONAL STANDARDS.
I DON'T...
WHEN I GET UP IN THE MORNING,
WHAT TURNS MY CRANK IS NOT THE
THOUGHT THAT WAIT TIMES FOR
CATARACT SURGERY ARE THE SAME
ACROSS THE COUNTRY.
IT'S IRRELEVANT TO MY SENSE OF
MY COMMUNITY.
I'M MUCH MORE ENGAGED IN THE
LANDSCAPE I LIVE IN, AND THE
COMMUNITIES I LIVE IN AND THE
THINGS THAT KNIT US TOGETHER
BUT I THINK WE PUT FAR TOO MUCH
EMPHASIS ON THE ROLE THAT
NATIONAL STANDARDS PLAY IN
KNITTING US TOGETHER.
AND THE THOUGHT THAT NEW
CANADIANS MIGHT ACTUALLY HAVE
SOMETHING ANALOGOUS TO A
VOUCHER, AND THEY MIGHT BE ABLE
TO CARRY THAT SUPPORT WITH THEM
ACROSS THE COUNTRY, THE THOUGHT
THAT THAT WOULD ERODE MY SENSE
OF BEING A CANADIAN I FIND VERY
STRANGE, VERY PECULIAR.

Janice says DO I HAVE TIME
FOR ONE SENTENCE, ALTHOUGH
THAT'S UNFAIR.
IT'S NOT YOUR SENSE OF BEING
CANADIAN THAT'S ERODED, IT'S
PROVINCIAL INSTITUTIONS THAT
RECEIVE THE FUNDING FOR
IMMIGRANTS, WHICH FUNDS BASIC
INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES.

Roger says I WOULD
RATHER FUND IMMIGRANTS THAN
PROVINCIAL INSTITUTIONAL
STRUCTURES.

Janice says WELL THAT'S A
REAL LEGITIMATE DIFFERENCE.

Allan says LET ME GET IN
HERE.
I MEAN, SAVE FOR ONE TRAINING
PROGRAM, QUEBEC HAS NOT
PARTICIPATED IN A NATIONAL
PROGRAM SINCE 1964, SINCE THE
CANADA PENSION PLAN, AND THE
QUEBEC PENSION PLAN.
DOES THE NOTION OF NATIONAL
STANDARDS IN THE PROVINCE OF
QUEBEC JUST COMPLETELY
ANATHEMA?

Antonia says IF YOU LOOK
AT THE WAY QUEBECERS PERCEIVE
THEIR HEALTHCARE SYSTEM,
THERE'S NOTHING ABOUT CANADA
INVOLVED IN THAT.
THE CANADA HEALTH ACT IS NOT
GERMAINE TO THE WAY QUEBECERS
SEE THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THEIR
ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE, THE WAY
THEY SEE THE ORGANISATION AND
ADMINISTRATION OF HEALTHCARE.
THEY KNOW THE FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT IS INVOLVED IN THE
FINANCING OF HEALTHCARE, BUT
IT'S SORT OF A VILLAIN ROLE
MORE THAN ANYTHING ELSE.
QUEBEC'S STANDARDS IN
HEALTHCARE FOR EXAMPLE,
PREDATED THE CANADA HEALTH ACT.
QUEBEC OUTLAWED EXTRA BILLING
IN 1971, WHEN THE LAW CAME INTO
PLACE.
IT'S A LAW
LA LOI SURE LE
SANTE ET LES SERVICES
SOCIAUX,
QUEBEC STARTED
WITH THE MOST INTEGRATED HEALTH
AND SOCIAL SERVICES SYSTEM THAT
HAS BEEN IMITATED BUT NOT
REPLICATED ANYWHERE ACROSS
CANADA OR INDEED EVEN ACROSS
NORTH AMERICA.
SO IN EFFECT, QUEBEC SEES ITS
HEALTH CARE SYSTEM AS A
PROJECTIONS, PERHAPS THERE ARE
VALUES AND IDENTITY ATTACHED TO
IT, BUT IT IS INHERENTLY A
QUEBEC FUNCTIONING SYSTEM, AND
IT IS SOMETHING THAT IS
PROVIDED BY THE QUEBEC STATE.
THAT IS THE POINT OF REFERENCE.

[Applause]

The clip ends and Andrew Moodie reappears in the studio.

Andrew says NOW RECENTLY
MY 1 YEAR OLD DAUGHTER NEEDED
AN MRI IN A VERY TIMELY MANNER.
AND GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS WAS
NOWHERE NEAR AS IMPORTANT TO ME
AS THE WAIT TIME FOR THAT MRI.
AND I'M CERTAIN THAT A FATHER
OUT IN NEWFOUNDLAND OR QUEBEC
OR VANCOUVER WOULD FEEL THE
SAME WAY.
THAT'S HOW MANY OF US EVALUATE
THE GOODNESS AND USEFULNESS OF
FEDERALIST ARRANGEMENTS.
NOW IS THERE A COUNTRY BEYOND
THE SERVICES THAT IT PROVIDES?
IS THERE A STATE AND A HISTORY
THAT COMPELS OUR ALLEGIANCE
BEYOND THE COMFORTS THAT WE
BELIEVE ARE OUR DUE?
THE HEALTH OF OUR FEDERAL
ARRANGEMENTS DEPENDS VERY MUCH
ON HOW WE ALL ANSWER THESE
QUESTIONS.
MUCH OF WHAT WE DO ON
BIG
IDEAS
IS AVAILABLE TO
YOU AS A PODCAST.
NOW TO FIND
OUT HOW TO GET ONE, PLEASE, GO
TO OUR WEBSITE, AT...

A caption reads "www.tvo.org/bigideas"

Andrew says AND IF YOU
WANT TO RECEIVE WEEKLY UPDATES
ON THE UPCOMING PROGRAMS WE
HAVE, PLEASE SEND US AN E-MAIL AT...

The caption changes to "bigideas@tvo.org"

Andrew says NOW, PLEASE
TAKE A LOOK AT SOME OF THE
LECTURES THAT WE HAVE COMING UP
FOR YOU ON
BIG IDEAS.

A slate pops up with a title that reads "Coming up: David Herd."

It shows a clip in which David Herd, in his fifties, with glasses, addresses an audience.

He says HUMAN ACTIVITY
HAS BECOME MORE EXTENSIVE, IT
STRETCHES ACROSS SPACE.
THE ACTIVITIES THAT STRETCH
ACROSS SPACE HAVE BECOME MORE
INTENSIVE THEY ARE FASTER IN
THEIR MOVEMENT, AND THEIR
IMPACT IS OFTEN GREAT.
SO, FOR EXAMPLE, WE CAN SHOW
THAT MORE COUNTRIES AT A TIME
TRADE WITH MORE COUNTRIES,
THAT'S THE EXTENSITY OF
RELATIONS.
THEY TRADE A GREATER PROPORTION
OF THEIR GDP, THAT'S INTENSITY.
THEY TRADE WITH GREATER SPEED,
THE MOVEMENT OF GOODS AND
SERVICES, THAT'S VELOCITY, AND
THE IMPACT IS ANOTHER EMPIRICAL
MATTER.
SO I THINK THE DEEP DRIVERS OF
THIS PROCESS OF GROWING
ENMESHMENT OF COUNTRIES WITH
EACH OTHER, I THINK THEY'LL BE
OPERATIVE FOR THE FORESEEABLE
FUTURE IRRESPECTIVE OF THE
EXACT FORM POLITICAL...
OF THE EXACT POLITICAL FORM
GLOBALIZATION TAKES.
SO THE KEY ARGUMENT I WANT TO
PRESENT HERE IS THAT I THINK
GLOBALIZATION IS HERE TO STAY
AND IT'S BEING DRIVEN BY DEEP
DRIVING FORCES BUT WHAT IS NOT
NECESSARILY HERE TO STAY IS THE
POLITICAL FORM IT TAKES, THE
NATURE OF THE RULES AND
REGULATIONS AND GOVERNANCE
STRUCTURES WHICH SHAPE WHO
WINS, WHO LOSES, AND THE
OUTCOMES.

The clip ends.

Back in the studio, Andrew says I'M ANDREW MOODIE.

[Theme music plays]

The end credits roll.

bigideas@tvo.org

416-484-2746

Big Ideas. Producer, Wodek Szemberg.

Producers, Lara Hindle, Mike Miner, Gregg Thurlbeck.

Logos: Unifor, Canadian Media Guild.

A production of TVOntario. Copyright 2006, The Ontario Educational Communications Authority.

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