Transcript: Pauline Couture on her book "Ice". | May 13, 2006

Pauline Couture stands behind a wooden lectern in a bookstore and addresses an unseen audience.
She's in her forties, with long curly black hair. She's wearing a gray long-sleeved shirt.

The UofT Book Store logo pops up briefly.

Pauline says THE FIRST
REASON I WROTE A BOOK ABOUT ICE
IS BECAUSE I HAD JUST WRITTEN 26
C.R.T.C. APPLICATIONS IN A ROW.
AND, UM...
I WAS REALLY TIRED OF WRITING
ABOUT CANADIAN BROADCASTING, SO
I THOUGHT I'D LIKE TO WRITE
ABOUT SOMETHING COMPLETELY
DIFFERENT.
I'D LIKE TO WRITE ABOUT
SOMETHING THAT MATTERS BUT IS
FUN, AND THAT WILL ALLOW ME TO
MEET AT LEAST TWO OF THE THINGS
THAT ARE REALLY, REALLY
IMPORTANT TO ME, WHICH IS TO BE
ABLE TO ANSWER "YES" TO THESE
TWO QUESTIONS--
ONE, "AM I LEARNING SOMETHING?"
AND TWO, "AM I HAVING FUN?"

A caption appears on screen. It reads "Pauline Couture. Author, 'Ice: Beauty. Danger. History.' Hart House, University of Toronto. November 17, 2004."

Pauline continues AND SO, UH--
MY HUSBAND AND I, WE HAVE THIS
TRADITION WHICH IS THAT, IN
EARLY JUNE EVERY YEAR, WE VISIT
THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS AND WE
ATTEND THE BANFF TELEVISION
FESTIVAL, WHICH IS QUITE A
WONDERFUL EVENT. AND IN EARLY
JUNE IN THE ROCKIES, IT'S NOT
LIKE TORONTO, IT'S A LITTLE
CHILLY STILL, YOU KNOW?
IT DEPENDS ON THE YEARS, BUT
SOMETIMES IT'S QUITE CHILLY.
SO WHEN WE GET TO CALGARY
AIRPORT, WHAT WE DO IS WE RENT A
CONVERTIBLE, AND WE GET IN THE
CONVERTIBLE AND WE DRIVE UP THE
ICE FIELD'S PARKWAY, AND THAT'S
JUST SOMETHING WE'VE BEEN DOING
FOR ABOUT 10 YEARS, AND IT'S
REALLY FUN ESPECIALLY IF IT'S
RAINING, LIKE REALLY POURING
RAIN?
I DON'T KNOW IF YOU'VE EVER
TRIED THIS, BUT IN A CONVERTIBLE
WITH THE TOP DOWN IN THE POURING
RAIN ON THE HIGHWAY, WHAT
HAPPENS IS THE SPEED GIVES YOU
AN AIR BUBBLE, LIKE IT--
IT, LITERALLY, THE RAIN GOES
LIKE OVER THE CAR AND IT DOESN'T
TOUCH YOU.
AND SO, AMERICANS IN WINNEBAGOS,
THEY DON'T KNOW ABOUT THIS.
YOU KNOW, THEY SORT OF LOOK
DOWN, HORRIFIED, "WHAT ARE YOU
DOING?!"
YOU KNOW, BUT WE GET TO ENJOY
THE MOUNTAINTOPS AND THAT'S THE
REASON WE DO IT, IS THAT DRIVING
THROUGH THE ROCKIES WITH A
HARDTOP, YOU JUST DON'T SEE THE
MOUNTAINTOPS.
YOU DON'T SEE THE SKY.
AND IF YOU'RE GONNA BE IN
ALBERTA, BIG SKY COUNTRY, BIG
MOUNTAIN COUNTRY, YOU MIGHT AS
WELL ENJOY THAT.
SO WE'RE DOING THIS, WE'RE IN
THIS CAR, AND MY VERY PATIENT
AND SAINTLY HUSBAND IS LISTENING
TO ME MUSING ABOUT WHAT BOOK I'M
GONNA WRITE, AND WE WERE MAKING
THESE LISTS.
AND I LOOKED UP AND I SAW, I
DON'T KNOW HOW MANY OF YOU HAVE
EVER SEEN THIS, IT'S CALLED THE
CROWFOOT GLACIER.
IT'S A GLACIER THAT HAS KIND OF
LIKE--
IT LOOKS LIKE A GIANT BIRD FOOT
GRIPPING A ROCK.
IT'S QUITE SPECTACULAR.
AQUA STEELY KIND OF TALONS.
AND IT USED TO HAVE THREE CLAWS,
AND NOW IT HAS TWO, YOU KNOW?
AND I WAS VERY STRUCK WITH IT.
I LOOKED AT THESE TALONS AND
SAID, YOU KNOW, "ICE!"
AND HE SAID, "ICE, WHAT YOU
MEAN 'ICE'?"
I SAID, WELL, IS A REALLY
INTERESTING THING, YOU KNOW.
IT'S SORT OF "LOOK AT THAT ICE!"
LIKE IT--
IT CARVED THE PLANET AS WE SEE
IT.
IT MADE ITS WAY, YOU KNOW,
EVERYTHING WE SEE AROUND US HAS
BEEN CARVED BY ICE.
NOT EVERYWHERE ON THE PLANET,
BUT, YOU KNOW, MOST OF THE
PLACES WE HAVE ACCESS TO.
IF YOU GO GEORGIAN BAY, YOU'RE
LOOKING AT POLISHED GRANITE THAT
WAS CRUSHED AND POLISHED BY THE
ICE AGES, BY HUGE, MOVING
GLACIERS.
UM...
THERE'S RESEARCH GOING ON ALL
OVER ABOUT ICE CORES.
THEY'RE DRILLING DOWN AND TAKING
OUT SECTIONS OF ICE, AND IT'S
JUST LIKE TREE RINGS, YOU KNOW.
YEAR AFTER YEAR, YOU CAN SEE
WHAT'S HAPPENED IN EVERY ONE OF
THOSE YEARS.
AND THE ICE CORES RIGHT NOW GO
BACK--
THE GREENLAND ONES GO BACK ABOUT
115,000 YEARS, AND THE ONES IN
ANTARCTICA GO BACK NOW--
THE ONES IN LAKE VOSTOCK AND AT
THE SOUTH POLE AREA--
ARE GOING BACK AS FAR AS three quarters OF
A BILLION YEARS, YOU KNOW.
SO THAT'S AN ENORMOUS LONG TIME
OF THE EARTH'S HISTORY THAT'S IN
THOSE ICE CORES AND TELLING US A
GREAT DEAL.
IN THE SENSE THAT IT TELLS US A
GREAT DEAL, IT HAS ALLOWED
SCIENTISTS TO CREATE COMPUTER
MODELS THAT SHOW, YOU KNOW, ALL
KINDS OF CHANGE OVER LONG, LONG
PERIODS OF TIME AND THE COMPUTER
MODELS ALLOW THEM TO TAKE
EDUCATED GUESSES ABOUT WHAT
MIGHT HAPPEN NEXT--
AND THAT'S A WHOLE OTHER ISSUE
THAT WE CAN TALK ABOUT.
SO ICE IN THE SCIENTIFIC SENSE,
I MEAN, IT'S ALSO--
H20 IS SUCH AN IMPORTANT
SUBSTANCE.
I MEAN, OUR BODIES ARE MADE UP
MOSTLY OF WATER.
WATER IS THE MATRIX OF LIFE.
THERE WOULD NOT BE LIFE ON THE
PLANET IF WE DIDN'T HAVE WATER,
AND ONE OF THE FEW ELEMENTS THAT
EXISTS IN ITS THREE PHASES ON
THE PLANET, YOU KNOW, IN
LIQUID, GAS, AND SOLID FORM.
SO IT'S EVERYWHERE.
AND WE DON'T THINK ABOUT IT VERY
MUCH, WHICH IS PART OF THE
APPEAL FOR ME TO WRITE ABOUT,
YOU KNOW, SOMETHING THAT IS
EVERYWHERE AND WE NEVER THINK
ABOUT.
YOU KNOW, YOU--
WHENEVER I SAY "ICE" PEOPLE SAY,
"OH, YEAH, I LIKE IT IN MY
DRINK, HA-HA-HA," YOU KNOW, AND
SOMETIMES A LITTLE BIT
DISMISSIVELY, AND I THINK,
"OKAY, BUT DO YOU EVER THINK
ABOUT THE ICE THAT HANGS IN THE
SKY?"
YOU KNOW?
CLOUDS.
UH, JET CONTRAILS.
I WANTED TO DO SOMETHING BROAD.

Now a picture of her book appears briefly. The cover shows a picture of an iceberg floating in an azure sea.

Pauline continues I DIDN'T--
YOU KNOW, AND--
IF THE BOOK HAS A FAILING, MAYBE
IT IS THAT IT'S A MILE WIDE AND
AN INCH DEEP IN A LOT OF PLACES
BECAUSE I REALLY WAS SO
INTERESTED IN EVERYTHING THAT IT
WAS--
IT'S HARD TO, YOU KNOW, TO DO A
DEEP, VERTICAL LOOK AT ANY ONE
THING IF YOU'RE TRYING TO DO
SOMETHING VERY BROAD.
BUT ONE OF THE THINGS I DECIDED
TO DO, AS A STARTING POINT, WAS
TO ATTEND A CONFERENCE IN St.
JOHNS, NEWFOUNDLAND.
I DON'T KNOW ABOUT YOU, BUT I'LL
TAKE ANY EXCUSE TO GO TO St.
JOHNS, NEWFOUNDLAND.
IT'S, TO MY MIND, THE BEST PARTY
TOWN IN THE WORLD AND, UH--
ABSOLUTELY BEAUTIFUL AND FULL OF
GREAT PEOPLE, AND IT HAS THE ICE
TANK, THE NATIONAL RESEARCH
COUNCIL OF CANADA'S ICE TANK.
IT'S GOT THE CENTRE FOR COLD
OCEAN RESOURCES ENGINEERING,
WHERE ALL THE GUYS ARE
EXPERIMENTING WITH THINGS THAT
ARE NOT JUST ABOUT COLD OCEANS
BUT ALSO ABOUT SPACE EXPLORATION
BECAUSE ICE IS VERY--
THE STUDY OF ICE IS VERY, VERY
MUCH LINKED TO THE SEARCH FOR
LIFE AND WHAT'S GOING ON IN
OTHER PLANETS, AND OTHER MOONS,
AND THINGS LIKE THAT. SO, HAVING
GONE THERE, I MET THESE GUYS--
AND THEY WERE GREAT GUYS.
AND THEY SAID, "WELL..."
THE FIRST COULDN'T--
THEY REALLY COULDN'T BELIEVE
THAT I ACTUALLY WAS THAT CURIOUS
ABOUT ICE, YOU KNOW. AND THIS
IS--
YOU OFTEN FIND THE SCIENTISTS,
THAT THEY'RE VERY SCEPTICAL
ABOUT LAY PEOPLE TAKING A
SERIOUS INTEREST, AND THEY'RE
ALSO SOMETIMES AFRAID THAT A
LITTLE KNOWLEDGE IS A DANGEROUS
THING, AND THAT YOU'LL TAKE WHAT
THEY GIVE YOU AND DISTORT IT OR
MISUSE IT.
AND SO THAT'S--
I CAN UNDERSTAND THAT.
BUT WHEN THEY SORT OF DECIDED
THAT MAYBE I WAS REALLY SERIOUS
ABOUT LEARNING ABOUT ICE, THEY
SAID, "WELL, WHY DON'T YOU COME
BACK IN JULY 2002 AND WE'RE
GONNA BE INVITING 140 OF THE TOP
SCIENTISTS IN THE WORLD WHO WORK
ON ICE."
I SAID, "BINGO!"
YOU KNOW.
BONANZA, THIS IS GREAT!
SO I DID THAT.
MY HUSBAND DROVE ME FROM TORONTO
TO St. JOHNS AND I ATTENDED THIS
CONFERENCE WITH 140 OF THE TOP
ICE SCIENTISTS FROM AROUND THE
WORLD.
AND THAT WAS TRULY AMAZING
BECAUSE THE--
WHAT I DIDN'T REALIZE THEN
BECAUSE I'D NEVER BEEN TO A
SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE--
I MEAN, I HAD BEEN A JOURNALIST
IN THE ARTS, AND POLITICS AND
THE CONSTITUTION, AND CRIMINAL
COURTS AND THE CONSTITUTION...
AND THE CONSTITUTION...
SO I DIDN'T REALLY KNOW ABOUT
SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCES.
AND WHAT I FOUND OUT IS THAT
SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCES ARE
USUALLY VERY, VERY, VERY, VERY
SPECIALIZED, NARROW THINGS.
AND THIS ICE CONFERENCE WASN'T
LIKE THAT.
I MEAN, THERE WERE PEOPLE FROM
DOZENS OF DISCIPLINES ALL COMING
TOGETHER BECAUSE ICE IS SO
IMPORTANT AND BECAUSE IT'S SO--
IT'S SO DIFFICULT TO KNOW WHAT'S
GOING ON IF YOU DON'T SPEAK TO
SOMEBODY ELSE WHO'S LOOKING AT
ANOTHER PART OF IT, OF THE
PUZZLE.
SO, UH--
SO THERE WERE PHYSICISTS.
THERE WERE CHEMISTS.
THERE WERE GLACIOLOGISTS.
THERE WERE CRYSTALLOGRAPHERS.
THERE WERE, UH--
THERE WERE MECHANICAL ENGINEERS,
YOU KNOW, THERE WERE ALL KINDS
OF PEOPLE THERE WHO WERE ALL
STUDYING DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF
IT.
AND THEY HAD AMAZING STORIES TO
TELL.
AND, UH--
THE THING ALSO THAT WAS VERY
INTERESTING ABOUT THEM IS THAT
THEY ALL SHARED A PASSION,
WHICH, YOU KNOW, IN MY SORT OF
STEREOTYPE OF WHAT IS A
SCIENTIST, I WASN'T THINKING
THAT IT WAS LIKE THAT, YOU KNOW.
I THOUGHT THESE WERE PEOPLE WHO
WERE SORT OF, YOU KNOW, WERE
QUITE OBSESSIVE, AND WORK IN
LABS, AND HIDE AWAY FROM THE
WORLD, AND... NO!
I MEAN, THESE PEOPLE WERE
PASSIONATE ABOUT IT.
AND ALL MOST, TOO, WERE ME.
MOSTLY MEN.
UH, THINK THERE WAS ABOUT ONE
WOMAN IN THE WHOLE PLACE, TWO
MAYBE.
THEY WERE PASSIONATE ALSO ABOUT
THE BEAUTY OF ICE, YOU KNOW, THE
EXTRAORDINARY TRANSPARENCY OF
IT, THE COLOURS OF IT.
THEY WERE SEDUCED BY IT AS A
MATERIAL IN WAYS THAT, I THINK,
ARE UNUSUAL WHEN YOU LOOK AT
PEOPLE WORKING WITH A MATERIAL,
YOU KNOW.
AND SO THAT WAS REALLY QUITE AN
EXTRAORDINARY EXPERIENCE.
SO, IN THE BOOK, I TALK ABOUT--
I TALK A FAIR BIT ABOUT ALL THE
VARIOUS SCIENTIFIC ASPECTS OF
ICE.
AND, AT ONE POINT, I ASKED
MARGARET MACMILLAN--
I SAID TO HER, "MARGARET, HAVE
YOU EVERY THOUGHT ABOUT ICE?"
AND SHE SAID, "ICE?
WHAT ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT?"
I SAID, "WELL, ICE AS A
HISTORICAL CATALYST, YOU KNOW.
WHERE HAS ICE PLAYED A ROLE IN
HISTORY, IN TRANSFORMATIONS?"
AND SO SHE THOUGHT ABOUT THAT
LITTLE BIT AND SHE GAVE ME THREE
OR FOUR IDEAS THAT I WORKED ON,
AND A COUPLE OF THEM ARE VERY
INTERESTING.
WE TALKED ABOUT THE SIEGE OF
LENINGRAD.
WE TALKED ABOUT WHERE THE ICE
ROAD OVER LAKE LADOGA SAVED THE
PEOPLE OF LENINGRAD BECAUSE IT
ALLOWED AT LEAST ENOUGH VICTUALS
TO GET INTO--
TO PREVENT THE STARVATION OF
EVERYONE IN THE CITY.
IT WAS A DREADFUL, DREADFUL
SIEGE, 900 DAYS.
AND THERE'S QUITE A WONDERFUL
STORY IN THE BOOK ABOUT THE END
OF THE SIEGE OF LENINGRAD AND
THE MELTING AWAY OF THE ICE
ROAD. AND THEN SHE
TALKED TO ME ABOUT THE BATTLE OF
THE ICE WITH THE--
HAVE ANY OF YOU EVER SEEN A FILM
BY SERGEI EISENSTEIN CALLED
ALEXANDER NEVSKY?
HAVE YOU? DO YOU
REMEMBER THE BATTLE OF THE ICE?

[Man's voice, indistinct]

Pauline continues WELL, GOOD
FOR YOU, YOU'RE A GOOD DAD.
[Laughs]
THAT BATTLE ON THE ICE IS THE
SEMINAL SCREEN BATTLE OF ALL TIME.
IT REALLY HAPPENED.
IN 1200-SOMETHING, ALEXANDER
NEVSKY WAS A REAL RUSSIAN LEADER
AND HE WAS VERY WORRIED, AS THEY
ALL WERE AT THAT TIME, ABOUT THE
VERY AGGRESSIVE TEUTONIC FORCES
COMING IN FROM THE WEST AND THE
NORTH, AND UH--
THEY DIDN'T WANT TO BE
CONQUERED BY THOSE PEOPLE.
AND OF COURSE, IN THE FILM, AND
YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER THE PERIOD
IN RUSSIAN HISTORY, POOR OLD
EISENSTEIN SORT OF--
HE GOT TRAPPED IN THE POLITICAL
CORRECTNESS BECAUSE, AT THE TIME
THAT HE MADE THE FILM, THE
GERMANS WERE THE ENEMY.
SO HE MADE A FILM WITH ALL THESE
GREAT, HULKING BLONDES, YOU
KNOW, COMING ACROSS THE ICE
AND--
WITH THE HEAVY ARMOUR AND THE
HEAVY HORSES AND CLEVER, NIMBLE
ALEXANDER NEVSKY MANOEUVRED THEM
ALL INTO THE MIDDLE OF THE LAKE,
AND THE ICE BROKE UP, AND THEY
ALL FELL IN.
BUT BY THE TIME THE--

A female assistant brings Pauline a tall chair.

She sits and says
OH, THANK YOU.
BY THE TIME THE FILM WAS MADE
AND AIR--
AND READY TO DISTRIBUTE, STALIN
HAD GONE OFF AND SIGNED A PACT
WITH THE GERMANS, AND IT WAS NO
LONGER POLITICALLY CORRECT TO
PORTRAY THE GERMANS AS TERRIBLE
GUYS.
SO THE FILM, ACTUALLY, WAS
DELAYED FOR A WHILE AND NOT
DISTRIBUTED UNTIL THE NAZIS WERE
BAD GUYS AGAIN.
SO THAT WAS JUST ONE OF THOSE
UNFORTUNATE THINGS.
BUT THE MUSIC THAT PROFOKIEV
WROTE FOR THE FILM,
THE
CANTATA OF THE ICE,
IS
OFTEN PERFORMED AS A PIECE OF
MUSIC ON ITS OWN, AND IT'S AN
ABSOLUTELY AMAZING THING.
AND THE ROLE OF THE ICE IN
DESTROYING THE FORCES AND IN THE
BREAK-UP OF IT, THE SPECTACULAR
NATURE OF IT, IS JUST ONE OF
THOSE MOMENTS THAT IS VERY, VERY
MEMORABLE.
AND THE WAY IN WHICH EISENSTEIN
DESIGNED THE SEQUENCE AND THE
CUTTING OF IT WITH THE MUSIC,
IT'S REMAINED.
LIKE, YOU KNOW, IF YOU'VE SEEN
BRAVEHEART
OR ANY OF
THOSE FILMS, THEY ALL OWE THE
ORIGINS OF HOW TO MAKE A BATTLE
SCENE IN A MOVIE TO THE BATTLE
OF THE ICE IN
ALEXANDER
NEVSKY.
SO THAT WAS ONE OF THE FUN
STORIES THAT I CAME ACROSS.
THERE ARE A BUNCH OF ICE AND
MUSIC STORIES.
ONE OF THEM IS ABOUT TWO GUYS--
AND HERE'S ANOTHER DISCIPLINE I
HAD NEVER EVEN HEARD OF--
THEY WERE WERE
DENDROCHRONOLOGISTS.

A Woman in the audience says TREE RINGS.

Pauline continues THEY STUDY
TREE RINGS, THAT'S RIGHT.
THEY STUDY TREE RINGS.
I DIDN'T KNOW THAT UNTIL I FOUND
THE STORY.
GOOD FOR YOU, GOOD FOR YOU!
YOU'RE NOT A REGULAR FOLK, OBVIOUSLY.

[Some laughter]

Pauline continues SO I FOUND
THESE TWO GUYS WHO STUDY TREE
RINGS, AND THEY SPECIALIZED IN
WHAT HAPPENED TO TREE RINGS
THROUGH THE LITTLE ICE AGE AND,
PARTICULARLY, THE MONDER
MINIMUM.
SO WE'RE TALKING ABOUT A PERIOD
BETWEEN 1400 AND 1800 IN EUROPE,
WHERE THERE WAS EXTREME COLD,
AND THE PEAK PERIOD WHERE THE
TREE RINGS THAT THEY WERE
STUDYING, WHICH WAS IN AN
ITALIAN ALPINE KIND OF FOREST.
SO THE PEAK PERIOD WHERE IT WAS
COLDEST AND THE TREE RINGS WERE
THEREFORE--
WHAT HAPPENS TO TREES WHEN IT'S
REALLY COLD IS THAT THEY--
THE WOOD GRAIN TIGHTENS AND THE
RINGS ARE CLOSER TOGETHER, AND
SO THE LITTLE ICE AGE HAD THIS
PEAK IN A 20-YEAR PERIOD, WHERE
THE WOOD GRAIN WAS TIGHTEST OF
ALL AND ONE OF THESE
DENDROCHRONOLOGISTS WAS ALSO A
MUSIC BUFF AND THIS 20-YEAR
PERIOD WAS BUGGING HIM.
HE WAS SAYING, "THERE'S
SOMETHING MEANINGFUL ABOUT THAT
20-YEAR PERIOD, WHAT IS IT?"
WELL, IT TURNS OUT THAT THAT
20-YEAR PERIOD WAS THE PERIOD
WHEN THE GREAT VIOLINMAKERS
STRADIVARIUS AND COMPANY OF
CREMONA, WERE MAKING WHAT, TO
THIS DAY, ARE CONSIDERED THE
VERY BEST MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS OF
ALL TIME--
THAT WE'RE STILL ENJOYING.
I MEAN, WE'RE STILL HEARING
EXTRAORDINARY MUSIC MADE WITH
THESE INSTRUMENTS. AND SO, FOR
A LONG TIME, PEOPLE HAD BEEN
SAYING, "WHAT WAS IT THAT THEY
HAD SOME MAGIC VARNISH FORMULA,
DID THEY HAVE GOLDEN FINGERS?"
DID THEY, LIKE--
WHAT DID THEY HAVE THAT MADE
THESE VIOLINS SO SPECIAL AND
UNSURPASSED TO THIS DAY NO
MATTER HOW, YOU KNOW, THAT'S--
A LOT OF PEOPLE FEEL THAT THAT'S
TRUE. AND IT TURNS
OUT THAT THEY WERE WORKING WITH
WOOD THAT WAS AFFECTED BY THE
LITTLE ICE AGE.
AND THAT WOOD HAS A TIGHTER
GRAIN AND IS ABLE TO REPRODUCE
SOUND IN A WAY THAT NO OTHER
WOOD BEFORE SINCE HAS DONE.
AND SO, I THOUGHT THAT WAS
PRETTY INTERESTING.
AND, RECENTLY, MY HUSBAND AND I
WERE IN NIAGARA--
'CAUSE HE DOES A LOT OF WINE
EVENTS--
AND WE MET SOME PEOPLE FROM
LAILEY VINEYARDS HERE IN
NIAGARA.
AND, UM--
I WAS REMINDED OF THAT STORY
BECAUSE THEY ARE EXPERIMENTING
WITH AGING SOME OF THEIR PREMIUM
WINES IN FRENCH OAK, AMERICAN
OAK, AND CANADIAN OAK--
BECAUSE CANADIAN OAK HAS A MUCH
TIGHTER GRAIN BECAUSE IT'S
COLDER.
SO THE PRESENCE OF SNOW AND ICE
CREATES A SITUATION WHERE OUR
OAK TREES GET THIS TIGHTER GRAIN
AND THEY ARE THINKING THAT,
PERHAPS, IT WILL CAUSE GOOD
WINES TO AGE IN A WAY THAT WILL
BE INTERESTING AND DIFFERENT
FROM THE WAY IT AGES IN FRENCH
OAK OR AMERICAN OAK.

Watch: Pauline Couture on her book "Ice".