Transcript: Stephen Lewis delivers the 2005 Massey Lecture | Feb 04, 2006

Stephen Lewis stands behind an ornate wooden lectern in a dimly-lit auditorium and addresses an unseen audience.
He's in his fifties, clean-shaven, with wavy gray hair. He's wearing glasses, a gray suit, pink shirt, and polka-dotted pink tie.

He says THE ESSENCE
OF THESE LECTURES IS NOT
DIFFICULT TO DIVINE.
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT
GOALS WILL NOT BE REACHED IN
AFRICA.
THOSE GOALS WHICH WERE ETCHED
BY UNITED NATIONS MILLENNIUM
ASSEMBLY IN THE YEAR 2000, TO
DIMINISH THE EXTENT OF HUMAN
VULNERABILITY, ACROSS THE
PLANET BY THE YEAR 2015.
AS I EXPLORED THE ISSUES DEALT
WITH IN THE PREVIOUS, FOUR
LECTURES IT BECAME MORE AND
MORE APPARENT, THAT WITHOUT
DRAMATIC CHANGE THE GOALS ARE
AN, AN INTELLECTUAL ILLUSION.
WE ARE IN A DESPERATE RACE
AGAINST TIME AND WE'RE LOSING.
IT'S SIMPLY IMPOSSIBLE TO
REDUCE POVERTY, HUNGER, GENDER
INEQUALITY, DISEASE AND DEATH,
SIGNIFICANTLY AT THE PRESENT
PACE.
AND OTHER THEN THE CONTRAPUNTAL
BEAT OF HYPERACTIVE RHETORIC,
THE NECESSARY ACCELERATION IS
NOWHERE EVIDENT.
ALAS MAN AND WOMAN CANNOT LIVE
BY RHETORIC ALONE.
THAT BEING THE CASE, WHAT I
WOULD LIKE TO DO IN THIS FINAL
LECTURE, IS TO ADVANCE A NUMBER
OF IDEAS, POSSIBILITIES,
SUGGESTIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS,
SOLUTIONS, WHICH WERE THEY BE
APPLIED TO AFRICA IN WHOLE OR
IN PART, WOULD GIVE THE
CONTINENT A MUCH BETTER CHANGE
OF SURVIVAL.
SOME OF THE SUGGESTIONS ARE
SOUND.
SOME ARE UNSELFCONSCIOUSLY
ECCENTRIC.
SOME WILL BE SEEN AS
IMPLAUSIBLE.
IN CERTAIN INSTANCES, I
HIGHLIGHT INITIATIVES THAT ARE
ALREADY IN PLACE, BUT WHICH
CARRY HIGH LEVELS OF RISK OR
UNCERTAINTY, REQUIRING A
SPECIAL DECLARATION IN SPORT.
I OFFER THEM ALL AS A GALLERY
OF ALTERNATIVES IN GOOD FAITH.
I WOULD OFFER ALMOST ANYTHING
AS AN ANTIDOTE TO THE
PATHETICALLY BLINKERED AND
UNIMAGINATIVE CURRENT APPROACH,
WHICH HOLD THE CONTINENT IN
THRALL.
FIRST THEN LET ME ADDRESS THE
G8 SUMMIT.
SOMETHING OCCURRED IN JULY,
2005 AT THE SUMMIT OF GLEN
EAGLES IN SCOTLAND THAT WAS
DEEPLY REGRETTABLE.
BECAUSE OF ALL THE HYPE,
BECAUSE OF THE LIVE 8
SPECTACLE, BECAUSE OF THE
MADISON ROLE OF GELDOF, BONO
WAS MUCH MORE MEASURED I NOTE.
AND ABOVE ALL, BECAUSE OF THE
BRILLIANT COOPTION OF THE NGO
COMMUNITY BY TONY BLAIR, CIVIL
SOCIETY WAS EFFECTIVELY MUZZLED
IN ITS RESPONSE.
ITS NORMALLY TOUGH, ANALYTIC
APPRAISALS WERE REPLACED BY
ADORING COMPLICITY.
THE PRINCIPLE OF THE NGO
COMMUNITY SUDDENLY FOUND ITSELF
BASKING IN THE INCESTUOUS AURA
OF POWER.
IT WAS AS IF EVERYONE WAS IN
THE SAME TENT, WHILE TONY BLAIR
DID HIS LAYING ON OF HANDS.
MOST OF THE MAJOR NGO PLAYERS
KNEW THAT THEY'D BEEN HAD.
BUT THERE WAS A WILLFUL
CONTAGION OF LARYNGITIS.
TO READ THEIR PRESS RELEASES
WAS ALMOST COMICAL.
THE WORDS LAY LEADEN ON THE
PAGE.
THEY COULD BARELY SUMMON A
TWITCH OF INDIGNATION, LET
ALONE A SPASM OF OUTRAGE.
LET ME OFFER A RATHER,
DIFFERENT RESPONSE.

A caption appears on screen. It reads "Stephen Lewis. 'Race against time.' 2005 Massey Lecture. Convocation Hall. University of Toronto. October 28, 2005."

Stephen continues THIS IS WHAT
SHOULD NOW HAPPEN.
THE JUBILEE COALITION, THAT
INTERNATIONAL ALLIANCE OF
RELIGIOUS GROUPS AND OTHER
ACTIVISTS WHO'VE DONE SUCH A
SUPERB JOB DRIVING THE
CANCELLATION OF DEBT, SHOULD ON
AN EMERGENCY BASIS...
BE EXPANDED
INTO A COALITION ON THE
CANCELLATION OF AGRICULTURAL
SUBSIDIES.
THE FIRST TARGET IS THE WORLD
TRADE ORGANIZATION MEETING IN
HONG KONG, IN DECEMBER OF THIS
YEAR.
THE LOBBYING BETWEEN NOW AND
THEN SHOULD BE FURIOUS.
WE'RE IN REAL TROUBLE ON TRADE.
THE PROSPECTS ARE BLEAK.
UNLESS THERE IS A BREAK IN THE
IMPASSE AT HONG KONG, UNLESS
THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE
UNITED STATES DO ABOUT FACE ON
AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES, THE
ROUND, THIS ROUND OF THE WTO
TALKS IS EFFECTIVELY DOOMED,
AND WITH IT AFRICA'S ACCESS TO
INTERNATIONAL MARKETS.
ON DEBT, THE EXISTING COALITION
SHOULD GO FLAT OUT FOR THE
CANCELLATION OF ALL, REMAINING
AFRICAN DEBT.
STILL OVER 200,000,000,000 FOR
ALL COUNTRIES.
THE MODEST PROGRESS AT GLEN
EAGLES, 40,000,000,000 dollars FOR 18
COUNTRIES, 14 OF THEM AFRICAN,
SHOULD BE SEEN AS A FOOT IN THE
DOOR RATHER THEN A MAJOR
ACHIEVEMENT.
WE HAVE TO BREAK THE PATTERN OF
OBSEQUIOUS REJOICING FOR EVERY
INCREMENTAL FRACTION, ON
OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT
ASSISTANCE.

[Audience applauding]

Stephen says ON OFFICIAL
DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE, WHAT IS
NEEDED IS A YEAR BY YEAR
ACCOUNTING OF INDIVIDUAL G8
CONTRIBUTIONS.
THIS BUSINESS OF DOUBLING AID
BY 2010 OR TRIPLING AID BY 2015
JUST DOESN'T WORK.
WHAT HAPPENS IN THE INTERVENING
YEARS WHEN THERE ARE NO INTERIM
GOALS.
THE WORLD HAS TO BE MADE TO
UNDERSTAND THAT THE TARGETS SET
AT GLEN EAGLES ARE CRITICALLY
FLAWED ON TWO GROUNDS.
THEY WON'T BE REACHED AND
THEY'RE NOT HIGH ENOUGH.
CONSIDER THIS.
THE G8 COUNTRIES VOW THAT THEY
WOULD DOUBLE ANNUAL AID TO
AFRICA BY 2010, THAT IS ANOTHER
25,000,000,000 dollars A YEAR.
BUT U.N. AIDS, THE UNITED
NATIONS BODY, WHICH COORDINATES
ALL OF THE AGENCY ACTIVITY IN
COMBATTING THE PANDEMIC.
U.N. AIDS HAS RECENTLY RELEASED
A DEFINITIVE REPORT INDICATING
THAT BY 2008, TWO YEARS BEFORE
THAT DEADLINE, HIV AIDS ALONE
WILL REQUIRE 22,000,000,000 dollars A
YEAR, MOST OF IT FOR AFRICAN
COUNTRIES.
WHAT IMMEDIATELY BECOMES CLEAR
IS THAT THE G8 TARGET IS
UNACCEPTABLY LOW.
WHERE IS THE MONEY FOR POVERTY,
HUNGER, EDUCATION, WATER,
SANITATION, NUTRITION, MALARIA,
TUBERCULOSIS, OTHER DISEASES,
THE FIGHT AGAINST INFANT
MALNUTRITION AND MORTALITY AND
ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY?
THEY NEEDED AN EXTRA
50,000,000,000 dollars A YEAR BY 2010,
NOT 25,000,000,000 AND THEY
WERE AFRAID TO ASK FOR IT.
AFRAID EVEN THOUGH THE 50,000,000,000 dollars WOULD SIMPLY
REFLECT THE TARGET OF 0.7 percent OF
GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT, TO
WHICH ALL WESTERN GOVERNMENTS
ARE SUPPOSEDLY COMMITTED.
THE PITTANCE PROMISED BY THE
UNITED STATES, DOUBLING 3,000,000,000 dollars ANNUALLY, THE
CURRENT U.S LEVEL OF AFRICA, TO
6,000,000,000 BY 2010, INSTEAD
OF 16,000,000,000 WHICH WOULD
REPRESENT THEIR FAIR SHARE
DOOMS THE G8 BARGAIN.
IT'S THE OLD STORY.
SET YOUR SIGHTS LOW ENOUGH TO
INCREASE YOUR CHANCES OF
SUCCESS AND HOPE NO ONE
NOTICES.
I'M NOT SUCH AN OAF.
I'M NOT SO CURMUDGEONLY AS TO
DIMINISH THE ACHIEVEMENT OF
MODEST, ADDITIONAL FOREIGN AID,
IT'S IMPORTANT.
BUT IT SHOULD BE ACCOMPANIED BY
EXPRESSIONS OF ABJECT, NEAR,
GROVELLING APOLOGY.
NOT BY EXPRESSIONS OF
INSUFFERABLE SELF-
CONGRATULATION!

[Audience applauding]

Stephen says AND THERE IS
SOMETHING ELSE THAT MUST CHANGE
ABOUT THE WAY IN WHICH THE
WORLD WORKS.
AT THE ELEVENTH HOUR AT GLEN
EAGLES, THE JAPANESE
GOVERNMENT, WHICH HAD BEEN
RESISTING AN INCREASE IN ITS
ANNUAL CONTRIBUTION, SUDDENLY
PROMISED TO DOUBLE AID TO
AFRICA IN THREE YEARS.
IT'S ACTUALLY A RELATIVE
PITTANCE, SINCE AS I NOTED IN
THE FIRST LECTURE, JAPAN GIVES
SO LITTLE NOW, APPROXIMATELY
1.5 BILLION A YEAR.
AND WHAT'S MORE, EVERYBODY
RECOGNIZED THAT JAPAN'S SUDDEN
CHANGE OF HEART WAS TIED
DIRECTLY TO ITS PURSUIT OF A
SEAT ON THE SECURITY COUNCIL.
I WOULD LIKE TO PROPOSE
THEREFORE THAT WHEN AND IF
JAPAN IS ELECTED TO THE
SECURITY COUNCIL, THERE BE A
WRITTEN CAVIANT, WHICH SAYS
THAT IF THE MONEY TO AFRICA IS
NOT IDENTIFIABLY DOUBLED BY
JULY 31ST, 2008 JAPAN FORFEITS
THE SEAT.
UNDOUBTEDLY...

[Audience applauding]

Stephen says UNDOUBTEDLY
THAT WOULD UNLEASH THE WINDS OF
CONSTERNATION.
BUT IT WOULD ALSO SERVE NOTICE
THAT THE BETRAYAL OF THE
COMMITMENTS MADE TO AFRICA OVER
THE YEARS WILL NO LONGER BE
TOLERATED.
NOW INEVITABLY, I'VE BEGUN THIS
ARRAY OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
AFRICA BY ADDRESSING TRADE,
DEBT AND AID, BECAUSE THE G8
SUMMIT STILL SITS HIGH IN
PEOPLE'S MINDS.
BUT THAT'S JUST THE BEGINNING.
LET ME TURN TO OTHER CONCRETE
PROPOSALS, WHICH STRIKE TO THE
HEART OF SOCIAL CHANGE, AND
NOTHING LIES CLOSER TO THAT
HEART...
THEN THE
PLIGHT OF WOMEN.
I THEREFORE OFFER A
RECOMMENDATION, THE SECOND OF
THE SERIES THAT SPEAKS TO THIS
MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE OF ALL.
THERE MUST BE
CREATED A TRUE AND FORMIDABLE,
INTERNATIONAL AGENCY ON BEHALF
OF WOMEN, AS PART OF THE
MULTILATERAL UNITED NATIONS
SYSTEM.
IT CAN START WITH A COALITION
OF ACTIVIST ORGANIZATIONS
OUTSIDE THE SYSTEM AND THEN
MUSCLE ITS WAY IN.
BUT WE SIMPLY CANNOT CONTINUE
TO IGNORE, MORE THEN HALF THE
WORLD'S POPULATION.
EVERYONE IS IN A LATHER ABOUT
U.N. REFORM, AND WE HAVE JUST
HAD THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY DEBATE
ON THE DIRECTION OF THE UNITED
NATIONS OVER THE YEARS AHEAD.
WHILE THE DEBATE AT LEAST
DISCUSSED ENLARGING THE
SECURITY COUNCIL, REDEFINING
THE MEANING OF TERRORISM,
RECONSTITUTING THE HUMAN RIGHTS
COMMISSION AND REVIEWING THE
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
AGENDA, AS EMBODIED IN THE
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS,
THE MDG'S AS THEY'RE CALLED.
ONE OMISSION WAS STARK.
NOTHING WAS DONE TO RESCUE THE
WORLD'S WOMEN FROM THE TORMENT
OF INEQUALITY.
THE U.N. DIDN'T EVEN TAKE THE
OBVIOUS AND SIMPLE STEP OF
DEMANDING AN INTERNAL U.N. GOAL
TO GUARANTEE A 50 50 SPLIT IN
THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND MEN
AT ALL LEVELS OF THE UNITED
NATIONS BY 2015.
A SEPARATE RECOMMENDATION, AND
ONE SO OVERDUE THAT IT SHOULD
BE NON-NEGOTIABLE.
MORE FUNDAMENTAL STILL, THE
MEETING DID NOTHING TO ADDRESS
THE HUGE, GROWING AND
TERRIFYING VULNERABILITY OF THE
WORLD'S WOMEN TO VIOLENCE,
DISEASE, POVERTY, AND CONFLICT.
I CANNOT EMPHASIZE STRONGLY
ENOUGH THAT AS PART OF THE
REFORM MANDATE OF THE UNITED
NATIONS, THE WORLD MUST COME TO
GRIPS WITH THE NEED FOR AN
OVERALL AGENCY FOR WOMEN.
IF MEMBER STATES RESISTANCE OR
BUDGETARY CONCERNS ARE ADVANCED
AS EXCUSES TO DELAY ITS
FORMATION, IT SHOULD BE CREATED
BY ACTIVIST NGO'S OUTSIDE THE
U.N. SYSTEM AND FOLDED IN
LATER.
IT WOULD HAVE TO BE HEADED BY
AN UNDERSECRETARY GENERAL AND
FUNDED AT NO LESS THEN THE
LEVEL FOR UNICEF, THAT IS TO
SAY SOMETHING CLOSE TO
2,000,000,000 dollars A YEAR.
THE DIFFERENCE SUCH AN AGENCY
WOULD MAKE TO AFRICA ALONE
KNOWS NO BOUNDS.
AT LONG LAST, IT WOULD BE
POSSIBLE FOR GRASSROOTS WOMEN
LEADERS TO DO WHAT THEY HAVE
FOREVER WANTED TO DO, BRING
TOGETHER COMMUNITY ACTIVISTS
FROM EACH AND EVERY COUNTRY IN
AFRICA AND BUILD A MASS WOMEN'S
MOVEMENT ACROSS THE CONTINENT.
THE MAJOR INTERNATIONAL
CONFERENCES OF THE PAST TWO
DECADES HAVE ABIDED ABUNDANT
PROOF IF ONLY IN TEASING
GLIMPSES THAT EVERY COUNTRY
YIELDS WOMEN OF VIBRANT
LEADERSHIP CAPACITY.
WERE THEY EVER BE GIVEN THE
OPPORTUNITY ON A REGULAR BASIS
TO NETWORK, PLAN, SHARE AND
PLOT WITH THEIR WOMEN
COLLEAGUES IN OTHER COUNTRIES,
THEY COULD TURN THE CONTINENT
ON ITS HEAD.
WE'RE TALKING HERE ABOUT A
WHOLE NEW LOCUS OF POWER.
THE UNLEASHING OF A FEMINIST
DYNAMIC TO TRANSFORM AFRICA AND
IN THE PROCESS, RESCUE THE
WOMEN OF AFRICA FROM THE
CAULDRON OF AIDS.
IT CONSTITUTES A TREMENDOUS
OPPORTUNITY.

[Audience applauding]

Stephen continues I DON'T KNOW
HOW OFTEN OVER THE LAST FOUR
YEARS I'VE HEARD THE PHRASE,
WOMEN AND GIRLS ARE AN
ENDANGERED SPECIES.
IT'S UTTERED BY WOMEN'S
ADVOCATES, IT'S INTONED BY
ACADEMIC EXPERTS, IT'S USED BY
HIGH-RANKING GOVERNMENT
OFFICIALS, IT'S INVOKED BY U.N.
COLLEAGUES.
BEHIND THE WORDS THERE LIES AN
INVIOLABLE TRUTH.
THE MDG'S ARE DOOMED UNLESS WE
MAKE GENDER INEQUALITY HISTORY.
THE WAY IN WHICH...

[Audience applauding]

Stephen continues THE WAY IN
WHICH AIDS EXACERBATES AND
ACCENTUATES INEQUALITY, LEADS
ME TO MY NEXT SERIES OF
PROPOSALS FOR AFRICA.
THEY ARE BASED ON THE PREMISE
OF UNIVERSAL TREATMENT FOR ALL
AIDS PATIENTS.
THUS, THIRD, WE MUST MAINTAIN
THE MOMENTUM AROUND WHAT IS
CALLED THREE BY FIVE.
THAT IS THE BRILLIANT, DESIGN
BY THE WORLD HEALTH
ORGANIZATION, W.H.O. TO PUT
3,000,000 PEOPLE INTO TREATMENT
BY THE END OF THIS YEAR.
WE NOW KNOW THAT THE TARGET
WILL NOT BE REACHED.
IT MATTERS NOT.
BY THE END OF THIS YEAR WE WILL
BE VERGING ON ONE AND A HALF
MILLION PEOPLE IN TREATMENT.
PEOPLE WHO WOULD OTHERWISE BE
DEAD.
BY THE TIME WE REACH THE
INTERNATIONAL AIDS CONFERENCE
IN TORONTO, IN AUGUST 2006,
WE'LL BE VERY NEAR THE
3,000,000 FIGURE.
IT DEMONSTRATES THAT SETTING
GOALS AND TARGETS REMAINS ONE
OF THE BEST POSSIBLE
STRATEGIES, AND IN THIS
INSTANCE THE PROOF IS IN THE
LIVING.
THE FACT OF THE MATTER IS THAT
THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY,
INCLUDING THE U.N. WAS
STAGNATING IN ITS RESPONSE TO
THE PANDEMIC, UNTIL THE WORLD
HEALTH ORGANIZATION INITIATIVE
VAULTED UPON THE SCENE.
THREE BY FIVE HAS HAD A
REMARKABLE IMPACT.
COUNTRIES ARE EVERYWHERE
FALLING ALL OVER THEMSELVES TO
INTRODUCE TREATMENT.
THE NUMBERS ARE INCREASING ON A
DAILY BASIS AND HOPE HAS RE-
EMERGED WHERE ONLY FEAR AND
DESPAIR HELD, SWAY.
IT WAS CHARACTERISTIC OF
MULTILATERALISM THAT OTHER U.N.
AGENCIES GAVE THE WORLD HEALTH
ORGANIZATION A HARD TIME.
AND THAT EVEN WITHIN THE W.H.O.
ITSELF THERE WERE GROUCHY
DISSIDENTS.
THERE ARE ALWAYS INTERNAL U.N.
RESENTMENTS AND RIVALRIES THAT
BEDEVIL RATIONAL RESPONSES.
OH YE OF LITTLE MINDS.
AND THERE ARE ALWAYS, ALWAYS
INFINITE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE WHO
FEEL THAT TURF AND SECURITY ARE
THREATENED BY ANY NOVEL
INITIATIVE.
WORSE, THERE WERE MANY PEOPLE
WHO BELIEVE THAT MERELY BY
SETTING AN AMBITIOUS TARGET,
THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
WAS RISKING CREDIBILITY AND
INFLUENCE.
BUT THE DIRECTOR GENERAL OF THE
W.H.O. DR. LEE JONG-WOOK, TO
HIS EVERLASTING CREDIT
PERSEVERED WITH RESOLVE AND
IMPERTURBABILITY.
THE DETRACTORS ARE ROUTED.
THE MOMENTUM CREATED AROUND
THREE BY FIVE IS NOW DRIVING
EVERYTHING ELSE INCLUDING
PREVENTION, WHICH HAS A NEW,
LEASE ON LIFE AS A RESULT OF
TREATMENT.
EVERYWHERE THE NUMBERS SEEKING
TESTING, ARE UP.
PEOPLE BEING FAR LESS
FRIGHTENED TO KNOW THEIR
STATUS.
IN FACT THE TIME HAS COME TO
SET PARALLEL TARGETS AKIM TO
THAT OF TREATMENT, BEGINNING
WITH A GOAL FOR VOLUNTARY
COUNSELLING AND TESTING, AND
ANOTHER FOR THE PREVENTION OF
MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION.
IT IS OF COURSE HEARTBREAKING
THAT TREATMENT IS...
BEING ROLLED
OUT SO SLOWLY.
IT IS HEARTBREAKING THAT VAST
NUMBERS OF PEOPLE WILL DIE
BEFORE TREATMENT IS AVAILABLE.
IT IS HEARTBREAKING...
THAT WE'RE
STILL DEALING WITH USER FEES
FOR TREATMENT WHEN IT SHOULD BE
FREE.
IT IS HEARTBREAKING THAT AT
PRECISELY THE MOMENT WHEN
TREATMENT IS IN SIGHT THE
PANDEMIC HAS KILLED SO MANY
HEALTH PROFESSIONALS THAT WE
LACK THE HUMAN CAPACITY
ADEQUATELY TO RESPOND.
IT IS HEARTBREAKING!
THE TREATMENT HAS BEEN AROUND
FOR NINE YEARS IN THE DEVELOPED
WORLD AND WE'RE ONLY NOW
PROVIDING IT FOR AFRICA.
BUT THIS PARTICULAR
BREAKTHROUGH HAS FINALLY BEEN
MADE AND THE PROOF OF THAT
ASSERTION LIES IN THE LANGUAGE
BEING USED.
AS RECENTLY AS SIX MONTHS AGO,
THE ACTIVIST NGO'S WERE
THINKING ABOUT THE NEXT
ARITHMETIC FORMULATION, AFTER
THREE BY FIVE.
WOULD IT BE FIVE BY SIX, SIX BY
SEVEN?
NO ONE THINKS THAT WAY ANY
LONGER.
THE NGO'S AND U.N. AIDS NOW
UNIFORMLY INVOKE THE PHRASE,
UNIVERSAL TREATMENT OR
UNIVERSAL ACCESS, UNDERSTANDING
THAT NOTHING ELSE WILL BE
ACCEPTABLE.
EVEN THE G8 FELT IT NECESSARY
TO USE THE WORDS UNIVERSAL
TREATMENT BY 2010.
IT MUST SURELY BRING A SMILE OF
VINDICATION TO THE WORLD HEALTH
ORGANIZATION.
I WANT TO EMBARK ON A BRIEF,
HISTORICAL EXCURSION AT THIS
POINT, WHICH WON'T TAKE LONG.
BUT WHICH HAS BEEN PLAYING
RESTLESSLY IN MY MIND, ANXIOUS
TO GET OUT FOR THREE TO FOUR
YEARS.
I HAD JUST BEGUN THE JOB OF
ENVOY, WHEN I TRAVELLED TO
RWANDA TO ENGAGE IN A NUMBER OF
MEETINGS AND FIELD VISITS.
AS IT HAPPENS MY VISIT
COINCIDED WITH THE WORLD BANK
DECISION TO MAKE A LARGE LOAN
TO RWANDA UNDER ITS MULTI-
COUNTRY HIV AIDS PROGRAM KNOWN
AS MAP.
AND IN A MEETING I HAD WITH THE
THEN WORLD BANK REPRESENTATIVE
IN THE COUNTRY, HE ASKED ME TO
SUPPORT HIS EFFORT TO PERSUADE
THE BANK HEADQUARTERS IN
WASHINGTON TO ALLOW A SMALL
PERCENTAGE OF THE MONEY TO GO
TOWARDS TREATMENT.
I WAS EAGER TO BE OF
ASSISTANCE.
IT MAY WELL HAVE BEEN THE FIRST
TIME ANY WORLD BANK OFFICIAL
HAD ASKED ME FOR A FAVOUR.
I WAS AH, I WAS PROBABLY
INTOXICATED BY THE WIFF OF POWER.

[Audience laughs]

Stephen continues AND UPON
RETURNING TO TORONTO I PHONED A
VERY SENIOR MEMBER OF THE WORLD
BANK ESTABLISHMENT IN
WASHINGTON, WHO HAPPENED TO BE
AN ADMIRED ACQUAINTANCE FROM
ONE OF HIS FORMER INCARNATIONS.
I LAID OUT THE REQUEST.
I WILL NEVER, BUT NEVER FORGET
THE GIST OF THE REPLY.
I'M PARAPHRASING NOW, BUT I'M
PARAPHRASING WITH ABSOLUTE
CERTITUDE.
YOU SEE STEPHEN, IT'S
DIFFICULT.
LET'S FACE THE PAINFUL TRUTH.
THE PEOPLE WITH AIDS ARE GOING
TO DIE.
THE MONEY WOULD PROBABLY BE
BETTER USED FOR PREVENTION.
IT'S ALL A MATTER OF TRADE-OFFS.
I REMEMBER NEARLY JUMPING
THROUGH THE PHONE.
WHAT WORLD BANK POTION OF
HEMLOCK HAD POISONED THE
PROGRESSIVE LEANINGS OF THIS
MAN WHOM I LIKED AND RESPECTED?
I COULDN'T BELIEVE WHAT I WAS
HEARING.
TRADE-OFFS I SPUTTERED.
YOU SPEAK TO ME OF TRADE-OFFS?
YOU HAVE THE DRUGS TO KEEP
PEOPLE ALIVE AND YOU'RE GOING
TO LET THEM DIE BECAUSE OF A
TRADE-OFF?
WHY DON'T YOU FIND MORE MONEY
AND DO BOTH TREATMENT AND
PREVENTION, AND SCREW THE
TRADE-OFF.

[Audience applauding]

Stephen continues I LOST THE ARGUMENT.
BUT I MENTION IT NOW BECAUSE
FOR THE LONGEST TIME THIS
PERNICIOUS FRAME OF MIND RULED
THE DIALECTICAL ROOST.
SOMEHOW THE PEOPLE LIVING WITH
AIDS WERE EXPENDABLE IN VAST
NUMBERS, WHILE PEOPLE IN POWER
PERSUADED THEMSELVES THAT IT
WAS BETTER TO PRACTICE
PREVENTION.
ONE OF THE MOST EXCELLENT
THINGS ABOUT THREE BY FIVE IS
THE WAY IN WHICH IT HAS
REJUVENATED PREVENTION, AND
MADE EVERYONE UNDERSTAND THAT
TREATMENT IS FAR MORE THEN
TREATMENT, AND THAT TREATMENT
AND PREVENTION ARE INSEPARABLE.
ALL OF WHICH LEADS ME DIRECTLY
TO MY FOURTH PROPOSAL.
THE VITAL NEED FOR THE G8 TO
CONFRONT THE SHORT FALLING
REVENUE FOR THE GLOBAL FUND TO
FIGHT AIDS, TUBERCULOSIS AND
MALARIA.
THE G8 SUMMIT WAS OF COURSE IN
JULY OF THIS YEAR AS I SAID.
THE GLOBAL FUND REPLENISHMENT
CONFERENCE WAS EARLY LAST
MONTH, SEPTEMBER, BARELY EIGHT
WEEKS AFTER THE G8 SUMMIT.
THE GLOBAL FUND REQUIRED 7.1
BILLION DOLLARS TO CARRY IT
THROUGH TO THE END OF 2007.
IT NEEDED PLEDGES FOR THAT
AMOUNT OR IT COULD NOT REVIEW
NEW PROPOSALS FOR 2006 AND
2007.
INCREDIBLY ENOUGH AS THINGS
CURRENTLY STAND THE PLEDGES
FALL DRASTICALLY SHORT.
IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT
THERE IS NO OTHER INTERNATIONAL
FINANCIAL VEHICLE DEALING WITH
AIDS THAT REACHES SO MANY
DIVERSE COUNTRIES, NOR ANY
INSTITUTIONS SO RESPONSIVE TO
THE DEMANDS OF THE GRASSROOTS.
THE GLOBAL FUND IS OPERATING IN
127 COUNTRIES.
IT HAS PROVIDED FUNDS TO PUT
200,000 PEOPLE ON ANTI-
RETROVIRAL TREATMENT, TO
PROVIDE MORE THEN 1,000,000
PEOPLE WITH VOLUNTARY TESTING
AND COUNSELLING, TO PUT 385,000
PEOPLE ON TB TREATMENT, TO PUT
300,000 ON MALARIAL TREATMENT
AND TO PROVIDE 1,350,000
FAMILIES WITH BEDNETS TO
PROTECT AGAINST MALARIA.
IN ADDITION, IT HAS REACHED
MILLIONS WITH PROGRAMS OF
PREVENTION FOR ALL THREE
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES.
IT FUNDS TRAINING, HOME-BASED
CARE, DRUGS FOR OPPORTUNISTIC
INFECTIONS.
HOSPITAL
INFRASTRUCTURE, THE STAFFING OF
NATIONAL AIDS COUNCILS, AND
INCREASINGLY IT PROVIDES
RESOURCES FOR COMMUNITY BASED
AND FAITH BASED ORGANIZATIONS.
THERE'S
NOTHING THAT APPROXIMATES THE
ACTUAL AND POTENTIAL SCOPE OF
THE GLOBAL FUND.
SO WHAT HAPPENED?
7.1 BILLION DOLLARS WAS THE
TARGET.
EVERYONE THOUGHT THE MOMENTUM
FROM THE G8 WOULD CARRY US PAST
THE TARGET.
KOFI ANNAN CHAIRED THE
REPLENISHMENT CONFERENCE.
THE G8 CAME UP WITH 3.7 BILLION
DOLLARS.
THAT'S 3.4 BILLION DOLLARS
SHORT OF THE GOAL.
THAT SHORTFALL WILL BE MEASURED
IN MILLIONS OF LIVES.
AT THE G8 SUMMIT ITSELF,
PROMISES TO HELP AFRICA MOUNTED
ONE UPON THE OTHER LIKE BARS OF
GOLD AT FORT KNOX.
DOES IT NOT SAY SOMETHING ABOUT
THE QUALITY OF THOSE PROMISES
THAT AT THE FIRST MOMENT OF
TESTING THEY WERE FOUND
WANTING?
IT TOOK EXACTLY TWO MONTHS FOR
THE INVIOLABLE PATTERN OF
BETRAYAL OF AFRICA TO RE-
EMERGE.
IT BECOMES CLEAR IN ALL OF THIS
THAT PART OF THE PROBLEM IS THE
ALMOST COMPLETE RELIANCE ON
GOVERNMENTS.
IN MY OWN PHILOSOPHIC VIEW,
THAT RELIANCE IS EXACTLY AS IT
SHOULD BE, EXCEPT THAT IN THE
CIRCUMSTANCES OF AIDS THERE IS
NO TIME FOR CEREBRAL SELF-
INDULGENCE.
THE RICH COUNTRIES JUST WON'T
DELIVER AND THE POOR COUNTRIES
CAN'T DELIVER, AND THE DYING
INCREASES EXPONENTIALLY.
THERE HAVE TO BE ALTERNATIVES
AND I BELIEVE THEY EXIST.
WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE GATES
FOUNDATION THERE IS NO OTHER
MAJOR AIDS DONOR FROM THE
BROADLY, DEFINED CORPORATE
WORLD.
THIS LEADS ME TO MAKE A
SUGGESTION THAT THE PRIVATE
SECTOR MAY FIND PERFECTLY
ODIOUS, BUT THAT I THINK HAS
SOME MERIT.
THERE IS AN ORGANIZATION KNOWN
AS THE GLOBAL BUSINESS
COALITION ON HIV AIDS, FOUNDED
AND SUSTAINED BY RICHARD
HOLBROOKE, THE FORMER AMERICAN
AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED
NATIONS.
SOME OF THE CORPORATE MEMBERS,
AND THERE ARE MANY MULTI-
NATIONAL CORPORATE MEMBERS
INVOLVED IN THE, IN THE
COALITION, MANY OF THEM MULTI-
NATIONALS FOR DECADES.
THEY PURSUE HONOURABLE POLICIES
IN RELATION TO THE PANDEMIC,
PARTICULARLY THE PROVISION OF
MEDICAL CARE, INCLUDING
TREATMENT FOR THEIR WORKERS AND
THE WORKERS' FAMILIES.
I'VE HEARD PRESENTATIONS FROM
OIL COMPANIES IN ANGOLA, AND
COMPANIES LIKE ANGLO AMERICAN
IN SOUTH AFRICA THAT ARE
ACTUALLY QUITE MOVING IN THEIR
COMMITMENT TO FIGHT IN THE
PANDEMIC.
WHAT IS MISSING HOWEVER, ARE
PRIVATE SECTOR FINANCIAL
CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONFRONT THE
PANDEMIC ON A BROADER SCALE,
SOMETHING THAT WOULD DEFINE THE
TRUE MEANING OF CORPORATE,
SOCIAL, RESPONSIBILITY.
IT SHOULD BE ESPECIALLY TRUE OF
THOSE COMPANIES THAT HAVE
PROFITED SO EXTRAVAGANTLY FROM
THE RESOURCES OF THE AFRICAN
CONTINENT OR FROM THE SALE --

[Audience applauding]

Stephen continues OR PROFITED
FROM THE SALE OF
PHARMACEUTICALS.
SO HERE IS MY PROPOSAL.
I SUGGEST THAT ALL THE SELF-
SELECTED MEMBERS OF THE GLOBAL
BUSINESS COALITION ON HIV AIDS,
SHOULD CONTRIBUTE 0.7 percent OF PRE-
TAX PROFITS TO THE GLOBAL FUND
TO FIGHT AIDS, TUBERCULOSIS AND
MALARIA.

[Audience applauding]

Stephen continues THE TARGET
FIGURE IS FAMILIAR.
IT HAS HUGE INTERNATIONAL
RESONANCE, AND THERE'S NO
REASON WHY LIKE GOVERNMENTS THE
CORPORATIONS SHOULDN'T PHASE IT
IN BETWEEN NOW AND 2015, AGAIN
IN SYMMETRY WITH INTERNATIONAL
PRIORITIES.
IT WOULD MEAN A TREMENDOUS
DIFFERENCE TO THE GLOBAL FUND
IN ITS BATTLE AGAINST AIDS AND
IT WOULD MAKE THE STRONGEST,
POSSIBLE STATEMENT ONCE AND FOR
ALL.
THAT THIS FIGHT TO SAVE
HUMANKIND IS UNIVERSAL.
FIFTH, I MUST ATTEMPT TO DEAL
WITH THE QUESTION OF FOOD,
WHICH I TOUCHED, UPON IN AN
EARLIER LECTURE.
A STRANGE THING HAS BEEN
HAPPENING INTERNATIONALLY,
WHICH I DO NOT FULLY
UNDERSTAND.
THERE IS GREATER AND GREATER
RELUCTANCE TO PROVIDE THE
FUNDING OR THE FOOD TO FEED THE
HUNGRY, AND YET CUTTING SEVERE
HUNGER IN HALF BY 2015 IS ALONG
WITH A SIMILAR REDUCTION IN
POVERTY THE FIRST OF THE
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS.
THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE
WORLD FOOD PROGRAM JAMES MORRIS
HAS MADE MANY AN ELOQUENT PLEA
FOR FOOD AID IN DOLLARS OR IN
KIND FOR INTENSE HUMAN
EMERGENCIES, FROM DARFUR TO
NORTH KOREA TO THE FAMINE
STRICKEN COUNTRIES OF SOUTHERN
AFRICA.
JUST BEFORE I CAME HERE THIS
EVENING, I READ A NEWS REPORT
OF 1,700,000 PEOPLE IN ZAMBIA
NOW FACING FAMINE, 5,000,000
PEOPLE IN MALAWI NOW FACING
FAMINE.
A COMBINATION OF DROUGHT AND
THE CARNAGE OF THE PANDEMIC,
WHICH MAKES FARMING VIRTUALLY
IMPOSSIBLE BECAUSE SO MANY
PEOPLE ARE ILL OR HAVE DIED.
AND THE FARMERS ARE OF COURSE
THE WOMEN.
THE RESPONSE TO JAMES MORRIS'
APPEAL HAS BEEN LAMENTABLE,
OFTEN LESS THEN A QUARTER OF
THE NEED.
WHAT HAS GONE WRONG?
MORRIS IS THE LAST PERSON IN
THE WORLD TO MAKE REQUESTS THAT
COULD BE CONSIDERED
EXTRAVAGANT.
LIKE REPLENISHING THE GLOBAL
FUND THIS TOO IS A TEST OF THE
INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, AND A
SIMPLE ONE.
IT MIGHT BE ARGUED THAT AIDS IS
A PROFOUNDLY, COMPLICATED
SUBJECT WHERE IN EVERY ASPECT,
WHETHER TREATMENT, PREVENTION
OR CARE INVOLVES TORTURED
FINANCIAL CONTOURS ON THE ONE
HAND AND SENSITIVE CULTURAL
NORMS ON THE OTHER.
IT CAN MAKE FUNDING DIFFICULT.
BUT HUNGER IS NOT COMPLICATED.
STARVATION IS STARVATION.
YOU DON'T NEED A COURSE IN
HUMAN SEXUALITY TO GRASP THE
GNAWING VOID OF HUNGER.
THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAM HAS
UNDERSTOOD THE REALITY OF THE
PANDEMIC'S UMBILICAL EQUATION.
ANTI-RETROVIRALS DON'T WORK ON
AN EMPTY STOMACH.
ABOVE ALL, THE WORLD FOOD
PROGRAM, WFP HAS BECOME AN EVER
GREATER STALWART IN THE
PROVISION OF SCHOOL FEEDING
PROGRAMS.
THIS IS TRULY EXCELLENT.
YOU CANNOT IMAGINE WHAT IT
MEANS TO CHILDREN, FROM THE
MOST IMPOVERISHED COMMUNITIES
IN THE WORLD TO BE GUARANTEED
ONE SOLID MEAL A DAY.
INEVITABLY, ALAS IT'S HIT AND
MISS, TOO MANY IMPOVERISHED
CHILDREN, TOO FEW DOLLARS.
BUT IT'S HARD TO FIND ANYONE
WHO'S ASSOCIATED WITH SCHOOL
FEEDING WHO DOESN'T FEEL THAT
IT SHOULD BE UNIVERSAL.
AT THE MOMENT, SUCH THOUGHTS
ARE THE STUFF OF FANTASY.
THE WFP SIMPLY DOESN'T HAVE THE
MONEY.
AS PART OF THE DIVIDING OF THE
SPOILS FROM THE G8 THERE MUST
BE A NEW AND DEFINITIVE PROGRAM
FOR THE PURCHASE OF FOOD
WHEREVER IT IS NEEDED, OR THE
MDG ON HUNGER IS REDUCED TO
MERE ASPIRATION.
BUT IT'S MUCH MORE THEN THAT.
THERE MUST EQUALLY BE A FOCUS
ON SMALL, AGRICULTURAL
DEVELOPMENT THAT DWARFS
EVERYTHING THAT'S GONE BEFORE.
HERE THE U.N.'S FOOD AND
AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATION COULD
PLAY A PIVOTAL ROLE.
BUT I GET NO SENSE THAT ITS
UPPER ECHELONS VIEW THINGS WITH
THE SENSE OF EMERGENCY THAT
INHABITS THE WORLD FOOD
PROGRAM.
INDEED, I RARELY SEE FAO, THE
FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL
ORGANIZATION TAKING LEADERSHIP
ON THE GROUND WITHIN COUNTRIES.
SIXTH, THERE HAS EMERGED
BECAUSE OF ECONOMIST JEFFREY
SACHS, ONE OF THE MORE
IMAGINATIVE PROPOSALS FLOATING
IN THE ETHER OF SOCIAL CHANGE.
THE MILLENNIUM VILLAGE PROJECT.
I REMEMBER FIRST READING OF IT
IN HIS CELEBRATED NEW BOOK,
"THE END OF POVERTY" AND
THINKING TO MYSELF, HOW DOES HE
COME UP WITH THESE IDEAS?
THE NAME MILLENNIUM VILLAGE
PROJECT IS ENTIRELY APT BECAUSE
JEFFREY IS THE SPECIAL ADVISOR
TO THE SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE
UNITED NATIONS FOR THE
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS.
THE PROJECT CONCEIVES OF TEN
VILLAGES OF ROUGHLY 5,000
POPULATION EACH, SCATTERED IN
VARIOUS COUNTRIES THROUGHOUT
AFRICA.
THESE VILLAGES WOULD BE GIVEN
EVERY RESOURCE REQUIRED,
PRIMARILY DOLLARS, BUT ALSO
EXPERT ADVICE...
SIMPLE
TECHNOLOGIES, AND
INFRASTRUCTURE TO RESPOND TO
EVERY HUMAN EXIGENCY BY
REBUILDING THE INTERWOVEN
FABRIC OF HEALTHCARE,
EDUCATION, TRANSPORTATION,
COMMUNICATIONS, NUTRITION,
WATER...
SANITATION
AND ABOVE ALL, AGRICULTURE.
THE DECISIONS ON BOTH
PRIORITIES AND IMPLEMENTATION
WILL BE MADE AT VILLAGE LEVEL,
HEADED BY SOME RESPONSIBLE
COMMUNITY LEADER.
IT IS ESTIMATED THAT THE
EXPERIMENT SHOULD RUN FOR FIVE
YEARS AT A ROUGH COST OF
250,000 TO 350,000 ANNUALLY, OR
50 TO 70 dollars PER PERSON PER YEAR.
IT'S AMAZING, ISN'T IT?
50 TO 70 dollars PER PERSON PER YEAR,
HOW LITTLE IT TAKES TO
RESUSCITATE HUMAN LIVES.
IN ADDITION, THERE WOULD BE A
SIMILAR AMOUNT DEVOTED TO
MONITORING AND EVALUATING THE
PROJECT AS IT PROCEEDS, SO THAT
IMPECCABLE RESEARCH WOULD
CONTINUOUSLY AT HAND.
AT THIS POINT THERE ARE TWO
VILLAGES IN PROCESS IN KENYA
AND ETHIOPIA, WITH THE THIRD IN
RWANDA JUST UNDERWAY.
IT IS ALMOST EXCITING.
I HAVE VISITED THE EMBRYONIC
VILLAGE IN KENYA AND ALTHOUGH
ONE CAN TAKE ISSUE WITH THIS OR
THAT ASPECT, THE POTENTIAL FOR
SIGNIFICANT CHANGE IS
INDISPUTABLE.
THE PURPOSE OF THE EXERCISE IS
TO SEE IF AGAINST ALL ODDS, THE
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
CAN ACTUALLY BE REALIZED AT
VILLAGE, LEVEL, WITH THE RIGHT
KIND OF FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL
ASSISTANCE.
THE NEXT STEP IS TO TAKE IT TO
SCALE COLLABORATING WITH
GOVERNMENT EVERY STEP OF THE
WAY.
THE BAIN OF AFRICA'S EXISTENCE
AT THE MOMENT IN RESPONSE TO
THE PANDEMIC IN PARTICULAR IS
THE ENDLESS NUMBER OF MODELS,
PROJECTS, PROTOTYPES AND
EXPERIMENTS THAT NEVER GET TO
SCALE.
MANY ARE QUITE EXCELLENT OF
THEMSELVES.
BUT IT SEEMS ABSURD SOMEHOW
THAT WE NEVER SUCCEED IN
SPREADING THEM ACROSS THE
SOCIO-ECONOMIC TERRAIN OF EACH
OF THE COUNTRIES.
SUCCESS WILL DEMONSTRATE TO THE
WORLD THAT BETWEEN DAILY MISERY
ON THE ONE HAND, AND WELL,
BEING ON THE OTHER THERE STANDS
ONLY THE DECISION BY THE RICH
NATIONS TO SHARE A TINY
FRACTION OF THEIR WEALTH.
NOW I SUPPOSE I SHOULD DEAL IN
PASSING WITH ONE OF THE VAGUELY
COMICAL ASPECTS OF THIS
PARTICULAR SUBJECT.
PEOPLE ARE ALWAYS ASKING ME HOW
I CAN CONSORT SO CLOSELY WITH
JEFFREY SACHS?
THEY EVEN IMPLY A GROUPIE
MENTALITY THAT NATURALLY CUTS
ME TO THE QUICK.

[audience laughs]

Stephen continues WELL LET ME
BE, ABSOLUTELY CLEAR.
I'M A DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST.
MY IDEOLOGY IS MY LIFE.
AND IT IS TRUE TO SAY THAT
JEFFREY SACHS IS NOT A
DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST.

[audience laughs]

Stephen continues IN FACT
ALTHOUGH HE AND I HAVE NEVER
DISCUSSED IT, IT WOULD SEEM
FROM HIS WRITINGS THAT HE'S A
PROFOUNDLY, MISGUIDED
DEMOCRATIC CAPITALIST.

[audience laughs]

Stephen continues THESE ARE
MORTAL FLAWS, WHICH I
CHARITABLY OVERLOOK.

[audience laughs]

Stephen continues THE FACT OF
THE MATTER IS HOWEVER THAT
WHATEVER OUR PHILOSOPHIC
DIFFERENCES AND THERE IS NO
BRIDGE LONG ENOUGH TO SPAN THE
PHILOSOPHIC DIVIDE.

[audience laughs]

Stephen continues JEFFREY IS
QUITE MAGNIFICENT IN HIS
UNSWERVING PURSUIT OF THE END
OF GLOBAL POVERTY AND THE
Amelioration OF THE HUMAN
CONDITION.
HIS NOSTRUMS MAY SOMETIMES NOT
BE MY NOSTRUMS.
BUT THE POWER OF HIS INTELLECT
AND HIS INFLUENCE IN THE
SERVICE OF THE MOST NOBLE OF
CAUSES ARE, ALL THINGS I HUGELY
ADMIRE, AND I'LL BE DARNED IF
I'LL ALLOW IDEOLOGICAL DOGMA TO
GET IN THE WAY.
SEVENTH...

[Audience applauding]

Stephen continues I SHALL CURRY
FAVOUR WITH JEFFREY BY TELLING
HIM OF YOUR APPLAUSE.

[audience laughs]

Stephen continues SEVENTH,
THERE IS THE QUESTION OF THE
EMERGING PREVENTIVE
TECHNOLOGIES, IN PARTICULAR
VACCINES AND MICROBICIDES.
I MUST ADMIT THAT IN THE
PANTHEON OF RESPONSES TO THE
PANDEMIC I FIND THE SEARCH FOR
A VACCINE AND THE SEARCH FOR A
MICROBICIDE UTTERLY
FASCINATING.
I DON'T PRETEND TO UNDERSTAND
EVEN A SNIPPET OF THE SCIENCE,
BUT THAT'S OF LITTLE
CONSEQUENCE.
A VACCINE IS OBVIOUSLY THE
ULTIMATE ANSWER.
GIVE US A VACCINE, GET IT OUT
AND THE NIGHTMARE OF MILLIONS
OF NEW INFECTIONS WINDS TO AN
END.
HOWEVER IT WOULD APPEAR FROM
THE OPINION OF KNOWLEDGEABLE
INSIDERS THAT A VACCINE IS TEN
OR MORE YEARS AWAY.
I FIND THAT HARD TO BELIEVE,
BUT I'M ASSURED THAT IT IS THE
CASE.
THE VIRUS APPARENTLY HAS SUCH
CAPACITY FOR ILLUSIVE AND
INFINITE MUTATION THAT NO ONE
HAS YET FOUND THE ACHILLES
MOLECULE.
STILL I HAVE THE ABSOLUTE
CONVICTION, THAT IF THE
GREATEST EVER RESEARCH EFFORT
WAS MOBILIZED, SURPASSING ALL
PREVIOUS SUCH EFFORTS, DWARFING
EVERYTHING FROM SPACE SHUTTLES
TO DNA WE WOULD VERY SOON MAKE
THE SPECTACULAR DISCOVERY.
A MICROBICIDE ON THE OTHER HAND
IS ALLEGEDLY NOT SO FAR OFF.
THERE ARE EVEN NOW A NUMBER OF
TRIALS IN PLACE AT SEVERAL
STAGES IN A NUMBER OF COUNTRIES
INCLUDING AFRICAN COUNTRIES,
WHICH LEAD INFORMED PEOPLE TO
SPECULATE ABOUT A DISCOVERY IN
FOUR TO SEVEN YEARS.
IT IS AMAZING IN CONCEPT.
A MICROBICIDE IS A CREAM OR A
GEL, WHICH THE WOMAN CAN APPLY
TO HERSELF WITHOUT THE PARTNER
EVEN KNOWING OR EVER KNOWING TO
PREVENT TRANSMISSION OF THE
VIRUS.
MORE SUPERNATURALLY, REVEALING
THE EXTENT OF MY SCIENTIFIC
IGNORANCE THERE IS A PRODUCT IN
DEVELOPMENT, WHICH IS DESIGNED
TO PREVENT TRANSMISSION, BUT
PERMIT CONCEPTION.
THIS WOULD BE A TREMENDOUS
ACCOMPLISHMENT AND VITAL FOR
AFRICA, WHERE HAVING CHILDREN
IS SO, CULTURALLY IMPORTANT.
THE ISSUE OF RESOURCES IS NOT
TO BE SNEEZED AT.
THE PREVENTIVE TECHNOLOGIES
REQUIRE A DOUBLING OF DOLLARS
OVER THE NEXT FEW YEARS,
SOMETHING IN THE VICINITY OF
700 TO 800,000,000 dollars MORE EACH YEAR.
NATURALLY THE MORE TRIALS YOU
HAVE IN PLACE, THE BETTER THE
PROSPECTS FOR DISCOVERY.
THAT TAKES A LOT OF MONEY.
BUT IT'S SURELY A SUBLIME
INVESTMENT.
EIGHTH, THERE IS THE MATTER OF
SCHOOL FEES.
I'VE DEALT WITH THIS...
I REALIZE AT
SOME CONSIDERABLE LENGTH IN AN
EARLIER LECTURE.
BUT I WANTED TO RE-EMPHASIZE
HOW CRUCIAL IT IS TO DEVISE A
PLAN COUNTRY BY COUNTRY, WHERE
SCHOOL FEES...
AND EVERY
OTHER RELATED COST CAN BE
ABOLISHED AND WHERE
COMPENSATORY FUNDING WILL BE
AVAILABLE AUTOMATICALLY.
MY OWN FEELING...

[Audience applauding]

Stephen continues MY OWN
FEELING AND IF YOU DON'T
APPLAUD AT THE END OF THIS
SENTENCE, I SHALL FEEL
PROFOUNDLY AGITATED.

[Audience laughing]

Stephen continues MY OWN
FEELING IS THAT VIRTUALLY THE
ENTIRE ONUS SHOULD BE ON THE
WORLD BANK AND THE
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND TO
COUGH UP THE MONEY THAT
GOVERNMENTS AND INDIVIDUAL
SCHOOLS LOSE.

[Audience applauding]

Stephen continues WHEN THE
ABOLITION OF FEES IS INTRODUCED.
AFTER ALL, THE CONCEPT OF
SHARED COST OR THE EQUIVALENT
EUPHEMISM, USER FEES LIES AT
THE ROOT OF THE DESTRUCTIVE FEE
POLICY, AND THOSE RESPONSIBLE
FOR THIS IDEOLOGICAL VELT UND
SCHUND SHOULD ALSO BE
RESPONSIBLE FOR ITS REVERSAL.
THIS WILL NOT BE EASY.
BUT WE'RE NOT TALKING ABOUT A
PRIVILEGE TO BE GRANTED THE
DESERVING.
WE'RE TALKING ABOUT A
FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT THAT
CANNOT BE DENIED.
NOT TO CHILDREN, ORPHANED BY
AIDS AND NOT TO OTHER
VULNERABLE CHILDREN WHOSE NEED
FOR SCHOOL IS URGENT AND WHOSE
WHEREWITHAL IS NEGLIGIBLE.
SIMPLY PUT, WE'RE ATTEMPTING TO
MAKE REAL THE MILLENNIUM
DEVELOPMENT GOAL, WHICH SAYS
THAT EVERY CHILD OF PRIMARY
SCHOOL GOING AGE HAS THE RIGHT
TO BE IN SCHOOL.
IT IS ALSO TIME IN THE PURSUIT
OF THIS OBJECTIVE, TO EMPHASIZE
THE VERY PARTICULAR ROLE THAT
SCHOOLS CAN PLAY IN ACHIEVING
THE MDGS.
IT RELATES DIRECTLY TO THE
LITANY OF QUICK WINS THAT WERE
INNUMERATE WHEN THE MILLENNIUM
DEVELOPMENT PROJECT WAS ISSUED
IN DOCUMENT FORM IN JANUARY OF
THIS YEAR.
IN ADDITION TO FULFILLING THEIR
TRADITIONAL ROLES, SCHOOLS CAN
ALSO BE SEEN UNIVERSALLY AS
NATURAL CENTRES FOR
IMMUNIZATION, DEWORMING, LUNCH
FEEDING PROGRAMS AND THE
DISTRIBUTION OF MALARIAL
BEDNETS.
ADD THOSE COMPONENTS TO
EDUCATION ON HIV AIDS, THE USE
OF THE SCHOOL AS A COMMUNITY
HUB.
THE SCHOOL AS A WATER POINT FOR
THE VILLAGE AND A MODEL FOR A
COMMUNITY GARDEN AND YOU HAVE
ONE OF THOSE TRULY FORTUITOUS
COMBINATIONS THAT CAN TRANSFORM
AND SAVE A CHILD'S LIFE.
NINTH, WE COME TO THE QUESTION
OF ORPHANS.
AS I'VE MOVED FROM COUNTRY TO
COUNTRY OVER THE LAST FOUR
YEARS, IT'S BEEN CLEAR,
INESCAPABLY CLEAR THAT AS THE
PANDEMIC EVOLVES CHILDREN
ORPHANED BY AIDS ARE BECOMING
THE SINGLE MOST INTRACTABLE AND
PAINFUL LEGACY.
THERE ARE NO EQUIVALENT
PRECEDENTS.
NOTHING IN HISTORICAL
EXPERIENCE HAS PREPARED US FOR
TWO GENERATIONS OF CHILDREN
RENDERED DESPERATE, LONELY, SAD
AND BEWILDERED BY SHEER
CIRCUMSTANCE.
THE ORPHAN CRISIS IS QUITE
SIMPLY MONUMENTAL.
IT WILL GET WORSE.
THE MDGS ON POVERTY, INFANT
MORTALITY RATES AND PRIMARY
SCHOOL ATTENDANCE CANNOT
POSSIBLY BE REACHED IN THE
PRESENCE OF A CATACLYSM FOR
CHILDREN OF SUCH MAGNITUDE.
ALLOW ME IF I MAY TO ADD ONE,
ADDITIONAL THOUGHT.
EVERYONE SPEAKS WITH PASSING
ALMOST GRATUITOUS EASE ABOUT
PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT.
THAT'S THE TERM OF ART.
IT'S MEANT TO CONVEY THE
THERAPEUTIC RESPONSE TO
PROFOUND EMOTIONAL DISTRESS.
IN AFRICA FOR CHILDREN EFFECTED
BY AIDS EXCEPT IN THE RAREST OF
CASES IT DOES NOT EXIST.
WHAT IS MEANT BY PSYCHOSOCIAL
SUPPORT ARE THE SUSTAINING
NETWORKS OF FAMILY AND FRIENDS,
WHICH MAY OR MAY NOT BE
ADEQUATE FOR THE CHILD WRENCHED
FROM THE BOSOM OF THE FAMILY
AFTER A DEATH WATCH OF MONTHS
OR EVEN YEARS.
THE INFORMAL COUNSELLING
APPARATUS LEAVES MUCH TO BE
DESIRED.
THERE IS NO QUESTION THAT
AMONGST THE RESPONSES WE MUST
EXPLORE, IS HOW TO HANDLE THE
PSYCHOLOGICAL LIVES OF CHILDREN
WHOSE EMOTIONAL EQUANIMITY IS
HANGING BY A THREAD.
IN THIS WORLD, THERE ARE
DOCTORS WITHOUT BORDERS,
ENGINEERS WITHOUT BORDERS.
THERE ARE EVEN ACTUARIES
WITHOUT BORDERS.

[audience laughs]

Stephen continues OF GREAT
POTENTIAL HOWEVER, THERE IS AN
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF
SOCIAL WORKERS WITHOUT BORDERS.
IF EVER THEY WOULD CONSIDER AN
EXPANDED RAISON D'ETE IT SHOULD
BE TO RALLY THEIR POTENTIALLY
MULTITUDINOUS RANKS AND OFFER
TO TRAIN NOT ONLY EVERY HELPING
PROFESSION IN AFRICA, BUT
LEGIONS OF COMMUNITY LEVEL
PARAPROFESSIONALS IN THE ART OF
PSYCHOSOCIAL CARE FOR ORPHANS.

[Audience applauding]

Stephen continues FINALLY AS I
GRADUALLY WIND MY WAY TO THE
END OF THESE LECTURES,
PRESUMING ON YOUR...
INFINITE
ENDURANCE, I WANT TO RAISE WHAT
I WOULD CALL MATTERS OF
CONTROVERSY.
FOR REASONS THAT WILL BECOME
SELF-EVIDENT THIS IS NOT GOING
TO BE EASY FOR ME...
BUT I BELIEVE
IT MUST BE DONE.
MY EXPERIENCE OF THE LAST 20
YEARS IN THE MULTILATERAL
SYSTEM HAS BEEN AN ABSORBING
LESSON IN THE WILES AND ARTS OF
DIPLOMACY.
ONE LEARNS SOMETIMES THROUGH
PAINFUL EXPERIENCE THAT AS A
U.N. BUREAUCRAT, IT'S NOT
ALWAYS POSSIBLE TO CRITICIZE
INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES WITHOUT
AROUSING OCCASIONAL BOUTS OF
INDIGNATION AND ANGER, NOT TO
MENTION THREATS OF RETALIATION.
IN MY OWN VIEW MULTILATERALISTS
ARE FAR TOO OFTEN GUILTY OF
SELF-CENSORSHIP, BUT THERE IS A
PRICE TO BE PAID FOR CANDOR AND
I MAY BE ON THE VERGE OF PAYING
THAT PRICE.
I AM PERSONALLY PERSUADED THAT
THE TOLL ON SOCIETY FROM AIDS,
THE THREAT TO THE VERY
UNDERPINNINGS OF AFRICAN
SURVIVAL IS SO INTENSE THAT THE
NORMAL, DIPLOMATIC PROPRIETIES
MUST BE ABANDONED.
I WOULD ARGUE THAT IT'S MORALLY
IRRESPONSIBLE TO EMBRACE
SILENCE WHEN THERE'S SO MUCH AT
STAKE.
I MUST ADMIT THAT I'M
EMBOLDENED IN PART BECAUSE OF
THE CHANGING INTERNATIONAL
ATMOSPHERE.
AFTER ALL, WE'RE NOW TALKING
ABOUT THE RIGHT TO PROTECT, A
PARTICULARLY CANADIAN
CONSTRUCT, WHICH SUGGESTS THE
INTERNATIONAL RIGHT TO
INTERVENE IN SITUATIONS WHERE
NATION STATES ARE NOT UPHOLDING
THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF THEIR
CITIZENS.
DARFUR IS THE MOST DRAMATIC,
CURRENT EXAMPLE.
IF THE RIGHT TO PROTECT HAD
EXISTED AT THE TIME OF RWANDA
THERE MIGHT NOT HAVE BEEN, A
GENOCIDE.
DOES THAT LOGIC APPLY TO AIDS?
NOT IN A SYMMETRICAL WAY I
GUESS.
YOU COULDN'T MARCH A U.N. FORCE
INTO A COUNTRY BECAUSE THE
COUNTRY REFUSED TO TAKE HIV
AIDS SERIOUSLY.
BUT I THINK THE GROWING
INTERNATIONAL IMPATIENCE WITH
THE BEHAVIOUR OF SOME NATION
STATES SUGGESTS THAT AT LEAST
WE CAN BE MORE FORTHRIGHT
WITHOUT COUNSELLING EXTREME
MEASURES, AND BEING MORE
FORTHRIGHT CAN ACHIEVE A GREAT
DEAL.
I, I THINK THAT THE PANDEMIC OF
HIV AIDS FORCES US, ALL OF US
TO SPEAK OUT WHEN WE THINK
TRANSGRESSIONS ARE BEING
COMMITTED.
IF COLIN POWELL WAS RIGHT WHEN
HE WAS SECRETARY OF STATE, AS I
BELIEVE HE WAS TO SAY THAT AIDS
WAS THE MOST SIGNIFICANT THREAT
IN THE WORLD, GREATER EVEN THEN
WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND
HE SHOULD KNOW.
[Audience laughing]
THEN I
BELIEVE THAT THE ASSERTION OF
PRINCIPLE MUST REPLACE THE
RELIANCE ON NICETIES.
FOR EXAMPLE, THE U.S.
PRESIDENT'S EMERGENCY PLAN FOR
AIDS RELIEF OR PEPFAR, AS IT'S
COLLOQUIALLY KNOWN CANNOT ESCAPE
CRITICISM SIMPLY BECAUSE ITS SO
POTENTIALLY POTENT IN SCOPE, OR
BECAUSE IT COMES FROM THE
WORLD'S SUPER POWER.
WHEN PEPFAR WAS FIRST,
ANNOUNCED EVERYONE WAS
PREDICTABLY STUNNED AT THE
AMOUNT OF MONEY.
15,000,000,000 OVER dollars FIVE YEARS.
IT ECLIPSED BY FAR ANYTHING
UNDERTAKEN BY FORMER PRESIDENT
CLINTON, AND EVERYONE WAS
INITIALLY WILLING TO GIVE
PEPFAR THE BENEFIT OF THE
DOUBT.
EVEN I, UNREPENTANT SOCIAL
DEMOCRAT, UNREPENTANT CRITIC OF
THE BUSH REGIME, RECOGNIZED
THAT THE SUMS WERE SO LARGE
THAT THEY COULDN'T BUT DO SOME
GOOD.
ON THOSE GROUNDS ALONE ALONG
WITH SO MANY OTHERS, I
INITIALLY SUSPENDED NEGATIVE
COMMENT.
AND THE BUSH INITIATIVE HAS
DONE A GREAT DEAL OF GOOD.
I'M NOT SO FOOLHARDY AS TO DENY
IT.
YOU PUMP THAT MUCH MONEY IN
INCREMENTS INTO A SICK AND
AILING HEALTHCARE SYSTEM AND
SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS OF PEOPLE
WILL BENEFIT IN WAYS LARGE AND
SMALL, INCLUDING FROM LIFE
SAVING TREATMENT.
BUT THAT'S NOT REALLY THE ONLY
CRITICAL POINT.
THE POINT IS THE SIGNIFICANT
NUMBERS WHO MIGHT HAVE
BENEFITTED AND HAVE BEEN
EXCLUDED.
THE POINT IS THE CONDITIONS
THAT HAVE BEEN IMPOSED BY THE
ADMINISTRATION, WHICH ARE
UNNECESSARILY DESTRUCTIVE.
THE CHOICE OF COUNTRIES LEAVES
MUCH TO BE DESIRED.
SWAZILAND, WITH THE HIGHEST
PREVALENCE RATE IN THE WORLD IS
EXCLUDED.
LASUTOO, WITH THE HIGHEST
PREVALENCE RATE AMONGST THE
LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IS
EXCLUDED.
MALAWI, WITH THE MOST ABJECT
SITUATION OF HUMAN CAPACITY
THIS SIDE OF AFGHANISTAN IS
EXCLUDED.
PEPFAR IS SUBJECT TO SKEPTICISM
ON SEVERAL OTHER GROUNDS AS
WELL.
THE AMOUNT OF MONEY GOING TO
THE GLOBAL FUND IS GROSSLY
INADEQUATE.
THERE'S JUST NO COMPARISON
BETWEEN THE TWO.
THE GLOBAL FUND IS IN SCORES
AND SCORES OF COUNTRIES.
PEPFAR IS IN 15.
IF THIS WERE A WORLD WHERE
IDEOLOGY WAS NOT SO EXTREME AND
THE ANTI-MULTILATERAL IMPULSE
IN THE UNITED STATES WERE NOT
SO STRONG, ALL OF THE MONEY
WOULD HAVE GONE TO THE GLOBAL
FUND AND GREAT THINGS WOULD
HAVE BEEN ACCOMPLISHED.
AS IT IS THUS FAR, ONLY
300,000,000 TO 500,000,000 dollars A
YEAR HAS BEEN ALLOCATED TO THE
GLOBAL FUND, REPRESENTING
BETWEEN TEN AND SIXTEEN PERCENT
OF THE ANNUAL 3,000,000,000 dollars
TOTAL WHICH THE UNITED STATES
HAS AVAILABLE, SAD, VERY SAD.
AND THEN THERE'S THE PURCHASE,
SO FAR EXCLUSIVELY OF BRAND
NAME DRUGS AT PRICES FAR IN
EXCESS OF GENERIC AIDS DRUGS.
THE ARGUMENT IS THAT THE UNITED
STATES WOULD NOT DISTRIBUTE
DRUGS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
THAT HAVE NOT BEEN APPROVED BY
THE U.S. FOOD AND DRUG
ADMINISTRATION, THE FDA.
THIS SEEMINGLY PRINCIPLED
POSITION HAS THE USEFUL SIDE
EFFECT OF PUMPING AMERICAN
DOLLARS INTO THE COFFERS OF
BRAND NAME U.S. DRUG
MANUFACTURERS.
EVEN IF UNDER PUBLIC PRESSURE,
AND THE PRESSURE HAS BEEN
INTENSE, SOME GENERICS ARE
APPROVED BY THE FDA, YOU CAN BE
SURE THAT THE BALANCE SHEETS OF
THE BRAND NAME PHARMACEUTICAL
INDUSTRY WILL SOMEHOW REMAIN
BUOYANT.
THERE IS ALSO
THE U.S. POLICY APPLIED
SPECIFICALLY TO PEPFAR FUNDS
REQUIRING A FOCUS ON ABSTINENCE
RATHER THEN CONDOMS.
PITTING ONE AGAINST THE OTHER
IS ABUNDANTLY ABSURD.
BUT THE
POLICY AS POLICY IS UNTENABLE.
JUST HOW FOR EXAMPLE DOES A
MARRIED WOMAN PROTECT HERSELF
WHEN SHE CAN'T PRACTICE
ABSTINENCE, AND SHE SUSPECTS
HER HUSBAND ISN'T FAITHFUL?
AND WHAT HAPPENS TO YOUNG
PEOPLE WHO DO NOT ACCEPT THE
AMERICAN IMPRAMATER THAT
ABSTINENCE IS BEST, BUT CHOOSE
INSTEAD TO BE SEXUALLY ACTIVE?
NO ONE IN MY ACQUAINTANCE
INVOLVED SERIOUSLY IN FIGHTING
THE PANDEMIC DIMINISHES THE
VALUE OF ABSTINENCE.
BUT NO SUCH PERSON WOULD
CONTEMPLATE FOR A MOMENT,
CASTING ASPERSIONS ON CONDOMS
THE MOST EFFECTIVE PREVENTIVE
METHOD OF THEM ALL.
IN A SIMILAR CONTEXT, IS THE
RECENT U.S. REQUIRING ALL NGO
RECIPIENTS OF FOREIGN AID
DOLLARS TO SIGN AN AGREEMENT
THAT THEY WILL NOT SUPPORT BUT
RATHER CONDEMN PROSTITUTION.
THIS IDEOLOGICAL READ,
FUNDAMENTALIST FIAT, HAS THE
EFFECT OF COMPROMISING PROJECTS
INVOLVING COMMERCIAL SEX
WORKERS WHO ARE OBVIOUSLY KEY
TO FIGHTING THE PANDEMIC.
BRAZIL, WITH PERHAPS THE BEST
PREVENTION POLICIES IN THE
WORLD HAS REFUSED A GRANT OF
40,000,0000 dollars FROM THE UNITED
STATES, RATHER THEN SUBMIT TO
ANY SUCH IRRATIONAL AND ODIOUS
REQUIREMENT.
NO ONE PROMOTES PROSTITUTION.

[Audience applauding]

Stephen continues NO ONE IS
PROMOTING PROSTITUTION.
BUT IT'S COUNTERPRODUCTIVE TO
DISMISS AND ISOLATE A HIGH RISK
GROUP THAT IS SO IMPORTANT IN
THE FIGHT AGAINST THE PANDEMIC.
IT WOULD SEEM THAT OVER TIME
PEPFAR AND VARIOUS GOVERNMENTS
PLUS THE GLOBAL, GLOBAL FUND
ARE GETTING ALONG BETTER,
SUBDUING THE TENSIONS AND
FINDING A BASIS FOR
COOPERATION.
THAT'S ALL TO THE GOOD.
BUT WE'VE LOST A TREMENDOUS
OPPORTUNITY TO BREAK THE BACK
OF THE PANDEMIC, AND WE SHOULD
NOT BE AFRAID TO SAY SO SIMPLY
BECAUSE OF THE INTIMIDATION OF
STRENGTH AND POWER.
HOWEVER, LET ME SHIFT GROUND IF
I MAY.
THERE'S ALSO THE CASE OF
RECALCITRANT AFRICAN COUNTRIES,
WHICH MUST BE FACED.
THIS IS A VASTLY MORE DIFFICULT
PROPOSITION.
WHAT FOR EXAMPLE DOES ONE DO
ABOUT ZIMBABWE?
IT'S RATHER A DOUBLE, WHAMMY.
ON THE ONE HAND, ZIMBABWE IS
THE PERFECT EXAMPLE OF MAKING
THE PEOPLE OF A COUNTRY SUFFER
MIGHTILY BECAUSE DONOR
GOVERNMENTS DISLIKE THE LEADER,
ROBERT MUGABE AND REFUSE
THEREFORE TO TRANSFER
RESOURCES.
ON THE OTHER HAND, ZIMBABWE IS
AN EXAMPLE OF A COUNTRY WHERE
THE INDICES OF HEALTH AND
POVERTY ARE IN A DOWNWARD
SPIRAL, IN SIGNIFICANT PART
BECAUSE OF THE POLICIES OF THE
GOVERNMENT.
THE PANDEMIC IS PARTICULARLY
GRUESOME IN ZIMBABWE.
AND THOUGH PRESIDENT MUGABE HAS
BEGUN TO SPEAK OUT, THE TOLL IN
A COUNTRY WHERE THE PREVALENCE
RATE OF 20 TO 25 percent SEEMS TO KNOW
NO BOUNDS.
IT BECOMES NECESSARY I THINK
FOR PEOPLE IN AUTHORITY AT THE
UNITED NATIONS TO CONVEY TO THE
PRESIDENT AND HIS COLLEAGUES,
THAT THE LEVELS OF INTERNAL
DESTABILIZATION ARE MAKING AN
ADEQUATE RESPONSE TO AIDS
IMPOSSIBLE.
IT IS NOT TOLERABLE THAT THE
RISK OF THE VIRUS SHOULD BE
COMPOUNDED BY POLITICAL
TURBULENCE.
AN ARRANGEMENT MUST BE BARTERED
AMONG THE DONOR COMMUNITY, THE
NGOS AND THE ZIMBABWEAN
GOVERNMENT TO ALLOW THE
PANDEMIC TO BE ADDRESSED AS IT
IS BEING ADDRESSED IN THE
SURROUNDING COUNTRIES.
THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAM HAS
MANAGED TO KEEP THE DOORS OPEN
WITH THE REGIME.
IT'S NOT ALWAYS AN EASY
RELATIONSHIP.
BUT THE WFP IS IMPRESSIVE IN
THE ARRANGEMENTS MADE TO KEEP
PEOPLE FED.
PERHAPS THEY SHOULD BROKER THE
ENTANT ON AIDS.
SOMEONE HAS TO DO IT.
THE UNITED NATIONS IS BEST
PLACE.
IT'S SO OFTEN BEST PLACE, WE'VE
ALL PREFABRICATED FOR FAR TOO
LONG.
AND WHAT IN HEAVEN'S NAME DOES
ONE DO ABOUT SWAZILAND?
HERE WE HAVE A KING WHO
DEFIANTLY PRACTICES POLYGAMY.
WHO TAKES MORE THEN A DOZEN
WIVES THE MOST RECENT BUT 16
YEARS OF, AGE.
WHO TALKS OF BUILDING THEM
INDIVIDUAL PALACES AND SWEEPS
ACROSS THE SWAZILAND STAGE IN
NEWFANGLED CARS OF OUTRAGEOUS
PRICE.
IN THE
MEANTIME HIS SUBJECTS ARE DYING
IN NUMBERS THAT WOULD HAVE MADE
MOUTHOS WEEP.
LIVING IN A COUNTRY WITH THE
HIGHEST PREVALENCE RATE IN THE
WORLD.
THE MOST
RECENT ESTIMATE BASED ON ANTI-
NATAL SITES HAS RISEN TO 42 percent.
42 percent OF EVERYONE IN THE COUNTRY
BETWEEN THE AGES OF 15 AND 49,
HIV POSITIVE, AND ALL OF US ARE
QUIET, NARY AN AUDIBLE PEEP
FROM THE U.N. FAMILY.
HOW IS THIS SILENCE ANYTHING
OTHER THEN COMPLICITY?
AS I SAID BEFORE I'M NOT
SUGGESTING THAT THE RIGHT TO
PROTECT IS THE RIGHT TO
INTERVENE.
BUT SURELY IT IS THE RIGHT TO
DENOUNCE.
LOOK AT WHAT OUR SILENCE HIDES.
POLYGAMY, WHICH DENIGRATES
WOMEN AND SPREADS THE VIRUS.
EARLY MARRIAGE, WHICH DIRECTLY
VIOLATES U.N. CONVENTIONS
RATIFIED BY SWAZILAND,
MONUMENTAL EXTRAVAGANCE IN THE
FACE OF PERNICIOUS ILLNESS AND
MISERY.
IT'S ALL RIGHT TO SPEAK OUT
ABOUT DARFUR, ABOUT THE CONGO,
ABOUT NORTHERN UGANDA, BUT NOT
ABOUT SWAZILAND.
CONFLICT IS INDICTABLE, BUT
WANTON DEATH FROM DISEASE IS
ACCEPTABLE.
AND WHAT ABOUT THE TOUGHEST OF
THEM ALL, SOUTH AFRICA?
LET ME BEAR MY SOUL EVEN THOUGH
I MAY BE COURTING TROUBLE.
BUT THEN AGAIN ALTHOUGH I HAVE
A SPECIFIC ROLE AS U.N. ENVOY,
I'M A CANADIAN.
I'M SPEAKING IN MY OWN COUNTRY.
I'M DELIVERING THE MASSEY
LECTURES.
I'M PUTTING THE SELF-IMPOSED
MUZZLE ASIDE.

[Audience applauding]

Stephen continues EVERY SENIOR...

[Audience applauding]

Stephen continues EVERY SENIOR
U.N. OFFICIAL ENGAGED DIRECTLY
AGAINST AIDS TO WHOM I HAVE
SPOKEN ABOUT SOUTH AFRICA IS
COMPLETELY BEWILDERED BY THE
POLICIES OF PRESIDENT MBEKI.
THIS IS NOT A REVELATION, I'M
SURE.
IN PARTICULAR, I'M DEEPLY
CONCERNED BY THE SLOW ROLL OUT
OF TREATMENT FOR THOSE LIVING
WITH THE AIDS VIRUS IN SOUTH
AFRICA.
AND NOW WE KNOW AS A RESULT OF
THE MOST RECENT REPORT FROM THE
MINISTRY OF HEALTH THAT THERE
ARE WELL OVER 6,000,000 PEOPLE
INFECTED, THE HIGHEST ABSOLUTE
NUMBER OF INFECTIONS IN THE
WORLD.
I WOULD HAVE THOUGHT THAT THE
LATEST FIGURES WOULD STRIKE THE
FEAR OF THE ALMIGHTY INTO THE
HEART OF THE GOVERNMENT, THAT
THEY WOULD ACCELERATE THE ROLL
OUT OF TREATMENT AS THOUGH
THERE WERE NO TOMORROW, BECAUSE
WITHOUT TREATMENT THERE IS NO
TOMORROW.
ON MATTERS OF BUDGETARY
ALLOCATION, ON MATTERS OF
PREVENTION AND CARE, THE
GOVERNMENT IS DOING SOME
EXCELLENT THINGS.
BUT ON TREATMENT IT IS LAGGING
UNCONSCIONABLY AND TOO MANY
PEOPLE ARE DYING TO ALLOW FOR
THE LAG.
UNFATHOMABLE COMMENTS BY THE
MINISTER OF HEALTH DON'T HELP
MATTERS.
SHE PERPETUALLY AND PUBLICLY
ADVOCATES NUTRITIONAL REMEDIES
FOR A DEADLY DISEASE.
IF SHE FEELS GARLIC AND SWEET
POTATOES ARE INDISPENSABLE TO
MAINTAIN THE HEALTH OF HIV
POSITIVE PEOPLE THEN SO BE IT.
BUT IT'S GOING TOO FAR TO LET
GARLIC AND SWEET POTATOES
APPEAR TO EQUAL OR TRANSCEND
ANTI-RETROVIRAL TREATMENT,
TREATMENT IN IMPORTANCE.
NOR SHOULD WANTONLY EXAGGERATED
RUMOURS ABOUT THE SIDE EFFECTS
OF TREATMENT BE ALLOWED TO STIR
CONFUSION IN THE PUBLIC.
THIS IS NOT AN ADMIRABLE
STANCE.
IF MY COLLEAGUES AND FRIENDS
ARE CONFUSED BY THE POSITION OF
THE PRESIDENT, THEY ARE
INCREDULOUS AT THE WORDS AND
ACTIONS OF THE MINISTER OF
HEALTH.
OVER THE LAST FOUR YEARS I'VE
BEEN TO EVERY COUNTRY IN EAST
AND SOUTHERN AFRICA, MANY OF
THEM TWO, THREE AND FOUR TIMES.
I CAN SAY CONFIDENTLY AND
CATEGORICALLY THAT EVERY,
SINGLE COUNTRY IS WORKING
HARDER AT TREATMENT THEN IS
SOUTH AFRICA WITH FEWER
RELATIVE RESOURCES, AND IN MOST
CASES NOWHERE NEAR THE
INFRASTRUCTURE OR HUMAN
CAPACITY OF SOUTH AFRICA.
IT IS A SITUATION, WHICH IS
ABSOLUTELY MYSTIFYING.
AND WHAT TROUBLES ME, AND
TROUBLES ME DEEPLY IS THAT THE
UNITED NATIONS KNOWS THAT
SOMETHING IS TERRIBLY WRONG,
AND YET WE FEEL WE CAN'T SAY
ANYTHING ABOUT IT.
EVEN AS I SPEAK, I'M BEING
CONSCIOUSLY GUARDED.
THE ONLY SENIOR U.N. OFFICIAL
WHO HAS SPOKEN OUT IS DR. JIM
KIM, HEAD OF HIV AIDS AT THE
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION WHO
HAS HAD THE COURAGE TO SAY THAT
ONE OF THE REASONS WE WON'T
MAKE THE OVERALL TARGET OF
THREE BY FIVE IS THE SLOWNESS
OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN ROLL OUT.
I DON'T KNOW HOW MAGNIFICENT
ORGANIZATIONS LIKE THE
TREATMENT ACTION CAMPAIGN IN
SOUTH AFRICA, WORKING ON BEHALF
OF MILLIONS OF PEOPLE LIVING
WITH THE VIRUS, MANAGE TO
MAINTAIN THEIR COOL AS THEIR
MEMBERS AND SUPPORTERS DIE BY
THE THOUSANDS EVERY WEEK.
FOR THEM IT MUST FEEL LIKE
CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY.
MY OWN VIEW IS THAT THE
HORRENDOUS TOLL IS YET TO COME.
COUNTRIES WILL BE FIGHTING FOR
SURVIVAL TEN AND FIFTEEN YEARS
DOWN THE ROAD.
IT'S SIMPLY IMPOSSIBLE TO TEAR
THE PRODUCTIVE GENERATIONS OUT
OF THE HEART OF A COUNTRY
WITHOUT FACING AN INCOMPARABLE
CRISIS.
WHEN PEOPLE SAY SOMETIMES
TRIUMPHANTLY THAT PREVALENCE
RATES HAVE LEVELLED OFF, WHAT
THEY MEAN MOST OFTEN IS THAT
THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE
DIED EQUALS THE NUMBER OF NEW
INFECTIONS.
IT'S MATHEMATICUS DIABALOS.
I LIVE IN HOPE AFTER ALL, IF
THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT
GOALS ARE NOT TO BE A MOCKERY,
THEN THE VIRUS WILL HAVE TO BE
SUBDUED, MAYBE THE MDGS WILL
PROVIDE THE IMPETUS THAT'S
NEEDED ON AIDS.
BUT I ALSO LIVE IN RAGE.
I'VE TOLD AUDIENCES BEFORE AND
I'LL SAY IT AGAIN, I'M NOT SOME
SWEET INNOCENT.
I'M 67-YEARS OLD, IN FACT IN
TWO WEEKS TIME I'LL BE 68.
I'VE LEARNED SOMETHING ABOUT
POLITICS, DIPLOMACY AND MULTILATERALISM.
I THOUGHT I UNDERSTOOD THE WAY
THE WORLD WORKS.
I DON'T.
I'LL DEVOTE EVERY FIBER OF MY
BODY TO DEFEATING THIS VIRAL
CONTAGION.
BUT I CANNOT ABIDE THE WILLFUL
INATTENTION OF SO MUCH OF THE
INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY.
I CANNOT
EXPUNGE FROM MY MIND, THE
HEARTLESS INDIFFERENCE, THE
CRIMINAL NEGLECT OF THE LAST
DECADE, DURING WHICH TIME
COUNTLESS PEOPLE HAVE GONE TO
THEIR GRAVES.
PEOPLE WHO SHOULD STILL, BE
WALKING THE OPEN SAVANNAH OF
AFRICA.
IN 2005 FOR THE FIRST TIME
SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR,
THE WORLD WILL PASS THE
TRILLION DOLLAR MARK IN THE
EXPENDITURE ANNUALLY ON ARMS.
WE'RE FIGHTING, FIGHTING FOR
50,000,000,000 dollars ANNUALLY FOR
FOREIGN AID FOR AFRICA.
THE MILITARY TOTAL OUTSTRIPS
HUMAN NEED BY 20 TO ONE.
CAN SOMEONE, ANYONE PLEASE
EXPLAIN TO ME, OUR CONTEMPORARY
BALANCE OF VALUES?
THANK YOU.

[Audience applauding]

Watch: Stephen Lewis delivers the 2005 Massey Lecture