Video Transcript

(music plays)

Against a dark background with a golden circuit, titles read "Developed by National Geographic Channel."

Animated golden rays break through a wall and form the word "Breakthrough."

A slow-motion clip shows Paul Giamatti walking down a city. He is in his late forties, with a beard and receding hair. He wears a black shirt.

Paul says AS AN ACTOR, I'M
REALLY INTERESTED IN AND SPENT
A LOT OF TIME STUDYING HUMAN
BEINGS, HUMAN NATURE, HUMAN
BEHAVIOUR, EVEN THE HUMAN BODY.
AND WHEN I LOOK AT THE WORLD
AROUND ME, I WONDER, WHAT IS
THIS TECHNOLOGY WE HAVE?
WHAT ARE WE DOING WITH IT?
WHAT IS IT DOING TO US?
IS IT CHANGING US?
WHERE IS HUMANITY HEADING WITH
THIS STUFF?

Fast clips show a robot with a human face, a robotic four-legged type of animal running behind a soldier, a person with a robotic arm shaking hands with another, a girl looking at a cell phone screen and planet earth spinning.

(theme music plays)
The title of the show appears in an animated string crossing a bridge. It reads "More than Human. Directed and Narrated by Paul Giamatti."

He continues AS OUR TECHNOLOGY HAS GOTTEN
MORE AND MORE SOPHISTICATED,
IT SEEMS LIKE IT'S COME TO
DOMINATE EVERY PART OF OUR
LIVES.
BUT THE ONLY PLACE IT HAS YET
TO FULLY INVADE IS OUR ACTUAL
BODIES.
BUT MAYBE THAT'S ALL ABOUT TO
CHANGE.
I'M TOLD THAT THERE'S
SCIENTISTS OUT THERE
DEVELOPING CYBORGS.
A CYBORG IS A KIND OF HYBRID
OF MAN AND MACHINE.
IT'S SUPPOSED TO BE AN
ENHANCED HUMAN BEING.
A BETTER, STRONGER, IMPROVED
VERSION OF US.
MORE THAN HUMAN.
NOW WHEN I WAS ASKED TO
PARTICIPATE IN A DOCUMENTARY
ABOUT CYBORGS, I WAS INTRIGUED.
I COULDN'T SAY NO.

Old footage of a man using an artificial limb and robotic machines alternates with clips of a man wearing large robotic arms and a cyborg moving its head.

He continues IT'S VERY COOL STUFF, BUT IT
ALSO SCARES ME.
I CONFESS, AT BOTTOM, I HAVE A
PESSIMISTIC DYSTOPIAN VIEW OF
THIS KIND OF THING.
WON'T IT COMPLETELY DEHUMANIZE
US?
THIS VIEW IS SHAPED BY ALL THE
SCIENCE FICTION I READ GROWING
UP.
I READ A LOT OF IT.
I STILL READ IT.
SO I AM VISITING MY LOCAL
SCIENCE FICTION BOOKSTORE TO
DO SOME RESEARCH.
OKAY, THAT'S A LITTLE
TONGUE-IN-CHEEK.
I AM NOT A TOTAL DUMMY, BUT
THERE IS A LITTLE SCIENCE IN
SCIENCE FICTION, AND WHY NOT
START WITH WHAT YOU KNOW WHEN
YOU'RE ABOUT TO FIND OUT A
WHOLE LOT ABOUT WHAT YOU DON'T
KNOW?
CICI JAMES, THE OWNER OF THE
BOOKSTORE, HELPED ME AND MY
SEARCH FOR BOOKS ON CYBORGS.

Cici James stands by a bookshelf reading a book. She is in her mid-thirties with short blond hair. She wears a white sleeveless shirt and shorts.

Cici reads BY THE 23rd
CENTURY, HUMANS ARE EXTINCT,
BUT THEIR SELF-AWARE ROBOTS
CARRY ON BUILDING A VAST
CIVILIZATION.
DESIGNED AS AN EMPATHETIC SEX
SLAVE, HUMAN-SIZED FREYA IS A
FREE WOMAN, BUT THAT DOESN'T
STOP HER SMALLER HIGH-RANKING
COUSINS.

Paul says THIS SOUNDS GREAT.

Cici says IT'S ACTUALLY
REALLY GOOD.

Paul says IS IT?
IS THIS GUY GOOD?

Cici says THERE'S A LOT
OF SEX.

Paul says AWESOME.

Cici says HE'S GREAT.
AND THIS IS ACTUALLY BASED ON
A BOOK BY ROBERT HEINLEIN
CALLED
FRIDAY.

Paul says AHH.

Cici says ABOUT KIND OF
LIKE A...

Paul says I REMEMBER THAT BOOK.

Cici says SEMI-CYBORG SEX
ASSASSIN.

Paul says YEAH, WAIT A MINUTE.
THAT'S ONE.

Cici says THAT'S GREAT.
I'LL FIND THAT.

Paul says CYBORG-SEX ASSASSIN.
THAT'S WHAT WE SHOULD RETITLE
THIS SHOW.
IN FACT, THAT'S GONNA BE MY
MEMOIR TITLE.

Cici says YES, EXACTLY.
THAT'S ON MY BUSINESS CARD.
THERE ARE THINGS THAT... EARLY
ADAPTER BODY-MODIFICATION
PEOPLE ARE INTERESTED IN,
WHERE THEY'RE ACTUALLY
IMPLANTING...

Paul says WAIT... EARLY
ADAPTER BODY-MODIFICATION
PEOPLE?

Cici says YES.

Paul says SO THESE ARE PEOPLE WHO
HAVE LIKE...

Cici says THEY'RE DOING
WEIRD THINGS TO THEMSELVES.
RIGHT NOW.
BUT THEY'RE ACTUALLY...
THEY'RE PEOPLE WHO ARE
PUTTING MAGNETS IN THE TIPS
OF THEIR FINGERS.
SO THAT THEY CAN FEEL
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AROUND
THEM.

Paul says FOR THE PURPOSES OF,
LIKE, EXTRA-SENSORY
PERCEPTION?

Cici says EXACTLY.

Paul says IT ALWAYS SEEMED SO
EASY AND SEAMLESS MAKING
CYBORGS IN SCIENCE FICTION
BOOKS.
YOU JUST ADD METAL ARMS AND
METAL LEGS AND INFRARED EYES
AND VOILA!
BUT ALL THIS STUFF IS REALLY
QUITE CHALLENGING IN REALITY.
THE IDEA OF TRYING TO FIND
MECHANICAL WAYS TO ENHANCE
OURSELVES IS NOTHING NEW.

He buys a few books and reads on the street.

Then, a black and white movie clip reads "The Science Report."

He continues THIS FILM I CAME ACROSS FROM
THE 1960s SHOWS ONE IDEA THAT
WAS WAY AHEAD OF ITS TIME.

A Male Announcer says THE STORY OF
SCIENCE, CHANGING MAN'S WAY
OF LIFE IN OUR TIME.
AT THE GENERAL ELECTRIC
COMPANY'S RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT CENTER NEAR
SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK.
WHERE ANYTHING THAT MAN OR
CHILD MIGHT IMAGINE IS NOT
CONSIDERED IMPOSSIBLE, ONE MAY
WITNESS A SCIENTIFIC ENDEAVOR
TO CONVERT A MAN'S LEGS INTO
THOSE OF A GIANT.
INSIDE THIS MECHANICAL
SKELETON, A HUMAN BEING ENDOWS
IT WITH THE INTELLIGENCE OF
HIS OWN BRAIN.

In the clip, a man swings on a tall metallic structure.

Paul says THE EXOSKELETON IN
THIS GE FILM MAY HAVE GIVEN
US A LOOK INTO THE FUTURE.
I HEARD ABOUT A NEW DEVICE
THAT SOUNDS JUST LIKE IT.
SO I FLEW DOWN TO PERRY,
GEORGIA, TO SEE IT IN ACTION.

The clip ends.

Paul says IT ALL WENT DOWN AT A PLACE
CALLED THE GUARDIAN CENTER, A
HUGE INSTALLATION WHERE THEY
TRAIN FIRST RESPONDERS FOR
EARTHQUAKES, TERRORIST
SITUATIONS.
THEY EVEN HAVE THEIR OWN
SUBWAY TUNNEL WITH AN EXPLODED
TRAIN.

Destroyed cars hang on the remains of a demolished concrete structure.

He continues IT'S THE PERFECT PLACE TO SEE
THE FORTIS EXOSKELETON.
DESIGNED BY A TEAM OF
ENGINEERS AT LOCKHEED-MARTIN,
FORTIS IS AN ALUMINUM AND
CARBON FIBER FRAME EXOSKELETON
WITH TWO MECHANICAL ARMS
DESIGNED TO GIVE TOOLS A ZERO
GRAVITY, WEIGHTLESS FEEL AND
LETS WORKERS IN A VARIETY OF
INDUSTRIES WIELD HEAVY TOOLS
FOR HOURS ON END.

Trish Aelker welds a piece using the exoskeleton. She is in her thirties with long blond hair.

He continues THE LADY WIELDING THIS TOOL IS
TRISH AELKER.
SHE IS THE HEAD OF THE FORTIS
DESIGN TEAM.

Trish says IT'S VERY
LIGHTWEIGHT.
IT'S VERY EASY TO PUT ON.
IT'S VERY ADJUSTABLE TO ADJUST
FROM KEITH'S BODY TYPE TO MY
BODY SIZE.

Paul says RIGHT, SO IT'S ONE
SIZE WILL GENERALLY FIT ALL.
AFTER THE GUARDIAN GUYS GET
OUR TEST VEHICLE POSITIONED,
THEY'LL DELIVER A TAILOR-MADE
EMERGENCY SITUATION.

(music plays)
Paul gets ready to film what is going to happen with his cell phone.

Paul says VERY EXCITING.
HAVE WE TAKEN BETS ON WHAT'S
GOING TO GET DESTROYED BESIDES
THE CAR?

Trish says HERE WE GO.

A crane drops a heavy rock on a car.

Paul says OOH.

[crunching sound]

Paul says OH!
THIS WILL BE THE FIRST TIME
THE FORTIS IS BEING USED IN A
FIRST-RESPONDER SITUATION.
IT'S ALSO THE FIRST TIME IT'S
BEING USED WITH THE JAWS OF
LIFE, A 35-POUND TOOL USED TO
PRY OPEN THE DOORS OF CRASHED
CARS.

[buzzing]
Keith Maxwell uses the exoskeleton to fix one of the car doors. He is in his mid-forties, clean-shaven with black hair. He wears safety helmet, gloves, protective glasses and a black polo-shirt.

Paul says AWESOME!

Trish says LET'S STEP
BACK.

Paul says HOLY COW!

Paul says AWESOME.
NICELY DONE, KEITH.

Keith says THAT'S HOW
THEY WORK.

Paul says IT MAY LOOK SIMPLE,
BUT MAKING AN EXOSKELETON
THAT'S A HELP AND NOT A
HINDRANCE IS A DECEPTIVELY
DIFFICULT ENGINEERING TASK.
THAT IT'S DESIGNED TO ADJUST
AND FIT ANY SIZED PERSON ONLY
MAKES IT MORE SO.

Trish says ANTHROPOMETRY
IS THE MEASUREMENTS OF THE
HUMAN BODY.

Paul says MM-HMM.

Trish says EVERYONE'S
ANTHROPOMETRY IS DIFFERENT.
YOUR KNEE MAY BE HIGHER OR
SHORTER THAN MINE, YOU KNOW.
YOUR THIGH IS LONGER OR
SHORTER.

An animation shows Trish, Paul and Keith as cartoon characters comparing their different neck, waist and knees height.

Paul says EVERYTHING IS GOING TO
BE UNIQUE.

Trish says NO TWO PEOPLE
ARE THE SAME.
AND SO THAT'S WHY THIS SYSTEM
HAS TO BE SO ADJUSTABLE.
IT HAS TO BE ABLE TO
ACCOMMODATE ALL THOSE
DIFFERENT ANTHROPOMETRIES.

Paul says I GUESS CREATING AN
INTERFACE BETWEEN MAN AND
MACHINE IS WHAT CYBORGS ARE
ALL ABOUT.
AND I'M BEGINNING TO
UNDERSTAND THAT IT MAY BE THE
HARDEST PROBLEM IN TURNING US
INTO NEXT GENERATION HUMANS.

Now, Paul travels in a car.

Paul says I HEARD ABOUT A
SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT EXOSKELETON
IN SAO PAOLO, BRAZIL THAT NOT
ONLY INTERFACES WITH THE BODY,
BUT ALSO WITH THE USER'S
BRAIN.
THAT SOUNDS LIKE SOMETHING I
NEED TO SEE.
I'M ON MY WAY TO MEET A
BRILLIANT GENTLEMAN,
NEUROSCIENTIST MIGUEL
NICOLELIS.
IN AN EXPERIMENT WITH A
RHESUS MONKEY NAMED AURORA,
MIGUEL CREATED ONE OF THE
EARLIEST DIRECT INTERFACES
BETWEEN A MACHINE AND A BRAIN.

Paul appears as a cartoon character placing a thinking cap on himself and then checking a computer monitor.

Paul and Miguel Nicolelis chat. He is in his mid-fifties, with a grayish beard and short hair. He wears glasses, blue T-shirt and white cap.

Miguel says AURORA WAS
PLAYING A GAME WITH A
JOYSTICK, AND SHE HAD TO MOVE
A CURSOR ON THE COMPUTER
SCREEN TO PUT THE CURSOR
INSIDE OF A TARGET TO GET A
DROP OF JUICE, FRUIT JUICE.

Paul says IT'S LIKE BEING AN
ACTOR, BY THE WAY.
IT SOUNDS A LOT LIKE IT.

They laugh.

Miguel says SHE WAS
DOING THIS...
He moves in circles an imaginary joystick in the air and continues AND WE
WERE RECORDING THE BRAIN
ACTIVITY AND WE STARTED IN
2 DIMENSIONS AND THEN WE DO 3D.
AND WE SAW THAT WE COULD READ
THE ELECTRICAL PATTERNS, SENT
TO THE MODELS AND THE OUTPUT
IN DIGITAL FORM COULD BE SENT
TO THE ROBOTIC ARM THAT WAS IN
ANOTHER ROOM AND THE ROBOTIC
ARM WAS DOING, REPRODUCING THE
MOVEMENTS THAT AURORA WAS
MAKING.

Paul says MIGUEL DISCOVERED HOW
TO READ THE MOTOR COMMANDS
FROM A MONKEY'S BRAIN AND HAVE
THEM CONTROL THE MOVEMENT OF A
ROBOTIC ARM.
THIS WAS ONE OF THE FIRST
BRAIN-MACHINE INTERFACES.
THE EXPERIMENT GOT EVEN MORE
AMAZING WHEN MIGUEL TOOK THE
JOYSTICK AWAY FROM THE MONKEY.

In the cartoon, Paul plays what he is narrating.

Miguel says TO GET THE
CURSOR TO MOVE TO THE TARGET,
SHE HAD TO IMAGINE THE
MOVEMENT BUT NOT PERFORM THEM,
BECAUSE SHE HAD NO JOYSTICK.

Paul says DID SHE WANT TO KEEP
DOING THAT FOR A WHILE?

Miguel says OH, IN THE
BEGINNING SHE TRIED, SHE TRIED
BUT THERE WAS NOTHING.
AND BEING A SMART MONKEY, SHE
REALIZED WHAT IN HEAVENS I'M
DOING?
WHY I'M MOVING?
THERE'S NO CONNECTION, NO
CAUSAL LINKAGE.

Paul says YEAH.

Miguel says SO SHE
STOPPED, IN FRONT OF US, SHE
JUST DID THIS, SHE STOPPED
MOVING AND THE CURSOR START
GOING.

Paul says SHE KNEW ENOUGH TO
GUIDE IT NOW JUST VISUALLY.

Miguel says TRIAL AND
ERROR, SHE REALIZED THERE WAS
NO POINT IN WASTING ENERGY
MOVING HER OWN BODY, SHE HAD
A MUCH BETTER WAY TO GET THE
JUICE.
THAT WAS THE FIRST TIME THAT
THE BRAIN HAD CROSSED THE
PHYSICAL LIMITS OF THE BODY TO
ACT ON THE WORLD BEYOND, YOU
KNOW, THE BODY.

Paul says THIS BODY, YEAH.

Miguel says BY ITSELF.

Paul says SO THIS KIND OF STUFF
LEADS TO THE EXOSKELETON THAT
YOU BUILT.

Miguel says IT WAS AT
THAT MOMENT THAT WE REALIZED
THAT IT COULD BE DONE.

Paul says HEADING AN
INTERNATIONAL TEAM OF OVER 150
SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS AND
MEDICAL DOCTORS, MIGUEL IS
DEVELOPING AN AMAZING
EXOSKELETON THAT THE USER CAN
CONTROL JUST USING THOUGHTS.
THE BRAIN MACHINE INTERFACE
WORKS THROUGH A NON-INVASIVE
EEG SKULLCAP.

Miguel says WHEN THE
PATIENTS STARTED USING THE
EXO, WE NOTICED THAT IN THE
BEGINNING IT'S VERY DIFFICULT
BECAUSE THEY HAVE LOST THE
REPRESENTATION OF THEIR LEGS.
SO WHEN I ASKED THEM THINK
ABOUT WALKING, THEY SAID "OKAY,
I'M TRYING."
BUT WE LOOK AT THEIR BRAIN
ACTIVITY YOU SEE NOTHING.

Two female doctors bend a young man’s legs as he lies face down on a stretcher.

Paul says RIGHT, BECAUSE...

Miguel says BECAUSE
AFTER 13 YEARS WITHOUT MOVING
YOUR BRAIN HAS FORGOTTEN THAT
YOU ONE DAY HAD LEGS.
YOU DREAM ABOUT IT, YOU MAY
HAVE FEELINGS ABOUT IT.
BUT THE REPRESENTATION OF YOUR
LEGS IN YOUR BRAIN HAS SHRUNK.

Paul says SOLAIMAN SHOKUR, A
SENIOR RESEARCH SCIENTIST AT
MIGUEL'S LAB, DESIGNED AN
INGENIOUS VIRTUAL REALITY
FEEDBACK SYSTEM TO HELP
RESTORE THE EXPERIENCE OF
WALKING TO THE PATIENT'S
BRAINS.

Solaiman Shokur is in his early forties, with a dark beard and receding dark hair. He wears glasses, blue jeans and a blue polo-shirt.

Paul rests his left arm on a table. Solaiman stands next to him holding a type of arm cuff.

Solaiman says THEY ARE
A VERY SIMPLE ACTUALLY SYSTEM.
THEY ARE SIMPLE VIBRATORS THE
SAME WAY THAT YOU HAVE IN
YOUR CELL PHONE,
AND THERE'S A TRICK THAT WE
CAN PLAY BY CHANGING THE
FREQUENCY OF THESE VIBRATORS.
AND AT SOME POINT YOU WILL NOT
FEEL THREE VIBRATORS ANYMORE
BUT YOU FEEL ONE CONTINUOUS
TOUCH.

Paul says THE VIBRATORS HE
STRAPS ON MY ARMS PRODUCE A
SENSATION THAT ARE SYNCHRONIZED
WITH THE LEGS AND FOOTSTEPS OF
A VIRTUAL SOCCER PLAYER.

Solaiman hands him 3D glasses.

Paul continues WHEN SOLAIMAN STARTS UP THE
PROGRAM, I START TO FEEL THE
VIBRATORS ON MY ARM
SYNCHRONIZED WITH EACH STEP
OF THE AVATAR.
DEFINITELY GIVES ME THIS SENSE
OF FORWARD MOTION, EACH STEP
IT'S A MOVE FORWARD.
MIGUEL FIGURED OUT A WAY TO
INCORPORATE A SIMILAR FEEDBACK
SYSTEM INTO THE EXOSUIT
ITSELF.
WHEN THE ROBOTIC SUIT STARTS
TO MOVE AND TOUCHES THE
GROUND, SIGNALS ARE
TRANSMITTED FROM SENSORS ON
THE FEET TO AN ELECTRONIC
VIBRATION DEVICE ON THE
PATIENT'S ARM.

A close-up shot shows a tall robotic metallic structure with blue pieces.

Miguel says 15 YEARS
AGO WHEN WE DISCOVERED THAT
THIS COULD BE DONE DIRECTLY,
WE SAID OKAY.
BRAIN-MACHINE INTERFACES WILL
PROVIDE A NEW REHAB TOOL TO
MAKE YOU WALK AGAIN, MOVE YOUR
ARMS AGAIN, AND THAT'S IT.
WELL, WHAT WE REALIZED NOW IN
ALL OUR PATIENTS IS THAT
THERE'S A PLATEAU ABOVE THAT,
AND THAT IS THEY'RE RECOVERING
NEUROLOGICAL FUNCTION BY DOING
THAT.

Paul says YOU'RE KIDDING ME.

Miguel says JUST BY
PRACTICING.

Paul says SO IT'S LIKE IT'S
LITERALLY RE-GROWING THOSE
AREAS OF THE BRAIN.

Miguel says THE
PLASTICITY THAT WE'RE INDUCING
IN THE BRAIN SOMEHOW IS
GETTING DOWN AND THE PATIENTS
ARE NOW CONTRACTING GROUPS OF
MUSCLES BELOW THE LEVEL.
THE REASON TO A POINT THAT ONE
OF THEM IS ACTUALLY MOVING THE
LEGS VOLUNTARILY NOW.

In a white modern room, Eric Vladcovik hangs above a treadmill walking with the help of the exosuit . He is in his mid-twenties, clean-shaven with a shaved head. He wears a blue T-shirt.

Paul says THIS IS ERIC
VLADCOVIK,
A FORMER SOCCER PLAYER WHO
MANY YEARS AGO LOST THE USE
OF HIS LEGS IN AN ACCIDENT.
ERIC IS THE FIRST PARAPLEGIC
TO WALK AGAIN WITH THE HELP OF
THE EXOSUIT.

Miguel and Paul stand by Eric.

Miguel says WHEN HE
IMAGINED STARTING WALKING, HE
MODULATED HIS EG SIGNAL, THE
MACHINE DETECTED THAT AND
TRIGGERED THE MOVEMENT.

Paul says THAT'S AMAZING.

Miguel says AND THEN
WHEN THE FEEDBACK CAME, HE HAD
THE FEELING.

Paul says YOU COULD FEEL IT?

Eric says FEEDBACK.

Paul says YEAH, RIGHT.

They nod and smile.

Miguel says FEEDBACK'S
MUITO IMPORTANTE.
WHEN YOUR SENSE OF SELF EXPANDS
TO INCORPORATE A DEVICE LIKE
THIS, THAT HAS FEEDBACK AND
EVERYTHING, YOU ACTUALLY
CHANGING WHAT THE BRAIN THINKS
IS THE BODY.
THAT'S NUMBER ONE.
YOU ACTUALLY HELPING THE
PATIENT TO GAIN MOBILITY, BUT
YOU ARE CHANGING, YOU'RE
REORGANIZING THE CONNECTIVITY.

Paul says IT'S THE ULTIMATE
CYBERNETIC THING.
IN SOME DEGREE, THAT YOU'RE...

Miguel says YOU'RE
CREATING A HYBRID.
I CAME BACK TO BIKING LATE IN
LIFE.
IN THE BEGINNING IT WAS KIND
OF STRANGE, BUT IN A FEW WEEKS
I FELT THE FEELING THAT YOU
FEEL AS A KID.
YOU KNOW?
THE BIKE IS PART OF YOU.
WHAT IS YOUR BODY AT THAT
POINT?

Paul says RIGHT.

Miguel says WHERE IT
ENDS?
FOR ME AT THAT POINT MY BODY
ENDS AT THE SURFACE OF THE
TIRE TOUCHING THE GROUND.

Paul says SO OUR BRAIN
INCORPORATES THE TOOLS AND
TECHNOLOGIES WE USE EVERY DAY.
THE THINGS WE RIDE ON, THE
TOOLS WE WORK WITH.
ALL OF THE TECHNOLOGY WE USE
IS ALMOST LITERALLY AN
EXTENSION OF US.

Fast clips show a male cycling on a road, a person writing in Chinese, a male police officer riding a motorcycle and a woman surfing waves.

Miguel says SO I HAVE
A VERY DIFFERENT CONCEPT OF
CYBORG OR HYBRIDS OR TRANS-HUMAN
MOVEMENT.

Paul says YES, YEAH.

Miguel says WE, OF
COURSE, NEED TO EMBRACE
TECHNOLOGY LIKE WE EMBRACE ART
BECAUSE IT COMES FROM OUR BRAIN.
IT'S A MANIFESTATION OF THE
INNER WORKS OF OUR
IMAGINATION.

Paul says YEAH.

Miguel says OF OUR
BIOLOGY, YET I DON'T WANT TO
REDUCE HUMAN, THE HUMAN
CONDITION TO A PIECE OF
MACHINERY, BECAUSE IT'S NOT.

Paul says YEAH.

Miguel says WHAT WOULD
BE OF OUR EXISTENCE IF WE
REMOVE ALL THAT IS
ABSTRACTION, INTUITION AND
CREATIVITY, AND LEAVE ONLY THE
DEVICES WE BUILT?

Old footage of the American astronauts landing on the moon appears.

Miguel says WHEN I WAS A KID HERE IN SAO
PAOLO, NINE YEARS OLD, NEIL
ARMSTRONG LANDS ON THE MOON.
I'M WATCHING THIS WITH A
BLACK AND WHITE TV IN THE
MIDDLE OF NOWHERE.

Paul says YEAH.

Miguel says AND I SAID 'THAT'S
WHAT I WANT TO DO WITH MY
LIFE.'
I KNEW THAT SECOND I WANTED
TO BE A SCIENTIST.
BECAUSE THIS GUY HAD GONE TO
THE MOON.

Paul says MM-HMM.

Miguel says AND HE WAS NOT JUST
A GUY, NEIL ARMSTRONG, IT WAS
THE WHOLE SPECIES.
SO PEOPLE 50, 55, MY AGE, IF
YOU ASK THEM WHY THEY BECAME
A SCIENTIST, A GREAT DEAL WAS
BECAUSE OF
THE APOLLO.

Paul says YOU WERE A PERFECT AGE.

Miguel says YES.
FAST FORWARD 50 YEARS AGO, I
TAKE MY KIDS TO THE MOVIES AND
THEY LOOK AT ME AND SAID,
'DON'T SAY YOU'RE A
SCIENTIST.'
I SAID 'WHY?'
THEY SAID, 'BECAUSE SCIENTISTS
ARE BAD GUYS.
THEY'RE VILLAINS.
LOOK AT THE MOVIE WE'RE ABOUT
TO WATCH.'
I SAID, 'WHAT ARE YOU TALKING
ABOUT?'
AND IT'S TRUE.

Paul says YOU'RE ALL PSYCHOPATHS.

Miguel says PSYCHOPATHS.
WE WANT TO DOMINATE THE PLANET.
WE WANT TO KILL IRON MAN.
WE WANT TO GO AFTER BATMAN.
WHY?
IT'S NOT TRUE.

A fast-motion clip shows urban traffic.

Paul says ON MY WAY OUT OF
BRAZIL, I WAS REALLY THINKING
ABOUT MY BRAIN.
THIS IDEA THAT THE BRAIN
INCORPORATES THE TECHNOLOGIES
WE USE AND MAKES THEM A PART
OF US IS FASCINATING.
IF IT'S TRUE, THEN WHAT'S THE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A PERSON
HOLDING A HAMMER AND A PERSON
WITH A HAMMER HAND?
THAT MIGUEL HAS FIGURED OUT
HOW TO HARDWIRE MACHINES
DIRECTLY TO OUR BRAINS IS
AMAZING.
WITH THAT FIGURED OUT,
CREATING A MAN-MACHINE SEEMS
UTTERLY PLAUSIBLE.
SO IT EXCITED ME TO LEARN
ABOUT A SCIENTIST IN HOUSTON,
TEXAS, WHO IS WORKING ON A
DIFFERENT WAY TO CONNECT OUR
BRAINS TO TECHNOLOGY.

Paul walks into a high-tech building and says I'M WALKING DOWN THIS ENDLESS
CORRIDOR AT BAYLOR COLLEGE OF
MEDICINE TO EVENTUALLY MEET UP
WITH DAVID EAGLEMAN.
DAVID IS A NEUROSCIENTIST
NOTED FOR HIS WORK ON TIME
PERCEPTION, SYNESTHESIA, AND
NEURO LAW.

David Eagleman is in his late thirties, clean-shaven with wavy brown hair. He wears a black shirt over a white T-shirt.

David says FOR A LONG
TIME I'VE BEEN THINKING ABOUT
HOW FLEXIBLE THE BRAIN IS AND
HOW IT TAKES IN THESE
DIFFERENT SENSORY STREAMS AND
FIGURES OUT JUST WHAT TO DO
WITH THEM.
AND WHEN I STARTED LOOKING
ACROSS THE ANIMAL KINGDOM I
THOUGHT THERE ARE REALLY
DIFFERENT SENSORS THAT GET
POPPED ON TO DIFFERENT
ANIMALS.
LIKE THE STAR-NOSED MOLE HAS
THIS NOSE WITH 22 LITTLE
APPENDAGES AND IT FEELS AROUND
AND SORT OF MAKES, IN THESE
DARK TUNNELS, IT SORT OF MAKES
A 3D VIEW OF ITS WORLD.

Paul says AND THEY'RE LIKE THEIR
FINGERS ON HIS FACE.

David says SO THE MORE
AND MORE I LOOKED ACROSS THE
ANIMAL KINGDOM, I THOUGHT WHAT
IF ALL THESE THINGS ARE REALLY
JUST PLUG-AND-PLAY DEVICES AND
MOTHER NATURE JUST HAD TO COME
UP WITH THE PRINCIPLES OF
BRAIN OPERATION ONCE AND THEN
SHE WAS FREE TO TINKER AROUND
WITH WHAT YOU PLUG IN?

Paul says MM-HMM.

David says SO I'VE
CALLED THIS THE POTATO HEAD
THEORY.
AND THE IDEA IS YOU CAN JUST
PLUG STUFF IN JUST LIKE THE
CHILD'S TOY.
YOU PLUG IN WHATEVER YOU WANT.
AND THE BRAIN WILL FIGURE OUT
WHAT TO DO WITH IT.

In the cartoon, Paul wears a white doctor apron and plugs wires to a potato head.

David continues SO I STARTED TAKING THAT IDEA
REALLY SERIOUSLY.
AND I THOUGHT WHAT COULD WE
START PLUGGING IN TO THE
BRAIN, AND THAT'S THE ORIGIN
OF THIS VEST THAT WE CAME UP
WITH.
THE VEST STANDS FOR THE
VARIABLE EXTRA SENSORY
TRANSDUCER.
AND IT'S A VEST.

Paul says WORKS OUT PERFECTLY.
PERFECT, IT NEVER HAPPENS LIKE
THAT WITH ACRONYMS!
OKAY.
YES.

They laugh.

David says SO YOU WEAR
IT UNDERNEATH THE CLOTHING AND
WHAT WE DO IS CAPTURE
INFORMATION ON A CELL PHONE,
AND WE TRANSMIT VIA BLUETOOTH
TO THE VEST.
WE'VE GOT THIS REMARKABLE
SENSORY SHEET THAT WE'RE
COVERED WITH.

Paul listens to David with his chin resting on the palm of his hand.

David continues YOUR SKIN IS THE LARGEST ORGAN
IN YOUR BODY.
AND WE CAN FEED ANY KIND OF
INFORMATION STREAM TO THE
BRAIN THIS WAY.
SO IT'S LIKE AN ADAPTER
BETWEEN THE HUMAN BRAIN AND
WHATEVER WE WANT TO FEED IN.

Paul says A SMARTPHONE
CONVERTS SOUND TO DATA AND
THEN TRANSFERS IT TO THE VEST
VIA BLUETOOTH.
40 LITTLE MOTORS VIBRATE
PATTERNS INTO THE WEARER'S
BACK, CREATING A KIND OF
SOUNDTRACK OF THE IMMEDIATE
SURROUNDINGS.

In the cartoon, Paul wears the special vest. He receives Wi-Fi signals from a flying cell phone. Then, several holes on the vest highlight one at a time.

Paul continues WITH TRAINING, IT ALLOWS THE
DEAF PERSON TO FEEL SOUND.
SIMILAR TO THE WAY THAT
BRAILLE CONVERTS THE VISUAL
CODE OF WRITTEN TEXT INTO A
CODE OF TACTILE SENSATION.
DAVID IS DEVELOPING THE
VEST WITH ONE OF HIS PhD
STUDENTS, SCOTT NOVICH.
WHEN SCOTT CONDUCTS A TRAINING
SESSION WITH JONATHAN LEECH,
I GET TO REALLY SEE THE VEST
IN ACTION.
JONATHAN HAS BEEN PROFOUNDLY
DEAF SINCE BIRTH.

Paul sits in a large classroom watching Scott Novich and Jonathan Leech, who stand looking at a board with list of words written on it.

Scott is in his early thirties, clean-shaven with receding blond hair. He wears a blue T-shirt. Jonathan is in his thirties, with a beard and blond hair. He wears a striped dark red shirt and the special vest.

Scott covers his mouth and says RIGHT, RIGHT.
TO, TO.

Jonathan thinks and points at the word "right" and the word "to" on the board. A tablet Scott is holding shows the sensors activating on Jonathan’s vest as he speaks.

Scott says EAR, EAR.
TOUCH.

Scott high-fives at Jonathan every time he points at the words.

Then, Jonathan speaks sign language.

The male sign language interpreter says IT'S
ALMOST LIKE A LOCALIZED AREA
MASSAGE.

Paul laughs and says THAT'S NICE, AND
IT'S KIND OF MOVING UP AND
DOWN THE SPINE?

The male sign language interpreter says WELL,
IT'S LIKE YOU HAVE 10 PHONES
ON YOUR BACK.
ALL LOCATED AROUND THE BACK
AND YOU COULD FEEL THE PHONE
RINGING... ALL THE PHONES WERE
RINGING AT THE SAME TIME.

Paul says OH, REALLY?

The male sign language interpreter says I CAN
HEAR EVERYTHING.
WHATEVER IS GOING INTO THAT
TABLET, THAT MICROPHONE, IT'S
GETTING.
IF SOMEONE DROPS SOMETHING, OR
IF SOMETHING'S HAPPENING OUT
IN THE ENVIRONMENT, I CAN FEEL
IT.

Paul puts on the vest.

Paul says SO WHAT HAPPENS NOW?

Scott says WELL, NOW WE
CAN TURN IT ON.

Paul says MM-HMM.
WHOA!
IT'S STRONG!

Scott says IT'S PRETTY
STRONG.

Paul says WHAT'S IT REGISTERING
OFF OF?
ARE YOU JUST LIKE KIND OF...
OR IS IT ME SPEAKING?

Scott says IT'S YOU
SPEAKING.

Paul says OH, THAT'S ME TALKING
THAT'S DOING THIS.

Scott says YEP.
THE WAY THIS GENERALLY WORKS
IS SOUND IS BEING PICKED UP
FROM THE ENVIRONMENT BY THE
TABLET'S MICROPHONE.
THE TABLET'S ACTUALLY TAKING
CARE OF ALL THE MATHEMATICAL
COMPUTATION TO GET THE SIGNAL
INTO SORT OF A SUITABLE SHAPE
SUCH THAT THAT INFORMATION
WILL GET THROUGH YOUR TOUCH
RECEPTORS IN YOUR BACK.

Paul says I THOUGHT IT WAS GONNA
BE LESS... KIND OF INTENSE.
WOW, THAT'S WILD.

Scott says IF YOU HAVE TWO
PEOPLE COME UP TO YOU AND SAY
THE SAME WORD... LIKE CAT.
IT WILL FEEL VERY SIMILAR, BUT
IT WILL STILL BE DISTINCTLY
DIFFERENT.

Paul says IT'S A BIT MORE OF THAT
GLOBAL SENSE RATHER THAN THE...
THE THING YOU WERE TALKING
ABOUT BEFORE.

Scott says YEAH, SO THE
IDEA IS...

Paul says IT'S KIND OF LIKE
YOU'RE GETTING MORE GESTALT OF
THE WORD.
CAN I USE GESTALT?

Scott says THAT'S A
GREAT WORD!
I THINK SO, YOU'LL HAVE TO RUN
THAT ONE BY DAVID, BUT I THINK
YOU GOT IT.

Paul says BUT I MEAN YOU'RE
GETTING MORE OF THE KIND OF
THAT ROUND SENSE OF THE THING
RATHER THAN THIS KIND OF...
AND YOU CAN FEEL THAT ACTUALLY.
IT DOESN'T FEEL LIKE MORSE
CODE, IT DIDN'T FEEL LIKE
THE SAME THING EVERY TIME.

David says THIS WAY,
WE'RE STARTING BY FEEDING IN
SOUND INFORMATION THAT WE
CAPTURE ON THE FLY, COMPRESS,
SEND TO THE VEST, SO THAT
PEOPLE CAN HEAR THE WORLD
THROUGH PATTERNS OF VIBRATION
ON THEIR TORSO.
BUT THAT'S JUST STEP ONE.
THAT'S SENSORY SUBSTITUTION.
BUT WHAT REALLY INTERESTS ME
IS SENSORY ADDITION.

Paul says DAVID IS THINKING OF
FEEDING ALL SORTS OF REAL-TIME
INFORMATION THROUGH THE VEST
AND INTO OUR BRAINS.
THINGS LIKE STOCK MARKET DATA
AND WEATHER DATA.

David says ONE THING
WE'VE DONE JUST AS A PROOF OF
PRINCIPLE IS, INSTEAD OF
THE SPIDEY SENSE, I CALL IT
THE TWEETY SENSE, WHICH IS WE
COLLECT THOUSANDS OF TWEETS ON
SOME PARTICULAR HASHTAG AND
THEN FEED IT INTO THE VEST.
A SENTIMENT ANALYSIS MEANING
WE'RE JUST DOING QUICK
LANGUAGE PROCESSING ON IT TO
DECIDE WHETHER PEOPLE ARE
SAYING POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE
THINGS ABOUT IT.
THEY JUST WALK AROUND AND FEEL
HOW THAT'S GOING.

Paul chuckles and says OH, MAN.
NOW I QUESTION WHETHER THIS IS
GOING TO BE A PLEASANT
EXPERIENCE FOR PEOPLE.

David says WELL THE
THING IS IT'S PROBABLY, IT
PROBABLY WOULDN'T BE FOR
ALMOST ANYBODY, EXCEPT FOR,
YOU CAN IMAGINE IF YOU WERE,
LET'S SAY, A PRESIDENTIAL
CANDIDATE.

Paul says OH, INTERESTING.

David says DOING A LIVE
SPEECH, YOU MIGHT WANT TO KNOW
HOW THINGS ARE GOING OVER, AND
TWITTER IS GIVING YOU THAT
FEEDBACK IMMEDIATELY SO YOU'RE
PLUGGED INTO THE CONSCIOUSNESS
OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE, MAYBE
HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF
PEOPLE ALL AT ONCE HEARING
YOUR SPEECH, AND YOU CAN SAY,
OOH, THAT DIDN'T GO OVER SO
WELL.

Paul says HOLY COW!

David says YOU'RE
FEELING THE TWITTERSPHERE.

Paul says YOU MUST HAVE TO DEAL
WITH A LOT OF PEOPLE SAYING
BUT, HANG ON, THIS IS LIKE
CRAZY, YOU KNOW.
THIS IS YOU'RE GONNA MAKE US
NOT HUMAN ANYMORE.
THIS IS... WE DON'T NEED TO BE
DOING THIS.
ISN'T THERE ALREADY, ISN'T IT
ALREADY BAD ENOUGH WITH ALL
THE STUFF WE'RE GETTING
THROUGH OUR PHONES, AREN'T WE
ROBOTIC?
AREN'T WE CYBORGED ENOUGH?
OFTEN STUFF LIKE THAT.

David says WELL, LET'S
DEFINE WHAT WE MEAN BY HUMAN.
I MEAN WHAT WOULD IT MEAN TO
BE HUMAN IN THE FIRST PLACE?
SO WE'RE ALREADY WAY PAST
THAT, RIGHT?
I MEAN WE ARE NO LONGER A
NATURAL SPECIES, AND WE'RE A
SPECIES THAT'S IN THIS
FEEDBACK LOOP.
WE'RE A RUNAWAY BRAIN.
YOU KNOW, WE'RE ON A
TRAJECTORY... ACTUALLY, LET ME
TAKE THAT STATEMENT BACK.
LET ME CAST IT A DIFFERENT WAY.

Paul says NO, NO YEAH.

David says IT'S THAT
THIS IS OUR EVOLUTIONARY
TRAJECTORY.
THIS IS ALL PART OF WHAT'S
HAPPENING.
AND SO WHAT IT MEANS TO BE
HUMAN IS A RAPIDLY CHANGING
DEFINITION.

Paul says SO THIS SENSE THAT IT'S
NOT EVEN JUST HAS TO HAPPEN.
IT'S JUST
GOING
TO HAPPEN.

David says EXACTLY.
IT'S WHAT'S HAPPENING.

David says YEAH.

(music plays)
Paul sits in a hotel room reading.

Paul says I WONDER IF OUR
ATTACHMENT TO TECHNOLOGY IS
HARDWIRED INTO US IN SOME WAY.
ARE WE JUST BOUND TO TURN
OURSELVES INTO MACHINES?
WOW, MAYBE WE AREN'T TURNING
OURSELVES INTO MACHINES.
MAYBE WE ALREADY ARE MACHINES?
AND IF THAT'S TRUE THEN ALL
THESE TECHNOLOGICAL GADGETS
WE PRODUCE ARE SIMPLY OUR
OFFSPRING.

An aerial view of a busy highway appears.

Paul continues HEADING FOR THE AIRPORT, I
CAN'T STOP THINKING ABOUT THE
PLASTICITY OF OUR BRAINS.
IF THEY REALLY ARE NOTHING
MORE THAN A PIECE OF ELECTRIC
MEAT IN A BLACK BOX, THEN
REPLACING OUR ENTIRE BODY WITH
PLASTIC AND METAL PARTS
SHOULDN'T REALLY CHANGE OUR
NATURE.
RIGHT?
BUT WHAT ABOUT THE BODY?
THE PARTICULAR PHYSICAL FORM
WE ARE BORN WITH, DOESN'T IT
HAVE SOMETHING TO DO WITH WHO
WE ARE AS HUMAN BEINGS?
TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE
MIND-BODY RELATIONSHIP, I'M
VISITING STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN.
I'M VERY EXCITED TO SOON MEET
AN IMAGINATIVE, YOUNG
NEUROSCIENTIST NAMED HENRIK
EHRSSON AT THE KAROLINSKA
INSTITUTE.
HENRIK IS TRYING TO UNDERSTAND
HOW THE BRAIN DECIDES WHERE
OUR BODIES END AND WHERE THE
REST OF THE WORLD BEGINS.

A sign on a door reads "Cyber-psychology laboratory."

Paul continues HIS RESEARCH IS LEADING TO NEW
AND IMPROVED WAYS TO EXTEND
OURSELVES WITH TECHNOLOGY.

Henrik Ehrsson is in his late thirties, clean-shaven with blond hair. He wears a black jacket over a matching T-shirt.

Henrik says WELL, THERE'S
A LOT OF INTEREST IN THE
ROBOTICS COMMUNITY, HOW COULD
WE EXTEND THE HUMAN BODY NOT
ONLY FOR THE ADVANCED
PROSTHETIC LIMBS FOR AMPUTEES
BUT MAYBE FOR EXOSKELETONS.
AND THEN OF COURSE THE
QUESTION IS AT WHAT POINT DO
THESE EXTERNAL DEVICES BECOME
PART OF YOUR OWN BODY
REPRESENTATION?
AT WHAT POINT DO YOU START TO
FEEL THAT THIS IS REALLY ME?

Paul says SITTING IN THE LAB
WITH HENRIK AND ANDREAS, ONE
OF HENRIK'S POST DOCS, I'M
ABOUT TO BE PUT THROUGH THE
RUBBER HAND EXPERIMENT.

Now, Paul, Henrik and Andreas sit in a room with a blue curtain in the background. Andreas is in his early forties, with a goatee and black hair. He wears a long-sleeved white shirt.

Paul puts on a glove.

Andreas says AND THEN PUT YOUR
ARM HERE ONTO THE TABLE AND
INSIDE THIS LITTLE BOX HERE.
OVER YOUR RIGHT SIDE HERE.

A fake hand sits on top of the box where Paul put his hand trough. Andreas covers Paul’s arm with a blue plastic.

Andreas continues SO WHAT I WILL DO NOW, I WILL
TOUCH YOUR INDEX FINGER WITH
THE BRUSH HERE AND PLEASE LOOK
TO THE INDEX FINGER OF THE
HAND HERE.

Paul says OKAY.
WITH MY HAND HIDDEN FROM VIEW,
ANDREAS STARTS TO STROKE MY
INDEX FINGER AND THE INDEX
FINGER OF THE RUBBER HAND IN
ALMOST PERFECT SYNCHRONY.

Henrik says WHAT DO YOU
EXPERIENCE?

Paul says I THINK IT'S GENUINELY
BEGINNING TO BECOME HARD TO
TELL WHETHER IT...
YEAH.
I MEAN IT'S BEGINNING TO FEEL
LIKE... YEAH.
YEAH, I'M BUYING IT THAT
YOU'RE RUBBING, YOU'RE
SWIPING THAT HAND.
PART OF MY BRAIN IS TELLING ME
THAT IT'S NOT POSSIBLE THAT
THAT'S HAPPENING, YOU KNOW?
AND THEN WHEN YOU'RE NOT
TOUCHING IT, I GO NO, NOT
HAPPENING, AND THEN YOU TOUCH
IT.
AND I'M LIKE YEAH, I'M FEELING
IT THERE.
IT'S TOTALLY NOW, JUST, IT
DOESN'T EVEN, THERE'S NO
QUESTION THAT THAT'S MY HAND,
THAT THAT'S WHAT YOU'RE
TOUCHING.

Andreas says ALRIGHT.

Henrik says THAT'S THE
FIRST EXPERIMENT.

Paul says THAT'S CRAZY.
THAT'S SUPER CRAZY.
AND WHEN THEY CONNECT MY
FINGER WITH THE RUBBER HAND'S
FINGER AND INTRODUCE MOVEMENT
TO THE EXPERIMENT, WELL, NOW
THE ILLUSION GETS TOTALLY
SURREAL.

Paul moves his index finger up and down making the rubber hand’s index move as well due to a bar connected to it.

Paul says OH, MY GOD.
THAT'S MY... THAT'S CRAZY.
THAT'S REALLY WEIRD.
OH MAN, THAT'S NUTS.
THERE WAS A REAL MOMENT WHERE
IT SUDDENLY SWITCHED, I WAS
LIKE NOW THIS ISN'T WORKING.
AND SUDDENLY NOW IT'S, AGAIN,
THE MORE I'M DOING IT...

Andreas says THAT'S THE THING,
NOW I'M NOT DOING ANYTHING.
THAT WAS YOU DOING IT.

Paul says THAT'S CRAZY.
I'M DOING THIS.
THAT'S CRAZY!
AND IT ONLY GETS MORE SO AS
IT GOES ON.

Henrik says NEW HAND.
ARTIFICIAL HAND.

Paul says THAT'S AMAZING!

Andreas says YOU CAN TOUCH IT.

Paul says WOW!
IF THEY CAN ADD A RUBBER HAND
TO MY BODY THAT EASILY, I CAN
ONLY IMAGINE WHAT THEY COULD
DO WITH A LITTLE MORE EFFORT
AND PLANNING.
THE IDEA OF INTEGRATING INTO A
PROSTHETIC LIMB, WHAT IS GOING
TO GIVE YOU THAT REAL SENSE OF
OWNERSHIP OF YOUR ARM, WHAT
KICKS IN THEN THAT DOES THAT?

Henrik says WELL IN YOUR
EXPERIMENT, WE STROKE THE
FINGER.
AND THEN YOU SAW THE MODEL
HAND MOVING OR BEING STROKED
IN THE SAME PLACE AT THE SAME
TIME.
AND THAT WAS ENOUGH FOR THE
BRAIN TO SORT OF PUT TOGETHER
YOUR VISION INFORMATION WITH
THE INFORMATION FROM TOUCH AND
PROP RECEPTION, RIGHT?

Paul says YEAH.

Henrik says AND SUDDENLY,
YOUR BRAIN JUST ACCEPTED THE
MODEL HAND AS BEING MY HAND.

Paul says THE MOST BIZARRE PART
OF IT WAS WHERE IT FELT IT
JOINED.
LITERALLY THE MUSCLES AND
NERVES AND TENDONS AND
EVERYTHING WERE JOINED.

Henrik says ONE OF THE
FINDINGS IS REALLY HOW THE
PERCEPTION OF OUR BODY, OUR
PHYSICAL SELF, CAN CHANGE JUST
LIKE THAT.

Paul says MM-HMM.

Henrik says IN A FEW
SECONDS.
AND REALLY THAT'S REALLY
ABOUT HOW THE BRAIN INTERPRETS
THE INFORMATION FROM THE
DIFFERENT SENSORY MODALITIES.
IT COMES UP WITH SORT OF A
DECISION OR CONCLUSION,
WHICH CAN BE QUITE DIFFERENT
FROM THE ACTUAL PHYSICAL STATE
OF YOUR BODY.

Paul says AFTER THE HAND
EXPERIMENT, I'M USHERED BACK
INTO HENRIK'S MAD CHAMBER OF
CYBER-PSYCHOLOGY.
THERE WE DO AN EVEN NUTTIER
EXPERIMENT, IN WHICH ANOTHER
SUAVE, EUROPEAN SCIENTIST
NAMED BJORN STRAPS ME INTO A
SET OF VIRTUAL REALITY
GOGGLES.
THE GOGGLES GAVE ME THE VIEW
OF THE BODY OF A SMALL DOLL,
LYING ON THE BED NEXT TO ME.
STROKING ME AND THE DOLL IN A
PRECISELY SYNCHRONOUS WAY, THE
WEIRDNESS BEGINS.

Lying on a bed, Paul says WOW, THIS IS REALLY ODD.
THIS IS SUPER WEIRD.

Bjorn is in his early thirties. He has brown hair and a small bun. He wears a striped black and white shirt.

Stroking the doll’s and Paul’s foot at the same time, Bjorn says WHAT DO YOU FEEL?

Paul says IT'S VERY PECULIAR.
IT'S LIKE IT'S REALLY BEING
A CHILD.
IT'S LIKE A BABY.
IT'S REALLY STRANGE.

The screen shows Paul’s perspective from his goggles, the doll’s legs.

Henrik says HELLO, HOW
ARE YOU DOING THERE?

Paul says YEAH, VERY GOOD, VERY
GOOD.

Henrik says YOU'RE
MEETING A GIANT.

Paul says YEAH.
ONCE I WAS IN THE DOLL'S BODY,
MY PERSPECTIVE OF THE WORLD
CHANGED.
SUDDENLY EVERYTHING SEEMS
BIGGER.

Bjorn hangs a small purple box in front of Paul’s eyes.

Showing the box size with his hands, Paul says HOW'S THAT?

Bjorn says IT'S ABOUT
TWICE AS BIG AS.

Paul says REALLY?
MY BRAIN IS REALLY FOOLED
INTO THINKING I'M A SMALL
DOLL.

Now, Bjorn shows him a knife.

Paul says THE KNIFE LOOKS HUGE.

Bjorn sticks the doll’s leg with the knife.

Paul says OH!
THAT WAS REALLY DISTURBING.
HOW SMALL A DOLL HAVE YOU
USED?
I MEAN HOW TINY CAN YOU DO IT
AND IT STILL SORT OF WORKS, I
MEAN IS THERE A POINT AT WHICH
IT'S JUST TOO SMALL?
YOU CAN'T JUST USE SOME
LITTLE...

Henrik says WE DON'T
THINK SO.
AS LONG AS THE BODY IS
PROPORTIONAL, WE WOULD PREDICT
THAT THE ILLUSION WORKS VERY
WELL.

Paul says OH, THAT'S INTERESTING.

Henrik says WE TRIED WITH
BODIES THAT WERE LIKE, YOU KNOW
20 CENTIMETERS, 30 CENTIMETRES.

Paul says UH-HUH, AND IT'S
WORKED?

Henrik says IT WORKS
VERY WELL.

Paul says AS LONG AS IT'S
PROPORTIONAL.
SO YOU CAN'T HAVE SOME CRAZY
THING WITH CRAZY CLOWN FEET?

Henrik says NO.

Paul says THAT WON'T WORK.

Henrik says THAT WON'T
WORK, IF THE BODY PLAN IS
COMPLETELY DIFFERENT FROM A
HUMANOID BODY SHAPE IT, IT
WILL NOT WORK.

Paul says OH, IT WON'T WORK.

Henrik says THERE'S SOME
MEMORY REPRESENTATION
CONSTRAINTS.
THE BRAIN KNOWS ROUGHLY WHAT A
HUMAN BODY SHOULD LOOK LIKE.
IT WILL NOT ACCEPT, LIKE, A
TABLE, OR A BLOCK OF WOOD OR
A CRAZY LOBSTER OR SOMETHING
LIKE THAT.

As a cartoon character, Paul appears with clown shoes and lobster tweezers for hands.

Paul says OH, IT WON'T DO THAT!
SO YOU CAN'T PUT ME INTO A...
BUT YOU COULD PUT ME INTO
A BIPEDAL THING?
YOU COULDN'T PUT ME IN LIKE
APE LEGS.

Henrik says WE PROBABLY
COULD PUT YOU IN AN APE.
WE HAVEN'T TRIED THE APE, THE
ORANGUTAN, YOU KNOW.

Paul says THAT COULD WORK.
DOING THESE EXPERIMENTS WITH
HENRIK REALLY MADE ME FEEL
WHAT I HAD LEARNED
INTELLECTUALLY WITH MIGUEL AND
DAVID.

Paul sits on the edge of a lake looking at his cell phone.

Paul says THE IDEA OF FULLY INHABITING
AN EXOSKELETON OR EVEN THE
BODY OF A COMPUTER-GENERATED
AVATAR FEELS MUCH MORE
POSSIBLE TO ME NOW.
WHEN I GOT BACK FROM SWEDEN,
MY HEAD WAS REALLY SPINNING
WITH ALL THESE NEW IDEAS.
I NEEDED TO DEBRIEF FOR A
SECOND.
MAYBE WITH A COLLEAGUE, A
BUDDY, NOT A SCIENTIST.
SO I TOLD MY FRIEND, THE
DIRECTOR DAVID CRONENBERG,
WHAT I'D BEEN DOING.
HE WAS VERY EXCITED AND WANTED
TO TALK TO ME ABOUT THIS
CYBORG STUFF.
I AM GOING TO MEET HIM AT A
LOCAL DINER IN TORONTO FOR A
COFFEE.
IN FILMS LIKE VIDEODROME, THE
FLY, AND EXISTENZ, HE DEEPLY
EXPLORES THE MERGING OF MAN
AND MACHINE.

Fast movie clips show a hand holding a gun with wires coming out of the wrist, a man plunging his head into a TV monitor displaying a woman’s mouth and an ape disappearing inside a futuristic capsule.

Paul continues AND NOT UNLIKE THE SCIENTISTS
I HAD BEEN TALKING TO, DAVID
HAS SPENT HIS CAREER USING HIS
CREATIVITY AND IMAGINATION TO
MAKE NEW DISCOVERIES.

David Cronenberg is in his early seventies. He is clean-shaven and has white hair combed backwards. He wears black-rimmed glasses and a dark blue jacket.

Cronenberg says OKAY, WELL
LOOK.
WE'RE BOTH WEARING GLASSES,
RIGHT?
THIS IS A MACHINE-HUMAN
INTERFACE.
I GOT HEARING AIDS.
LOOK AT THIS.
THIS IS A LITTLE COMPUTER.
IT HAS THE COMPUTING POWER
THAT IS ABOUT A THOUSAND TIMES
MORE THAN WHAT THE FIRST MOON
SHOT HAD.
BELIEVE IT OR NOT.

Paul says REALLY?

Cronenberg says YES.
PLUS, MY TWO HEARING AIDS
COMMUNICATE THROUGH MY HEAD
USING BLUETOOTH.
SO TALK ABOUT MACHINE
INTERFACE.
I'M THERE.
I'M A BOT.
LIKE I'M BIONIC.

Paul says BUT ALL OF THIS STUFF
IS JUST COMPENSATING.
He grabs his cell phone and says BUT ALL OF THIS STUFF IS
ACTUALLY MAKING US NOW EXTENDED
BEYOND ALL THIS STUFF.

Cronenberg says WELL IT IS.
I MEAN, I THINK THE INTERNET
HAS MADE US ALREADY MORE THAN
HUMAN.
YOU KNOW?

Paul says RIGHT.

Cronenberg says I MEAN I'M
SURE IT HAS RESULTED IN
CHANGES IN THE NEUROLOGY OF
OUR BRAINS.
LITERALLY.
I THINK THE UNIQUE THING ABOUT
SOME OF THE STUFF I CAME UP
WITH WAS THAT IT WAS ORGANIC.
AS IN
EXISTENZ,
FOR EXAMPLE,
YOU HAVE THESE GAME PODS, BUT
THEY'RE FLESHY.

Paul says YEAH, YEAH.

Cronenberg says AND THEY
LOOK LIKE LIVERS OR SOMETHING.

Paul says YEAH, YEAH.
IT ALL PLUGS INTO YOUR SPINE.

Cronenberg says AND THE
CORDS ARE CALLED "UMBI-CORDS,"
AND THEY'RE UMBILICAL AND THEY
PLUG INTO YOUR SPINE.
THAT WAS MY INSTINCT, YOU KNOW.
THAT WAS WHERE TECHNOLOGY
SHOULD TAKE US OR WOULD TAKE
US IN TERMS OF HOW WE INTERFACE
OUR BODIES WITH THESE...

Paul says THEY WOULD BECOME
ONE THING.

Cronenberg says YEAH, BUT
IT WOULD BE ORGANIC, NOT
MECHANICAL.
IF YOU LOOK AT WHAT'S GOING ON
IN OUR BODIES, ALL THE TIME
CONSTANTLY, IT'S LITTLE
MACHINES.

Paul says MM-HMM.

Cronenberg says LIKE
THEY'RE LITTLE THINGS WITH
LITTLE PROPELLERS AND THEY'RE
LITTLE TUBULES AND LITTLE
THINGS THAT ARE CLIMBING UP
THE TUBULES.

Paul says SNIPPING THINGS.

Cronenberg says AND THEN
THEY'RE SNIPPING AND REPAIRING.
SO THE KIND OF MACHINERY THAT
INTERESTS ME, IN TERMS OF
ENHANCING US, IS REALLY ON
THE CELLULAR LEVEL.
WE HAVE A WORLD OF CREATURES
THAT HAVE EVOLVED OVER
MILLIONS OF YEARS.
FOR EXAMPLE, I WAS THINKING
ABOUT THE ELECTRIC EEL WHERE
ALMOST TWO-THIRDS OF HIS BODY
IS A BATTERY.

Paul says MM-HMM.

Cronenberg says WE COULD
HAVE THAT.
BECAUSE, YOU KNOW, THE EARTH,
NATURE, EVOLUTION HAS ALREADY
EVOLVED THAT, HAS SHOWN US
THAT YOU COULD HAVE A TOTALLY
ORGANIC DEVICE THAT STORES
ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND CAN
RELEASE IT ON DEMAND.
THERE WAS A LOT OF SCI-FI THAT
SAID "TECHNOLOGY IS INHUMAN,
NON-HUMAN, ANTI-HUMAN."

An old movie extract shows an alien walking out of a house as soldiers shoot it.

Paul says RIGHT, RIGHT.

Cronenberg says NOW I
ALWAYS SAID, "THAT CAN'T BE."
IT'S TOTALLY HUMAN.

Paul says RIGHT.

Cronenberg says IT COMES
FROM US.

Paul says IT'S US.

Cronenberg says IT'S AN
EXPRESSION OF US.
SO IT MIRRORS EXACTLY WHAT WE
ARE, THAT IS TO SAY GREAT
STUFF, BRILLIANT STUFF,
BEAUTIFUL STUFF AND HIDEOUS,
HIDEOUS DESTRUCTIVE STUFF AS
WELL.

Paul says BUT YOU, IN YOUR MOVIES
A LOT OF THE TIME, IT SEEMS...
IT'S COOL.
YOU SEEM VERY OPTIMISTIC ABOUT
IT, WHEREAS IN YOUR MOVIES
IT'S VERY PESSIMISTIC.

Cronenberg drinks a cup of coffee and says MY OWN
PERSONAL VIEW IS QUITE
POSITIVE.
YEAH, I MEAN I THINK IT'S
EXCITING.
I THINK IT'S... IT ALLOWS US
TO ENGAGE IN THE CREATIVE
IMPULSE OF THIS EARTH.

Paul says RIGHT.
IT'S A CREATIVE PROCESS, TOO.
I MEAN IT'S PART OF AN
EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS WHICH IS
KIND OF CREATIVE.

Cronenberg says YEAH.
AND IT SEEMS TO BE WHAT WE DO
AS HUMAN BEINGS.

Paul says RIGHT.

Cronenberg says WE'VE NEVER
ACCEPTED THE WORLD AS IT WAS
GIVEN TO US.

Paul says WE'VE DONE EVERYTHING
ELSE AND NOW IT'S GOING TO BE
US THAT WE HAVE TO ACTUALLY
ALTER.

Cronenberg says IT HAS TO
BE US.

Now, Paul travels in a tramway.

Paul says I HAVE TO SAY I WAS
SURPRISED BY HOW POSITIVE
DAVID IS ABOUT OUR
RELATIONSHIP WITH TECHNOLOGY.
IT WAS NICE TO HEAR.
DAVID'S IDEAS ABOUT BIOLOGY AS
TECHNOLOGY GOT ME THINKING
DIFFERENTLY ABOUT THE
INTERFACE BETWEEN HUMANS AND
MACHINES.
I MEAN, IF WE ARE MACHINES AS
DAVID SUGGESTS, THEN WON'T OUR
ULTIMATE TRANSFORMATION COME
WHEN WE CAN RE-TOOL OUR VERY
BODIES FROM DEEP INSIDE AT A
BIOLOGICAL KIND OF ORGANIC
LEVEL?
NOW IS THIS EVEN POSSIBLE?
INSPIRED BY DAVID CRONENBERG'S
IDEAS ABOUT BIOLOGY AS
TECHNOLOGY, I'M GOING TO VISIT
GEORGE CHURCH AT THE HARVARD
MEDICAL SCHOOL.
GEORGE WAS ONE OF THE KEY
SCIENTISTS INVOLVED IN
SEQUENCING THE HUMAN GENOME.
NOW, HE'S MAKING BREAKTHROUGHS
THAT WILL SOON LET US REWRITE
IT.

George Church is in his early sixties, with a long white beard and white hair. He wears glasses and a black jacket.

George says THE NEW YORK
WORLD'S FAIR IN '64-ISH,
THEY HAD A VISION OF THE
FUTURE THAT THEY COMPLETELY
INSTANTIATED, AND YOU COULD
WALK THROUGH IT AND THEY, YOU
COULD LIKE DRAW ON A LITTLE
PAD A PICTURE AND THEN IT
WOULD PRINT OUT A FABRIC THAT
WAS A REPEATING MOTIF OF THE
PICTURE.

Old footage shows a woman flying outdoors wearing a special suit.

Paul says REALLY?
AWESOME!

George says YOU COULD
DO THAT.

Paul says WHY DON'T WE HAVE
THAT NOW?

George says EXACTLY, AND
THEY HAD PEOPLE WITH LIKE
ROCKET THRUSTERS OR SOMETHING.

Paul says ABSOLUTELY, JET PACKS.

George says AND, IN FACT,
SINCE THE FUTURE DIDN'T
ARRIVE, I HAD SEEN IT, I
ALWAYS FELT LIKE IT SHOULD
HAVE ARRIVED.
AND SO I SPENT, YOU KNOW, A
FAIR AMOUNT OF MY ENTHUSIASM
TRYING TO RECREATE THE LOST
WORLD, YOU KNOW, OF NEW YORK
IN '64.

Paul laughs and says THAT'S AMAZING.
ABSOLUTELY.

George says AND SO MY LAB
KIND OF PUSHES THE ENVELOPE IN
TRYING TO RECREATE THE PARTS
OF SCIENCE FICTION WE THINK WE
CAN TACKLE.

Paul says GEORGE IS AMONG AN
ELITE GROUP OF SCIENTISTS
WORKING WITH CRISPR, A
BREAKTHROUGH TECHNOLOGY FOR
EDITING OUR GENETIC CODE.
WITH CRISPR, THESE SCIENTISTS
MAY ONE DAY MAKE IT POSSIBLE
FOR US TO RADICALLY TRANSFORM
OURSELVES BIOLOGICALLY.

George says YOU MIGHT BE
ABLE TO CHANGE THE BRAIN
IN SUCH A WAY THAT IT
INTERFACES BETTER WITH
OTHER BRAINS, WITH OTHER
BACKUP DEVICES, YOU KNOW...

Paul says SO YOU COULD CONNECT
BRAIN TO BRAIN, YOU'RE SAYING?

George says BRAIN TO
BRAIN, YEAH.

Paul says BRAIN TO BRAIN AND THEN
HAVE SORT OF FIVE PEOPLE
CONNECTED BRAIN-WISE.

George says OR YOU MIGHT
FIT THE ENTIRE INTERNET ONTO
DNA AND THEN PUT THE DNA INTO
YOUR BRAIN AND HAVE AN
INPUT-OUTPUT DEVICE.
SO YOU'RE LITERALLY CARRYING
AROUND THE WHOLE INTERNET IN
YOUR HEAD.
I MEAN THIS IS VERY
SPECULATIVE, BUT THE POINT...

Paul says SO I COULD PUT ALL
OF SHAKESPEARE IN MY HEAD,
POTENTIALLY.

George says ALL OF
EVERYTHING IN YOUR HEAD.

Paul says I'M JUST TALKING ABOUT
SHAKESPEARE.
CRISPR IS A NATURALLY
OCCURRING ENZYME THAT
SCIENTISTS CAN RE-PROGRAM AND
INJECT INTO CELLS.
IT WILL FIND ONE OF OVER 20
THOUSAND GENES AND CUT IT OUT.
IT CAN ALSO ADD A NEW ONE IF
YOU WANTED TO.

As the cartoon character, Paul drives a miniscule rocket with an extensible tweezer that cuts DNA chains.

Paul continues AS GEORGE EXPLAINED IT TO ME,
IT'S KINDA LIKE A MICROSCOPIC
PROGRAMMABLE ORGANIC NANO
ROBOT.

George says AND SO THE
CRISPR HAS THE SENSOR, WHICH IS
THIS LITTLE PIECE OF RNA YOU
PROGRAMMED INTO IT, THAT
TRIES, KEEPS TRYING AND TRYING
UNTIL IT GETS A HIT.
AND THEN IT HAS A COMPUTER
THAT SAYS, "IS THAT A GOOD
ENOUGH MATCH?"
AND THEN IT HAS AN ACTUATOR,
WHICH IS A KNIFE THAT COMES
DOWN...
YOU KNOW AND MACHETE THE DNA.
SO IT REALLY IS A LITTLE ROBOT.

Paul says IT
IS
A LITTLE ROBOT.

George says IT'S GOT THE
THREE BASIC COMPONENTS: A
SENSOR, COMPUTING, AND AN
ACTUATOR.

Paul says FASCINATING.

George says SO THAT ONE'S
A NATURALLY OCCURRING ROBOT.
WE'VE HARDLY CHANGED IT; WE MADE
IT A LITTLE MORE PRECISE.

Paul says IT'S A NATURALLY
OCCURRING ROBOT, IN OTHER
WORDS...

George says SO IT'S A
MACHINE THAT WE GOT OUT
OF BACTERIA.
IT WAS DISCOVERED IN 1987, AS
JUST SOME KIND OF STUFF IN THE
GENOME THAT LOOKED LIKE JUNK.
AND THEN AS YOU STUDY IT MORE
AND MORE, YOU REALIZE, THIS
ISN'T JUNK, THIS IS LIKE, THE
GREATEST GIFT EVER, YOU KNOW?
IT'S LIKE, YOU KNOW, LIKE AN
ALIEN RACE DUMPED THEIR
LANDER IN YOUR BACKYARD
AND YOU JUST GO IN THERE AND
YOU'RE KIND OF ROOTING AROUND
FOR COOL STUFF AND HERE'S
CRISPR.

Paul says AND WE HAVE THESE
THINGS, THEY'RE FOUND
ELSEWHERE IN NATURE, THEY'RE
NOT FOUND IN US ARE THEY?
YOU'RE PUTTING THEM IN US?

George says THEY ARE NOW!

Paul says RIGHT, EXACTLY, SO
THAT'S THE KIND OF CYBERNETIC
THING THAT YOU'RE DOING TO US,
YOU'RE PUTTING... BUT THEY'RE
NATURALLY OCCURRING ROBOTS.

George says WHEN WE PUT
A KNIFE IN OUR HANDS, THAT'S
AUGMENTATION BUT IT'S BLUNT.
BUT IF WE CAN CHANGE EVERY
ATOM, AND WE GET BETTER AND
BETTER AT KNOWING HOW TO DO
THAT INTELLIGENTLY, THEN THAT
REALLY STARTS BECOMING
LIMITLESS.

Paul thinks LIMITLESS?
THAT SOUNDS EXCITING, BUT IT'S
ALSO KINDA SCARY.
SHOULDN'T WE JUST LET NATURE
MANAGE EVOLUTION LIKE IT
ALWAYS HAS?

Talking to George, Paul says DID WE REACH A POINT WHERE WE
CAN'T REALLY EVOLVE ANYMORE,
AND THIS IS WHAT MAKES US
EVOLVE MORE?
OR IS IT A PART OF, IS IT A
PART OF THE PROCESS OF
EVOLUTION?
IS IT JUST A PART OF, THIS IS
JUST ON A CONTINUUM OF WHAT IT
IS TO BE A HUMAN BEING?

George says THERE'S NO
QUESTION WE'RE STILL EVOLVING.
BOTH OUR DNA IS EVOLVING AND
OUR CULTURE IS EVOLVING AND
NOW OUR CULTURE IS STARTING
TO AFFECT OUR DNA.
SO THEY'RE ALL INTERTWINED.

Paul says RIGHT, YEAH.

George says AND, YOU KNOW,
WHETHER WE'RE AUGMENTED
BECAUSE OF OUR CELLPHONES AND
OUR CARS, WHETHER THOSE ARE
MORE OR LESS HERITABLE THAN
OUR DNA, YOU KNOW IT'S LIKE
THE FACT IS EACH GENERATION
INHERITS ALL THIS PHYSICS
BAGGAGE ALONG WITH THE BIOLOGY
BAGGAGE.
IT JUST GETS MORE COMPLICATED,
MORE INTERCONNECTED AS WE GO
FORWARD, BUT I THINK EVOLUTION
IS ALIVE AND WELL.

Paul says IF YOU JUST LEFT US
ALONE WOULD WE LIKE DEVELOP
WINGS AND STUFF LIKE THAT
EVENTUALLY?
He laughs and continues I MEAN IF YOU JUST LEFT US
ALONE.

George says 'US' IS THIS
CULTURAL ANIMAL.
WE ARE LEAVING... WE ARE BEING
LEFT ALONE AS FAR AS WE KNOW.

Paul says RIGHT.
DOING SOME RESEARCH ON MY
ELECTRONIC DIGITAL BRAIN
EXTENSION, ALSO KNOWN AS THE
INTERNET, I DISCOVERED THE
TERM CYBORG WAS COINED IN A
1960's SCIENTIFIC PAPER.
IT DESCRIBES CHANGES TO OUR
BODIES THAT WILL ADAPT US FOR
LIVING IN OUTER SPACE.
AND WHETHER IT'S A HARDENED
SHELL-LIKE SKIN TO RESIST
RADIOACTIVITY OR NEW KINDS OF
BONES TO SURVIVE IN PROLONGED
LOW-GRAVITY, GEORGE THINKS
GENETIC ENGINEERING WILL
FINALLY ALLOW US TO REALIZE
THESE IDEAS FROM OVER 50 YEARS
AGO.

Against a black background, an old article floats around next to various astronaut suits and pictures of a green round alien and a spacecraft.

Paul continues IN FACT, GEORGE THINKS THE
ULTIMATE SURVIVAL OF OUR
SPECIES MAY VERY WELL DEPEND
ON IT.

George says IF WE
CONSTRUCT A NOAH'S ARK AND GET
A BUNCH OF US AND OTHER SPECIES
OUT OF THE EARTH, THEN THAT'S
THE ULTIMATE IN DARWINIAN
SUCCESS.

Paul says HOW SO?

George says IF AN ASTEROID
HITS THE PLANET AND COMPLETELY
VAPORIZES US, SO NOT EVEN A
BACTERIA LIVES, THAT'S A FAIL.
THAT'S A DARWINIAN FAIL, OKAY?

Laughing, Paul says RIGHT, YEAH, YEAH.

George says AND IF ONE
ORGANISM HAS HIS ACT TOGETHER
ENOUGH, TO ESCAPE THAT, THAT'S
A GIGANTIC DARWINIAN SUCCESS
BECAUSE THE REAL THING IS
BEING READY FOR THE
UNEXPECTED.

In a car, Paul thinks I LEFT GEORGE THINKING
A LOT ABOUT EVOLUTION.
IT SEEMS WE TRANSFORM
OURSELVES AND EVERYTHING
AROUND US IN ORDER TO SURVIVE
AS A SPECIES.
THAT WE'VE BEEN EXTENDING AND
AUGMENTING OURSELVES EVER
SINCE WE FASHIONED OUR FIRST
RUDIMENTARY TOOLS.

(theme music plays)

Paul says WE HAVE EVOLVED WITH
TECHNOLOGY AND WILL CONTINUE
TO DO SO.
IT'S INSEPARABLE FROM US.
SO WE REALLY ARE NATURAL-BORN
CYBORGS.
WE ALWAYS HAVE BEEN AND ALWAYS
WILL BE.

The end credit rolls as fast clips show Paul with the different scientists presented in the program.

Paul concludes OF COURSE I STILL BELIEVE THAT
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CAN BE
USED IN WRONG WAYS AND CAN
LEAD TO OUR DEHUMANIZATION,
BUT IT CAN ALSO BE USED IN
RIGHT WAYS...
TO HELP US SURVIVE AND
PROSPER.
NOW, THE MOST COMFORTING THING
TO HAVE LEARNED DOING THIS
SHOW IS THAT THERE ARE
SCIENTISTS LIKE THE ONES I MET
WITH THAT WILL BE PLAYING SUCH
AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN HOW WE
WILL EVOLVE INTO THE FUTURE.
THEY'RE NOT ONLY BRILLIANT
SCIENTISTS, THEY ARE
IMAGINATIVE, CREATIVE AND
DEEP-THINKING PEOPLE.
THEY SEEMED TO THINK A LOT
ABOUT WHAT IT IS THAT MAKES US
HUMAN, AND WHAT WILL SOMEDAY
MAKE US MORE THAN HUMAN.

Paul takes an escalator in New York’s Grand Central Station.

Produced for National Geography by Asylum Entertainment, Imagine Entertainment, ODCD Partners, GE.

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