Transcript: Your Health Season 3 Episode 12 | Dec 11, 2001

A slate reads "The advice given in the following program is of a general nature only. Viewers should consult their own medical professional for medical advice specific to their circumstances."

(music plays)

Against a gray background, an animated blue, green and gray grid shows clips of doctors and patients as the white letters of the title of the show fly forward: "Your Health."

Maureen says THIS WEEK.

Wendy O'Keeffe plays with dogs. She is in her late thirties with shoulder-length brown hair and bangs. She wears glasses and a blue pullover.

Wendy says I HAVE FIVE CHILDREN...
THE YOUNGEST OF FIVE
CHILDREN, HE HAD CF, HE DIED
WHEN HE WAS FOUR.
AND THEN I HAD A SISTER MARY,
AND SHE PASS ADD AWAY WHEN
SHE WAS TWO.
I KNOW AS I GREW UP, MY
ATTITUDE WAS I'M NOT GOING
TO LIVE UNTIL 12, I'M NOT
GOING TO LIVE TO 15.

Maureen says CYSTIC FIBROSIS, LIVING
LONGER, HAVING FAMILIES.

Phil Wyatt is in his late forties, with a goatee and light brown hair. He wears glasses, a dark suit, light gray shirt and dotted white tie.

Phil says IT IS CLEAR THAT UNDER
CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES ANY
GOVERNMENT AROUND THE WORLD
CAN BREAK PATTERNS.
THEY DO IT ALL THE TIME WHEN
IT SERVES THEIR PURPOSES.

Maureen says SHOULD CANADA
RESPECT PATENTS ON OUR
GENES.

Paul Caldwell is in his late fifties, with a beard and receding white hair. He wears a light green shirt and patterned gray tie.

Paul says N MAMMOGRAMS WE ARE NOT
LOOKING FOR NORMAL BREAST
TISSUE OR COMMON CYSTS.
WE ARE LOOKING FOR CA
CERTIFICATE.

Maureen says AND HOW THE MAMMOGRAM
FINDS BREAST CANCER

The animated grid appears showing clips of a woman holding a baby, pills, a surgery, a needle and a man doing exercise.

The title of the program reads "Your Health." The "R" in "Your" ends with an "X."

Maureen Taylor stands next to a screen in a studio. She is in her late thirties with shoulder-length light brown hair. She wears a black turtleneck sweater and a blue coat.

Maureen says HELLO, I'M MAUREEN
TAYLOR.
IMAGINE HAVING A CHILD AND
BEING TOLD THAT SHE WOULD
PROBABLY NOT LIVE TO SEE HER
FIFTH BIRTHDAY.
NOT VERY LONG AGO THAT WAS
THE CASE FOR CHILDREN BORN
WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS.
IT'S ONE OF THE MOST COMMON
FATAL GENETIC DISEASES.
IT AFFECTS THE LUNGS AND
MAKES BREATHING DIFFICULT.

The screen shows a picture of a family.

Maureen continues BUT THANKS TO ADVANCES IN
TREATMENT, PEOPLE BORN WITH
CF TODAY CAN EXPECT TO LIVE
LONGER, HEALTHIER LIVES.

[monitor beeps]
A blue slate reads "Every Breath You Take. Produced by Wendy Kirschner."

A clip plays.

Brandon, Stephanie and Christopher plays with a ball in a garden

A Female Narrator says LIKE MOST KIDS, THESE
HAVE LOTS OF ENERGY TO BURN.
BRANDON'S 13, STEPHANIE IS
11, AND CHRISTOPHER IS 6.
YOU WOULD NEVER KNOW FROM
WATCHING THEM THAT TWO OF
THESE CHILDREN HAVE CYSTIC
FIBROSIS.

Diane Jupp is in her mid-thirties with short blond hair and bangs. She wears a black shirt.

Diane says STEPHANIE WAS SEVEN
POUNDS, SEVEN OUNCES, BORN
HEALY, EVERYTHING SEEMED
FINE.
FIRST BORN.
SHE DIDN'T SEEM TO GAIN
ENOUGH WEIGHT BY HER
TWO-WEEK VISIT AND THE
PEDIATRICIAN WAS CONCERNED
AND STARTED INVESTIGATING
WHAT THE PROBLEM WAS.

Keith Jupp is in his late thirties, with blond hair and clean-shaven. He wears a dark blue polo shirt.

Keith says THE PEDIATRICIAN
DISCOVERED THAT SHE HAD
CYSTIC FIBROSIS AFTER DOING,
YOU KNOW, A NUMBER OF TESTS.
IT WAS DEVASTATING.
IT WAS LIKE GETTING HIT BY A
BUS.
YOU KNOW, YOU GO THROUGH THE
NORMAL QUESTIONS WHY US, WHY
DID IT HAPPEN TO US.

A picture of a smiling baby girl appears.

A caption appears on screen. It reads "Diane Jupp."

Diane says YOU ARE NUMB, ARE YOU
SHELL-SHOCKED, YOU DON'T
REALLY KNOW MUCH ABOUT IT.
WE WERE PRETTY SHOCKED.

Keith says THE THERAPY IS DONE TWICE
A DAY, IN THE MORNING AND IN
THE EVENING AS WELL.
AND THE MASK THERAPY IS A
COMBINATION OF SALINE AND
VENTOLINT IS MEANT TO OPEN
UP AIRWAYS, PASSAGEWAYS,
MAKE SURE THAT THEY STAY
OPEN SO THEIR BREATHING
STAYS PROCEDURE, THAT THEY
DON'T GET AS MANY INFECTIONS.

Stephanie uses a special device to breath.

The Announcer says WHEN STEPHANIE DOES GET
AN INFECTION, HER MOM
PERFORMS THIS THERAPY AT
HOME.

Stephanie lies on her back on the floor as Diane rubs her back using an electrical type of massager.

Diane says WHEN THEY HAVE COLDS OR ARE
CONGESTED WE HAVE TO DO THE
POSTUREAL DRAINAGE AN PER
CUSSING EITHER MANUALLY OR
THE ELECTRIC ONE.
YOU ARE BANGING ON THEIR
CHEST TO HELP LOOSEN THE
MUCUS.

The caption changes to "Doctor Elizabeth Tullis. CF Clinic. Saint Michael’s Hospital." Elizabeth is in her late thirties with short blond hair and bangs. She wears a white doctor apron over a black turtleneck sweater.

Elizabeth says CYSTIC FIBROSIS IS A
GENETIC DISORDER.
IT IS THE MOST COMMON LETHAL
GENETIC DISORDER IN WHITES.
AND IT IS A DISEASE THAT
INVOLVES THE LUNGS AND
DIGESTIVE TRACT.
AND THE PROBLEM IS THE
MUCOUS SECRETIONS IN THE
BODY ARE VERY THICK ITY.
OVER TIME IN THE LUNG,
INFECTIONS OCCUR AND THEY
DAMAGE THE LUNG.
She points to chest x-rays and says THESE ARE THE LUNGS OF
SOMEBODY WITH QUITE SEVERE
CYSTIC FIBROSIS.
AND ORDINARILY THEY SHOULD
BE BLACK, A BIT LIKE DOWN
HERE.
BUT YOU CAN SEE ON THIS
X-RAY THERE ARE AREAS OF
WHITE WITH BLACK CENTRES,
ALL THESE HOLES IN THE LUNG.
AND THESE ARE THE CYSTS OF
CYSTIC FIBROSIS.
THESE ARE THE DAMAGE FROM
THE INFECTION IN THE LUNG.
YOU CAN SEE IT IN MORE
DETAIL ON THE CAT SCAN WHICH
SHOWS THAT THE CONSISTENCY
OF THE LUNG IS LIKE SWISS
CHEESE.
THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF HOLES
IN THE LUNG.
AND THIS IS FROM THE DAMAGE
DUE TO THE INFECTION IN CF.

Stephanie says I SOMETIMES GET A COLD
BUT I...

The Announcer says STEPHANIE WAS BORN WITH
CF BECAUSE BOTH HER PARENTS
CARRY THE CF GENE.
ONE IN EVERY 25 PEOPLE IS A
CARRIER.

Diane says WE DIDN'T KNOW OF ANYONE
IN THE FAMILY HAVING CYSTIC
FIBROSIS.
HAD HEARD IT BUT REALLY
DIDN'T HAVE AN EDUCATION ON
IT AT ALL.

Elizabeth says IF YOU ARE A CARRIER OF
CF AND YOUR PARTNER IS ALSO
A CARRIER OF THE CF ONE OUT
OF EVERY FOUR CHILDREN WILL
YOU HAVE WILL HAVE CYSTIC
FIBROSIS.
NOW THAT IS A STATISTICAL
PROBABILITY.
SO THAT DOESN'T PREVENT
PEOPLE FROM HAVING FOUR
CHILDREN OF WHOM TWO OR
THREE OF THEM MIGHT HAVE CF
BUT FOR EVERY BABY YOU HAVE
THERE IS A 25 percent CHANCE THAT
THE CHILD WILL HAVE CF.

The Announcer says THEY WERE FACED WITH
THOSE ODDS WHEN THEY WANTED
TO HAVE ANOTHER CHILD.

The caption changes to "Keith Jupp."

Keith says WE DISCUSSED THIS FOR
MANY YEARS WHETHER WE WERE
GOING TO HAVE ANOTHER CHILD.
AND WE CAME TO THE, I GUESS
THE UNDERSTANDING OR THE
FEELING THAT YEAH, NO MATTER
WHAT HAPPENS WITH
CHRISTOPHER WE'RE GOING TO
GO THROUGH WITH THE
PREGNANCY.
AND CHRISTOPHER WAS GOING TO
COME INTO OUR LIVES.

Diane says SO WE DECIDED TO TAKE
THAT GAMBLE.
AND WE WERE A LITTLE SUR
APPROXIMATED TO FIND OUT
THAT CHRISTOPHER DID INDEED
FALL IN 259 percent AND HAS CF AS
WELL.

Diane holds the special device to breathe as Christopher does his homework.

Keith says IT WASN'T AS TRAUMATIC,
OF COURSE, AS WHEN WE FOUND
OUT WITH STEPHANIE.
HE IS A VIBRANT KID AND A
LOT OF FUN SO ABSOLUTELY
WE'RE... WE MADE THE RIGHT
DECISION.

Keith helps his son do homework.

Keith says ONE, TWO, THREE, FOUR,
FIVE...

Keith says IT IS A VERY SIMPLE
APPARATUS CALLED A PEP MASK
AND BASICALLY WHAT IT IS
MEANT TO DO IS TO HAVE
CHRISTOPHER BREATHE OUT IN A
STEADY FLOW SO THAT HE CAN
MOVE OUT SOME OF THE MUCUS
OF HIS LUNGS.
WHAT YOU WANT TO DO IS TRY
TO CREATE A STEADY BREATH
FOR TEN SECONDS KEEPING THAT
PLUNGER IN THE MIDDLE THERE.
AND THAT WILL EXERCISE HIS
LUNGS AS WELL AS REMOVE SOME
OF THE MUCOUS.

Talking to Christopher, Keith says GOOD JOB, GOOD JOB.
ALL RIGHT.

They high-five.

The Announcer says IF CHRISTOPHER HAD BEEN
BORN IN 1960, THERE WOULD BE
A 50 percent CHANCE HE WOULD HAVE
DIED ABOUT HE TURNED SIX.
BUT THERAPY AND MEDICATION
HAVE HELPED CHILDREN WITH CF
LIVE LONGER.

Elizabeth says IN 1938 MOST CHILDREN
DIED BEFORE THE AGE OF ONE.
BY 1960, HALF OF THE
CHILDREN WOULD HAVE DIED
BEFORE THEY WERE FOUR.
BY 1980 IN CANADA THE
SURVIVAL WAS AGE 20, SO BY
THAT POINT PEOPLE WERE YOUNG
ADULTS.

Black and white picture show a baby, a child lying in a hospital bed covered by a plastic and a woman playing with a boy.

Wendy crouches to talk with a dog.

Wendy says OH, HELLO.
ARE YOU JEALOUS.

The Announcer says WENDY O'KEEFFE WAS BORN
WITH CF AND IS NOW 39 YEARS
OLD.

Wendy says I'M THE YOUNGEST OF FIVE
CHILDREN.
THE FIRST BORN WAYNE, HE HAD
CF.
HE DIED WHEN HE WAS FOUR.
AND THEN I HAD A SISTER MARY,
AND SHE PASSED AWAY WHEN SHE
WAS TWO.
I KNOW AS I GREW UP MY
ATTITUDE WAS I AM NOT GOING
TO LIVE UNTIL 12, I'M NOT
GOING TO LIVE TO 15.
SO YOU KNOW, I THINK THAT
HURT MY STUDIES.
I GRADUATED BUT I THINK IF I
HAD KNOWN I WAS GOING TO
LIVE THIS LONG I WOULD HAVE
PURSUED A CAREER.

The caption changes to "Courtesy: Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Foundation."

A close-up shot show pills next to dishes. Then, a woman hands a glass of juice to a girl.

The Announcer says NUTRITION TURNED OUT TO
BE KEY TO THE SURVIVAL OF
KIDS WITH CF.
AND THERE WAS A CANADIAN
CONNECTION TO THAT
DISCOVERY.

Elizabeth says IN 1970 THE DOCTOR AT THE
HOSPITAL FOR SICK CHILDREN
WHO WAS LOOKING AFTER PEOPLE
WITH CF THOUGHT THAT A LOT
OF THE PROBLEMS THEY WERE
HAVING MAY BE BECAUSE THEY
WERE MALL NOURISHED.
AND IN THE PAST THE
TREATMENT TO FOR CT WAS TO
RESTRICT FAT FROM THE PEOPLE
OF THE DIET WITH CF BECAUSE
IF THEY ATE FAT WHICH THEY
DIDN'T DIGEST WELL THEY GOT
ABDOMINAL PAIN, CRAMPS AND
DIARRHEA SO THEY SAID LET'S
GIVE LOT ITS OF DIGESTIVE
ENZYMES AND GIVE THESE
CHILDREN'S LOTS TO EAT AND
LOTS OF FAT.
AND OVER A 10 YEAR PERIOD OF
TIME SURVIVAL IMPROVED IN
TORONTO WHEREAS IT DIDN'T
ANYWHERE ELSE IN THE WORLD.

The Announcer says PEOPLE WITH CF DON'T
DIGEST IF A EFFICIENTLY AS
MOST PEOPLE SO THEY HAVE TO
TAKE IN MORE CALORIES AND
HAVE A VERY UNUSUAL DIET.

Stephanie and Christopher take their medicine as they eat Lays chips.

Elizabeth says A HEALTHY DIET FOR THEM
IS VERY UNHEALTHY FOR US.
SO HIGH SKLT, HIGH FAT, SORT
OF A TYPICAL FAST FOOD DIET
IS GOOD FOOD FOR SOMEBODY
WITH CF.

Elizabeth says THE DISCOVERY OF THE CF
GENE IN 1989 WAS ALSO AN
IMPORTANT BREAKTHROUGH FOR
RESEARCHERS.

The caption changes to "Doctor Lap-Chee Tsui." Lap is in his thirties, clean-shaven with black hair. He wears glasses, blue suit, white shirt and patterned tie.

In an old clip, Lap gives a conference.

Lap says LOOKING FOR THE CF GENE
IS LIKE LOOKING FOR A HOUSE
IN A CITY BETWEEN HALIFAX
AND VANCOUVER WITHOUT A
STREET ADDRESS.

Elizabeth says WE FOUND OUT THAT THINGS
ARE MUCH MORE COMPLICATED
THAN EVEN WAS ORIGINALLY
REALIZED.
BUT THERE HAVE BEEN GREAT
ADVANCES BECAUSE NOW WE KNOW
WHAT IS THE DEFECTIVE
PROTEIN AND WE HAVE A MUCH
BETTER UNDERSTANDING ABOUT
HOW IT WORKS AND HOW IT
CAUSES THE PROBLEMS IN THE
LUNGS AND DIGESTIVE TRACT.

The Announcer says RESEARCHERS STILL HAVEN'T
FOUND A CURE FOR CF BUT THE
SURVIVAL RATE IS STILL
CLIMBING.
TODAY HALF OF THOSE WITH CF
ARE OVER THE 32.
THAT HAS OPENED UP A WORLD
OF POSSIBILITIES FOR THEM.

Wendy sits on the floor as Mike pats her on her shoulders. He’s in his early forties, clean-shaven with black hair. He wears a striped white and blue shirt.

Mike says IF WOULD BE EASY IF YOU
ARE SITTING THERE.

Wendy says I ALWAYS SAID I WANTED
CHILDREN AND MY DOCTOR SAID
YOU KNOW, IN ALL REALITY,
YOU PROBABLY... PROBABLY
WON'T, BECAUSE YOU WON'T
LIVE LONG ENOUGH AND B,
PEOPLE WITH CF JUST DO NOT
HAVE CHILDREN.
AND I CAN REMEMBER I LOOKED
HIM SQUARE IN THE EYES AND I
SAID YOU MARK MY WORD, I
WILL BE ONE OF THE ONES THAT
DO HAVE CHILDREN.
WHENY O'KEEFFE IS NOW A STAY
AT HOME MOM WITH THREE
CHILDREN.

Wendy says MATTHEW WAS EIGHT POUNDS
FOUR OUNCES.
AND I GAINED 40 POUNDS WITH
HIM.
HE WAS HEALTHY.
HE WAS FULL TERM.
BEFORE MATTHEW'S FIRST
BIRTHDAY I FOUND OUT I WAS
PREGNANT WITH ANDREW.
I ALWAYS THOUGHT I HAD A
CONTRACT WITH GOD, GOD WAS
NOT GOING TO GIVE ME ANY I
CANS THAT I COULD NOT SEE
GROW UP TO BE 20.
THEN ALONG CAME MEAGAN.

Wendy and her children have a snack in their house.

Elizabeth says IN THE PAST WOMEN WITH CF
WERE DISCOURAGED ABOUT
GETTING PREGNANT BECAUSE IT
WAS FELT IT MIGHT BE
DETRIMENTAL TO THEIR HEALTH
HOWEVER WE HAVE DONE A LOT
OF RESEARCH IN THIS AREA AND
CONSISTENTLY STUDIES IN
OTHER COUNTRIES AS WELL AS
CANADA HAVE SHOWN THAT
PREGNANCY IS NOT DETRIMENTAL
TO WOMEN WITH CF, PROVIDED
THAT THEY ARE IN STABLE
HEALTH BEFOREHAND.

The caption changes to "Mike O’Keefe."

Mike says I DIDN'T THINK WE WOULD
EVER HAVE CHILDREN.
BUT WE HAVE THREE OF THEM
NOW.
MIRACLES NEVER CEASE.

The Announcer says THE O'KEEFFE CHILDREN
WERE ALL BORN PERFECTLY
HEALTHY.
BUT BECAUSE WHENY HAS CYSTIC
FIBROSIS, THEY WILL ALL
CARRY THE CF GENE.

Elizabeth says WHEN WOMEN WITH CF COME
TO US AND SAY THEY WOULD
LIKE TO HAVE A CHILD WE TALK
ABOUT WHAT ARE THE GENETIC
CONSEQUENCES.
AND WE SCREEN THE SPOUSE TO
SEE IF THEY ARE A CARRIER.
AND IF THEY ARE TO THE A CAR
REQUEST, THEN THAT MEANS
THAT THE CHANCES OF THE
CHILD HAVING CF ARE VERY
LOW.
IT'S NOT 0, THOUGH, BUT IT
IS VERY LOW.
BUT WE DO TELL THE COUPLE
THAT ALL OF THEIR CHILDREN
WILL BE CARRIERS OF CF, AND
IN THE FUTURE, THAT WILL BE
IMPORTANT FOR THEIR OWN
REPRODUCTIVE DECISIONS.

The Announcer says MANY WITH CF HAVEN'T BEEN
AS FORTUNATE WHEN IT COMES
TO HAVING A FAMILY.

Elizabeth says 98 percent OF MEN WITH CF ARE
INFERTILE.
AND THE PROBLEM IS THAT
THICK STICKY SECRETIONS
BLOCK THE VAS DEFERENCE EVEN
BEFORE THEY ARE BORN, AND
BECAUSE IS BLOCKED, THE
NORMAL SPERM PRODUCED IN THE
TESTES CANNOT GET OUT OF THE
BODY.

The Announcer says BRENT IS IN THE HOSPITAL
WITH A LUNG INFECTION.
HIS CF HAS BEEN PRETTY
STABLE OVER THE YEAR AND AND
ONE DAY HE HOPES TO HAVE A
FAMILY.

Brent is in his twenties, with a short goatee and short hair. He wears a blue hat, glasses and a dark blue T-shirt.

Brent says THROUGH TECHNOLOGY NOW
THEY CAN GO THROUGH IN-VITRO
FERTILIZATION AND THINGS
LIKE THAT.
SO IT IS POSSIBLE.
I WOULD LOVE TO HAVE KIDS.
I LOVE KID SO I'M HOPING SO
IN THE NEAR FUTURE TO HAVE
CHILDREN.

Wendy says I TOLD MY KIDS THAT THEIR
MOM HAS A LIFE THREATENING
ILLNESS AND EVENTUALLY SOME
DAY I WILL DIE.
IF I DIE SOON, JUST KNOW
THAT I LOVE YOU AND THAT I
WILL ALWAYS BE WITH YOU.
I THINK THE KIDS DO WORRY
ABOUT ME.
THERE ARE TIMES WHEN WE ARE
DRIVING AND I WILL LOOK IN
THE MIRROR AND THEY WILL BE
BLURRY EYED.
AND I WILL SAY WHAT IS THE
MATTER.
AND THEY WILL SAY I DON'T
WANT YOU TO DIE.
OH, WHAT HAS IT ADDED TO
MY LIFE, LOVE, ACCEPTANCE,
RESPONSIBILITY,
RESPONSIBILITY TO THEM BUT
ALSO TO MYSELF, TO TAKE CARE
OF MYSELF.
I ENJOY MY CHILDREN, I ENJOY
MY LIFE AND LIVE MY LIFE TO
THE FULLEST EVERY DAY.

The clip ends.

(music plays)

Maureen says IN A MOMENT WE'LL TALK
ABOUT WHO OWNS OUR GENES BUT
FIRST GENETIC MATERIAL IS
CONTAINED IN OUR
CHROMOSOMES.

A gray slate reads "Quiz."

She continues
HOW MANY CHROMOSOMES ARE
THERE IN A NORMAL HUMAN
CELL.
23, 46, OR 48?
THE ANSWER LATER ON "YOUR
HEALTH ."

Maureen and two guests sit at a table.

Maureen says YOU MAY THINK
YOU OWN YOUR FSH22 OR YOUR
BRCA1 BUT THERE IS A BIOTECH
COMPANY SOMEWHERE THAT BEGS
TO DIFFER.
THOSE ARE GENES THAT HAVE
BEEN IDENTIFIED AND
SEQUENCED PAINSTAKINGLY BY
GENETIC RESEARCHERS.
AND NOW THEY HAVE BEEN
PATENTED WHICH MEANS WE
MIGHT HAVE TO PAY A HEFTY
PRICE TO FIND OUT IF WE
CARRY THESE GENES.
BUT CAN YOU PATENT THE
BUILDING BLOCKS OF LIFE?
HERE TO DISCUSS GENE PATENTS
AND ACCESS TO GENETIC TEST
ARE PHIL WYATT, CHIEF OF
GENETICS AT NORTH YORK.
WELCOME TO YOU BOTH.
Dr. SCHERER, HOW DO YOU FEEL
ABOUT BIOTECH COMPANIES
OWNING GENES?

The caption changes to "Steven Scherer. Genetic Researcher." Steven is in his early forties, clean-shaven with short brown hair. He wears a dark gray shirt and dotted tie.

Steven says I THINK TO SPAWN
SUCCESSFUL BIOTECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY IT IS VERY
IMPORTANT TO ACTUALLY
PROTECT INTELLECTUAL
PROPERTY WHICH IS THE
MECHANISM OF ACTUALLY
PATENTING A GENE.
SO IF ANY INDIVIDUALS ARE
GOING TO INVEST IN
BIOTECHNOLOGY COMPANY FOR
RETURN ON THEIR INVESTMENT,
THEY HAVE TO HAVE PROTECTED
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND
THAT WILL ALLOW THE COMPANY
TO FIND ITS NICHE WITHIN THE
MARKET AND MOVE FORWARD.

Maureen says YOU ARE SAYING
THE COMPANY WON'T DO THIS
RESEARCH UNLESS IT KNOWS IT
CAN MAKE MONEY FROM THE
RESEARCH.

Steven says CERTAINLY 2... IT HAS TO
MAKE MONEY AND PATENTED OR
PROTECTING THAT INFORMATION
IS ONE MECHANISM OF DOING
THAT.
NOT THE ONLY MECHANISM BUT
ONE MECHANISM.

Maureen says Dr. WYATT,
WHAT S DO YOU HAVE WITH
THAT.

The caption changes to "Doctor Phil Wyatt. Chief of Genetics. North York Hospital."

Phil says THERE IS NO TROUBLE IF
YOU WANT A MARKET DRIVEN
ECONOMY.
IT IS AN EFFECTIVE WAY OF
DRIVING THE SYSTEM.
WHAT IS HAPPENING NOW MORE
AND MORE, HOWEVER, IN THOSE
HEALTH-CARE SYSTEMS THAT ARE
PUBLICLY DRIVEN AND
CONTROLLED BY GOVERNMENTS,
MARKETS DON'T WORK VERY
WELL.
FOR EXAMPLE IN CANADA WE DO
NOT HAVE A MARKET-BASED
ECONOMY IN OUR HEALTH-CARE
SYSTEM.
IT IS CONTROLLED,
MONOPOLISTIC BY THE
GOVERNMENT AND AS A RESULT,
MONOPOLY CORPORATIONS
COLLIDE WITH THAT PUBLICLY
FUNDED SYSTEM.
AND WE RUN INTO DIFFICULTIES.

Maureen says LET'S TRY TO
GIVE THE VIEWERS AN EXAMPLE
HERE, Dr. SCHERER, YOUR
HOSPITAL HAS SEVERAL PATENTS
ON GENES INCLUDING ONE FOR
CYSTIC FIBROSIS WHICH WE
TALKED ABOUT EARLIER IN THIS
SHOW.
DOES SICK KIDS MAKE MONEY
EVERY TIME SOMEONE ASK
TESTED FOR THE CYSTIC
FIBROSIS GENE.

Steven says IT DEPENDS ON WHO IS
DOING THE TESTING.
AND IT IS REALLY AN HONOUR
SYSTEM AT THE PRESENT TIME.
I THINK FOR MOST PUBLIC
INSTITUTIONS THAT OWN
PATENTS ON PARTICULAR
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, THEY
ONLY REALLY RECOVER COSTS IF
THEY ITLY GO OUT AND SEEK
RECOVERY OF THOSE COSTS, OR
IF THE COMPANY IS
CONTRIBUTING WITHOUT ANY
PRESSURE.
SO IN MOST CASES I WOULD SAY
THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
THAT IS HELD BY OUR HOSPITAL
OR OTHER UNIVERSITIES OR
INSTITUTIONS ARE NOT
GENERATING HUGE PROFITS FOR
THE INSTITUTION THAT SELF.
BUT THE PROMISE THAT IT MAY
IN THE FUTURE IS
SUBSTANTIAL.

Maureen says AND SO LET'S
COMPARE THAT THEN TO THE
GENE FOR BREAST CANCER,
Dr. I WOULDATE.
THAT IS WHERE THIS ALL CAME
TO A HEAD AND CAME TO THE
ATTENTION OF PUBLIC.
WHAT HAPPENED THERE.

Phil says IT CAME MORE IN ATTENTION
BECAUSE THE ALLEGED VALID
PATENT, TWO OF THE GENES FOR
BREAST CANCER ARE AVAILABLE
FOR TESTING.
THE COMPANY THAT ALLEGES
THAT HOLDS THE PATENT
SUGGESTED THAT THE WAY THIS
SHOULD BE HANDLED IS THAT NO
TESTING WOULD BE PERMITTED
ON ANY PATIENTS IN CANADA.
THE SAMPLES WOULD BE
COLLECTED, SENT TO THE
LABORATORY IN THE UNITED
STATES, THEY WOULD HAVE
EXCLUSIVE MONOPOLY RIGHTS IN
THAT LABORATORY AND SHUT
DOWN THE IFING OF AN
ORGANIZED HEALTH-CARE SYSTEM.
THEY'VE TAKEN, I BELIEVE, A
RELATIVELY EXTREME POSITION
ON HOW TO USE PATENTS IN A
SYSTEM.
AND THAT'S WHY IT HAS
ATTRACTED SO MUCH ATTENTION
AROUND THE WORLD.
MOST COMPANIES, MOST
INDIVIDUALS WHO HOLD PATENTS
GO FOR EITHER A ROYALTY
SYSTEM, A PAYMENT OR A
LICENSING THAT PERMITS YOU
TO DO THE TESTING.
THIS COMPANY IS SUGGESTING
THAT'S NOT GOING TO BE
ALLOWED.
IT WILL BE A MONOPOLY AND
ALL TESTING WILL BE
PERFORMED IN ONE SITE AROUND
THE WORLD.

Maureen says AND WHAT IT HAS MEANT FOR
PATIENTS IN B.C. WHERE THE
GOVERNMENT SAYS WE CAN'T
AFFORD TO PAY THE PRICE FOR
THAT TESTING OF THE BREAST
CANCER GENE, IT HAS MEANT
THE PATIENTS WILL HAVE TO
PAY FOR IT AND IT IS WHAT,
ALMOST 4,000 DOLLARS.
Dr. SCHERER, DOES THAT SOUND
RIGHT TO YOU?

Steven thinks and says IT DEPENDS ON HOW...
THERE IS A LOT OF HISTORY
THAT WE HAVE TO TAKE INTO
CONSIDERATION HERE.
IT IS TRUE THAT THE TEST, TO
MY UNDERSTANDING, IT IS
ABOUT 3800 DOLLARS OR SO.
BUT IF YOU GO BACK AND LOOK
AT THE PATENT APPLICATION,
IN FACT, THE COMPANY, MYRIAD
GENETICS ACTUALLY HAS
PROTECTED THIS INFORMATION
AND THROUGH THE PATENT
PROCESS WHICH IS REALLY A
CONTRACTUAL AGREEMENT
BETWEEN THE PATENT AM CA
CAN'T AND THE GOVERNMENT TO
PROTECT THAT INFORMATION
WHICH THE GOVERNMENT OF
CANADA DID ACTUALLY APPROVE,
YOU KNOW, BASED ON THIS
HISTORY, THE GOVERNMENT
SHOULD HAVE TO PAY THIS
TEST.
SO I THINK AS A SOCIETY WE
HAVE TO DECIDE IF WE ARE
GOING TO HONOUR THIS PACT OR
NOT.
IN MANY CASES WHEN THE
PATENTS ARE COMING FROM
CANADA, OF COURSE, WE WOULD
LIKE TO HAVE AN HONOUR
SYSTEM.
BUT OF COURSE WHEN WE HAVE
TO PAY I A MARKET-DRIVEN
ECONOMY WE ARE GOING TO HAVE
TO PAY FOR THESE TYPE OF
TEST, WE HAVE TO GO BACK IN
AND GO, I THINK, THROUGH THE
PROCESS OF EVALUATING THE
LAWS OF THE LAND AND
ACTUALLY SEEING IF WE CAN GO
THROUGH THE LEGAL SYSTEM TO
BREAK THESE PATENTS.
BUT OTHERWISE, I THINK WE
HAVE TO FOLLOW THE PATENTS.

Maureen says THAT IS THE LAW,
Dr. WYATT, WHY NOT FOLLOW
THE LAW?

Phil says AND THAT IS WHAT IS GOING
ON NOW, IS THAT IN THIS
PARTICULAR EXAMPLE THE
GOVERNMENT'S WERE CONCERNED
ABOUT WHAT THEY WERE BEING
PRESENTED WITH, THE FACT
THAT THEY MAY HAVE TO CLOSE
DOWN THEIR REGULATED HEALTH
CARE SYSTEM SYSTEM.
IN CHALLENGE, IN RESPONSE TO
THIS PATENT, AND WHAT THEY
ARE NOW SAYING, IS TO SIT
DOWN AND USING RULES AN
REGULATIONS TO RESTRIKE THE
BALANCE IT IS FAIRLY EVIDENT
THAT SEVERAL THINGS WILL BE
HAPPENING OVER THE NEXT
THREE TO FIVE YEARS THAT MAY
RESULT IN THE ADJUSTMENT OF
THE PATENT LAWS IN GENETIC
TESTING AND IN OTHER TEST.
IT IS CLEAR THAT UNDER
CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES ANY
GOVERNMENT AROUND THE WORLD
CAN BREAK PATENTS.
THEY DO IT ALL THE TIME WHEN
IT SERVES THEIR PURPOSE.
IT MAY BE THAT THAT SORT OF
EXTREME POSITION IS TAKEN BY
THE CANADIAN GOVERNMENT,
ONTARIO PROVINCE.
OR THEY MAY SAY IN CERTAIN
CIRCUMSTANCES THE EXTREME
POSITION AUTHORIZED ON THE
CONTRACTUAL ARRANGEMENTS
BETWEEN THE COMPANY AND THE
GOVERNMENT WON'T BE HELD UP
AND WE WILL MOVE THE PATENT
RULES BACK A BIT TO TONE
THEM DOWN A BIT.

Maureen says BUT IF THAT HAPPENS,
Dr. SCHERER AND COMPANIES
KNOW THAT GOVERNMENTS WILL
BREAK THE PATENT WHENEVER
THEY WANT TO, WHAT IS THEIR
INCENTIVE THEN TO KEEP DOING
THIS RESEARCH.

Steven says WELL THERE IS NO
INCENTIVE THEN.
BUT I DON'T THINK THIS WILL
ACTUALLY HAPPEN.
I THINK IT WILL BE VERY
INTERESTING TO SEE HOW THE
STRATEGIES OF BIOTECH
COMPANIES EVOLVE BASED ON
THESE DECISION AND PROCESSES
BECAUSE IN THE PAST, WOULD
YOU ALWAYS GO IN AND TRY TO
HAVE A BROAD CLAIMING PATENT
APPLICATION.
SO YOU WOULD TRY TO, YOU
KNOW, CLAIM OWNERSHIP OF
ANYTHING ATTACHED TO THAT
PARTICULAR GENE.
BUT IN FACT, IF YOU THINK AN
EASY ANALOGY OF BUILDING
FENCES AROUND PLOTS OF LAND
AS REALLY WHAT EACH CLAIM
WITHIN THE PATENT DEFINES,
IF YOU HAVE... IF YOU TRY TO
CLAIM TOO MUCH PROPERTY,
PEOPLE GET THEIR BACKS UP IN
THE AIR.

Maureen says HOW VALUABLE IS ALL OF
THIS GENETIC TESTING ANYWAY,
Dr. WYATT, DO I REALLY NEED
TO KNOW THAT I'M AT RISK OF
HEART DISEASE OR DIABETES
WHICH ARE THINGS I SHOULD BE
PROTECTING AGAINST ANYWAY.

Steven says IT'S VERY CLEAR THAT ONE
OF THE THINGS THAT WILL
HAPPEN OVER THE NEXT 20
YEARS OR 30 YEARS IN MEDICAL
CARE IS WE'LL GO OVER TO
MORE, WHAT IS CALLED RISK
MANAGEMENT.
ADVISING YOU BEFORE YOU ARE
ILL WHAT YOU CAN DO TO
ADJUST YOUR LIFE STYLE.
AND GENETIC DIAGNOSTIC
TESTING WILL BE ONE
COMPONENT OF THAT.
SO I THINK THAT THOSE OF US
IN THE AREA ARE SAYING IT'S
GOING TO BE HOW THE
HEALTH-CARE SYSTEM WILL WORK
20, 30 YEARS DOWN THE ROAD.
THERE BE MUCH MORE RISK
MANAGEMENT THAN ACUTE CARE,
TREATING YOU AFTER YOU
ALREADY HAD THE PROBLEM.

Maureen says FINALLY IN THE LAST
MINUTE, WHERE DO YOU THINK
THIS IS GOING, Dr. SCHERER.
WILL WE STILL HAVE THESE
CONFLICTS OVER GENE PATENTS
FIVE YEARS FROM NOW.

Steven says ABSOLUTELY.
I THINK WITHIN CANADA AND
CERTAINLY WITHIN SOME OF THE
PROVINCES MOST OF THE NEW
GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS
SPONSORING PUBLICLY FUNDED
RESEARCH ACTUALLY HAVE TO
HAVE A MATCHING COMPONENT TO
THE RESEARCH AND MOST OF
THIS MONEY WOULD ACTUALLY
COME FROM THE PRIV SECTOR,
OF COURSE.
SO TO BUILD THIS
MARKET-BASED ECONOMY WHICH
MANY OTHER COUNTRIES ARE
AHEAD OF CANADA WE ACTUALLY
HAVE TO MOVE IN THAT
DIRECTION.
SO I THINK THERE WILL BE
DISPUTES AND WE NEED TO
THINK ABOUT HOW WE WILL
RESOLVE THESE AHEAD OF TIME.

Maureen says THANK YOU BOTH
FOR THIS.
COMING UP.

In a clip, Paul says NO WOMAN WANTS TO FIND A
LUMP IN HER BREAST BUT OFTEN
IS JUST A HARMLESS CYST.

Maureen says ALL THE THINGS MAMMOGRAMS
REVEAL.

The opening sequence rolls again.

Now, Maureen stands next to a screen that reads "Health Digest."

Maureen says NOW SOME
STORIES MAKING HEALTH NEWS.

The screen reads "TB Risk." A picture of a bottle of pills appears.

She continues A REVOLUTIONARY DRUG FOR
ARTHRITIS AND CROHN'S
DISEASE KBAUD RUPE ELED THE
RISK OF TAMPA BAY TVNLT THE
U.S. FOOD AND DRUG
ADMINISTRATION ANALYZED 70
CASE OF PEOPLE TAKING
REMAKADE.
THEY FOUND THE MEDICINE
SEEMS TO REACTIVATE TB
INFECTIONS THAT WERE DORMANT
AND RECOMMENDING THAT
DOCTORS TEST PATIENTS FOR
TUBERCULOSIS ABOUT GFING
THEM THE TREATMENT.

The caption on the screen changes to "False Test." A picture shows a pregnant woman.

She continues WOMEN WHO USE A HOME
PREGNANCY TEST ON THE FIRST
DAY OF A MISSED PERIOD MAY
GET A FALSE NEGATIVE RESULT.
IN A STUDY OF 136 WOMEN WHO
HAD CONCEIVED, RESEARCHERS
FOUND THE EMBRYO HAD
IMPLANTED BY THE FIRST DAY
OF A MISSED PERIOD 90 percent OF
THE TIME.
BUT FOR THE OTHER 10 percent,
IMPLANTATION HAPPENED LATER.
AND ALTHOUGH THE TEST READ
NEGATIVE IT WAS WRONG.
HOME PREGNANCY TESTS ANALYZE
URINE LEVELS FOR A SPECIFIC
HORMONE PRODUCED AFTER
EMBRYO IMPLANTATION BUT THEY
ARE LESS SENSITIVE TO THE
HORMONE THAN HOSPITAL TESTS.

The caption on the screen changes to "Super Sperm." A picture shows the male symbol.

She continues SPEAKING OF CONCEPTION,
BIOLOGISTS HAVE DISCOVERED A
PROTEIN THAT GIVES SPERM THE
UMPH TO PENETRATE A LEG
SAYING IT COULD LEAD TO NEW
CONTRACEPTIVE DRUGS FOR MEN
AND TREATMENTS FOR MALE
INFERTILITY, WHEN PROT TEEN
DUBBED CAT SPUR IS PRESENT
THE SPERM SEEM TO SWIM
BETTER.
WHEN IT WAS BLOCKED, THE
SPERM HAD TROUBLE
PENETRATING THE EGG'S OUTER
MEMBRANE.
THEORETICALLY DRUGS COULD BE
DEVELOPED THAT TEMPORARILY
BLOCK THE PROTEIN AND RENDER
SPERM TOO LETHARGIC TO
IMPREGNATE A WOMEN.

(music plays)

Maureen says HOW DID YOU DO ON OUR
QUIZ THIS WEEK.
OUR CHROMOSOMES CONTAIN ALL
OUR GENETIC MATERIAL AND A
NORMAL HUMAN CELL CONTAINS
46 CHROMOSOMES OR 23 PAIRS.

The Quiz slate appears. The answer "2. 46" appears highlighted in yellow.

Maureen says A RECENT STUDY
CASTS SOME DOUBT ON THE
EFFECTIVENESS OF MAMMOGRAMS.
BUT MOST EXPERTS AREN'T
READY TO GIVE UP ON THEM AS
AN IMPORTANT DIAGNOSTIC TOOL
IN THE FIGHT AGAINST BREAST
CANCER.
HERE IS OUR MEDICAL
PROFESSOR TO EXPLAIN HOW
THEY WORK.

Paul sits at a table with a stethoscope around his neck. Behind him, a human anatomy model and a TV monitor sit on a piece of furniture.

Paul says IF YOU ARE A WOMAN OVER
50, YOU ARE PROBABLY
FAMILIAR WITH MAMMOGRAMS,
MAYBE EVEN MORE FAMILIAR
THAT YOU WOULD LIKE TO BE.
THERE IS THAT SQUEEZES PAIN,
THE UNCOMFORTABLE POSITION.

The caption changes to "Doctor Paul Caldwell. Family Physician."

Paul continues IT IS NOT AN EASY TEST.
BUT WHAT IS THE BENEFIT OF
ALL THIS DISCOMFORT COMFORT.
A MAMMOGRAM IS SIMPLY AN
X-RAY OF THE SOFT TISSUES OF
THE BREAST, AS THE X-RAYS
PASS THIS BREAST, THEY ARE
ABSORBED DIFFERENTLY BY THE
STRUCTURES WITHIN.
AND THAT IS WHAT MAKES THE
PATTERN OF THE X-RAY
PICTURE.
THINK OF THE ANATOMY OF THE
BREAST AND IN TERMS OF THIS
CLUSTER OF GRAPES.
THE BREAST HAS SMALL
CIRCULAR GLANDS THAT PRODUCE
AND SECRETE MILK, GATHERING
IT ALONG THESE TUBES TO BE
EXPRESSED THROUGH THE
NIPPLE.
A MAMMOGRAM LOOKS LIKE THIS
WITH A PICTURES OF THE TWO
BREASTS SET SIDE-BY-SIDE FOR
COMPARE SON.
THE X-RAY SPECIALIST READS
THE MAMMOGRAM BY COMPARING
THE STRUCTURES SEEN ON
EITHER SIDE.
HERE IS A NORMAL MAMMOGRAM,
YOU CAN SEE THAT THE PATTERN
OF SMALL GRAPE-LIKE CLUSTERS
OF GLANDS AND TUBING QUITE
CLEARLY.
SOME BREASTS HAVE MUCH MORE
FAT IN THEM THAN OTHERS, FAT
ABSORBS MORE X-RAYS AND SO
THE MAMMOGRAMS APPEAR
WHITER.
LIKE THIS.
NO WOMAN WANTS TO FIND A
LUMP IN HER BREAST BUT OFTEN
IT IS JUST A HARMLESS CYST.
A CYST IS SIMPLY A CAVITY
FILLED WITH FLUID, WHAT HADS
IS ONE OF THESE GRAPE-LIKE
GLANDS GETS BLOCKED AND THEN
SWELLS WITH MILK-LIKE FLUID.
THE CYST IS USUALLY FAIRLY
ROUND, EVEN AND CONSISTENT
IN DENSITY.
BUT OF COURSE IN MAMMOGRAMS
WE ARE NOT LOOKING FOR
NORMAL BREAST TISSUE OR
COMMON CYSTS.
WE ARE LOOKING FOR CANCER.
WE KNOW THAT IN CANCER CELLS
ARE DIVIDING QUITE RAPIDLY
SO THEY END UP BEING VERY
HARD AND VERY DENSE
COLLECTIONS OF TISSUE.
THEY ABSORB MORE OF THE
X-RAYS.
AND END UP LOOKING WHITE
BECAUSE CANCER IS IRREGULAR,
THE EDGES OF THE CANCER WILL
LOOK LIKE THIS.
ALSO, CANCERS CAN PRODUCE A
FINE PARENT OF CALCIUM YOU
SEE ON THE MAMMOGRAM.
CALCIUM CAN BE SEEN IN THE
WALL OF BLOOD VESSELS INSIDE
THE BREAST OR SOMETIMES IN
BENIGN PATTERNS BUT THE
PRESENCE OF CALCIFICATION IS
IMPORTANT BECAUSE WE SEE THE
LOT IN MALIGNANT CANCERS.
THE RADIOLOGIST IS LOOKING
FOR ALL THESE THINGS AFTER
YOU LEAVE THE CLINIC TRYING
TO PING THE SLIGHTEST CHANGE
ORINCON CYSTENCE.
BUT MAMMOGRAMS AREN'T
PERFECT.
THEY CAN MISS A CANCER AND
THEY CAN MISDIAGNOSE A
BENIGN OR HARMLESS SWELLING.
BUT SO FAR, THEY ARE THE
BEST SCREENING TEST THAT
WE'VE GOT.
SO EVERY WOMAN SHOULD MAKE
SURE SHE TALKS TO HER DOCTOR
ABOUT MAMMOGRAMS.

Maureen says YOU WILL FIND
TRANSCRIPTS OF
Dr. CALDWELL'S MINIMEDICAL
LESSONS ON OUR WEB SITE AT
WWW.TVO.ORG/YOURHEALTH.
THAT IS ALL THE TIME WE HAVE
FOR THIS EDITION OF" YOUR
HEALTH ."
I'M MAUREEN TAYLOR.
THANKS FOR WATCHINGING.

A final slate reads "Your Health. Email: yourhealth@tvo.org. Fax: 416-484-4519. Mail: Box 200, Station Q, Toronto, ON, M4T 2T1."

(music plays)

The end credits roll.

Executive Producer, Patricia Ellingson.

Host and Producer, Maureen Taylor.

Producer, Cathy Perry.

Director, Michael Smith.

Logo: CEP Local 72m.

A production of TVOntario. Copyright 2001, The Ontario Educational Communications Authority.

Watch: Your Health Season 3 Episode 12