Transcript: Your Health Season 3 Episode 9 | Nov 20, 2001

A slate reads "The advice given in the following program is of a general nature only. Viewers should consult their own medical professional for medical advice specific to their circumstances."

(music plays)

Against a gray background, an animated blue, green and gray grid shows clips of doctors and patients as the white letters of the title of the show fly forward: "Your Health."

Maureen says THIS WEEK…

Frances Lankin is in her late forties with shoulder-length brown hair. She wears a black blazer.

Frances THE OPTIONS
THAT WERE OFFERED TO ME
WERE LIVE WITH THIS
OR HAVE HYSTERECTOMY.

Maureen says TREATING
UTERINE FIBROID WITHOUT
REMOVING THE WOMB.

Peter Doherty is in his sixties, clean-shaven with receding gray hair. He wears a dark suit, white shirt and dotted red tie.

Peter says PART OF THE PROBLEM IS

A female doctor vaccinates a boy.

Maureen says SHOOTING DOWN
THE ANTI-VACCINATION MOVEMENT.

Paul Caldwell is in his late fifties, with a beard and receding white hair. He wears a blue shirt and patterned yellow tie.

Paul says THERE ARE MANY
DIFFERENT FORMS OF CANCER.

Maureen says CANCER 101 ON MEDICINE
101.

The animated grid appears showing clips of a woman holding a baby, pills, a surgery, a needle and a man doing exercise.

The title of the program reads "Your Health." The "R" in "Your" ends with an "X."

Maureen Taylor stands next to a screen in a studio. She is in her late thirties with shoulder-length light brown hair. She wears a purple blouse under a brown leather jacket.

Maureen says HELLO.
A GENERATION AGO IF A WOMAN'S
DOCTOR TOLD HER SHE NEEDED A
HYSTERECTOMY, NO ONE GAVE IT
THOUGHT.
AFTER ALL, IF YOU WERE THROUGH
HAVING BABIES, WHAT DO YOU
NEED A UTERUS FOR.
EVEN THOUGH THEY ARE STILL
STANDARD TREATMENT FOR FIBROID
TUMOURS, MANY ARE LOOKING FOR
TURNTIVES.

The screen shows the picture of a Jill.

Maureen continues MANY THOUGHT THEY COULD SPARE
THE WOUND IF THEY COULD SPARE
THE MONEY.

[monitor beeps]

A blue slate reads "Leaving the Womb. Produced by Janet Aronoff."

A video plays.

A black and white clip shows a woman sleeping on the sofa.

Frances says I WAS HAVING VERY LARGE
PERIODS, INCIDENTS OF GUSHING
AND UNCONTROLLABLE BLEEDING.
I WAS EXTREMELY ANEMIC.
MY BLOOD COUNT WAS VERY LOW BY
THE THIRD WEEK AS A RESULT OF
THAT.
I WAS NEVER OUT OF SIGHT OF
BLOOD.
HUGE BLOOD CLOT THAT IS CAN
RESULT.

A Female Narrator says A FIBROID IS A BENIGN
GROWTH ON THE MUSCLE TUMOUR.
SOME WOMEN DON'T NOTICE THEM
WHILE OTHERS HAVE EXTREME
SYMPTOMS.
FRANCIS LIVED FOR YEARS WITH
PELVIC PAIN.
THREE AND A HALF YEARS AGO SHE
WAS OFFERED TWO CHOICES, BOG
WERE UNAPPEALING.

Frances says THE OPTIONS PRESENTED FOR
ME WERE LIVE WITH THIS OR HAVE
A HYSTERECTOMY YOU'LL BE PAIN
TREE, PROBLEM-FREE.

The Narrator says BUT THAT'S NOT HOW FRANCIS
FELT WITH A HYSTERECTOMY.

A screen shows an abdominal scan.

Francis says I WAS AT AN AGE IN MY EARLY
40s AND I HASN'T HAD CHILDREN
YET.

A caption appears on screen. It reads "Frances Lankin."

Frances continues COMING TO A POINT IN TIME
WHERE IT LOOKED LIKE I MIGHT
NOT EVER HAVE CHILDREN BUT
HOLDING ON TO THAT LAST HOPE
BUT I HAD TO FACE THE FACT I
WAS EXPERIENCING SIGNIFICANT
SYMPTOMS, SYMPTOMS THAT WERE
INTERFERING WITH MY ABILITY TO
CARE ON MY LIFE, MY WORK LIFE,
SO I DECIDED THAT I WOULD GO
AHEAD AND AGREE TO BOOK FOR
THE PROCEDURE.

The Narrator says TREATMENT FOR FIBROIDS
RANGING FROM HORMONE THERAPY
TO SURGERY.
SURGICAL OPTIONS MAY INCLUDE
CUTTING OUT JUST THE FIBROIDS
IF POSSIBLE BUT FOR SEVERE
CASES, A HYSTERECTOMY THAT IS
REMOVING THE UTERUS HAS LONG
BEEN THE STANDARD TREATMENT.

Doctors perform a surgery.

Gaylene says THE STATEMENT I WOULD MAKE
ABOUT A HYSTERECTOMY IS THE
SHORT-TERM PROCEDURE RISK IN
TERMS OF INFECTION, DAMAGE TO
NEARBY ORGANS, THE BLADDER IS
A BIG ONE, CUTTING OTHER
NERVES, THERE'S A WHOLE RANGE
OF COMPLICATIONS THAT ARE NOT
TRIVIAL.
THE MORTALLY RISK INCREASE
DRAMATICALLY WITH AGE SO THE
OLDER YOU ARE BECOMES QUITE A
RISK.

The caption changes to "Doctor Gaylene Pron. Epidemiologist." Gaylene is in her mid-forties with short blond hair. She wears black-rimmed glasses and a light grey jacket over a black shirt.

Gaylene says HAVE A GROWING KNOWLEDGE
ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF
HYSTERECTOMY ON OUR LONGER
TERM HEALTH.
A WHOLE STRING OF CHRONIC
DISEASE CONDITIONS THAT ARE
MORE ASSOCIATED WITH OLDER
WOMEN.
BLADDER PROBLEMS IN WOMEN MAY
BE RELATED TO THEIR
HYSTERECTOMY.

The Narrator says OF THE 50,000
HYSTERECTOMIES IN CANADA, 40 percent
ARE DUE TO FIBROIDS BUT A
HYSTERECTOMY IS MAJOR SURGERY
AND ENDS A WOMAN'S FERTILITY.

Frances says BOY, I TELL YOU.
THE EMOTIONS PLACE INSIDE
BROKE THROUGH AND IT WAS A
REALLY HARD THING TO DO.
I'VE SPOKEN WITH OTHER WOMEN
WHO HAVE GONE THROUGH IT AND A
LOT OF WOMEN HAVE THAT SAME
REACTION.
IT'S A VERY... IT'S NOT THAT
ANY SURGERY IS FRIGHTENING,
THAT'S NOT WHAT I MEAN,
THERE'S A PIECE OF YOU THAT IS
GOING TO BE REMOVED AND IN MY
CASE I LINKED IT TO THE
UNFULFILLED WISH TO HAVE
CHILDREN AND A LOT OF EMOTION
AROUND IT.

The Narrator says JILL
DECIDED REGARDLESS OF THE MAIN,
SHE WOULDN'T CONSIDER A
HYSTERECTOMY.

The caption changes to "Jill McWhinnie." Jill is in her mid-forties with shoulder-length brown hair and bangs. She wears a blue shirt.

Jill says I DIDN'T WANT TO LOSE
TAPART OF MYSELF.
I WOULD HAVE TRIED TO WAIT IT
OUT AS BAD AS THE SYMPTOMS
WERE OR LOOK FOR SOME OTHER
ACCEPTABLE OPTION BUT THAT WAS
NOT SOMETHING I WOULD HAVE
DONE AS BAD AS THE SYMPTOMS
WERE.

The Narrator says THERE IS ANOTHER PROCEDURE
THAT DOESN'T REQUIRE A
HYSTERECTOMY.
IT'S CALLED UTE RHINE FIBROID.
HEADING UP THE LARGEST STUDY
FOR THIS LESS INFASIVE...
INVASIVE TREATMENT.

Gaylene says THEY SHUT OFF THE BLOOD
SUPPLY TO THE FIBROIDS.
CLOSE DOWN THE BLOOD SUPPLY IN
THE UTE RHINE ARTERIES WHICH
SUPPLY BLOOD TO THE FIBROIDS.
AFTER DEPRIVING THEM OF BLOOD,
THEY USUALLY SHRINK UP.

The Narrator says CUTTING OFF THE BLOOD
SUPPLY TO A SPECIFIC PART OF
THE BODY IS NOT NEW.
WHAT IS NEW IS USING THE
TECHNIQUE TO TREAT FIBROIDS.
MANY GYNOCOLOGISTS AREN'T
READY TO RECOMMEND IT.

Frances says MY GYNOCOLOGIST SAID WE
DON'T KNOW ENOUGH ABOUT IT.
THE RESEARCH ISN'T DONE.
I DON'T KNOW IF THIS IS A
RELATION.

The caption changes to "Doctor Nancy Durand. Gynecologist."

Nancy sits in an office. She is in her forties with short blond hair. She wears a white doctor apron and small earrings.

Nancy says WE ARE STILL LEARNING ABOUT
THE PLACE AND ROLL IN UTE
RHINE EMBOLIZATION.
WE HAVE TROUBLE PREDICTING
WHAT THE RESULTS ARE GOING TO
BE.
IS YOUR GOAL DECREASED
BLEEDING OR SHRINKAGE OF SIZE
OF FIBROIDS.

The Narrator says SHE IS A GYNOCOLOGIST AT
WOMEN'S HEALTH SCIENCES CENTRE,
SHE WARNS PATIENTS IT'S NOTA
QUICK FIX.

A couple walks into a Care Centre.

Nancy says YOU SHOULDN'T THINK IT'S
NOT INVASIVE BECAUSE IT IS AND
IT'S NOT A PAINLESS PROCEDURE.
IT'S SOMETHING ELSE PEOPLE
THINK THEY WOULD AVOID.
IT CAN BE QUITE PAINFUL AND
NEEDS QUITE A BIT OF PAIN
MEDICATION AND HOSPITALIZATION
DURING THE PROCEDURE.

The Narrator says THEY ARE THE SPECIALISTS
WHO DO THE PROCEDURE.

The caption changes to "Doctor John Kachura. Radiologist."

John sits at a table. He is in thirties, clean-shaven with short blond hair. He wears glasses and a white doctor apron and a name tag.

John says EMBOLIZATION WHICH HEENS
BLOCKING OF BLOOD VESSELS HAS
BEEN USED FOR 20-30 YEARS.
WE USE IT IN VARIOUS PARTS OF
THE BODY TO STOP BLEEDING.

As doctors perform a surgery, a female specialist looks at a computer screen.

John continues THIS IS BEYOND THE
EXPERIMENTAL STAGE.
IT IS STILL AN INNOVATIVE AND
NEW PROCEDURE BUT CLEARLY
MULTISTUDIES HAS SHONE THAT
THIS IS AN EFFECTIVE AND SAFE
PROCEDURE.

The Narrator says JILL DECIDED SHE WOULD GO
AHEAD WITH THE TREATMENT.

Jill says IT'S DONE UNDER CONSCIOUS
SEDATION.
YOU'RE SORT OF OUT OF IT.
I DON'T REMEMBER TOO MUCH
ABOUT IT.
IT DIDN'T TAKE THAT LONG AS I
REMEMBER AND IIGAN TO FEEL THE
EFFECT RIGHT WHEN THEY WERE
DOING IT.
I FELT THE CRAMPS WHICH
INDICATED IT HAD WORKED AND
THE FIBROIDS WERE BEING
AFFECTED.

The Narrator says GUIDED BY X-RAY TECHNOLOGY,
THE RAD OLS THREADED A
CATHETER THROUGH AN ARTERY IN
THE GROIN.

A male doctor says I'M GOING TO ADVANCE THE
CATHETER.

The Narrator continues A COMAPPOINTED IS INJECTED
INTO THE UTE RHINE ARTERY.
THIS WILL CUT OFF THE BLOOD
SUPPLY TO THE FIBROID WHICH
MAKE IT IS SHRINK.
BUT LIKE ALL SURGERY, THERE
ARE RISKS.

Nancy says THINGS LIKE INFECTION OF
THE FIBROIDS.
INFECTION OF THE SITE.
A LOT OF PEOPLE WOULD HAVE
EXTREME PAIN AS IF THE FIBROID
IS CRYING.
NECROSIS OF THE FIBROID WHICH
IS CAN LEAD TO HYSTERECTOMY
DURING THE-FOR-, LET'S SAY IN
THE MONTH SO IT'S NOT A
GUARANTEE OF NO HYSTERECTOMY.

The Narrator says THE COMPLICATION RATE IS
VERY LOW.

John says SO FAR THE RATE OF
INFECTION IS LESS THAN 1 percent.
THE COMPLICATION RATE OVERALL
IS LESS THAN 5 percent BECAUSE WE DO
ENTER THE ARTERY AT THE TOP OF
THE LEG WE CAN CAUSE BLEEDING
OR BRUISING IN THAT SITE.
USUALLY IT'S A SMALL AMOUNT
THAT HEELS QUICKLY.
WE CAN CAUSE PREMATURE
MENOPAUSE TO OCCUR BY
AFFECTING THE BLOOD SUPPLY TO
THE OVARIES.
2-4 percent EXPERIENCE EARLY
MENOPAUSE.

The Narrator says 555 WOMEN IN EIGHT TEACHING
HOSPITALS IN ONTARIO HAVE
UNDERGONE THIS PROCEDURE AS
PART OF HIS STUDY AND EVEN
FOUR SUCCESSFUL PREGGEDZS.
AN IMPOSSIBILITY AFTER A HIS
HISECTOMY.

During the surgery, the doctor says AFTER A HYSTERECTOMY.
CLEARLY THE RATE IS VERY SLOW
SO WE REACHED OUR END POINT
FOR THIS MATCH.
BREATHE NORMALLY.
HOW ARE YOU DOING SO FAR?

The female patient says GOOD.

Gaylene says THE FIBROID REDUCTIONS ARE
50 percent.
THIS IS WITHIN THREE MONTHS.
FIBROIDS CAN TAKE A LONGER
TIME TO REDUCE.
BY THREE MONTHS A A percent
REDUCTION.
THE TREATMENT TO CONTROL
BLEEDING IS PHENOMENAL.
IN 8 percent OF WOMEN, THESE HEAVY
BLEEDING SYMPTOMS ARE
DRAMATICALLY CONTROLLED.

The Narrator says BUT MANY WANT TO SEE
RESULTS PUBLISHED FROM LARGER
STUDIES.
THAT WHAT HE IS WORKING ON BUT
RUN OUT OF FUNDING.

Gaylene says WOMEN WILL NOT HEAR ABOUT
THIS IN ANY SYSTEMATIC WAY
UNTIL WE GET THIS EVIDENCE OUT,
UNTIL WE GET THE EFFECTIVENESS
IN GUIDELINES.

Nancy says EVERYBODY THAT I KNOW IN
THE COMMUNITY WANTS THIS TO
CONTINUE AND UPSET ABOUT THE
FACT THAT IT LOST FUNDING.

Frances says THIS IS THE ISSUE.
I DON'T BLAME MY GYNOCOLOGIST
FOR GIVING THE ADVICE, WE
DON'T NO ABOUT THE STUDY.
THAT'S PROBABLY GOOD ADVICE.
I WANT OTHER WOMEN TO HAVE THE
OPTION TO HAVE THE CHOICE.
SO CLOSE TO GETTING THE
ANSWERS.
SO MUCH TIME INTELLECTUAL
ENERGY AND MONEY INVESTED IN
THIS SO FAR.
IF THE ANSWER IS A POSITIVE
ANSWER, IT MEANS SO MUCH TO
THE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM SO THE
MINISTRY OF HEALTH IN TERMS OF
DOLLARS SHOULD CARE AND FROM
MY PERSPECTIVE, IT MEANS SO
MUCH TO WOMEN IN TERMS OF OF A
WONDERFUL ALTERNATIVE TO AN
OTHERWISE DIFFICULT SURGERY.

The Narrator says FOR JILL, IT WAS A GOOD
ALTERNATIVE.
IT WORKED FOR HER.

Jill does some gardening.

Jill says I FEEL GREAT NOW.
IT'S BEEN SEVEN MONTHS AND
SEVEN CYCLES THAT COMPLETED
AND RETURNED TO A NORMAL
BLEEDING PATTERN IN TERMS OF
DURATION AND VOLUME AND NO
CRAMPS.
WHEN I THINK OF IT NOW AND
THE RELIEF I'VE OBTAINED, IT'S
LIKE A BAD DREAM.

A blue slate reads "To date, neither the provincial nor federal governments have provided funding to complete Doctor Pron’s study."

The clip ends.

Maureen says READY FOR THIS
WEEK'S QUIZ?
THE TICK IS A SPIDER THAT CAN
CARRY AS MANY AS 30 MAJOR
DISEASES.

A gray slate reads "Quiz. Which is not a tick-borne illness? 1. Rocky Mountain. 2. West Nile Virus. 3. Lyme Disease."

Maureen continues STAY TUNED FOR THE ANSWER
COMING UP LATER ON "YOUR
HEALTH."

Back at the studio, Maureen says BETWEEN TALK OF
MASS SMALLPOX VACCINATIONS AND
THE ARRIVAL OF FLU SEASON,
VACCINES ARE IN THE NEWS.
VACCINES HAVE SAVED MILLIONS
OF LIVES WORLDWIDE.
MANY DEADLY DISEASES HAVE BEEN
ELIMINATED ALTOGETHER AND MANY
ARE TAMED TO THE POINT WHERE
THEY ARE NO LONGER MAJOR
THREATS.
STILL A SMALL BUT VOCAL PART
OF THE POPULATION IS LEARY OF
VACCINES.
A LEADING DOCTOR AND WINNER OF
THE 1996 NO BELL PRIZE FOR
MEDICINE.
HE WAS IN TORONTO RECENTLY AND
WE SAT DOWN TO TALK ABOUT
VACCINES.

A clip plays.

Maureen says WELCOME TO "YOUR HEALTH."

Peter says GOOD TO BE HERE.

Maureen says WHY DO YOU THINK
THERE IS THIS MINORITY THAT IS
SO AGAINST VACCINATIONS?

The caption changes to "Peter Doherty, PhD. Immunologist."

Peter says A NUMBER OF REASONS.
SOME DO CAUSE REACTIONS WHICH
THEY WERE GIVEN.
FORTUNATELY NEW VACCINES ARE
MUCH LESS DANGEROUS AND WHEN
YOU VACCINATE LARGE NUMBERS OF
PEOPLE, IT'S POSSIBLE SOME
DEVELOP A PROBLEM WHICH MAY BE
TOTALLY UNRELATED TO THE
VACCINE BUT THE TENDENCY IS TO
THINK IT IS RELATED TO THE
VACCINE.
OTHER SOCIETAL AND CULTURAL
ISSUES.
THE ISSUE OF EMPOWERMENT.
WHO ARE THESE PEOPLE TO TELL
ME I'M DOING THIS TO MY CHILD
AND SO FORTH.
COMPLEX REASONS.

Maureen says I'VE ALSO HEARD
PEOPLE TALK ABOUT THEIR
FEELING IS THAT THE VACCINES
WILL SOMEHOW HINDER OUR
NATURAL IMMUNE SYSTEM.
ANY MEDICAL BASIS TO THAT
POINT OF VIEW?

Peter says THERE'S BEEN AN ARGUMENT
THAT VACCINATING CHILDREN, WE
ARE TENDING MORE CHILDREN
TOWARD ASTHMA.
I FIND THAT HARD TO CREDIT.
THERE ARE MANY INFECTIONS FOR
WHICH WE HAVE NO VACCINES AND
MANY ARE RESPIRATORY WHICH ARE
ARE DOWN THE POINT AGAINST
DEVELOPING ASTHMA.
I FIND THAT HARD TO CRITERIA.
ALSO EVIDENCE THAT POLLUTION
IS RATHER RELATED TO ASTHMA
BUT THERE IS AN INCREASE IN
ASTHMA INCIDENT WHICH IS NOT
TOTALLY EXPLAINED.

Maureen says SO YOU'VE GOT A
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON THIS, DO
YOU THINK THE ANTI-VACCINE
MOVEMENT IS ACTUALLY HURTING
OR HINDERING THE EIRRADICATION
OF SOME OF THE DISEASES?

Peter says I DON'T ACTUALLY THINK SO.
THE ANTI-VACCINE MOVEMENT IS
MOST STRONG IN THE ADVANCE
COUNTRIES.
PART OF THE PROBLEM IS, OF
COURSE, PEOPLE IN THE ADVANCE
COUNTRIES, YOUNGER PARENTS,
NEVER SEEN A KID WITH MEASLES
OF WHOOPING COUGH.
WITH THOSE WE ARE TRYING TO
ERADICATE, I DON'T THINK THE
REACTION AGAINST THAT IS A
MAJOR PROBLEM.

Maureen says SMALLPOX IS BACK
IN THE NEWS AGAIN FOR OBVIOUS
REASONS.
HOW WOULD YOU FEEL ABOUT A
MASS VACCINE AGAINST SMALLPOX?

Peter says A MASS CAMPAIGN IS A
SERIOUS THING TO UNDERTAKE.
IT'S A LIVE VIRUS, SMALLPOX
AND ALWAYS AS WITH ANYTHING,
VACCINATION DOES HAVE A
RELATIVE RISK BENEFIT RATIO.
ALL MEDICAL PROCEDURES HAVE
RISK ASSOCIATED WITH THEM.
EVERYTHING WE DO HAS RISK.
IT'S PARTICULARLYY TRUE OF
THAT VACCINE BECAUSE PEOPLE
WHO ARE IMMUNIZED DEPRESSED,
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM DOESN'T WORK
PROPERLY, THAT CANNOT TAKE IT.
ANYTHING PREGNANT CANNOT TAKE
IT.
EMBARKING ON A MASS
VACCINATION CAMPAIGN WITH
SMALLPOX HAS RISK.

Maureen says ARE YOU SAYING
THAT IF WE VACCINATED 100
THOUSAND PEOPLE WITH A
SMALLPOX VACCINE, A CERTAIN
NUMBER WOULD GET SMALLPOX?

Peter says WOULDN'T GET SMALLPOX BUT
GET A DISEASE CAUSED BY THE
VIRUS WHICH CAN BE SEVERE OR
LETHAL SO IT'S IMPORTANT THAT
THE IMMUNE STATUS OF PEOPLE TO
GET THE VACCINE IS NON.
IN GENERAL, YOU HAVE A
PHENOMENON OF HERD HEALTH.
PROTECT 80-90 percent OF THE
POPULATION, THAN THE OTHER 10 percent
ARE LIKELY TO BE INFECTED SO
THE POOL WHO PASS THE
INFECTION ON ARE SMALL.
ALL CAMPAIGNS RELY ON THAT.
ALWAYS SOME PEOPLE WHO OBJECT
TO VACCINATION FOR RELIGIOUS
REASONS OR CULTAL REASONS.

Maureen says AND THEY DON'T GET
SICK BECAUSE THEY ARE RELYING
ON EVERYBODY ELSE.

Peter says A COLLECTIVE EFFORT.
IF YOU GET ABOVE 80 percent, YOU
PRETTY MUCH PROTECTED
EVERYBODY, I BELIEVE.

Maureen says YOU MENTIONED LIVE
VIRUS, COULD YOU EXPLAIN HOW
VACCINES ARE MADE AND HOW THEY
WORK?

Peter says THEY AFFECT THE IMMUNE
RESPONSE.
TAKING SOMETHING THAT'S
INNOCUOUS AND GETTING THE BODY
TO RESPOND TO IT.
YOU MAY NOT FEEL GREAT BECAUSE
YOU'RE MAKING CHEMICALS THAT
MAY MAKE YOU FEEL DEBILITATED.
THAT HAPPENS WITH SOME
VACCINES.
AND YOU'RE MAKING THE BODY
RESPOND AND THE BODY REMEMBERS
IT'S ENCOUNTERED THAT AND WHEN
IT COMES BACK FROM A FULLY
INFECTIOUS FORM FROM NATURE
YOU RESPOND AND GET RID OF IT
FAST.
VACCINES COME IN DIFFERENT
TYPES OF FORMULATIONS.
THE POLIO VACCINE WHICH IS
TAKEN ON A BIT OF SUGAR IS A
LIVE VIRUS.
THE SALT VACCINE WHICH
PROCEDURED IT IS A KILLED
VIRUS SO CAN'T INFECT ANYBODY.
THAT SMALLPOX VACCINE IS A
LIVE VIRUS.
HEPATITIS IS A VIRUS THAT'S
MADE ARTIFICIALLY AND DOESN'T
INVOLVE THE VIRUS ITSELF.
THERE ARE VARIOUS TYPES OF
FORMULATIONS.

Maureen says AND THIS MAY BE
BEYOND OUR SCOPE OF
UNDERSTANDING BUT WHAT
DETERMINES WHETHER A VACCINE
NEEDS TO BE LIVE OR KILLED.

Peter says HOW IT WORKS, REALLY.
THE TYPE OF RESPONSE THAT A
KILL VACCINE GENERATES, THE
ANTI-BODY RESPONSE WORKS WELL
AGAINST THINGS LIKE POLIO
VIRUS AND MEASLES, FOR
INSTANCE, WHICH IS A LIVE
VACCINE RELIES ON THAT TYPE OF
RESPONSE.
ON THE OTHER HAND SOME TYPES
OF IMMUNE RESPONSES WHEN
STIMULATED HAVE A LIVE MILD
INFECTION WHICH IS WHAT WE
HAVE IN SOME VACCINES.

Maureen says CAN YOU SEE A DAY
WHEN WE MIGHT HAVE A VACCINE
TO PREVENT OR TREAT SOMETHING
LIKE CANCER OR HIV AIDS?

Peter says THERE'S AN ENORMOUS AMOUNT
OF RESEARCH ON THE HIV AIDS
VACCINE.
VERY DIFFERENT PROBLEM BECAUSE
THE VIRUS VARIES.
THE VIRUS CAN CHANGE ITSELF
AWAY FROM BEING RECOGNIZED
FROM THE ANTI-BODIES.
BUT WE HAVE HOPES IN THE TYPE
OF SYSTEM THAT I'M STUDYING
WHICH IS THE KILLER T-CELL
RESPONSE.
WE MAY BE ABLE TO WORK IT
THROUGH THAT.
CANCER VACCINES IF WE HAVE
CANCER VACCINES, THEY ARE
GOING TO BE VERY
INDIVIDUALIZED TO THE
PARTICULAR CANCER.
WHAT'S BEEN TRIED AT THE
MOMENT IS VACCINATION
TREATMENT OR THERAPY-TYPE
TREATMENT OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE
CANCER AND TAKING THE TUMOUR
CELLS AND FEEDING THEM TO
SPECIAL CELLS AND STIMULATING
THE INDIVIDUAL'S OWN IMMUNE
CELLS SO IT'S A COMBINATION OF
SURGERY AND AN IMMUNE
APPROACH.
THERE'S A LOT OF TRIALS GOING
ON AT THE MOMENT AND IT'S NOT
CLEAR HOW IT WILL WORK.

Maureen says KEEP OUR FINGERS
CROSSED AND GOOD LUCK WITH
YOUR RESEARCH.

Peter says THANK YOUMAUREEN.

The clip ends.

Maureen says COMING UP ON YOUR HEALTH…

Paul says IN THREE AND A HALF YEARS,
THE CANCER WILL ONLY BE THE
SIZE OF A SMALL GRAPE.

Maureen says HE FOLLOWS THE
CANCER'S M.O.

The opening sequence rolls again.

Now, Maureen stands next to a screen that reads "Health Digest."

At the studio, Maureen says RECENT NEWS FROM THE
HEALTH FILES.
STRESS CAN BE A HEALTH HAZARD
FOR PEOPLE INFECTED WITH HIV.

The screen reads "Stress." It shows the picture of a red ribbon on a notebook.

She continues SCIENTISTS STUDIED THE EFFECTS
OF 13 HIV POSITIVE MEN.
NONE HAD TAKEN THERAPY TO
TREAT THE VIRUS.
THEY WERE MEASURED FOR ALL
KINDS OF THINGS AT THE START
OF THE STUDY.
VIRAL LOAD, T-CELLS, BLOOD
PRESSURE, HEART RATE AND THEN
GIVEN TREATMENT FOR THE HIV.
SIX MONTHS LATER THE
STRESSED-OUT MEN HASN'T
RESPONDED AS WELL.
THE FINDINGS MAY HAVE
SIGNIFICANT BEYOND HIV.

The caption on the screen changes to "Concussion." It shows the picture of a soccer ball.

She continues YOU CAN PROBABLY LET THE
SOCCER PLAYERS IN YOUR FAMILY
HEAD THE BALL AGAIN.
PEDIATRICIANS AT THE AMERICAN
AMDEMI OF PEDIATRICS HEARD
THAT CONCUSSIONS OF SOCCER ARE
RARELY FROM HEADING THE BALL.
THEY ARE MORE COMMON WHEN
HITTING OTHER PLAYERS OR THE
GROUND.
PARENTS SHOULD MAKE THE GAME
SAFER IN GENERAL.

The caption on the screen changes to "Herbal Risk." It shows the picture of a baby playing with medicines.

She continues AT THE SAME MEETING,
PEDIATRICIANS WERE ADVISED OF
THE POTENTIAL MEASURES OF
GIVEN ALTERNATIVE MEDICINES TO
CHILDREN.
THEY WORRY ABOUT PARENTS
MEDICATING THEIR KIDS WITHOUT
UNDERSTANDING THE RISK.
A HERB WAS YANKED BECAUSE IT
COULD CAUSE LIVER DAMAGE.
PEDIATRICIANS WERE TOLD TO BE
SUPPORTIVE IF THE BENEFITS ARE
BASED ON EVIDENCE AND THE
RISKS LOW.

The Quiz slate appears. The answer "2. West Nile Virus" appears highlighted in yellow.

Maureen says TODAY THE WORD
"CANCER" INVOKES FEELINGS AND
DREAD BUT IT COMES FROM A
GREEK WORD.
MANY THOUGHT THE SWOLLEN VAINS
LOOK LIKE A CRAB.
HOW DOES THE GROWTH BEGIN AND
WHY.
HOW CANCER WORKS.

Paul sits at a table with a stethoscope and other objects on it. Behind him, a human anatomy model and a TV monitor sit on a piece of furniture.

Paul says MANY DIFFERENT FORMS OF
CANCER AND THEY ALL HAVE THEIR
OWN UNIQUE PROPERTIES BUT
EVERY CANCER SHARES TWO
ABNORMALITIES.
ONE, CANCER CELLS MULTIPLE AND
GROW IN AN UNCONTROLLABLE
FASHION.
TWO, THEY INVADE THE TISSUES
AROUND THEM.
THOUGH WE ARE NOT AWARE OF IT,
MANY CELLS IN OUR BODY ARE
CONSTANTLY GROWING, REPLACING
OLD CELLS THAT ARE DYING BUT
THERE'S A SOPHISTICATED SYSTEM
IN PLACE TO BE SURE WE DON'T
OVERPRODUCE CELLS.
EVEN MORE COMPLICATED.
YOUR BODY HAS A SYSTEM TO
PRODUCE MORE CELLS THAN USUAL
IF THE CELLS ARE NEEDED.
FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU CUT YOUR
SKIN, NEW CRELLINGS GROW
QUICKLY TO FILL IN THE GAP.
THE AMAZING THING IS ONCE THE
SKIN IS HEALED, THE EXTRA SKIN
CELLS KNOW WHO STOP GROWING.
YOU GROW WHAT YOU NEED AND NO
MORE.
CANCER CELLS DON'T DO THAT.

The caption changes to "Doctor Paul Caldwell. Family Physician."

Paul continues THIS DNA DIRECTS THE CANCER
CELL TO BEGIN TO DIVIDE AND
MULTIPLE AND PRODUCE OTHER
CANCER CELLS AND TO SIMPLY
KEEP ON DOING THAT AGAIN AND
AGAIN AND AGAIN, FREE FROM THE
NORMAL CONTROL.
HERE'S A PICTURE SHOWING
NORMAL CELLS WITH SMALL NUCLEI.
AND ANOTHER PICTURE SHOWING
CANCER CELLS WITH DENSE NUCLEI
THAT FILL THE CELLS AS THEY
DIVIDE.

A picture shows blue cells, followed by another one with multiple blue cells.

He continues THIS UNCONTROLLABLE AND
ABNORMAL CELL DIVISION IS THE
HALL MARK OF CANCER.
AS WE JUST SAW, CANCER BEGINS
WITH ONLY ONE OR TWO MIKE
SCOPIC CELL THAT IS DIVIDE.
BUT THESE CELLS DIVIDE AND
GROW VERY QUICKLY.
FOR EXAMPLE, IF CANCER CELLS
MULTIPLE EVERY TWO WEEKS, IN
THREE AND A HALF YEARS, THE
CANCER WILL ONLY BE THE SIZE
OF A SMALL GRAPE.
BUT A YEAR LATER IT WILL WEIGH
A WHOLE KILOGRAM.
THE SECOND CHARACTERISTIC OF
CANCERS IS THAT THEY DON'T
STAY AT HOME.
THEY GO NEXT DOOR TO INVADE
THE TISSUE NEXT TO THEM.
HERE'S A PICTURE OF LUNG
CANCER SPREADING INTO THE REST
OF THE LUNG.
THIS IS THE PROPERTY THAT
MAKES A TUMOUR MALIGNANT.
THE WORD COMES FROM A FRENCH
TERM "MAL" MEANING BAD.

A photograph shows a thick brown substance covering lungs.

Paul continues MANY SPREAD TO DISTANT PARTS
OF THE BODY.
CELLS BREAK OFF AND CHANNEL BY
WAY OF LYMPH AND CHANNELS TO
OTHER ORGANS.
HERE IS A PICTURE OF A LIVER.

A picture of a brown liver with white spots appears.

He continues TREATMENT OF THE CANCER
FOCUSES ON THE TENDENCY TO
MULTIPLE.
RADIATION AND CHEMO THERAPY
CAN KILL ALL CELLS HEALTHY AND
NORMAL AS THEY DIVIDE BUT THEY
DAMAGE MANY MORE CANCER CELLS
BECAUSE THE CANCER CELLS ARE
DIVIDING SO MUCH MORE RAPIDLY.
IF SCIENTISTS COULD JUST
FIGURE OUT HOW TO STOP THESE
TWO PROPERTIES, UNREGULATED
CELL DIVISION AND THE TENDENCY
TO SPREAD, CANCER COULD BE
BEATEN.

Maureen says IF YOU'D LIKE A
TRANSCRIPT OF THE MEDICAL
LESSON, FIND IT AT OUR
WEBSITE.

The caption changes to "www.tvo.org/yourhealth."

Maureen concludes THAT'S ALL THE TIME WE HAVE
FOR THIS WEEK.
I'M MAUREEN TAYLOR.
THANKS FOR WATCHING.

A final slate reads "Your Health. Email: yourhealth@tvo.org. Fax: 416-484-4519. Mail: Box 200, Station Q, Toronto, ON, M4T 2T1."

(music plays)

Logo: CEP Local 72m.

A production of TVOntario. Copyright 2001, The Ontario Educational Communications Authority.

Watch: Your Health Season 3 Episode 9