Transcript: Zoology | Jan 05, 2001

Fast clips show different sets of hands performing activities on the
table such as pulling petals from a daisy, drawing a big red heart,
tuning a violin, flipping through the pages of a book, cooking, and
pouring a glass of red wine. In animation, the title appears inside
the shape of a house: “More to life.” Then, Maureen reappears in
the studio. She says AND WELCOME TO

Maureen Taylor sits in a studio with yellow walls and a small TV set
in the background, which reads “More to life.” Maureen is in her
late thirties, with wavy brown hair in a bob. She’s wearing a purple
blazer over a pink shirt. She holds a hawk on her arm that has a
leather glove.

Maureen says HI, I'M MAUREEN
TAYLOR AND WELCOME TO “MORE
TO LIFE.”
WHEN WE GO TO THE ZOO, THERE
ARE SIGNS THAT TELL US NOT
TO FEED THE ANIMALS.
WELL, MY GUEST TODAY NOT
ONLY GETS TO FEED THEM, HE
TENDS THEM WHEN THEY'RE SICK
AND EVEN HELPS THEM BREED.
IN OUR LAST INSTALMENT OF
OUR “OLOGY WEEK” TODAY,
WE'RE LOOKING AT ZOOLOGY
WITH Dr. BILL RAPLY,
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF
BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION AT
THE TORONTO ZOO.

Dr. Radley is in his fifties and has a bald head with a grey
moustache. He wears a dark green long sleeved shirt and pants with a
light green name tag.

Maureen continues HE'S BROUGHT ALONG, AS YOU
CAN SEE, SOME OF HIS CHARGES,
AND JUST LIKE MARLIN PERKINS,
HE HAS AN ASSISTANT TANT.
DAN PEARSON IS AN ANIMAL
KEEPER.

Dan is in his thirties and has brown wavy hair and is clean-shaven.
He wears a khaki coloured short-sleeved shirt with a light green
nametag.

Maureen says IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT
WHAT AN ELEPHANT EATS FOR
BREAKFAST, WHY TIGERS HAVE TAILS
OR HOW PEREGRINE FALCONS
LIKE BUZZ HERE HAVE MADE A
STRONG RECOVERY IN ONTARIO
GIVE US A CALL.

A caption appears on screen showing two phone numbers.

Maureen continues IN TORONTO DIAL 416-484-2727. CALL LONG DISTANCE
TO 1-888-411-1234. AND YOU CAN USE THE INTERNET AND e-mail YOUR
QUESTION ABOUT ANIMALS TO moretolife@tvo.org WELCOME DR. RAPLEY AND
WELCOME DAN.

Dr. Rapley and Dan say THANK YOU.

Maureen says DAN, MIGHT I
IMPOSE ON YOU NOW MY ARM'S
GETTING A LITTLE TIRED HERE AND YOUR GOING TO TAKE--
THIS IS BUZZ, IS IT DR. RAPLEY? BUZZ IS WHAT A PEREGRINE FALCON?

Dr. Rapley says BUZZ IS A PEREGRINE
FALCON, HE'S MALE, FIVE
YEARS OLD AND HE'S CAPTIVE
BRED SPECIMEN.

Maureen says IS THAT WHY HE'S
SO CALM WHEN NEOPHYTE LIKE
MYSELF IS HOLDING ONTO
HIM?

A caption appears that reads “Bill Rapley. Zoologist.”

Dr. Rapley says WELL HE'S BEEN HANDLED
QUITE EXTENSIVELY AND
TRAINED TO THE FIST.
WE TRAIN HIM IN BASICALLY
FALCONRY TECHNIQUES WHERE
HE'S FLOWN EVERYDAY AND GETS
TO FLY AND COME BACK TO THE
FIST.
SO HE'S TRAINED IN THAT
DIRECTION.
AND THAT WAS BEHIND WHAT WE
DID TO SAVE PEREGRINE
FALCONS IN THE FIRST PLACE.

Maureen says YEAH, TELL US A
LITTLE BIT ABOUT THAT IN
ONTARIO BECAUSE THEY WERE
PRETTY MUCH GONE.

Dr. Rapley says THEY WERE PRETTY WELL
GONE.
I KNOW THAT THE NESTS REALLY,
IN THE WILD, UP TO ABOUT
1960, EARLY '60s WE HAD SOME
NESTS IN ONTARIO AND THEY
STARTED DISAPPEARING.
AND BASICALLY THESE BIRDS
ARE PREDATORS.
THEY'RE VERY HIGH IN THE
PREDATOR CHAIN.
AND THEY BUILT UP VARIOUS
PESTICIDES AND HEAVY METALS
AND SO ON IN THEIR SYSTEM.
BUT PARTICULARLY D.D.T. AND
PESTICIDES OF THAT NATURE,
BUILT UP IN THEIR SYSTEM,
AND THEY WERE UNABLE TO
REPRODUCE PROPERLY.
IT AFFECTED THEIR BEHAVIOUR,
IT CAUSED THIN EGG SHELLS
AND SO ON.
SO OF COURSE FORTUNATELY,
THE BANNING OF THESE
COMPOUNDS IN THE LATE '60s,
BETWEEN '69 AND '71,
PARTICULARLY, WAS QUITE A
GOOD THING.
AND THE HALF LIFE OF THE
COMPOUNDS FELL OFF SUCH THAT
WE WERE ABLE TO LOOK AT
HAVING PEREGRINES BACK AGAIN
IN ONTARIO.
BUT BY THAT TIME WE WERE
DOWN TO A VERY SMALL
POPULATION.
MAYBE ONE NEST IN ONTARIO
PER YEAR.

Maureen says IS THAT RIGHT?

Dr. Rapley says AND THAT WAS IT.

Maureen says DAN, WHAT'S HE
DOING THERE?
IS HE TRYING TO GET THE
STRING OFF?

The caption changes to “Dan Pearson. Animal Keeper.”

Dan says YEAH, HE'S SCRATCHING AS
WELL BUT HE'S TRYING TO PULL
THEM OUT.
HASN'T HAD THEM ON FOR A
WHILE.

Maureen says JUST HANG ON
THERE, BUZZ.
NOW HOW MANY NESTS DO WE HAVE
NOW?

Dr. Rapley says WELL, IT LOOKS PRETTY
GOOD.
I HAVEN'T SEEN THE PUBLISHED
REPORT, BUT TALKING TO
OFFICIALS FROM THE MINISTRY OF
NATURAL RESOURCES,
THE SURVEYS IN ONTARIO, AS
YOU KNOW, THEY WERE
REINTRODUCED IN CANADA,
FIRST OF ALL TO CITIES LIKE
TORONTO, EDMONTON, WINNIPEG
AND SO ON WHERE THEY NESTED
ON HIGH BUILDINGS, AND OF
COURSE TO ALGONQUIN PARK AND
SOME CLIFF SITUATIONS.
AND THIS YEAR MY
UNDERSTANDING IS THAT
THERE'S OVER 40 -- I THINK 42
NESTS ON CLIFFS OF PEREGRINE
FALCONS IN ONTARIO.

Maureen says THAT'S CLIFFS.

Dr. Rapley says ON CLIFFS.

Maureen says WHAT ABOUT THE
BUILDINGS IN TORONTO?

Dr. Rapley WELL THERE'S MORE, SOME
IN TORONTO AND OTHER
LOCATIONS AS WELL SO THAT IS
WONDERFUL.
I BELIEVE IN AURORA AND
OTHER PLACES.
SO THE THING IS THAT THIS IS
A REALLY GOOD SIGN, AND IT
SHOWS THAT THE BIRDS ARE
COMING BACK, THEY'RE DOING
WELL.
THEY'RE PRODUCING YOUNG IN
THE WILD AND THEY'RE
STARTING TO REPOPULATE THE
PROVINCE.

Maureen says NOW THEY'RE
PRODUCING YOUNG IN THE WILD
NOW, BUT TO GET THEM GOING
AGAIN YOU HAD TO DO
SOMETHING KIND OF CONVOLUTED
TO HELP THEM REPRODUCE.
TELL US ABOUT THAT.

Dr. Rapley says WELL, WHAT THE -- WHAT
BIOLOGISTS DID, BASICALLY
CORNELL UNIVERSITY,
DEPARTMENT OF ORNITHOLOGY
LED THE WAY WITH TOM KADE
AND USING FALCONRY
TECHNIQUES THEY WERE ABLE TO
KEEP THE BIRDS IN CAPTIVITY
AND THEN BREED THEM.
AND THE BREEDING TECHNIQUES
WERE USED ALSO BY THE
CANADIAN WILDLIFE SERVICE
WHO BUILT A FACILITY IN
WAINWRIGHT, ALBERTA.

Maureen says RIGHT.

Dr. Rapley says WITH RICHARD PFIFE AND A
GROUP OUT THERE WERE ABLE TO
START PRODUCING THE BIRDS IN
CAPTIVITY.
NOW HOW DO YOU GET MORE
PEREGRINE FALCONS?
OKAY, A PAIR WILL USUALLY
HAVE THREE TO FOUR EGGS SO,
THAT BASICALLY AN EGG COULD
BE REMOVED AND THEY COULD
ONE BY ONE GET THEM TO KEEP
LAYING EGGS AND GET UP TO 14
EGGS FROM ONE BIRD.

Maureen says RIGHT.

Dr. Rapley says ALSO THEY COULD TAKE THE
EGGS AND PUT THEM IN AN
INCUBATEOR AND CONTROL THE
TEMPERATURE AND THE HUMIDITY,
AND THE WEIGHT LOSS OF THE
EGG, SUCH THAT YOU DIDN'T
LOSE VERY MANY TO THE
HATCHING PROCESS ITSELF.
AND THEN YOU COULD PUT THEM
IN BIRDERS.

Maureen says IN BIRDERS?
WHAT'S A BIRDER?

Dr. Rapley says IN BIRDERS.
A BIRDER IS A CONTROLLED
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
ENVIRONMENT FOR YOUNG CHICKS.
USED RAISING CHICKENS AND
TURKEYS AND THINGS LIKE THAT
AS WELL.
AND BASICALLY, THEN YOU CAN
CONTROL THAT.
WELL, DUMMY EGGS CAN BE --
YOU KNOW, WHICH IS AN EGG
THAT IS -- YOU TAKE AN EGG
AND MAKE AN IMITATION OF THE
EGG, OR YOU TAKE AN EGG THAT
DIDN'T HATCH AND THROW IT
AND PUT IT UNDER THE
MOTHER --

Maureen says WHY?
SHE'D BE REALLY UPSET IF YOU
TOOK HER EGGS AWAY FROM HER?

Dr. Rapley says WELL, SHE WON'T KNOW THE
DIFFERENCE.
SHE'LL SIT ON THESE DUMMY
EGGS AND YOU CAN THEN PUT
THE CHICKS BACK BECAUSE THEY
DON'T SEE VERY WELL UNTIL
ABOUT TEN --

Dr. Rapley says DO A LITTLE SWITCHEROO
THERE.

Dr. Rapley says THAT'S RIGHT UNTIL
THEY'RE TEN TO TWELVE DAYS
OF AGE AND YOU CAN PUT THE
EGGS BACK WITH THEIR MOTHER.
AND THEN THE OTHER THING YOU
CAN DO IS TAKE A SPECIES, A
FOSTER MOTHER.
FOR INSTANCE THE PRAIRIE
FALCON WAS USED OUT IN
WAINRIGHT TO PRODUCE -- TO
SIT ON THE EGGS OF THE
PEREGRINE FALCONS, SO YOU
COULD DOUBLE CLUTCH THE
PEREGRINES, PUT ONE CLUTCH UNDER A
PRAIRIE FALCON, WHICH WASN'T
AS RARE A BIRD IS THEREFORE
PRODUCE QUITE A FEW BIRD.

Matt says I THINK WE ACTUALLY HAVE
SOMEONE ON THE LINE WHO
WANTS TO KNOW SOMETHING
ABOUT PEREGRINE FALCONS.
WE'RE GOING TO TAKE YOUR
QUESTIONS THIS AFTERNOON FOR
Dr. BILL RAPLEY FROM THE
TORONTO ZOO.
HE KNOWS ALL ABOUT THE
PRIMATES AT THE ZOO, IF YOU
HAVE A QUESTION ABOUT
GORILLAS, ORANGUTANS,
ELEPHANT, ANYTHING TO DO
WITH ANIMALS IN THE WILD.
SO GIVE US A CALL.IN TORONTO DIAL 416-484-2727. IF IT’S LONG DISTANCE
DIAL 1-888-411-1234. AND e-mail YOUR QUESTION TO moretolife@tvo.org.
WE'LL PROBABLY
TALK ABOUT COUGARS AS WELL
AND WE HAVE FIVE PASSES TO
THE TORONTO ZOO TO GIVE AWAY
TO FIVE LUCKY CALLERS OR
E-MAILERS WHOSE QUESTIONS
GET TO AIR.
OK FRANK IS IN SUDBURY.
HI FRANK.

Frank says HI HOW ARE YOU
DOING?

Maureen says GOOD THANKS.
WHAT'S YOUR QUESTION?

Frank says I JUST WANT
KNOW WHAT THE FALCONS EAT?

Maureen says WHAT THE PEREGRINE FALCONS EAT?
I THINK IN FACT WE CAN
DEMONSTRATE THAT, DAN.
IF YOU WANT TO GET THAT
READY, BILL CAN TELL US.
WHAT WOULD THEY EAT IN THE WILD
BILL?

Dr. Rapley says WELL, THEY ARE CARNIVORES,
OF COURSE, AND THEY'RE
PREDATORS AND THEY WILL FEED
ON A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT
SPECIES, INCLUDING SMALL
BIRDS, LARGER BIRDS.
THEY WERE ALSO CALLED DUCK
HAWKS BECAUSE THEY WOULD
TAKE SOME OF THE SMALLER
DUCKS AND THINGS LIKE THAT.
IN THE CITIES THEY WILL FEED
ON SPARROWS, SOME STARLINGS,
AND PERHAPS PIGEONS AS WELL.

Maureen says OH THAT WOULD BE
GOOD!
WELL, YOU KNOW, I'M NOT A
BIG FAN OF PIGEONS AS FAR AS
BIRDS GO.

Dr. Rapley says IN THE EYES OF SOME
PEOPLE IT IS A BIT OF A
CONTROL.
BUT INDEED, THE PEREGRINE
FALCON WILL FEED ON MICE AND
RODENTS AND OTHER THINGS AS
WELL, AND EVEN PICK UP, PERHAPS
THE ODD FISH ALONG THE EDGE
OF THE WATER.

Maureen says OH, OKAY.
OKAY, DAN.
DO YOU WANT TO FEED BUZZ
THERE?
WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO FEED
HIM?

Dan feeds Buzz a dead mouse and he eats it.

Dan says A LITTLE MOUSE.

Maureen says A LITTLE DEAD
MOUSE?
OH!
NOW BUZZ DOESN'T MIND THAT
THAT MOUSE IS ALREADY
KILLED?

Dr. Rapley says NO, THEY ALL GET FOOD
THAT'S BEEN THAWED OUT.

Maureen says IS THAT RIGHT?
IS THIS WHAT YOU CALL A
PINKIE MOUSE?

Dr. Rapley says NO, THIS IS A FULL GROWN
WHITE MOUSE.

Maureen says IS IT?
HOW WOULD BUZZ DO AT
ACTUALLY HUNTING MICE IN THE
WILD?

Dr. Rapley says WELL, THEY SPEND MOST OF
THEIR TIME HUNTING BIRDS.
AT THE ZOO OCCASIONALLY WE
WILL FIND HE WILL GO AFTER
BIRDS ON SIGHT.

Maureen says REALLY?

Dr. Rapley says YEAH.
HE TOOK A GULL DOWN THIS
SUMMER IN AUGUST.

Maureen says IS THAT RIGHT?
I'VE HEARD PEOPLE SAY THAT
THEY'RE WATCHING THE LITTLE
SONG BIRDS AT THEIR
BIRDFEEDERS AND A HAWK OR
SOME OTHER PREDATOR WILL
SWOOP DOWN AND EAT THE
LITTLE, NICE LITTLE FINCHES
AND THINGS RIGHT AT THE
FEEDER, WHICH THEY FIND
APPALLING BUT THAT'S NATURE,
RIGHT BILL?
THAT'S WHAT THEY'RE SUPPOSED
TO DO.

Dr. Rapley says WELL, THAT'S RIGHT.
IT WAS ALL-ONE OF THE THINGS, WHEN
THERE WAS A LOT MORE SONG
BIRDS, A LOT MORE BIRDS
AROUND AND SO ON, PERHAPS IT
WAS EASIER FOR THE PEREGRINE
FALCONS.
AND INDEED, THERE HAS TO BE
ENOUGH OF THE PREY SPECIES
TO KEEP THE OTHER SPECIES
GOING.
BUT INDEED, WE HAVE, YOU
KNOW, LOTS OF BIRDS AROUND
THE CITY ENVIRONMENT WITH
HOUSE SPARROWS AND STARLINGS
AND HOUSE FINCHES AND THINGS
LIKE THAT.

Maureen says MM-HMM.

Dr. Rapley says IN VERY LARGE NUMBERS.

Maureen says ALL RIGHT, WELL
DONE, BUZZ.
BUZZ HAD A LITTLE SNACK
THERE.
BEFORE WE GO TO THE NEXT
CALLER, LET ME ASK YOU ABOUT
COUGARS.
WE'RE HEARING A LOTS ABOUT
THEM IN ALBERTA, BANFF, B.C.
WHAT ABOUT ONTARIO?
DO WE HAVE COUGARS HERE?

Dr. Rapley says WELL THAT'S A BIG DEBATE.
CERTAINLY UP IN NORTHERN
ONTARIO THERE'S NO QUESTION
THAT THERE'S SOME COUGARS.
IF YOU GO BACK THROUGH THE
REPORTS IN THE ONTARIO FIELD
NATURALISATION AND OTHER
PLACE, YOU'LL SEE MANY MANY
REPORTS OF COUGARS IN
SOUTHERN ONTARIO.
THE PROBLEM HAS BEEN TRULY
DOCUMENTING THOSE.
YOU KNOW IT WOULDN'T
SURPRISE ME THAT THEY'RE UP
IN THE BRUCE PENINSULA OR UP
INTO HALIBURTON OR SOMETHING
LIKE THAT.
BUT THE PROBLEM IS GETTING
DOCUMENTATION WITH
PHOTOGRAPHS, WITH -- OR
VIDEO, OR THE PAW --

Maureen says PRINT.

Dr. Rapley says PRINT BEING EXAMINED AND
THIS TYPE OF THING HAS MADE
IT REALLY DIFFICULT.
SO WE GET LOTS OF REPORTS.
THE ROUGE VALLEY WE GET
REPORTING ALL THE TIME BUT
WE HAVEN'T BEEN ABLE TO
CONFIRM THAT THEY'RE HERE.
BUT CERTAINLY IN OTHER AREAS
OUT IN CALIFORNIA, IN
BRITISH COLUMBIA, AND NOW
MOST RECENTLY IN BANFF THERE
HAS BEEN IMPACT WHERE COUGARS
HAVE ACTUALLY KILLED PEOPLE.
AND IT'S A WORRISOME THING.
BUT INDEED, MAN HAS SORT OF
PUSHED OUT INTO THAT
ENVIRONMENT THAT BELONGED TO
THE COUGAR, AND THAT GOES
PARTIALLY WITH IT.
IT'S NATURE FOR THE COUGAR.

Maureen says THERE HAVE BEEN
SIGHTINGS IN ONTARIO OF SOME
THINGS.
THEY'RE TALKING ABOUT THIS
BIG BLACK PAT AND WHAT IS
THE OTHER THING PEOPLE HAVE
SEEN ROAMING AROUND?

Dr. Rapley says THEY THOUGHT THEY HAD
SEEN A COUGAR AROUND THE
ROUGE VALLEY.
BUT THE INVESTIGATIONS, AS
FAR AS I'M AWARE, WERE NOT
ABLE TO CONFIRM THAT, THOUGH
PEOPLE THOUGHT THEY SAW
FAIRLY LARGE CATS.
IN FACT I WENT OUT WITH THE
POLICE SEVERAL TIMES AND
TRIED TO INVESTIGATE SOME OF
THESE REPORTS.
ALTHOUGH THE REPORTS KEPT
SURFACING, YOU KNOW, OVER A
PERIOD OF YEARS.

Maureen says WHAT MIGHT THE
BIG BLACK CAT IS?
ONE THINKS PANTHER, BUT NO.

Dr. Rapley says WELL IT'S HARD TO TELL.
WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE VIDEO,
IT LOOKS -- I MEAN IT COULD
BE A BIG HOUSE CAT.
BUT IT'S HARD TO PUT A SIZE
ON IT.
AND IT'S VERY, VERY
DIFFICULT.
NOW THERE ARE DARK FORMS OF
THE PUMA.
THEY'RE EXTREMELY RARE,
WHICH IS THE MOUNTAIN LION
OR THE COUGAR, THEY'RE ALL
THE SAME SPECIES.
PARTICULARLY MORE LIKELY
DOWN IN SOUTH AMERICA PART OF
THEIR RANGE.
THERE ARE BLACK VERSIONS OF
THE JAGUAR LIKE WE HAVE AT
THE ZOO, AND ALSO THE
LEOPARDS CAN COME IN A
BLACKISH COLOUR, AND PERHAPS
SO OTHER SMALLER CATS SO IT
COULD BE THAT IT'S AN EXOTIC
PET THAT HAS ESCAPED.

Maureen says THAT SOMEONE LET
GO OR EVEN JUST ABANDONED.
YOU KNOW THAT CAN HAPPEN.

Dr. Rapley says THAT'S RIGHT.

Maureen says WE'RE TALKING
WITH Dr. BILL RAPLEY FROM
THE TORONTO ZOO.
LET'S GO TO JOHN IN ASHTON.
HI JOHN.

John says HI.

Maureen says
WHAT'S YOUR QUESTION, JOHN?

John says MY QUESTION IS I
KNOW THE ATTACKS OUT WEST
THERE OR WHATEVER, ARE THEY
MORE PROVOKED OR MORE
BROUGHT ON BECAUSE THE CATS'
RANGE HAS BEEN CUT DOWN AND
IT'S LOOKING FOR FOOD, OR
YOU KNOW, IT BEING HUNGRY
AND THAT?
AND THE OTHER PART IS WHAT
WOULD A NORMAL CAT OF THAT
SIZE, OR LIKE A TIGER, WHAT
WOULD THEY NORMALLY CONSUME
IN AN AVERAGE EATING OR
FEEDING.

Dr. Rapley says OH, WOW.
WELL IT WOULD DEPEND ON THE
SIZE OF THE CAT.
THEY MAY NOT FEED THAT
OFTEN.
IT MAY BE ONCE OR TWICE A
WEEK.
THEY CAN FEED ON SMALLER --
YOU KNOW, IF THINGS ARE
TOUGH THEY'LL FEED ON MICE
AND SMALLER TYPE OF
CREATURES, AND OF COURSE IF
THE LARGER CREATURES ARE
AVAILABLE THEY'LL GO FOR
THEM.
AS YOU KNOW, OUT WEST
COUGARS WERE WELL-KNOWN FOR
GOING AFTER SHEEP IN THE
RANCHES IN COLORADO AND
DIFFERENT PLACES, BRITISH
COLUMBIA.
THEY'LL TAKE DOWN DOMESTIC
ANIMALS, BUT IN THE WILD,
DEER WOULD BE THE MOST
LIKELY THING THAT THEY WOULD
GO AFTER, AND AS YOU KNOW,
THERE'S QUITE AN ABUNDANCE
OF DEER IN MANY PARTS OF
NORTH AMERICA.
THE WHITE TAILED DEER IN
PARTICULAR IN VERY LARGE
NUMBERS IN MANY PLACES, SO
THERE'S, THERE IS A FAIR
GOOD FOOD SOURCE OUT THERE
FOR THESE LARGER SPECIES.

Maureen says SO WHY WOULD
THIS COUGAR HAVE ATTACKED
THIS SKIER?
THEY FOUND HIM ON HER BODY,
STILL, STILL FEEDING.
WHAT DO YOU THINK THAT WAS
ABOUT?

Dr. Rapley says WELL, I'VE ONLY SEEN SOME
OF THE BRIEF REPORTS THAT
JUST HAPPENED IN THE LAST
FEW DAYS, BUT CERTAINLY, YOU
KNOW, THE ANIMAL MUST HAVE
BEEN HUNGRY.
THAT'S BEING INVESTIGATED.
WE DON'T KNOW WHAT HAS
HAPPENED THERE, BUT
CERTAINLY THE RANGE -- YOU
KNOW, AS YOU KEEP EXTENDING
INTO THE NATURE -- THE
NATURAL AREAS AND YOU KEEP
GOING INTO THE AREAS WHERE
THESE SPECIES ARE FOUND,
YOU'RE BOUND TO COME INTO
SOME KIND OF CONFLICTS.
AND CERTAINLY THIS HAS
HAPPENED IN CALIFORNIA AND
IT'S HAPPENED IN BRITISH
COLUMBIA AS WELL.

Maureen says OKAY.
THANK YOU JOHN.
HIRA IS NEXT IN MISSISSAUGA.
HELLO?

Hira says HELLO, HI, HOW
ARE YOU?

Maureen says FINE THANKS,
HIRA.
WHAT'S YOUR QUESTION?

Hira says MY QUESTION IS
LIKE HOW DO YOU FEED TIGERS
OR LIONS?
LIKE ARE THEY FRIENDLY OR
NOT?

Maureen says CAREFULLY.
YOU FEED THEM CAREFULLY.

Dr. Rapley says YES.
WE HAVE TO BE VERY CAREFUL
WITH THE DANGEROUS ANIMALS,
THE CARNIVORES SUCH AS THE
TIGER AND THE LION, OR EVEN
CHEETAH.
AND BASICALLY WE FEED THEM
INTO THEIR NIGHT QUARTER
AREA, AND THEY COME BACK
INTO THIS AREA.
THE KEEPER IS NOT IN WITH
THEM.
WE PUT THE FOOD IN AND IT'S
AVAILABLE TO THE CATS WHEN
THEY COME BACK IN.
THIS IS -- YOU KNOW, WE'RE
TRYING TO BE VERY CAREFUL
AND VERY SAFE, THE WAY WE
WORK WITH OUR ANIMALS.
WE DON'T TAME THEM DOWN
UNNECESSARILY UNLESS WE HAVE
TO HAND-REAR AN ANIMAL
BECAUSE THE MOTHER WOULDN'T
TAKE CARE OF IT, IN WHICH
CASE YOU MAY BE ABLE TO WORK
WITH THE ANIMAL UNTIL IT'S A
CERTAIN AGE.
WE FEED THEM.
WE HAVE A PH.D NUTRITIONIST
ON STAFF, Dr. EDUARDO VALDEZ
WHO MAKES OUR OWN CARNIVORE
MIXES.
WE HAVE THREE DIFFERENT TYPES,
A BEAR DIET, CAT DIET A
PLAIN CARNIVORE MIX, THAT WE
USE FOR A VARIETY OF
CARNIVOROUS SPECIES BUT WE
ALSO GIVE SOME NATURAL SORT
OF ELEMENTS IN ANY OF OUR
DIETS FOR OCCUPATION AND SO
THEY USE THE DENTATION THEY
HAVE AND THE ANATOMY THEY
HAVE AS CARNIVORES.
HOWEVER WE DO KILL -- FIRST
OF ALL THE RABBITS AND
GUINEA PIGS AND RODENT DENTS
AND SO ON THAT WE MIGHT GIVE
TO THE
CARNIVORES BEFORE THEY'RE GIVEN TO
THE CAT SO THAT IT'S NOT A
LIVE PREY FEEDING.

Maureen says WHY IS THAT?
WHY DON'T YOU WANT IT TO
BE --

Dr. Rapley says WELL WE DON'T WANT TO DO
THAT UNLESS WE NEED TO THE
ONLY JUSTIFICATION FOR THAT
IS IF YOU WERE TRYING TO
RE-INTRODUCE A CARNIVORE TO
THE WILD AND YOU WERE TRYING
TO TRAIN IT INTO HUNTING
AGAIN.
AND IN THAT CASE YOU MAY DO
THAT AS PART OF THE PROTOCOL
THAT WOULD BE DONE WITH
SOMETHING LIKE CLOUDED
LEOPARDS IN THE SMITHSONIAN
AND THEY'RE PLANNING TO
POTENTIALLY RE-INTRODUCE
THEM TO AN AREA IN THE WILD.
WE ALSO GIVE THEM THINGS
LIKE BEEF HEADS THAT ARE
SPLIT IN HALF.
WE GIVE THEM HORSE TAILS AND
THINGS LIKE THAT, SO THAT
THEY CAN CHEW AND USE THEIR
TEETH, IT CLEANS THE TARTAR
OFF THE TEETH, IT HELPS THEM
USE THE MUSCLES THEY HAVE IN
THEIR JAWS AND SO ON, AND
IT'S MUCH -- IT'S GOOD
OCCUPATION FOR THEM.

Maureen says YEAH.

Dr. Rapley says AND THIS IS SOMETHING
THAT'S IMPORTANT.
AND WE GIVE THEM SAFE, LARGE
BONES AS WELL.

Maureen says THAT HELPS THE
TEETH.

Dr. Rapley says THAT HELPS AS WELL.

Maureen says DAN, JUST
THINKING AS SOMEBODY WHO
GOES INTO THE -- YOU'RE
MOSTLY WITH THE BIRDS ARE
YOU, DISMAN.

Dan says NOW, BUT IN THE PAST I'VE
WORKED IN OTHER AREAS IN THE
ZOO.

Maureen says ANY CLOSE CALLS
WITH ANY OF THE ANIMALS?
EVER GET A SCARE?

Dan says SURE, THE POTENTIAL IS
ALWAYS THERE, YOU CAN ALWAYS GET
HOOKED OR GRABBED THROUGH
THE BARS IN THE HOLDINGS.

Maureen says TELL ME ABOUT
SOMETHING THAT HAPPENED?

Dr. Rapley says YEARS AGO I HAD A CHINESE
LEOPARD GET A CLAW INTO MY
BACK THROUGH THE MESH.
I MEAN, THEY JUST GOT THEIR
FOOT OUT JUST ENOUGH WHICH
IS CLOSE ENOUGH.

Maureen says YEAH, CLOSE
ENOUGH.
SO I GUESS REALLY WITH THE
BIG CATS LIKE THAT NOBODY
EVER -- YOU DON'T EVER GO
INTO THEIR CAGE UNLESS
THEY'RE SEDATED OR
SOMETHING?

Dr. Rapley says UM, THAT'S TRUE.
WE -- IN TORONTO ZOO, WE
TRY -- WE WOULD ONLY HANDLE
THEM UP UNTIL A CERTAIN AGE.
LIKE A CHEETAH UNTIL IT'S A
CERTAIN AGE.
THERE ARE SOME THAT ARE TAME
ENOUGH FOR US TO WORK WITH,
WITH THE CHEETAHS, THERE THEY TEND
TO BE A LOT LESS DANGEROUS.
BUT WHEN IT COMES TO LIONS
AND TIGER, THEY ARE
POTENTIALLY KILLERS AND WE
HAVE BASICALLY A HANDS-OFF
POLICY.
WE WANT THE ANIMALS TO
REMAIN AS NATURAL AS
POSSIBLE, TOO.
AND THEY GET USED TO THE
KEEPERS, BUT WE ALSO -- YOU
KNOW IN ONTARIO WE HAVE A
HEALTH AND SAFETY
REGULATIONS, WE HAVE
COMMITTEES THAT ARE TRYING
TO PREVENT ANY INJURY TO A
PERSON, AND SO WE TRY TO BE
VERY SAFE WITH THE WAY WE
WORK WITH THE ANIMALS.

Maureen says YOU GUYS MUST
HAVE SEEN THE DOCUMENTARY
ABOUT THE TWO POLAR BEAR
TWINS THAT ARE RAISED
KLONDIKE AND SNOW.

Dr. Rapley says IN DENVER.

Maureen says I JUST
RECOMMEND -- YOU HAVE TO
WATCH DISCOVERY FOR A WEEK
BUT IT'S BOUND TO COME UP IN
THAT WEEK.
BUT ANYWAY, IT'S A WONDERFUL
EXAMPLE OF HOW THEY START
OFF KNOWING THEIR KEEPERS
WELL BUT AS THEY GET OLDER
THE INSTINCT COMES OUT AND
EVEN THEN THEY HAD TO STEP
BACK FROM THE BEARS.

Dr. Rapley says THAT'S RIGHT.
THERE'S A TIME THAT COMES,
AND YOU MUST MAKE THAT
DECISION.

Maureen says YEAH, YEAH.
OKAY.
LET'S GO TO PIPI IN TORONTO.
HI PIPI.
HI, ARE YOU THERE?
I DON'T THINK PIPI'S THERE
ANYMORE.
I'VE GOT AN E-MAIL HERE
THOUGH.
THIS IS ABOUT A CHEETAH.
HOW FAST DOES A CHEETAH RUN
AND WHAT DOES IT EAT FROM
NABILE.

Dr. Rapley says THE CHEETAH IS THE
FASTEST LAND MAMMAL, AND
IT'S REPORT TO BE SHORT
DISTANCES UP TO ABOUT 16
MILES-PER-HOUR.
OR 30 KILOMETRE, LET'S SAY.
AND BASICALLY THEY RUN VERY
FAST FOR A FAIRLY SHORT
DISTANCE.
I'VE SEEN THEM IN AFRICA,
I'VE BEEN TO AFRICA THREE
TIMES AND I'VE SEEN THE
CHEETAHS CHASING DOWN PREY,
AND IF THEY MISS THAT PREY,
AND IT GETS AWAY, THEY DON'T
HAVE THE SORT OF ENDURANCE
TO KEEP GOING, BUT IN THE
SHORT DISTANCE, YOU KNOW, -

Maureen says THEY ARE FAST.

Dr. Rapley says EQUIVALENT TO THE 100,200,
400 YARD SORT OF RUNNING, WE
WOULD HAVE IN HUMAN BEINGS,
THEY ARE THE FASTEST OF ALL
ANIMALS.
NOW THEY WILL FEED ON
WHATEVER PREY IS AVAILABLE
IN THE AREA.
THEY LIKE -- IN AFRICA
THEY'LL FEED ON ANTELOPE,
SMALL ANTELOPE, VARIOUS
SPECIES.
THEY'LL TAKE BIRDS.
THEY'RE QUITE GOOD AT
CATCHING SOME OF THE GROSS
GROSS-LIKE -- GROUSE-LIKE
BIRD FOUND THERE
PARTRIDGE-LIKE BIRDS, AND
THIS TYPE OF THING.
THEY'LL ALSO TAKE OTHER
REPTILES AND THINGS LIKE
THAT THAT THEY'RE ABLE TO
CATCH

Maureen says MAA OKAY.

Dr. Rapley says BUT THEY DO LIKE THE
SMALL ANTELOPE PARTICULARLY,
THEY LIKE THE TOMMY GAZELLE
AND THAT TYPE OF THING.

Maureen says GOOD STUFF, IF YOU WANT TO DAN
PUT BUZZ AWAY AND GET
SOMETHING ELSE OUT WHY DON'T
YOU GO AHEAD AND DO THAT AND
WE'LL JUST TAKE ANOTHER
PHONE CALL FROM ATIA IN
TORONTO.

Atia says WHY ARE THE
SIBERIAN TIGERS IN DANGER.

Maureen says WHICH KIND OF TIGER?

Dr. Rapley says SIBERIAN.
WELL THE SIBERIAN TIGER
DID HAVE A MUCH LARGER RANGE
ORIGINALLY INTO THE FORMER
U.S.S.R. AND OF COURSE NOW
ARE FOUND IN A MUCH REDUCED
RANGE IN THE EASTERN PART OF
THE U.S.S.R., DOWN TOWARDS
KOREA AND EVEN REPORTED IN
NORTHERN KOREA AND IN
MANCHURIA.
PART OF THE DESTRUCTION
RELATED TO THE HABITAT,
CHANGES IN HABITAT FORCE
THEM INTO SMALLER AREAS.
HUNTING PRESSURE, PRESSURES
FOR THEIR HIDES TO BE USED
COMMERCIALLY, YOU KNOW IN
TRADITIONAL SENSE, AND
DEFINITELY THE TYPE OF RANGE
THAT A TIGER WOULD REQUIRE
FOR FEEDING BECAME MUCH MORE
LIMITED SO THEY WERE REALLY
PUSHED DOWN AND THEY ARE ONE
OF THE RAREST TIGERS THAT WE
HAVE, PROBABLY IN THE AREA
OF FOUR TO FIVE HUNDRED OF
THEM LEFT AT THIS PARTICULAR
TIME.
SO THE CAPTIVE BREEDING OF
THE SIBERIAN TIGER IS
EXTREMELY IMPORTANT AND IT'S
KEPT THEM FROM GOING EXTINCT
AND WE HAVE QUITE A SPECIES
SURVIVAL PLAN FOR THE TIGER
THAT OUR ZOO, THE TORONTO
ZOO IS INVOLVED IN AND WE
BREED THEM AT TORONTO ZOO.

Maureen says YOU BREED
SIBERIAN TIGERS AT THE ZOO?

Dr. Rapley says YES.
YES, WE HAVE THE SIBERIAN
TIGER AND WE ALSO HAVE THE
SUMATRAN TIGER WHICH IS
ANOTHER, EVEN MORE RARE
TIGER THAT WE ARE PART OF AN
INTERNATIONAL BREEDING
PROGRAMME FOR THIS SPECIES.

Maureen says NOW MY SON HAD
TO DO A SCHOOL PROJECT ON
THE TIGER AND I LEARNED
SOMETHING THAT THEY USE
THEIR TAILS AS THEY RUN
FOR -- WAS IT BALANCE OR
SOMETHING?

Dr. Rapley says YES, THE LONGER TAILS
HELP WITH BALANCE.
AND THEY'RE ABLE TO CHASE
THROUGH THE GRASSES AND SO
ON.
THE STRIPES HELP THEM BLEND
INTO THE ENVIRONMENT AND OF
COURSE THE LITTLE WHITE
MARKS THEY HAVE ON THEIR
EARS AND SO ON ALSO ARE
SIGNALS THAT THEY CAN USE TO
TELL EACH OTHER WHAT'S GOING
ON.

Maureen says AND YOU CALL THAT
THING ON THEIR FOREHEAD A
WANG MARK OR SOMETHING?

Dr. Rapley says YEAH.

Maureen says YEAH.
SEE?
I LEARNED A LOT FROM THAT.
WHO DO WE HAVE HERE.

Dan says THIS IS BONES.

An owl now perches on Dan?s arm.

Maureen says BONES?
AND WHY DO YOU CALL THEM
BONES, DAN?
THAT'S ALL THAT'S LEFT AFTER
HE WAS DONE WITH THE PREY.

Dan says ACTUALLY IT WAS A
FRIEND'S NICKNAME.
JUST THOUGHT IT SUITED HIM.

Maureen says OH, HOW OLD IS HE?

Dan says HE'S SIX NOW.

Maureen says HE’S SIX YEARS OLD. IS THIS A GREAT
HORNED OWL?

Dan says IT IS.

Maureen says WHY DON'T YOU
EXPLAIN A LITTLE WHY THEY
CALL THEM THE GREAT HORNED.

Dan shows the feather tusks that Bones has.

Dr. Rapley says IT'S JUST BECAUSE OF
THESE FEATHER TUFTS WHICH
ACTUALLY AREN'T EARS.
THE EARS ARE THE BLACK LINES ON THE SIDE OF
THE FACIAL DISC. BUT HE CAN STAND THESE UP OR LAY THEM BACK
DEPENDING ON HIS MOOD.

Maureen says WHAT'S WITH THE
NECK? WHAT IS IT THAT OWLS
CAN THEY DO A 360?

Dan says ABOUT 270, 280.

Maureen says 270 AND THAT OF
COURSE HELPS THEM FIND PREY
AS THEY JUST PERCH ON
THAT TREE BRANCH.
WHERE WOULD WE FIND THIS OWL,
BILL?

A close up of the owl’s claws on Dan’s leather glove that expands to
show the entire bird.

Dr. Rapley says THIS OWL IS ACTUALLY A
COMMON SPECIES IN MUCH OF
NORTH AMERICA.
IT'S FOUND IN ONTARIO AND
IN QUITE LARGE ABUNDANCE.
SOME OF OUR EARLIER STUDIES
FOUND NESTS ABOUT EVERY TWO
MILES APART IN SOME OF THE
LARGER FOREST, BUT THEY'RE
ADAPTED TO THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.
SO THEY'RE IN THE CITIES.
THEY WILL NEST ON BUILDINGS
SOMETIMES, BUT THEY LIKE A
LARGE TREE.
THEY TAKE THE NEST OF A RED
TAILED HAWK OR A CROW, AND
OFTEN NEST ON THAT.
THEY START NESTING EARLY IN
THE YEAR, IN FEBRUARY.
SO IN THE WINTER.
THEY ALSO WILL NEST IN A
HOLE IN A TREE OCCASIONALLY,
TOO.
WE'VE FOUND -- I'VE FOUND
NESTS IN ACTUAL CAVITY OF A
TREE AS WELL.
SO THEY'RE PRETTY COMMON,
BUT THEY'RE -- NEAT.
THEY'RE DOING WELL.
THEY ARE ADAPTING TO THE
PRESENCE OF HUMAN BEINGS
QUITE WELL AND THE URBAN
ENVIRONMENT.

Maureen says NOW SOMEBODY
TOLD ME IF YOU DE-FEATHERED
AN OWL, AND YOU WOULDN'T
WANT TO DO THAT BUT YOU
WOULD FIND A FAIRLY SMALL
BIRD UNDER ALL THOSE
FEATHERS.
IS THAT RIGHT?

Dr. Rapley says THAT'S RIGHT.
THE OWL HAS A BEAUTIFUL,
LIGHT FLUFFY FEATHERS.
AND IF YOU WERE TO TAKE THE
FEATHERS OFF THIS BIRD, THE
ACTUAL BODDY IS NOT THAT
HUGE.
IT'S VERY SMALL, TOWARDS
MORE THE SIZE OF A ROBIN OR
SOMETHING, SURPRISINGLY.
WHEN YOU TAKE A LOOK AT IT.
THERE'S A LOT OF FEATHERS.
THEY'RE VERY LIGHT.
THEY'RE ALSO DESIGNED --
BECAUSE THEY FEED AT NIGHT
AND THEY CAN USE THEIR
HEARING, THEY HAVE VERY,
VERY GOOD HEARING AND THEY
COULD ACTUALLY IN MINIMUM
LIGHT OR EVEN NO LIGHT
LOCATE A MOUSE AND KILL IT
AT NIGHT.
AND THE FEATHERS ARE
DESIGNED TO BE VERY QUIET
SO, THEY CAN COME IN AND
THEY CAN VERY QUIETLY COME
IN AND LAND AND ATTACK AT
NIGHT WITH MINIMUM OF NOISE
WHEN THEY'RE FLYING SO
THEY'LL FLY BY AND YOU WON'T
EVEN HEAR THEM.

Maureen says NOW DAN, AM I HEARING -- OH, THERE HE
GOES.
YOU JUST HAVE TO LET HIM DO?
GET IT OUT OF HIS SYSTEM?

Dan says HE ALWAYS DOES IT ONCE.

Maureen says IS THAT HIM
MAKING A NOISE?

Dan says THE TWITTERING.

Maureen says YEA THE TWITTERING. DOES HE HOOT,
TOO?

Dan says YEAH, CLASSIC, CLASSIC OWL HOOT.

Maureen says HE'S LOOKING AT
ME.
WHY ARE THE EYES YELLOW IS
IT IS THERE ANY PARTICULAR
REASON FOR THAT.

Dan says SOME SPECIES HAVE BROWN
EYE, SOME YELLOW EYES.

Dr. Rapley says IT MAY HELP WITH THE
REFLECTION A BIT PERHAPS AT
NIGHT.
THE EYES, AS YOU CAN SEE,
THEY'RE VERY FIXED EYES.
THE EYES THEMSELVES CANNOT
MOVE VERY MUCH BUT THAT'S
WHY THEY HAVE TO TURN THEIR
HEAD SO MUCH, RIGHT?
AS DAN SAID, ABOUT 270
DEGREES.
BUT THEY'RE VERY WELL
ADAPTED.
LIKE THEY HAVE A LOT OF --
THERE'S RODS AND CONES IN
THERE.
THE CONES ARE FOR COLOUR THE
RODS IN THE EYES ARE GREATLY
ACCENTUATED IN MANY OF THE
BIRDS OF PREY THAT FEED AT
NIGHT.
AND THEY HAVE VERY ACUTE
EYESIGHT.
BUT THEIR HEARING IS JUST
PHENOMENAL.

Maureen says PHENOMENAL?

Dr. Rapley says YEAH.

Maureen says HERE'S ONE FOR
YOU FROM REBECCA.
WHAT IS THE MOST RARE ANIMAL
YOU CURRENTLY HAVE AT THE
METRO ZOO AND WILL THERE BE
ANY NEW AVAXS INTRODUCED
THIS YEAR?

The owl flaps its wings.

Dr. Rapley says UH YES AND WE HAVE A LOT OF RARE
SPECIES.
I'D SAY INDIAN RHINOS ARE
ONE OF OUR RAREST SPECIES WE
HAVE AND WE HAVE THE LOWLAND
GORILLAS, WHICH ARE NOT TOTALLY
ENDANGERED AT THIS POINT IN
TIME BUT ARE HEADING TOWARDS
IT AND THEY'RE PART OF OUR
ENDANGERED SPECIES BREEDING
PROGRAMME.
THE ZOO HAS ABOUT 25 SPECIES
SURVIVAL PLANS.
I WOULD SAY THAT OUR WADDLED
CRANES ARE QUITE RARE THAT
WE HAVE IN THE BIRD END OF
IT.
AND WE HAVE, YOU KNOW, ABOUT
25 OF THESE SPECIES SURVIVAL
PLANS FOR ENDANGERED
SPECIES.
THIS YEAR WE'RE GOING TO BE
OPENING THE GORILLA
RAINFOREST.
AND THIS IS A WONDERFUL
PROJECT.
YOU'RE GOING TO HAVE HALF OF
THE AFRICAN PAVILION
CONVERTED TO GIVE THE
GORILLAS SIX TIMES THE SPACE
INDOORS.
THERE'S GOING TO BE A NEAT
RAINFOREST ATMOSPHERE IN
THERE.
THE MANDARILS HAVE BEEN
MOVED DOWN TO THE FAR END OF
THE PAVILION AND THEY HAVE A
LARGE AREA FOR THEM AS WELL.
BUT THE GORILLA RAINFOREST
WILL HAVE A CONSERVATION
AREA, IT'LL HAVE INTERACTIVE
MATERIALS THERE, INFORMATION
ON THE BUSH MEAT TRADE,
WHICH IS A BIG ISSUE RIGHT
NOW WITH GREAT APES IN
AFRICA, AND MANNED BY
VOLUNTEERS WHO ARE GOING TO
HAVE SOME REALLY INTERESTING
THINGS TO SEE.
SO THAT WILL BE OPENING IN
THE SPRINGTIME, AND THAT'LL
BE OUR BIG ATTRACTION FOR
THIS YEAR.

Maureen says YEA THAT'S GREAT!
YOU'VE HAD SOMETHING TO DO
WITH THE PANDAS.
YOU'VE ACTUALLY VISITED THE
GIANT PANDA ZOO, I GUESS IT
IS IN CHINA.

Dr. Rapley says YES.

Maureen says WOULD WE EVER
GET A COUPLE OF PANDAS TO
LOOK AT HERE FOR EVEN A
LITTLE WHILE?

Dr. Rapley says WELL, THE TORONTO ZOO DID
HAVE GIANT PANDAS FOR THREE
MONTHS BACK IN 1985.
WE HAVE BEEN WORKING WITH
THE PANDA GROUP IN SUPPORTING AN OVERALL PROGRAMME
TO STIMULATE MORE BREEDING
IN CAPTIVITY AND THE
PROTECTION OF THE PANDAS IN
THE WILD.
YES, IT'S POSSIBLE THAT SOME
DAY GIANT PANDAS COULD COME
TO THE TORONTO ZOO.
WE WOULD LIKE IT TO BE PART
OF THE INTERNATIONAL
BREEDING PROGRAMME.
AND MAYBE RECOGNITION THAT
CANADA IS A GOOD FRIEND OF
CHINA AND ALWAYS HAS BEEN IN
MANY RESPECTS.
BUT IN THE MEANTIME, THE
EFFORT IS BEING PLACED IN
THE FIELD, AND AT WOLONG
RESERVE, WHICH I VISITED UP
IN THE SICHUAN PROVINCE
IN CHINA, AND ALSO IN MANY
OF THE ZOOS THERE, THERE HAS
BEEN EXTENSIVE IMPROVEMENT
IN THE BREEDING IN CAPTIVITY
A LOT OF ARTIFICIAL
INSEMINATION.
THE SAN DIEGO ZOO, THE
NATIONAL ZOO IN WASHINGTON
D.C. AND THE ATLANTA ZOO,
CONDUCTING BEHAVIOURAL
STUDIES AND SO ON HAVE ALL
BEEN WORKING EXTENSIVELY AT
NOT ONLY BREEDING THE
SPECIES BUT ALSO LEARNING
MORE ABOUT ITS BIOLOGY AND
PROTECTING THE WILD AREAS.
SO THERE IS A POTENTIAL FOR
US TO DO THIS.
WE WOULD HAVE TO MAKE A
COMMITMENT OF OVER A MILLION
DOLLARS A YEAR U.S. TO
CONSERVATION PROGRAMMES.

Maureen says REALLY.

Dr. Rapley says FOR THE GIANT PANDA TO BE
PART OF THAT CONSORTIUM.
LIKE I SAY THERE'S BEEN A
LOT OF IMPROVEMENT IN THE
CAPTIVE BREEDING SO, THERE
IS POTENTIAL THERE DOWN THE
ROAD, YOU KNOW, IN SOME
YEARS DOWN THE ROAD FOR
TORONTO ZOO TO BE INVOLVED
HOPEFULLY.

Maureen says ALL RIGHT.
NOW DAN, ANY TIME YOU WANT
TO PUT BONES BACK, WHATEVER
YOU FEEL --

Dan says SURE.
HE'S GETTING A LITTLE HOT
UNDER THE STUDIO LIGHTS.

Maureen says YEAH, THAT MAY
BE IT.
YOU GO AHEAD IF YOU HAVE TO.
I'M JUST GOING TO GIVE THE
PHONE NUMBERS OUT AND WE'LL
GO TO ANOTHER CALLER.
WE'RE TALKING ABOUT ANIMALS
THIS AFTERNOON WITH Dr. BILL
RAPLEY FROM THE TORONTO ZOO.
AND THERE GOES BONES.
'BYE.
IF YOU WANT TO GIVE US A
CALL WITH YOUR QUESTION, WE
HAVE PASSES TO GIVE AWAY TO
THE ZOO TO SOME OF OUR LUCKY
CALLERS OR E-MAILERS 416-484-2727 LONG DISTANCE IT’S FREE AT TO 1-888-
411-1234. AND THE INTERNET ADDRESS IS moretolife@tvo.org. KAYLA IS IN
OTTAWA.
HI KAYLA.

Kayla says HI.

Maureen says HI.

Kayla says I WANT TO KNOW THERE'S THIS
BIRD CALLED THE RUFFED
GROUSE?

Dr. Rapley says OH, YES.

Kayla says AND IT USED TO
FOLLOW ME.
ALL I HAVE TO DO -- ALL I
HAD TO DO WAS GO...
RRRRR -- AND THEN IT WOULD
COME TO ME AND PLAY WITH ME
AND STUFF AND I WANTED TO
KNOW IF IT DOES THAT TO
EVERYONE?

Dr. Rapley says OH, THAT'S INTERESTING.
I HAVEN'T HEARD OF THAT.
I'M FAMILIAR WITH THE RUFF
GROUSE ON THE BRUCE
PENINSULA AND ON THE TORONTO
ZOO SITE WE HAVE SOME RUFF
GROUSE IN THE AREA.
AND AS YOU KNOW THE MALE
GETS UP ON THE LOG AND MAKES
A DRUMMING NOISE BY PUTTING
IT?S WINGS OUT AND MOVING
THEM VERY QUICKLY IN THE
SPRINGTIME.
AND YOU CAN GET FAIRLY CLOSE
TO THEM AT THE NESTING
SEASON.
THE MALE WILL BE FAIRLY
CLOSE BY.
THE FEMALE, IF SHE'S GOT
YOUNG, SHE MAY COME UP AND
TRY TO EVEN LURE YOU AWAY,
SIMILAR TO WHAT A KILL
DEER MIGHT DO.
YOU KNOW, WHICH IS A
MECHANISM --

Maureen says A DIVERSION.

Dr. Rapley says A DIVERSION AT TRYING TO
LEAD YOU AWAY FROM THE YOUNG.
SO WAS THIS IN THE
SPRINGTIME THIS HAPPENED?

Kayla says YEAH, IT WAS AROUND THE
SPRING.

Dr. Rapley says IT COULD HAVE BEEN THAT
THE MOTHER HAD SOME CHICKS
NEARBY OR THEY WERE HATCHING
AND SHE WAS TRYING TO GET TO
YOU FOLLOW HER, RATHER THAN
HAVE YOU GO TO THE NEST AND
FIND THE YOUNGSTERS OR FIND
THE CHICKS.
SO THAT WOULD PROBABLY BE
THE EXPLANATION THERE.
BUT THAT'S REALLY NEAT.
I HAVEN'T HEARD OF THAT BUT
I HAVE SEEN THE DIVERSION IN
THE RUFF GROUSE.

Maureen says DOES SHE HAVE
THE GROUSE SOUND DOWN THERE
IS WHEN SHE DID --

Dr. Rapley says YEAH.

Maureen says SOUNDED GOOD?

Dr. Rapley says SOUNDED GOOD.

Maureen says WHAT ABOUT YOU DAN ARE YOU ANY GOOD
AT BIRD CALLS?

Dr. Rapley says NOT REALLY.
I WORK HARD AT THEM.

Maureen says WHAT ABOUT YOU,
DAN? YOUR IN THERE ALL THE TIME.
CAN YOU DO ANYTHING?

Dan says NOT TERRIBLY WELL.

Maureen says NOT REALLY WELL. ALL RIGHT, WE'LL
LET YOU OFF THE HOOK THEN.

Maureen says WHAT DO YOU HAVE IN THE
BOX THERE?

Dan says WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO THE
HONOURS?

Maureen says IT'S A BIG
SURPRISE HERE.

Dr. Rapley says OKAY.

Maureen says IT'S A BABY
BLANKET.

Dr. Rapley pulls out a bird from a box covered in a yellow baby
blanket.

Dr. Rapley says HERE WE GO.
HERE WE GO.
(SQUAWKING)

Dr. Rapley says THIS IS A SUGAR GLIDER.

Maureen says YOU WANT ME TO
HOLD THIS, THIS THING?

Dr. Rapley says YEAH, YOU CAN JUST HOLD
IT RIGHT LIKE THAT AND YOU
COULD...

Maureen holds the yellow blanket that has the sugar glider.

Maureen says HI SUGAR GLIDER.
WHAT IS A SUGAR GLIDER?

Dr. Rapley says WELL A SUGAR ZIDER IS A
LITTLE MARSUPIAL FROM
AUSTRALIA AND ALSO FROM NEW
GUINEA, AND THEY HAVE A
LITTLE POUCH IN THE
FEMALE ? OF COURSE THIS IS A MALE.
AND THEY'RE REALLY NEAT
LITTLE MARSUPIALS.
THEY FEED ON A VARIETY OF
DIFFERENT FRUIT NECTARS AND
SMALL INSECTS AND THINGS
LIKE THAT.
BUT THEY HAVE ON THEIR SIDES,
YOU'LL SEE THAT THEY HAVE A
NICE LITTLE LOOSE FLAP.

A close up shows the sugar glider being stroked by Maureen and then
their flap or wing is shown to the camera.

Maureen says OH, YEAH, LIKE A
FLYING SQUIRREL.

Dr. Rapley says SO THEY'RE ACTUALLY A
GLIDER LIKE A FLYING
SQUIRREL.
THAT'S CORRECT.
AND WHAT THEY WILL DO IS
THEY'LL ACTUALLY GLIDE
ACROSS IN THE TREE.
AND THEY'VE BEEN RECORDED TO
GO PRETTY CLOSE TO 50 METRES,
WHICH IS 150 FEET.

Maureen says NOW A MARSUPIAL,
IS THAT WHAT A KANGAROO IS?

Dr. Rapley says YES IN AUSTRALIA, OF
COURSE, THE ANIMALS ARE ALL
WHAT WE CALL POUCHED ANIMALS
EXCEPT FOR THE DINGO, AS AN
EXCEPTION.
BUT THE POUCHED ANIMALS HAVE
DIFFERENT TYPES OF POUCHES
AND THE KANGAROO, OF COURSE,
IS JUST A TYPE OF MARSUPIAL.
AND YOU KNOW THAT THE JOEY
IS FOUND IN THE POUCH.
SO WITH THE YOUNGER BORN
MARSUPIALS, AT ABOUT TWO
WEEKS OF AGE THEY ACTUALLY
CRAWL OUT OF THE VAGINA INTO
THE LITTLE POUCH AND ATTACH
ONTO THE TEET INTO THE POUCH
AREA.
AND OF COURSE IF YOU COME
OUT TO THE ZOO YOU'LL SEE
OUR GREY KANGAROOS OR
BENNET'S WALLABIES AND
YOU'LL SEE THE JOEYS, AS
THEY GET BIGGER, THEY'RE
STILL IN THAT POUCH AND
THEY'RE PROBABLY STILL, YOU
KNOW, NURSING AT THAT TIME,
BUT THE HEAD'LL START
PEEKING OUT AND THEY GET
QUITE LARGE AND THEN THEY
EVENTUALLY COME OUT OF THE
POUCH.
SO THEY'RE POUCHD ANIMALS
AND THIS IS TYPICAL OF
AUSTRAL ASIA AND AUSTRALIA
IN PARTICULAR.

Maureen says I DON'T KNOW IF
YOU CAN SEE.
IS HE MISSING AN EAR?

Dr. Rapley says A PIECE OF ONE.

Dan says A PIECE, YES.

Maureen says WHAT HAPPENED?
IN A FIGHT?

Dr. Rapley says YES.
HIS -- WHEN HE WAS A
YOUNGSTER, HE HAD A BIT OF
WEAKNESS IN HIS LEGS AND HE
HAD TO BE NURSED ALONG A
LITTLE BIT AND HE NEVER
REALLY FIT INTO THE GROUP
AND THAT'S WHY WE HAVE KEPT
HIM OFF SEPARATELY AND HE'S
NOT PART OF THE OVERALL
GROUP.

Maureen says HE'S NOT GOING
TO GET BIGGER THAN THIS?

Dr. Rapley says NO, THAT'S THE FULL SIZE.

Maureen says WOULD THEY MAKE
A GOOD PET?

Dr. Rapley says AH, WELL, THEY HAVE BEEN
KEPT AS PETS QUITE
EXTENSIVELY, ACTUALLY.
THERE'S ACTUALLY SUGAR
GLIDER SOCIETIES OUT THERE
AND THIS KIND OF THING, BUT
IN GENERAL WE DON'T
RECOMMEND THAT EXOTICS LIKE
THIS BE USED AS PETS.

Maureen says NO.
NO.

Dr. Rapley says IN OUR CASE, WE'RE
HANDLING THE ANIMAL ALL THE
TIME AND WE USE IT AS ONE OF
THE AMBASSADORS FOR ITS
SPECIES, YOU KNOW?
BUT WE'RE NOT RECOMMENDING
THIS AS A PET.

Maureen says AND I DON'T WANT
TO BE RUDE OR ANYTHING BUT
THERE IS A LITTLE SMELL.
SO THAT MAY BE --
YOU DON'T NEED TO TAKE IT
AWAY, I WASN'T COMPLAINING.
LET'S GO TO NADINE IN
NAPANEE.
HI NADINE.

Nadine says HI.

Maureen says HI, HOW ARE YOU,
LET ME FIND MY PEN HERE.
OKAY, WHAT’S YOUR QUESTION?

Nadine WE LIVE IN
EASTERN ONTARIO AND RECENTLY
WE'VE BEEN HAVING A LOT OF
SIGHTINGS OF AN ANIMAL THAT
LOOKS VERY SIMILAR TO A FOX
BUT IT'S ACTUALLY QUITE
BLACK IN COLOUR.
IS THERE ANYTHING SUCH AS A
BLACK FOX?

Maureen says BILL, YEAH.
YOU CAN PICK UP THE SUGAR
THING IF YOU LIKE, BILL, WE
JUST WANT YOU TO SHOW HIM TO
THE CAMERA, IF YOU COULD.
DID YOU GET THE QUESTION
FROM NADINE?

Dr. Rapley says YES, IT IS POSSIBLE.
THERE ARE -- IN FOXES, OF
COURSE, THERE ARE SOME
VARIATIONS, YOU KNOW, IN
MANY ANIMALS YOU WILL GET
ALPINIST IC-TYPE ANIMALS THAT
SHOW UP, WHICH ARE WHITE,
WHITE-ISH LOOKING FOR HAVE
COLOURS OF WHITE IN THEM AND
EVEN IN MOOSE IN ONTARIO, WE
HAVE ALBINO OR WHITE MOOSE
THOSE SHOW UP IN NATURE.
AND SOMETIMES YOU GET
MELANISTIC, OR BLACK FORMS.
A GOOD EXAMPLE WOULD BE YOUR
COMMON SQUIRRELS, WHICH IS
REALLY CALLED THE GREY
SQUIRREL BUT AS YOU KNOW IN
TORONTO IN MANY AREAS WE
HAVE THE BLACK VARIETY THERE,
WHICH IS THE DARKER FORM.
SO IT'S POSSIBLE THAT YOU
COULD HAVE A DARKER TYPE
FOX.
AS YOU KNOW, FOXES WERE
COMMERCIALISED AND KEPT FOR
THE FUR INDUSTRY FOR MANY
YEARS, AND THERE ARE VARIETY,
SILVER COLOURS AND THINGS
LIKE THAT, AND I'M NOT SURE
WHETHER IT'S POSSIBLE
THAT --

Maureen says THAT'S WHAT YOU
SAW.

Dr. Rapley says SOMETHING LIKE THAT MIGHT
HAVE BEEN WHAT YOU SAW.

Maureen says OKAY, ON THE
OTHER END OF THE SCALE, AN
ANIMAL THAT'S WHITE, CHERYL
WOULD LIKE TO KNOW DO YOU
KEEP THE POLAR BEAR PEN AT
THE SAME TEMPERATURE ALL
AROUND OR IS IT WHAMMER IN
THE SUMMER AND ARE THE POLAR
BEARS MORE ACTIVE NOW AND
EATING MORE?

Dr. Rapley says UH YES.
WELL, THE POLAR BEARS -- THE
TEMPERATURE DOES VARY QUITE
A LOT DEPENDING ON --
PERHAPS I CAN --

Maureen says YEAH, YOU CAN
PUT HIM AWAY IF YOU WANT.

Dr. Rapley says HOW ABOUT IF I GIVE HIM
TO DAN RIGHT NOW AND I'LL
CONCENTRATE ON ANSWERING THE
QUESTION.

Maureen says YEAH.

Dr. Rapley says ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WE
DO, OF COURSE, IS WE HAVE A
WATER SUPPLY FOR THE
POLAR BEARS.
YES, IT CAN GET PRETTY HOT
OUT THERE.
AS IT DOES IN THE ARTIC.
IT CAN GET PRETTY WARM IN
THE SUMMER TIME IN JUNE AND
JULY.
THEY DO GO ON LAND AT THAT
TIME.
BUT THE WATER IS ALWAYS VERY
COLD SO, THEY TEND TO GO
INTO THE WATER A LOT MORE IN
THE SUMMER, AND WE GIVE THEM
THE TREATS, WHICH ARE
VEGETABLES AND FRUITS AND SO
ON IN THE ICE AND THAT FOR
THEM TO PLAY WITH.
IN THE WINTERTIME, YES,
THEY'RE IN THEIR ELEMENT,
JUST AS ON OUR BOXING DAY
WALK, WE HAD A WONDERFUL DAY,
COLD TEMPERATURE WITH LOTS
OF SNOW AND ICE AND SO ON,
AND THE POLAR BEAR CAN ADAPT
TO THAT VERY WELL.
AND AS YOU KNOW, THEY GO ON
THE ICE FLOES IN THE WINTER
AND THEY'RE OUT AND THEY
FEED ON SEALS SO THAT THEY
CAN HANDLE THE COLD
TEMPERATURES AND THE
EXTREMES VERY, VERY WELL.

Maureen says SO IF I WENT TO
THE ZOO NOW, WHAT WOULD I
SEE THAT'S ACTIVE OUT THERE?

Dr. Rapley says WELL, THERE ARE MANY
SPECIES THAT WE HAVE
OUTDOORS, FIRST OF ALL, THE
REINDEER, AND THE
PRZEWALSKI HORSE, MUSK OXEN,
MANY OF THE DEER SPECIES,
TIGER, SNOW LEOPARD AND SO ON ARE OUT
AND VERY ACTIVE OUTSIDE.
BUT REMEMBER, THE ZOO HAS
SIX TROPICAL PAVILIONS AND
INDOORS WE HAVE TROPICAL
SPECIES THAT ARE ACTIVE ALL
THE TIME, EVERYDAY OF THE
YEAR.

Maureen says AND THEY'RE ALL
THERE.
OKAY.
MARY IS IN ETOBICOKE.
HI MARY.
OKAY, MARY, ARE YOU THERE?

Mary says YEAH.

Maureen says OKAY Mary GO
AHEAD.

Mary UM WHY, DOES
TURTLES HAVE THEIR SHELLS?

Dr. Rapley says WELL, THE TURTLE HAS
DEVELOPED A SHELL AS A
PROTECTION MECHANISM.
CERTAINLY THEY'RE HARDER TO
EAT, YOU KNOW, AS COMPARED
TO SAY A SALAMANDER OR MUD
PUPPY OR A FROG THAT DOESN'T
HAVE ANY OF TYPE OF
PROTECTION IN THE POND SO
THAT A TURTLE CAN PULL ITS
LEGS IN AND IF A PREDATOR
COMES ALONG AND TRIES TO EAT
IT, IT CAN HIDE ITS LEGS AND
PULL IN, AND IT'S HARD FOR
THE PREDATOR TO GRAB ONTO
THE SHELL SO IT'S A
PROTECTION MECHANISM, AND IT
HELPS IT GET ALONG QUITE IN
THE POND ENVIRONMENT.

Maureen says NOW I WAS
READING ON YOUR CV THAT YOU
WENT TO THE GALAPAGOS
ISLANDS.

Dr. Rapley says GALAPAGOS ISLANDS YES.

Maureen says I ASSOCIATE THAT
WITH BIG TURTLES BUT MAYBE
I'M WRONG. I DON?T KNOW
“NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC.”

Dr. Rapley says YES, WE HAVE THE GIANT
TORTOISES THERE AND THERE
ARE DIFFERENT FORMS ON THE
DIFFERENT ISLANDS.
AND WITH OUR GROUP FROM THE
SOCIETY TOUR AT THAT TIME,
WE WERE ABLE TO VISIT THE
DARWIN STATION WHERE THEY
HAVE A BREEDING PROGRAMME,
AND THEY, OF COURSE, HAVE
BEEN MAINTAINED AND
RE-INTRODUCED TO MANY OF THE
ISLANDS AND THEY'RE QUITE
LARGE.
OUR ZOO HAS KEPT ALDABRA
TORTOISES, WHICH ARE VERY LARGE FROM THE ALDABRA ISLANDS. SO THESE
ISLAND FORMS OF
TORTOISES HAVE GROWN QUITE
HUGE AND THEY'VE THE
PROTECTIVE SHELLS AS WELL.

Maureen says YEA OKAY.
THANKS, MARY FOR YOUR
QUESTION.
ANNE SAYS WE LEARNED IN
SCIENCE THAT ELEPHANT DUNG
IS A VERY GOOD FERTILISER
AND THAT THEY PRODUCE AN
AWFUL LOT OF IT.
WHAT DOES THE ZOO DO WITH
ALL OF IT?
DO THEY SELL IT TO GARDENING
CENTRES?

Dr. Rapley says WELL WHAT WE DO, AS PART
OF OUR COMMITMENT TO
CONSERVATION, THE TORONTO
ZOO HAS BEEN A LEADER IN
RECYCLING AND REUSING
MATERIALS.
AND WE TAKE THE WASTE
MATERIALS AND SORT THEM OUT,
AND WE HAVE A HUGE COMPOST
OPERATION WHERE WE ACTUALLY
PRODUCE OUR OWN COMPOST
MATERIAL.
NOW GENERALLY WE MIX THAT
WITH GRADE SOIL, WE CAN MAKE
OUR OWN TOPSOIL, AND WE USE
IT AS AN ORGANIC FERTILISER
IN MUCH OF OUR OPERATION AT
THE ZOO.
IT IS TRUE THAT IN THE PAST
WE DID HAVE LITTLE PACKAGED
AMOUNTS MADE UP,
COMMERCIALLY, BASED ON THE
ZOO PRODUCTS THAT WE CALLED
“ZOO POOH” AND YOU COULD BUY
IT AT OUR GIFT SHOP.
WE STOPPED DOING THAT
ALTHOUGH IT IS CERTAINLY
SOMETHING FOR US TO LOOK AT
AGAIN IN THE FUTURE, THE
POSSIBILITY OF DOING THIS.
AND CERTAINLY THAT COMPOST,
I CAN TELL YOU FROM
EXPERIENCE AS A GARDENER,
THAT THE ZOO COMPOST IS
EXTREMELY SUCCESSFUL FOR
CERTAIN TYPES OF PLANTS AND
VEGETABLES.

Maureen says HOW MUCH DOES AN
ELEPHANT PRODUCE IN A DAY?
DAN?
DO YOU...

Dan says A WHEEL BARREL LOAD EACH.

Maureen says A WHEEL BARREL LOAD
EACH.
WHAT DO THEY EAT, ELEPHANTS?
WHAT DO YOU FEED THEM AT THE
ZOO.

Dr. Rapley says WELL, WE FEED THEM A
COUPLE OF LARGE PELLETS THAT
ARE BASED -- ACTUALLY A
MIXTURE OF RUMINANT PELLETS,
WHICH ARE FOR THE COMPOUND
STOMACHED ANIMALS AND THE
MONO GASTRIC PELLETS, AND
THEN WE GIVE THEM HAY, LOTS
OF HAY.
WE CUT BRANCHES FOR THEM
BECAUSE THE AFRICAN
ELEPHANTS LOVE TO RIP DOWN
BRANCHES AND BREAK DOWN
TREES AND THIS KIND OF THING
AND THE BRANCHES ARE REALLY
GOOD FOR THEIR TEETH THEIR
OCCUPATION --

Maureen says TOOTH PICKS.

Dr. Rapley says YEAH, THEY'RE JUST SUPER
AND WE ALSO GIVE THEM SOME
CARROTS AND A FEW TREAT-LIKE
THINGS LIKE CARROTS AND
APPLES AND SO ON AS WELL AS
PART OF THE DAY.

Maureen says OKAY.
KATIE IS IN WHITBY.
HI KATIE.

Katie says HI.

Maureen says HI. WHAT’S YOUR QUESTION?

Katie says HAVE YOU EVER HAD
A DANGEROUS ANIMAL ESCAPE
FROM THE ZOO?

Maureen says GOOD QUESTION.
HAVE YOU, BILL?

Dr. Rapley says UM, YES.
IN -- I WAS THE FIRST
VETERINARIAN AT THE ZOO, AND
STARTED WORKING THERE IN
1973, AND WE OPEN TO THE
PUBLIC IN 1974.
AND WE DID GET SOME ANIMALS
GET OUT OF ENCLOSURES IN THE
EARLY DAYS.
IN FACT I REMEMBER GETTING
CALLED IN ONCE WHEN A
LOWLAND GORILLA NAMED AMANDA
ACTUALLY GOT OUT ONE EVENING,
AND WE HAD TO -- WE SEDATED
HER.
FORTUNATELY SHE WOULD DRINK
FROM A CUP AND I WAS ABLE TO
PUT SOME TRANQUILLISER IN
SOMETHING SHE WAS DRINKING
AND SLOW HER DOWN A BIT AND
THEN DART HER WITH THE DART
GUN.
WE HAD AN ORANGUTAN FEMALE
WHO IS AN ESCAPE ARTIST GET
OUT ONE TIME.

Maureen says REALLY?
HOW DID SHE GET OUT?
DO YOU KNOW?

Dr. Rapley says SHE KEPT WORKING AND
FINDING WAYS -- THEY'RE VERY
METHODICAL, VERY INTELLIGENT
ANIMAL, THE ORANGUTANS, AND
THEY WERE ABLE TO FIND A
PLACE TO CLIMB OUT, AND IN
FACT WE HAD ONE GET OUT
TWICE AND THE ANIMAL HAD TO
BE TRANQUILLISED AND BROUGHT
BACK TO THE EXIBIT.
AND CERTAINLY, PART OF THE
EARLY DAYS WE HAD A NUMBER
OF THESE THINGS HAPPEN.
THE ZOO WAS BREAKING GROUND,
HEADING INTO A MUCH MORE
NATURAL TYPE EXHIBIT AREA,
AND WE WERE DEFINING SOME OF
THOSE PRINCIPLES OF WHAT YOU
NEED FOR ENCLOSURE AND --

Maureen says TO BE NATURALLEN
AND CLOSED AT THE SAME TIME.

Dr. Rapley says EXACTLY, YOU KNOW?

Maureen says YEAH.

Dr. Rapley says AND OF COURSE THIS CAN
HAPPEN.
THE GORILLAS LEARNED -- THEY
HAD AN OPEN TOP AT THAT TIME,
INDOORS, AND THEY LEARNED,
GIVING THEM BRANCHES FOR
OCCUPATION AND EVERYTHING
THAT THEY COULD PUT THEM UP
AGAINST THE WALL AND
EVENTUALLY FIGURE OUT HOW TO
CLIMB UP, AND THEY EVEN
COULD LEARN HOW TO CLIMB UP
ON EACH OTHER'S BACKS AND
GET OUT.

Maureen says WITH A PYRAMID.

Dr. Rapley says YES, SO IT'S SOMETHING WE
HAVE TO REALY WATCH
CAREFULLY.

Maureen says DID YOU HAVE A
BLACK BEAR WALK INTO THE ZOO
ONCE WHO DIDN'T PAY HIS
ADMISSION?

Dr. Rapley says THAT'S RIGHT.

Maureen says SO THIS ANIMAL
WANTED TO JOIN THE ZOO.

Dr. Rapley says THAT'S RIGHT.
ONE NIGHT -- WHEN I WAS -- I
HAD JUST RETURNED TO THE ZOO
AND STARTED WORKING HERE
AGAIN IN 1989.
WE GOT A PHONE CALL ONE
EVENING THAT THERE WAS A
BLACK BEAR WANDERING AROUND
THE FAR SIDE OF THE ZOO
SITE.
AND THIS WAS A WILD BLACK
BEAR, AND IT HAD COME DOWN
THE CORRIDORS, YOU KNOW,
FROM STOUVILLE OR WHATEVER
AND EVENTUALLY IT WAS
TRANQUILIZED OUT ON KINGSTON
ROAD IN PICKERING AREA, AND
WAS PUT IN A CRATE AND
RETURNED TO THE MINISTRY OF
NATURAL RESOURCES.
SO WE -- YOU KNOW, IT WAS 35
YEARS, I BELIEVE, SINCE THEY
HAD A RECORD OF A BLACK BEAR IN
THIS AREA OF TORONTO,
BUT THEY WERE FOUND HERE AT
ONE TIME, AND THEY STILL
COULD COME DOWN THE VALLEYS.
WE HAD A MOOSE NEAR THE ZOO
AT ONE TIME AS WELL.
A WILD MOOSE.
NOT A BIG PLASTIC ONE, BUT A
REAL WILD MOOSE.

Maureen says WELL FOR THE
BEAR, DO YOU THINK THE BEAR
WAS ATTRACTED TO THE ZOO
BECAUSE HE MIGHT KNOW THAT
THERE'S SOME THINGS THAT HE
MIGHT TO WANT EAT IN THERE?

Dr. Rapley says NO, I DON'T THINK SO
YOU'VE GOT TO THINK OF THE
ROUGE VALLEY SYSTEM AND IT'S
A HUGE RIVER SYSTEM.
AND THEY WERE PART OF THAT
SYSTEM, AND YOU KNOW, MOOSE
ARE FOUND UP TOWARDS
ORILLIA.
THERE ARE SOME THAT ARE
SIGHTED, AND YOU'VE GOT
BEARS THAT CAN COME DOWN
THOSE CORRIDORS.

Maureen says RIGHT.

Dr. Rapley says AND CERTAINLY AS THE BEAR
POPULATION MAY EXPAND IN ONE
YEAR, THEY MAY TRAVEL AND
YOU KNOW, COME INTO THE
URBAN ENVIRONMENT HERE.

Maureen says OKAY.
DAN, I KNOW WE HAVE ONE LAST
BIRD OF IT A LOOK AT SO, IF
YOU WANT TO GO AHEAD AND GET
THAT OUT WE'LL GO TO CRYSTAL
IN ORILLIA.
HI CRYSTAL.

Crystal says HI.

Maureen says HI.

Crystal says I HAVE QUESTION
ABOUT WHAT IS HAPPEN
TOGETHER WOLVES UP HERE IN
ORILLIA AREA.
IT SEEMS TO ME THAT THERE'S
A KIND OF DISEASE THAT HAS
HIT THEM.
ITS CHARACTERISTICS ARE
THEY'RE LOSING THEIR HAIR,
THEY'RE VERY THIN IN WEIGHT,
THEY LOOK LIKE THEY'RE VERY
FEEBLE.
I'M JUST WONDERING WHAT THE
DISEASE IS.
DO YOU HAVE ANY IDEA WHAT IS
HITTING THEM?

Dr. Rapley says YES, WE DO.
WE HAVE A GROUP STUDYING THE
BRUSH WOLVES OR COYOTES
HERE IN THE URBAN
ENVIRONMENT AND IN ONTARIO.
AND BASICALLY ONE OF THE
THINGS THAT'S SHOWING UP IS
WHAT WE CALL SARCOPTIC MANGE
AND THIS IS A LITTLE MITE
THAT BURROWS INTO THE SKIN
AND IT CAUSES A GREY, CRUSTY
AREA TO FORM.
IT'S BEEN SEEN ON SOME OF
THE WILDLIFE SPECIMENS THAT
WE'VE WORKED WITH, HELPING
OUT HERE IN THE PROVINCE,
AND HAS EVEN BEEN SEEN IN
THE CITY AREA IT.
CAN ALSO CAUSE A PROBLEM IN
THE FOXES AS WELL.
BUT IT CAN BE PRETTY
DEVASTATING.
THE MANGE CAN SPREAD AND
LOOK LIKE A GREY, BARE AREA,
CRUSTY LOOKING, IF YOU GET A
CLOSE LOOK AT IT ON THE BACK
OF THESE ANIMALS.

Maureen says MY DOG DID
THIS I HAD TO BATHE HIM IN
LIME SULFUR.
DO YOU WANT TO DO IT TO ALL
THOSE WOLFS?
I WONT RECOMMEND IT.

Dr. Rapley says IT'S A DIFFICULT ONE.
THEY WOULD CERTAINLY HAVE TO
BE HANDLED TO BE TREATED AND
IT'S A DEVASTATING PROBLEM.
IT'S PRETTY COMMON IN THE
BRUSH WOLVES AT THIS POINT IN
TIME.
AND ALL IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF NORTH
AMERICA, NOT JUST HERE.

Dan carries a bald eagle on his arm and then places him on a perch.

Maureen says ALL RIGHT.
WELL COME IN DAN, LOOK WHAT
DAN'S GOT.
IS IT -- OKAY.
YOU DON'T SIT DOWN WITH HIM,
I GUESS.

Dan says HE'S BEST ON THERE.
WHOOPS.

Maureen says WE'RE FINE.
WE'RE OKAY.

Dan says I'LL JUST TURN HIM
AROUND.

Dr. Rapley says GET HIM TO TURN.
SO THIS IS, THIS IS A MALE
BALD EAGLE AND THIS IS A
SYMBOL OF CONSERVATION.
AS YOU KNOW, THE EMBLEM OF
THE UNITED STATES.
AND THE BALD EAGLE MICASEE
HERE IS A MALE.
AND IN 1981 HE WAS BROUGHT
INTO THE ZOO AND AT THAT
TIME I WAS A CLINICAL
VETERINARIAN AT THE ZOO AND
HAD AN INJURED -- OH, THERE,
HE'S DOING HIS THING.

Maureen says (LAUGHING)
OKAY.
(LAUGHING)

Dr. Rapley says HE’S SHOWING HIS
APPRECIATION FOR THE ARTWORK
THERE.

Maureen says I NEVER LIKED
THAT PAINTING EITHER.
(LAUGHING)

Dr. Rapley says NO, THAT'S GOOD.
ANYWAYS, MICASEE WAS BORN
OUT OF A NEST AS A YOUNGSTER
AND INJURED HIS WING.
THE WING, UNFORTUNATELY, WAS
NOT HEALING PROPERLY AND WAS
BROUGHT TO US.
WE TRIED TO SAVE MICASEE,
AND WE WERE ABLE TO FIX HIS
WING, BUT AS YOU CAN SEE,
THE ONE WING DOES SLOPE DOWN
A LITTLE BIT.
IT CAN FLY SEVERAL HUNDRED
FEAT OR SO, BUT IT CAN'T
MAKE IT BACK TO THE WILD.
SO MICASEE HAS BECOME AN
AMBASSADOR FOR HIS SPECIES,
THE BALD EAGLE, WHICH IS A
SPECIES THAT WAS ALMOST
ELIMINATED HERE IN ONTARIO.

Maureen says YEAH.

Dr. Rapley says I WORKED -- WHEN I WAS AT
THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN
ONTARIO, I WORKED FOR FIVE
YEARS ON THE RECOVERY
PROJECT AT LONGPOINT, AND
WHAT WE DID IS WE WERE ABLE
TO SEE -- AGAIN, AND I
REMEMBER GOING TO NESTS IN
THE 1960s, WHERE YOU HAD
VERY FEW NESTS IN SOUTHERN
ONTARIO, THE D.D.T. PROBLEM
HAD BUILT UP IN THE
POPULATION, THE BALD EAGLES
WERE NOT DOING WELL.
THEY HAD INFERTILITY, THEY
HAD REPRODUCTIVE PROBLEMS,
BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS AROUND
THE NEST.
SUDDENLY IN 1982 WE HAD A
NEST DOWN AT LONGPOINT,
ONTARIO THAT PRODUCED
HEALTHY YOUNG CHICKS.
SO IN 1983 WE STARTED A
REINTRODUCTION PROJECT AND
WE WERE ABLE TO GO TO LAKE
OF THE WOODS IN NORTHERN
ONTARIO WITH JERRY McKEATING
AND JEFF ROBINSON OF THE
CANADIAN WILDLIFE SERVICE,
AND WITH THE MINISTRY OF
NATURAL RESOURCES BEGAN A
REINTRODUCTION PROJECT.
WE HAD 25 YEARS OF DATA BY
Dr. JIM GRIER AND HIS GROUP
FROM NORTH -- OH, THERE HE
GOES.
GOING TO DO IT AGAIN?
(LAUGHING)
AND MICASEE IS AN EXAMPLE OF
A SPECIES THAT 1500 NESTS
WERE DOING WELL UP IN LAKE
OF THE WOODS, BUT WE WERE
DOWN TO MAYBE ONE NEST IN
SOUTHERN ONTARIO, SO WE
STARTED REPOPULATING, AS
THEY DID IN NEW YORK STATE,
OHIO, PENNSYLVANIA, DOWN IN
THE NEW ENGLAND STATES AND
THE TENNESSEE VALLEY, AND
BALD EAGLES WERE HACKED BACK
TO THE WILD IN THESE
ARTIFICIAL NESTS.
AND IRENE BOWMAN OF THE
MINISTRY OF NATURAL
RESOURCES ALSO HAD SOME
BIRDS DOWN TOWARDS LAKE ERIE
AS WELL IN ANOTHER PART OF
THE PROJECT.

Maureen says SO HOW WOULD YOU
DESCRIBE THE HEALTH OF THE
POPULATION ONTARIO NOW?

Dr. Rapley says WELL NOW WE'RE GETTING
ABOUT 15 TO 16 NESTS A
YEAR.
IT'S GROWN EXPONENTIALLY IS
WE'RE PRODUCING YOUNG.
THEY'RE DOING WELL.
THE BIRDS ARE DOING WELL IN
NEW YORK STATE, OHIO AND
IN THE EAST AND IN FACT A
YEAR AND A HALF AGO, THE
BALD EAGLE WAS TAKEN OFF THE
ENDANGERED SPECIES LIST IN
EASTERN NORTH AMERICA.

Maureen says WOW.
I JUST DON'T KNOW IF PEOPLE
REALISE HOW MAGNIFICENT THEY
ARE WHEN YOU'RE THIS CLOSE.
THAT BEAK!
THOSE TALONS!
YOU CAN JUST SEE HOW THEY
MIGHT, YOU KNOW, GO DOWN
OVER A LAKE, I GUESS, EH
DAN?
AND PLUCK A FISH OUT.

Dr. Rapley says RIGHT OFF THE SURFACE.

Maureen says WOW.
OKAY, WE DON'T HAVE A LOT OF
TIME LEFT.
LET'S SQUEEZE JENNIFER'S
QUESTION IN TORONTO.
HI JENNIFER.

Jennifer says HI.

Maureen says HI, WHAT'S YOUR
QUESTION?

Jennifer says HOW DO YOU KNOW
IF A HAWK IS MALE OR FEMALE?

Maureen says OH.

Dr. Rapley says UM, IN SOME CASES YOU CAN
TELL BY MEASUREMENTS.
IN FACT BALD EAGLES, BECAUSE
WE HAD ALL THAT YEARS OF
DATA, THE FEMALES ARE LARGER
THAN THE MALE, AND YOU CAN
MEASURE THE ACTUAL TARSIS
WHICH IS THE FOOT, THE FOOT
DISTANCE AND THIS TYPE OF
THING, AND BY SIZE YOU CAN
DO SOME EXAMINATIONS IN THAT
DIRECTION.
YOU CAN ALSO PALPATE THE
PELVIS.
IN SOME CASES YOU MAY BE
ABLE TO FIND A DIFFERENCE
THERE, AND IN SOME BIRDS
IT'S VERY TRICKY.
RAPTORS WE HAVE PRETTY GOOD
LUCK BECAUSE THERE IS THIS
SIZE DIFFERENCE IN MOST
CASES, SOMETIMES SLIGHT
PLUMAGE DIFFERENCES THAT YOU
CAN SEE.
IN BIRDS THAT LOOK
IDENTICAL, IT'S MUCH MORE
DIFFICULT.
SO THEN WHAT WE DO IS WE GET
A FECAL SAMPLE, OR A URINE
SAMPLE AND WE LOOK AT
HORMONES THAT ARE FOUND IN
THE URINE, AND IN SOME
SPECIES WE MIGHT USE A BLOOD
SAMPLE, AND AS A LAST RESORT,
IN AN ENDANGERED SPECIES IN
A BREEDING PROGRAMME WHERE
YOU CAN'T TELL THE
DIFFERENCE WE MAY ACTUALLY
DO A LAPAROSCOPY AND LOOK
INTO THE ABDOMEN AND SEE IF
THERE'S OVARIES OR TESTES.

Maureen says BUT SHE'S NOT
GOING TO BE ABLE TO TELL THE
DIFFERENCE JUST AS THEY FLY
BY.

Dr. Rapley says NOT EASILY, NO.

Maureen says BACK TO THE BALD
EAGLE, WHERE WOULD I GO IN
ONTARIO NOW TO SEE ONE OF
THESE 16 NEST THAT YOU SAY
YOU CAN SEE?

Dr. Rapley says THESE NESTS ARE FOUND
BETWEEN LONG POINT AND
DETROIT, OKAY?
AND ALL ALONG THE LAKE ERIE
SHORE THERE IS QUITE A FEW
NESTS.
IF YOU GO DOWN TO PORT PERRY,
THERE IS ONE THAT HAS NESTED
THERE FOR MANY YEARS, RIGHT
ON A ROAD THAT IF YOU
CONTACT THE MINISTER OF
NATURAL RESOURCES, THEY EVEN
HAVE A VIEWING AREA THAT YOU
CAN GO TO AND LOOK ACROSS
THE FIELD AND SEE THE BALD
EAGLE NESTING THERE.
SO ALONG THE LAKE ERIE
SHORE.
WE HAD A WILD BALD EAGLE
SIGHTED FLYING OVER THE ZOO
JUST IN THE LAST FEW WEEKS,
AND IN FACT JANUARY 1st, I
LIVE IN UXBRIDGE, ONTARIO, I
WAS OUT BIRD WATCHING AND AN
ADULT MALE FLEW RIGHT OVER
THE ROAD JUST EAST OF
UXBRIDGE, ONTARIO SO THEY'RE AROUND.
THEY OCCASIONALLY WILL
WINTER HERE. IT
DEPENDS A LOT ON LAKE
CONDITIONS AND SO ON BUT WE DO
HAVE SOME WINTERING
POPULATIONS IN THE AREA.

Maureen says WELL THIS HAS
JUST BEEN FANTASTIC.
I KNOW IT WASN'T EASY TO GET
ALL OF THESE BIRDS AND THE
ANIMAL DOWN HERE BUT THANK
YOU BOTH SO MUCH.
AND THANKS FOR BRINGING THEM
IN.

Dr. Rapley says WELL, THANK YOU.

Maureen says THAT WAS GREAT.
I HOPE WE'LL ALL HAVE A
CHANCE TO GET TO THE ZOO.
AND WE DO HAVE SOME PEOPLE
WHO HAVE WON SOME PASSES.
MY GUESTS TODAY Dr. BILL
RAPLEY AND DAN PEARSON ARE
BOTH WITH THE TORONTO ZOO.

A panel appears on the screen that reads “Toronto Zoo. (416) 392-
5900 www.torontozoo.com”

Maureen says YOU CAN REACH THE ZOO BY PHONE AT AREA CODE (416) 392-
5900. They also have a website www.torontozoo.com. SO WE’LL GET THIS
MESS CLEANED UP OVER HEAR AND IN THE MEANTIME I HOPE YOU WILL JOIN
US AGAIN FOR MORE TO LIFE MONDAY THROUGH FRIDAY AT ONE O’CLOCK.

Watch: Zoology