Transcript: Astronomy | Dec 12, 2000

(music plays)

The opening sequence shows a wooden table with a small lit.

Fast clips show different sets of hands performing activities on the table such as pulling petals from a daisy, drawing a big red heart, tuning a violin, flipping through the pages of a book, cooking, and pouring a glass of red wine.

In animation, the title appears inside the shape of a house: “More to life.”

Maureen Taylor sits in a studio with a yellow wall displaying the “More to life” logo in the background.

Maureen is in her late thirties, with wavy red hair. She’s wearing a bright pink blazer.

Maureen says WHEN IT COMES TO SPACE
EXPLORATION AND ASTRONOMY,
WE CALL ON IVAN SEMENIUK.
HE IS AN ASTRONOMER AND
PRODUCER AT THE DISCOVERY
CHANNEL.
IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT
THE RECENT RENDEZVOUS WITH
THE I.S.S., THE CHRISTMAS
ECLIPSE OR ANYTHING ELSE TO
DO WITH ASTRONOMY, GIVE US A
CALL.

A caption appears on screen showing two phone numbers. They read “(416) 484-2727. 1-888-411-1234.”

The caption changes to “moretolife@tvo.org.”

Maureen continues
AND I WAS
KIND OF THINKING WE WOULDN'T
HAVE A LOT OF KIDS TO CALL,
IVAN, BUT MINE ARE HOME FROM
SCHOOL.
IF KIDS ARE HOME THIS IS A
GREAT SHOW FOR THEM TO LEARN
SOMETHING WHILE THEY'RE
SKIPPING SCHOOL.
SO WE COULD HAVE SEEN THE
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION,
IF NOT FOR THE SNOWSTORM.

Ivan is in his late thirties, clean-shaven with brown hair. He’s wearing glasses, a mustard shirt and black trousers.

Ivan says I WENT OUT
TO DOUBLE CHECK AND NO,
THERE'S NO SIGHT IN SIGHT.
BUT I HAVE SEEN IT BEFORE.

Maureen laughs.

Maureen says WHY IS IT
SUDDENLY MORE VISIBLE THAN
IT USED TO BE?

Ivan says AS THEY
CONTINUE TO ADD PIECES TO
THE STATION THERE ARE MORE
SURFACES TO REFLECT SUNLIGHT
BACK TO OUR EYES SO
INCREASINGLY THE STATION IS
GOING TO BECOME THE
BRIGHTEST MANMADE OBJECT IN
THE SKY AND EVERY TIME IT
PASSES OVER IT REALLY LOOKS
BRILLIANT.

A caption appears on screen. It reads “Ivan Semeniuk. Astronomer.”

Maureen says AND THAT'S
EXACTLY WHAT MARC GARNEAU
WAS UP THERE DOING.
HE'S JUST DOING A PRESS
CONFERENCE NOW, BECAUSE
THEY'VE RETURNED SAFELY.
HE WAS ADDING SOLAR PANELS.

Ivan says RIGHT, THE
GIANT PANELS THAT ARE GOING
TO GENERATE MOST OF THE
ELECTRICITY THAT WILL POWER
THE STATION, SO THIS IS SORT
OF AN IMPORTANT NEXT STEP.

Maureen says WHERE DO WE LOOK
IF WE WANT TO SEE IT AND
WHEN?

Ivan says IT REALLY
DEPENDS ON WHERE YOU LIVE SO
ACTUALLY THERE IS A WEBSITE
WHERE YOU CAN GO AND YOU
HAVE TO JUST LOOK UP YOUR
CITY, BECAUSE WHAT'S
HAPPENING IS THE STATION IS
ORBITING AROUND.
WE'RE LUCKY THAT WE CAN SEE
IN CANADA.
A LOT OF SATELLITES THAT
ORBIT THE EARTH ARE KIND OF
MORE AROUND THE EQUATOR AND
THEY WOULDN'T GET UP THIS
HIGH.
BUT THE STATION IS IN A VERY
WHAT'S CALLED INCLINED ORBIT
SO IT'S KIND OF GOING LIKE
THIS AND EARTH IS SPINNING
AROUND UNDER IT.
SO YOU GET THE SERIES OF
TRACKS THAT COME ACROSS THE
EARTH.
SO IT HAPPENED THAT ACROSS
SAY FOR TORONTO AND OTTAWA
LAST NIGHT WOULD HAVE BEEN
GOOD IF IT WAS CLEAR.
THAT'S NOT TRUE AGAIN TODAY,
BUT YOU SORT OF HAVE TO JUST
KEEP AN EYE.

Maureen says DOES IT
LOOK ANY DIFFERENT THAN A
VERY BRIGHT PLANET?

Ivan says YEAH, IT
LOOKS LIKE A BRIGHT PLANET.
LIKE A SINGLE DOT, AND IT
JUST MOVES VERY RAPIDLY,
TAKES ABOUT TWO MINUTES TO
CROSS THE SKY.

Maureen says WELL THAT'S HOW
YOU WOULD KNOW THEN THAT
IT'S NOT A STAR.
IT'S MOVING ACROSS THE SKY.

Ivan says AND YOU
CAN TELL IT'S NOT A PLANE
IT.
WOULDN'T HAVE THE FLASHING
LIGHTS, FOR EXAMPLE, AND OF
COURSE YOU'RE NOT SEEING
ACTUAL LIGHTS ON THE STATION,
YOU'RE SEEING IT ARE REFLECTING
SUNLIGHT.
I'VE ACTUALLY SEEN PEOPLE
TAKE HIGH POWERED CAMERA
IMAGES -- NOW WHAT WE'RE
TALKING ABOUT IS WHEN IT
PASSES OVERHEAD AT NIGHT IT
ALSO PASSES OVER DURING THE
DAY AND I'VE SEEN CASES
WHERE PEOPLE HAVE BEEN --
WHERE THEY'VE KNOWN IT'S
COMING AND SET UP AHEAD OF
TIME AND ACTUALLY SNAPPED
PICTURES OF IT DURING THE
DAY BUT YOU HAVE TO HAVE
LIKE A VERY POWERFUL
TELESCOPE AND A CAMERA AND
BE VERY GOOD AND YOU CAN
ACTUALLY SEE, MAKE OUT KIND
OF THE SHAPE OF THE STATION
PASSING OVERHEAD.

Maureen says WE WERE TALKING
ABOUT THIS BEFORE THE SHOW,
SOME OF THE PRODUCER, AND
SOMEBODY TYPE PIPED UP AND
SAID WHAT IS IT DOING UP
THERE?

The caption changes to “Today’s topic: Astronomy.”

She continues MIR IS GONE, RIGHT?
THIS IS REPLACING MIR.
WHY DO WE NEED ONE ANYWAY.

Ivan says MIR IS
STILL THERE.
THEY SAY IT'S GOING TO FALL
IN FEBRUARY.
I THINK I SAID THIS ON THIS
SHOW BEFORE.
I'M DRIVING A CAR THAT'S AS
OLD AS MIR, AND I'M TRYING
TO KEEP IT ON THE ROAD AS
LONG AS MIR IS IN ORBIT.
FEBRUARY COULD BE A VERY
HAPPY TIME FOR ME.
BUT YOU KNOW, SERIOUSLY, THE
STATION IS MEANT TO BE THE
NEXT GENERATION OF I GUESS
HUMAN PRESENCE IN SPACE.
THERE'S NO BONES ABOUT IT,
THERE ARE SOME PEOPLE WHO
HAVE VERY STRONG CRITICISMS
OF THE STATION.
THEY SAY IT'S NOT REALLY
DOING ANYTHING OR THAT IT
COST TOO MUCH FOR WHAT IT'S
GOING TO ACHIEVE.
SO THERE ARE DEFINITELY TWO
SIDES TO THAT.
I GUESS IF -- I GUESS THE
PEOPLE WHO ARE RIND THE
STATION FEEL THAT IF THERE'S
GOING TO BE HUMAN PRESENCE
IN SPACE, THIS IS THE NEXT
LOGICAL STEP.
AND THAT THIS COULD NOW BE
THE BEGINNING OF A PERMANENT
HUMAN PRESENCE IN SPACE.
YOU KNOW, FOR A LONG TIME
WITH MIR WE WERE USED TO THE
FACT THAT THERE WERE PEOPLE
UP THERE.

Maureen says YEAH.

Ivan says BUT
EVENTUALLY THEY HAD TO PULL
THEM BACK AND THERE WAS A
PERIOD OF TIME -- YOU KNOW,
LIKE FOR 15 YEARS OR
SOMETHING WE HAD PEOPLE IN
SPACE ALL THE TIME AND THEN
THERE WAS THIS GAP WHERE
SUDDENLY THERE WAS NO ONE IN
SPACE ANYMORE.

Maureen says NOW THAT GARNEAU
AND THOSE GUYS ARE BACK IS
ANYBODY UP IN THE SPACE
STATION?

Ivan says OH, YEAH,
THE FIRST CREW, THE ALPHA
CREW THEY'RE CALLED, ARRIVED
EARLIER IN THE FALL, AND
THEY'LL BE THERE AT LEAST
UNTIL FEBRUARY, AND THEN
THERE WILL BE A CHANGE-OVER.
SO THE SHUTTLE CREW IS
BRINGING SUPPLIES, ADDING
PIECES, BUT THERE'S A
PERMANENT STATION CREW.

Maureen says ARE THEY
RUSSIANS OR AMERICANS?

Ivan says ONE
AMERICAN, TWO RUSSIANS ON
THIS PARTICULAR CREW.
AND IT WILL SORT OF CHANGE
AND ROTATE.
I DON'T THINK THERE ARE ANY
CANADIANS CURRENTLY
SCHEDULED TO BE ON THE CREW,
ALTHOUGH OF COURSE THE BIG
CANADIAN CONTRIBUTION WILL
BE THE ARM.
IT'S SORT OF A BIGGER,
BETTER VERSION OF THE CANADA
ARM, WILL BE FITTED ONTO THE
STATION AND THAT'S GOING TO
BE ATTACHED THIS SPRING AND
CHRIS HADFIELD WILL BE DOING
THAT.
I THINK IT'S HIS SECOND TRIP,
BUT IT WILL BE A LANDMARK --
IT'LL BE A MILESTONE FOR
CANADIAN ASTRONAUTS, BECAUSE
HE'LL BE ACTUALLY OUT THERE
DOING THE SPACE WALK, AND NO
CANADIAN HAS DONE THAT
BEFORE.

Maureen says WOW!
OKAY, ALL THAT COOL.
WE CAN TALK MORE ABOUT THE
I.S.S. LATER.
TELL ME MORE THOUGH ABOUT
THE CHRISTMAS ECLIPSE.

Ivan says OH, BOY,
THIS IS REALLY SOMETHING
INTERESTING COMING OUR WAY.
ECLIPSES ARE FAIRLY RARE.
I THINK THE LAST TIME WE HAD
A GOOD ECLIPSE OF THE SUN
WAS IN MAY OF '94 WHERE MOST
OF ONTARIO -- IN FACT ALL OF
ONTARIO SAW SOME ELEMENT OF
A PARTIAL ECLIPSE.
AND IN SOME PLACES YOU EVEN
HAVE THE SUN CROSSING -- OR
THE MOON CROSSING RIGHT IN
FRONT OF THE SUN.
NOW THAT'S NOT WHAT'S
HAPPENING IN THIS CASE, IT'S
JUST A PARTIAL ECLIPSE SO,
THAT MEANS THE MOON WILL
APPEAR TO COVER PART OF THE
SUN BUT AT ALL TIMES SOME
ASPECT OF THE SUN WILL STILL
BE VISIBLE.
SO BUT THE FUNNY THING IS
IT'S HAPPENING ON CHRISTMAS
DAY.

Maureen says AND THAT'S
PRETTY RARE?

Ivan says WELL, IT'S
SORT OF THE LOTTERY.
ON ANY GIVEN DAY IT'S PRETTY
RARE TO GET AN ECLIPSE AND
TURNS OUT THERE WAS ONE IN
1954 BUT THERE WON'T BE
ANOTHER ONE AGAIN FOR TWO OR
THREE HUNDRED YEARS.
BUT THE NEAT THING, BECAUSE
IT IS ON CHRISTMAS DAY,
THOUGH, IS THAT MOST PEOPLE
ARE USUALLY HOME, OR AT
LEAST THEY'RE IN THE AT WORK,
SO THE ODDS OF GOING OUTSIDE
TO SEE IT ARE BETTER AS LONG
AS IT'S CLEAR.

Maureen says BETTER SHOW US
HOW TO DO THAT SAFELY
THOUGH.

Ivan says ABSOLUTELY,
THIS IS THE IMPORTANT THING.
YOU NEED THE RIGHT
PROTECTION SINCE THE SUN
WILL ALWAYS BE VISIBLE, THIS
BEING ONLY A PARTIAL ECLIPSE,
YOU NEED TO HAVE THE RIGHT
KIND OF PROTECTION FOR YOUR
EYES BECAUSE IT IS DANGEROUS
TO LOOK AT THE SUN AND
THAT'S TRUE ANY TIME.
IT'S NOT JUST THE ECLIPSE
THAT MAKES IT DANGEROUS, THE
SUN IS A DANGEROUS THING IF
YOU STARE AT IT.
SO I'VE GOT WHAT I THINK IS
SORT OF THE BEST AND EASIEST
WAY TO DO THIS.
Holding a glass, he continues WHICH IS TO GET A NUMBER 14
WELDER'S GLASS.
SO IF YOU LOOK UP WELDING
SUPPLIES IN THE YELLOW PAGES
WHEREVER YOU LIVE, CALL UP
THE WELDING SUPPLY STORE
NEAREST YOU, ASK THEM IF
THEY HAVE NUMBER 14 AND YOU
CAN GET THESE PIECES OF
GLASS.
NOW THIS IS ACTUALLY A PIECE
OF PLASTIC.
IT'S ALSO NUMBER 14 BUT IT'S
MADE, IT'S APPROPRIATELY
DARK.
SO IT DOESN'T MATTER IF IT'S
GLASS OR PLASTIC, BUT YOU
CAN USE IT AND THEN YOU CAN
SORT OF LOOK.
NOW THIS ONE IS FOR YOU FOR
CHRISTMAS.

Maureen says THANK YOU.

Ivan says AND THAT'S
MY CHRISTMAS PRESENT TO YOU
AND YOU CAN SORT OF LOOK AT
SOME OF THE LIGHTS IN THE
STUDIO AND YOU CAN BARELY
SEE THEM.
IT'S VERY DARK.
NOW WHAT I DO IS I TAKE
THESE THINGS AND ACTUALLY
PUT THEM IN CARDBOARD --

Ivan shows a large cardboard with the glass inserted in the middle.

Maureen says BECAUSE WHAT I
JUST DID WAS BLINDED MYSELF
WHEN I TOOK IT AWAY FROM THE
LIGHT.

Ivan says WHAT YOU SHOULD DO IS PUT
THEM IN FRONT FRONT OF YOUR
EYE AND THEN LACK TOWARDS
THE SUN BUT IT MAKES IT
EASIER IF YOU CAN PUT IT IN
A CARDBOARD FRAME.

Maureen says NUMBER 14
WELDER'S GLASS OR PLASTIC.

Ivan says THE OTHER
ALTERNATIVE THERE ARE
SPECIAL ECLIPSE GLASSES MADE
BY VARIOUS ASTRONOMICAL
COMPANIES AND USUALLY SOLD
AT TELESCOPE STORES.
SO IF YOU'VE GOT A HOBBY
SHOP THAT SELLS TELESCOPES,
LOOK THEM UP AND SEE IF
THEY'RE CARRYING ANY ECLIPSE
VIEWERS.
THEY'RE USUALLY SHINY.
THEY'RE NOT DARK LIKE THESE.
SOMETIMES THEY'RE DARK BUT
ALSO THEY COULD BE SHINY
WHICH MEANS THEY'RE MADE OF
DOUBLE ALUMINIZED MYLAR BUT
JUST MAKE SURE IT'S SAFE, AN
APPROVED VIEWER WITH THE
COMPANY NAME RIGHT ON IT.

Maureen says THOSE GLASSES
MIGHT BE A GREAT CHRISTMAS
GIFT FOR THE ASTRONOMER.

Ivan says STOCKING
STUFFS AND THEN GO OUTSIDE.
I SHOULD TELL YOU WHEN TO
SEE THIS.
IT DEPENDS A BIT WHERE YOU
ARE IN ONTARIO BUT BY AND
LARGE THE ECLIPSE WILL START
ABOUT 11:00 ACHL, AT ITS
BEST ABOUT 12:30 AND THEN
WRAPS UP ABOUT 2:00 IN THE
AFTERNOON.
SO YOU KNOW, BETWEEN
PRESENTS AND DINNER.

Maureen says GET OUT THERE
AND LOOK AT THE ECLIPSE.
WE'RE TALKING WITH IVAN
SEMENIUK THIS AFTERNOON.
YOU PROBABLY RECOGNIZE HIM
FROM THE DISCOVERY CHANNEL.
HE'S AN ASTRONOMER.
IF YOU HAVE A QUESTION ABOUT
PLANETS AND STARS AND SPACE
TRAVEL OR WHAT TO GET THE
AMATEUR ASTRONOMER IN YOUR
FAMILY FOR CHRISTMAS, GIVE
US A CALL.
AND SARAH IS
CALLING FROM OTTAWA.
HELLO, SARAH.

Sarah says HELLO.

Maureen says HELLO.
ARE YOU HOME FROM SCHOOL
TODAY?

Sarah says YEAH, 'CAUSE IT'S
TOO COLD TO GO TO SCHOOL.

Maureen says TOO COLD.
OKAY, WHAT'S YOUR QUESTION
FOR IVAN?

Ivan says MY QUESTION WAS,
I WANT TO BE AN ASTRONAUT
WHEN I GROW UP, AND I DON'T
KNOW IF THERE'S ANY
ASTRONAUT LESSONS AT OTTAWA
SO I COULD GO THERE, BECAUSE
I REALLY LIKE ASTRONAUT, AND
I WONDER IF WHEN I'M GOING
TO GROW UP, I WONDER IF
THERE WILL STILL BE SOME
PLANETS THAT A PERSON DIDN'T
GO ON.

Maureen says OH, WELL I HAVE
THE FEELING TO THAT QUESTION
IS YES.

Ivan says OH, YEAH,
THERE'LL BE LOTS TO DO, AS
LONG AS THE SPACE PROGRAMME
IS CARRYING ON, THERE'S NO
END OF THINGS TO EXPLORE.
SO IT'S A VERY GOOD QUESTION
ABOUT WHAT TO DO IF YOU WANT
TO BE AN ASTRONAUT.
IT'S ACTUALLY A HARD ONE TO
ANSWER BECAUSE THERE ARE SO
FEW PEOPLE THAT DO IT, AND
THE OPPORTUNITIES KIND OF
COME UP RARELY.
HOWEVER, I THINK THERE ARE A
NUMBER OF OTHER PEOPLE WHO
ARE INVOLVED IN SPACE IN
SOME WAY, EVEN IF YOU'RE NOT
AN ASTRONAUT.
I WAS JUST SAYING TO MAUREEN
THAT I HAD A VISIT WITH SOME
OF THE PEOPLE WHO BUILT THE
CANADA ARM.
AND THEY'RE DOING SOME
AMAZING THINGS.
SO THERE ARE A LOT OF
PEOPLE -- IT TAKES A LOT OF
PEOPLE TO MAKE A SPACE
PROGRAMME.
SO THERE ARE A COUPLE OF
WAYS TO BE INVOLVED IN THAT.
ONE IS ENGINEERING.
THERE'S A FIELD CALLED
AEROSPACE ENGINEERING.
SO IF YOU'RE GOOD IN MATH
AND GOOD IN SCIENCE, YOU CAN
PURSUE THAT IN UNIVERSITY
AND THAT COULD LEAD TO
CAREERS IN SPACE.
BUT ALSO PEOPLE WHO ARE IN
MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY AND THE
LIFE SCIENCES FIND THAT AS
SCIENTISTS THEY CAN DO
EXPERIMENTS IN SPACE.
SCIENTISTS IN CANADA HAVE
SENT EXPERIMENTS ON THE
SPACE SHUTTLE, AND THERE ARE
OTHER WAYS TO BE INVOLVED.
IF YOU LOOK AT THE PROFILES
OF SOME OF THE ASTRONAUTS,
THEY'RE VERY ACCOMPLISHED
PEOPLE --

Maureen says THEY'RE
OVERACHIEVERS.

Ivan says THEY DO A
LOT OF NEAT THINGS.
THEY'RE ENGINEERS AND
DOCTORS --

Maureen says AND CHRIS
HADFIELD WAS A PILOT, RIGHT?
THAT'S WHY HE GETS TO FLY
THE SHUTTLE, DOESN'T HE
ACTUALLY?

Ivan says HE HAS
THAT BACKGROUND.
HE'S NOT A SHUTTLE PILOT BUT
HE HAS THAT FLIGHT
BACKGROUND WHICH HAS BEEN
VERY USEFUL FOR HIM.

Maureen says AND WHEN GARNEAU
IS ON BOARD, WHAT'S HIS, YOU
KNOW, “JOB.”

Ivan says WELL THIS
MOST RECENT TIME IT INVOLVED
USING THE ARM.
TO HELP ASSEMBLE PIECES OF
THE SHUTTLE.
BUT THEY ALSO HAD OTHER JOBS
ON THE GROUND, MARC GARNEAU
I THINK HAS BEEN A CAP COM,
IN OTHER WORDS BEEN THE
PERSON ON THE GROUND THE
ASTRONAUTS HEAR AS A VOICE
IN THEIR EAR WHEN THEY'RE
COMMUNICATING WITH HOUSTON,
FOR EXAMPLE.
SO ANYWAY, MY ADVICE IS
JUST --.

Maureen says STUDY HARD.

Ivan says SCIENCE
AND MATH AND JUST LOOK FOR
OPPORTUNITIES.

Maureen says OKAY, GOOD LUCK,
SARAH.
I GUESS GARNEAU WAS SAYING
THAT ON HIS FIRST MISSION HE
WAS SORT OF REALLY SHUFFLED
OFF TO THE SIDELINES BY THE
AMERICANS, AS FAR AS HAVING
ANYTHING USEFUL TO DO ON
BOARD.
NOW THOUGH IT'S COMPLETELY
DIFFERENT.
CANADIANS ACTUALLY DO DO A
LOT OF WORK.

Ivan says I THINK IT
IS.
AND I THINK THE OTHER
DIFFERENCE IS NOW THIS
STATION IS AN INTERNATIONAL
PROJECT AND THERE ARE MORE
PLAYERS AND THAT'S OBVIOUSLY
A VERY GOOD SIGN.
NOW, GIVEN THAT, CANADA'S
CONTRIBUTION IS IMPORTANT,
BUT IT'S ALSO, YOU KNOW, ONE
SMALL CONTRIBUTION OF A MUCH
LARGER PIE.
SO I MEAN, I THINK ALSO IT
MAY BE RELATIVE TO HOW MUCH
WE'RE KICKING IN.

Maureen says WE'RE
CONTRIBUTING.
MYRIAM IS IN CAMPBELLFORD.
HOW MYRIAM.

Myriam says HI.

Maureen says HI, GO AHEAD.

Myriam says I WAS WONDERING
IF THE GENTLEMEN KNEW THE
CONDITION OF THE LAST
RUSSIAN ASTRONAUT FROM THE
MIR.
BECAUSE I DO UNDERSTAND THAT
IT AFFECTS THEM TERRIBLY,
THEIR HEALTH AND THEIR BONE,
ET CETERA.
CAN YOU TELL ME SOMETHING
ABOUT THAT, PLEASE?

Ivan says I'M AFRAID
I CAN'T SPEAK ABOUT THAT
PERSON IN PARTICULAR.
I GUESS YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT
THE LAST PERSON ON MIR.

Myriam says YES.

Ivan says NOW I
THINK THERE'S A CREW ON MIR
RIGHT NOW, BUT THE LAST ONE
FROM WHEN THEY HAD THE -- IT
WAS KIND OF THE LONG HAUL
MISSIONS.
CERTAINLY THERE -- AND THERE
WAS THAT ONE PARTICULAR CASE
WHERE THE COSMONAUT WAS UP
THERE WHILE THE SOVIET UNION
WAS FALLING APART AND THEY
HAD TO DELAY HIS RETURN.
SO -- BUT EVEN, THERE WERE
EVEN LONGER MISSIONS AS WELL.
THEY SET ALL THE RECORDS FOR
HUMAN ENDURANCE IN SPACE.
AND THERE IS THIS DEPLETION
OF BONE MATERIAL THAT
HAPPENS BY BEING AT ZERO
GRAVITY, THE WEIGHT LOSS,
AND IT DOES TAKE ITS TOLL,
AND I THINK SOME OF THAT IS
A PERMANENT EFFECT,
ESPECIALLY FOR LONG
DURATION.
NOW I DON'T KNOW HOW THESE
INDIVIDUALS ARE DOING TODAY.
THAT'S A VERY GOOD QUESTION,
BUT IT'S INTERESTING TO SEE
THAT THE SPACE STATION, FOR
EXAMPLE, DOESN'T HAVE, YOU
KNOW, LONG STINTS LIKE THAT.
PEOPLE AREN'T UP THERE FOR A
YEAR OR MORE, THEY'RE UP
THERE FOR FOUR OR FIVE OR
SIX MONTHS AND THEN THEY'RE
BACK.

Maureen says ARE THEY TAKING
MEDICATION WHILE THEY'RE UP
THERE TO TRY TO COUNTERACT
THE BONE LOSS?

Ivan says THE KEY
THING SEEMS TO BE COMPER
SIDE SOCK TO KEEP THEM VERY,
VERY ACTIVE.
AND THAT IS VERY IMPORTANT.
SO THAT HELPS WITH THE
MUSCLES AND BASICALLY WHAT'S
HAPPENING IS THE BODY'S
REACTING TO THE FACT THAT
THERE'S NO STRESS.
WE HAVE STRESS ON OUR BONES
AND OUR MUSCLES EVERYDAY
JUST BY WALKING AROUND FROM
THE GRAVITY THAT BULLS US
TOWARDS THE EARTH AND IN THE
ABSENCE OF THAT STRESS, THE
BODY ISN'T MADE FOR THAT.

Maureen says THIS IS
SOMETHING WE'RE GOING TO
HAVE TO LICK BEFORE WE THINK
WE CAN LIVE ON MARS OR
WHATEVER.

Ivan says RIGHT.
OH, YES, MARS IS SUCH A
DIFFERENT STORY.
THE SPACE SHUTTLE, THE SPACE
STATION IS STILL GOING TO BE
ROUGHLY 400 KILOMETRES UP.
SO TORONTO TO MONTREAL IS A
LARGER DISTANCE THAN THE
DISTANCE FROM THE GROUND TO
THE STATION.
IT'S NOT THAT FAR -- IT'S
KIND OF NEAT TO THINK THAT
SPACE ISN'T THAT FAR AWAY,
BUT THAT'S JUST THE
THRESHOLD.
AND YOU KNOW, ONCE WE START
TALKING ABOUT EVEN THE MOON,
AND CERTAINLY MARS, AN
INTERPLANETARY ENVIRONMENT
IS VERY DIFFERENT.
THE RADIATION OUT THERE IS
MUCH HARDER, NOT PROTECTED
BY EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD,
AND ALSO IT'S -- IT WOULD
TAKE A TRIP THAT WOULD BE SO
LONG, WE JUST DON'T KNOW YET
HOW PEOPLE WOULD MANAGE
THAT.

Maureen says OKAY, THANKS
MYRIAM FOR YOUR QUESTION.

Maureen turns to look at the computer screen.

She continues KATHY IN TORONTO SAYS “THE
AMATEUR ASTRONOMER IN HER
FAMILY, HER MOTHER, SAYS SHE
WANTS A SOFTWARE PROGRAMME
THAT WILL TEACH HER ABOUT
THE NIGHT SKIES.”
ANY COMPUTER SOFTWARE OUT
THERE YOU WOULD RECOMMEND?

Ivan says I WILL.
I'M GOING TO RECOMMEND ONE,
AND YOU KNOW, I GET NOTHING
FOR THIS, SO THIS IS NOT A
COMMERCIAL, BUT I TEND TO
USE ONE THAT'S CALLED STARRY
NIGHT.
I LIKE IT.
IT WAS CREATED RIGHT HERE IN
TORONTO.
IT'S NOW PART OF SPACE.COM,
SO YOU CAN I THINK FIND IT,
IF YOU GO TO THAT WEBSITE.
IN FACT THEY WERE DOING
SOMETHING NEAT.
THEY WERE USING THAT
SOFTWARE TO SHOW THE
POSITION OF THE SPACE
STATION THROUGHOUT THAT
ENTIRE MISSION LAST WEEK, SO
YOU COULD JUST CLICK ONTO
THE WEBSITE AND SEE WHERE
THE STATION -- I MEAN, NOT
ONLY DOES IT SHOW THE STARS
FROM THE GROUND BUT IT SHOWS
THE GROUND FROM SPACE AND
YOU COULD SEE WHERE THE
STATION WAS ABOVE ANY POINT.
BUT IT WORKS FOR IBMs AND
McINTOSH SYSTEMS SO --

Maureen says CALLED STARRY
NIGHT.

Ivan says STARRY
NIGHT.

Maureen says OKAY.
ERVIN IN BRACEBRIDGE.

Ervin says HELLO.
HOW WOULD I GO ABOUT LOOKING
FOR NEW PLANETS.

Maureen says YOU WANT TO FIND
SOME NEW PLANETS.

Ervin says YEAH.
IF I WAS TO LOOK THROUGH IT
MY TELESCOPE, HOW WOULD I GO
ABOUT LOOKING FOR A NEW
PLANET?

Ivan says WELL HAVE
YOU SEEN ANY PLANETS YET?

Ervin says I'VE SEEN ONE OR
TWO.

Ivan says THERE ARE
AT THE MOMENT THREE PLANETS
IN THE EVENING SKY THAT ARE
FANTASTIC.
AND YOU KNOW, SOMETIMES
PEOPLE DO GET TELESCOPES FOR
CHRIS PASS AND THEY WONDER
WHAT CAN THEY LOOK AT AND
THIS IS GOING TO BE A GREAT
CHRISTMAS FOR THAT BECAUSE
OF THESE REALLY BRIGHT
PLANETS SO I'LL MENTION A
FEW AND YOU CAN HEAD OUT AND
TRY THESE.
VENUS IS THE BRIGHTEST
PLANET WE CAN SEE FROM EARTH,
AND AT THE MOMENT IT'S VERY,
VERY VISIBLE IN THE
SOUTHWESTERN SKY, RIGHT
AFTER DARK.
SO BASICALLY RIGHT AFTER
SUNSET, LOOK SOUTH, IT'S THE
GREATEST THING IN THE SKY.
I THINK PEOPLE HAVE SEEN IT
BEFORE AND THOUGHT MAYBE IT
WAS AN AIRPLANE BECAUSE IT'S
JUST SO BRIGHT.
MEANWHILE, LOOKING EAST AS
THE SUN SETS, A COUPLE HOURS
AFTER SUNSET, TWO BRIGHT
PLANETS ARE COMING UP IN THE
EASTERN SKY.
SATURN AND JUPITER.
AND THEY ACTUALLY FORM A
LITTLE TRIANGLE WITH ANOTHER
BRIGHT OBJECT, A BRIGHT STAR,
AL DEBRON.
SO THAT'S KIND OF THE LOWER
OF THE THREE.
SO BASICALLY LOOK EAST AND
YOU'LL SEE JUPITER AND
SATURN AND EVEN SMALL
TELESCOPES, IF THEY'RE GOOD
TELESCOPE, CAN SHOW YOU THE
RINGS OF SATURN AND THE
MOONS OF JUPITER, SO THOSE
ARE ALL WORTH LOOKING AT.

Maureen says NOW I HOPE SHE
MEANT JUST NEW TO HER.
WHO'S DISCOVERING NEW
PLANETS?

Ivan says WELL AS
FAR AS WE KNOW, THERE ARE NO
MORE PLANETS TO BE SKUR
DISCOVERED IN OUR SOLAR
SYSTEM.
HOWEVER THERE'S BEEN A
TREMENDOUS REV LAUGS IN
ASTRONOMY IN THE LAST FIVE
YEARS WHICH HAS BEEN THE
DISCOVERY OF PLANETS AROUND
OTHER STARS.
NOW THESE PLANETS HAVE STILL
NOT BEEN SEEN DIRECTLY.
NO ONE IS ACTUALLY POINTING
A TELESCOPE AND SPOTTING
PLANETS.

Maureen asks HOW DO WE KNOW
THEY'RE THERE?

Ivan replies BECAUSE
THE STARS THEY ORBIT GET
TUGGED A BIT BY THE GRAVETY
OF THE PLANETS.
AS THE PLANET ORBITS THE
STAR, THE STAR KIND OF
WOBBLES BACK AND FORTH AND
THERE ARE WAY, KIND OF
TRICKY WAYS OF DETERMINING
IF A STAR IS WOBBLING LIKE
THAT, AND IF YOU KNOW HOW
QUICKLY IT'S WOBBLING, THAT
TELLS YOU HOW FAR AWAY THE
PLANET IS FROM THE STAR AND
IF YOU KNOW HOW MUCH IT'S
WOBBLING THAT TELLS YOU A
LITTLE BIT ABOUT HOW HEAVY
THE PLANET IS.
WE NOW -- THERE ARE MANY
MORE PLANETS THAT ARE KNOWN
NOW BEYOND OUR SOLAR SYSTEM
THAN THE NINE PLANETS THAT
ARE IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM.
I THINK THE NUMBER NOW IS
GETTING AROUND TO 40.

Maureen says WILL HUBBLE OR
ANY OTHER TELESCOPE WE WILL
EVER BUILD BE ABLE TO SHOW
US --

Ivan says SOMEONE
WAS ASKING ME THAT RECENTLY.
THERE ARE PLANS AFOOT TO USE
THE KECH TELESCOPE, WHICH IS
THE LARGEST KEL STOP, TO
ACTUALLY TRY TO MAKE SOME
DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF THESE
PLANETS.
NOW THESE ARE NOT PLANETS
LIKE EARTH.
FOR EXAMPLE EARTH'S
INFLUENCE ON A STAR, LIKE
THE SUN WOULD BE TOO SMALL
TO DETECT RIGHT NOW IF YOU
WERE LOOKING AT OTHER STARS.
THESE ARE GIANT PLANETS LIKE
JUPITER OR LARGER.
BUT SOME OF THEM COULD BE
SEEN, ESPECIALLY IN THE
INFRARED.
IT'S TRICKY TO SEE A PLANET
BECAUSE THE PLANET, OF
COURSE, IS ORBITING AROUND
ITS STAR, AND THE GLARE OF
THE STAR CAN JUST COMPLETELY
OVER POWER THE FAINT LIGHT
OF THE PLANET.
BUT IN INFRARED LIGHT, THE
PLANET TENDS TO GIVE OFF
MORE HEAT AND IT'S A LITTLE
BIT MORE OF A BETTER BALANCE,
SO THERE'S A BETTER SHOT AT
SEEING IT.
AND IT HASN'T HAPPENED YET
BUT IT WOULDN'T SURPRISE ME
IN ANOTHER COUPLE OF YEARS
IF WE'RE ACTUALLY SHOWING A
PICTURE.

Maureen says WELL, LET'S SHOW
PEOPLE SOME PICTURES OF WHAT
HUBBLE HAS BEEN ABLE TO
PHOTOGRAPH RECENTLY AND
MAYBE YOU CAN EXPLAIN WHAT
IT IS WE'RE LOOKING AT.
THIS IS FROM THE HUBBLE
TELESCOPE.

A picture of a bright white light appears.

Ivan says IT IS.
I LIKE THIS PICTURE A LOT.
IT'S A NEW PICTURE RELEASED
BY THE HUBBLE THIS MONTH AND
IT'S OF A VERY FAMILIAR
OBJECT IN THE SKY IN THE
WINTER SKY, BUT SEEN IN A
WAY THAT WE'RE JUST NOT USED
TO SEEING IT AT ALL.
S THAT CLOSE-UP OF THE SEVEN
SISTERS STAR CLUSTER, ALSO
CALLED THE PLEIDIS.
NOW WHAT YOU'RE ALSO SEEING
HERE IS A LITTLE BIT OF SORT
OF DUST OFF TO ONE SIDE.
YOU CAN KIND OF SEE THAT
GLOW OFF THE TOP.
THAT'S THE GLARE OF ONE OF
THE BRIGHTEST STARS IN THE
CLUSTER, BUT YOU'RE NOT
LOOKING AT THE STAR, INSTEAD
YOU'RE LOOKING AT THE STAR'S
LIGHT REFLECTING OFF OF THE
DUST.
IT TURNS OUT THAT THESE
STARS ARE PLOWING THROUGH
THIS DUST CLOUD RIGHT NOW,
AND SO THE DUST IS
SCATTERING THE SCAR LIGHT,
REFLECTING IT BACK TO US,
AND IT LOOKS BLUE BECAUSE,
FOR THE SAME REASON THE SKY
LOOKS BLUE.
THE SCATTERED LIGHT HAS A
KIND OF BLUISH TINT.

Maureen says WHAT ELSE DO YOU
HAVE THERE?

Ivan says THIS IS A
DISTANT GALAXY CALLED
SIRCINNU SCOMPMD YOU CAN
KIND OF SEE IT'S AN ACTIVE
GALAXY AND SOME STREAMERS OF
GAS ARE COMING OUT.
SOME OF THESE COLOURS ARE
NOT THE COLOURS OUR EYES
WOULD SEE, LIKE REDS AND
PURPLES BUT THEY'VE COLOUR
ENHANCED THEM TO BRING OUT
SPECIAL FEATURES.

Maureen says SO HELP ME OUT
HERE BECAUSE IT'S BEEN SO
LONG.
GALAXIES ARE BIGGER THAN
SOLAR SYSTEMS?

Ivan says RIGHT.
I'M GLAD YOU ASKED THAT
QUESTION.
SO WE ARE A PLANET, THE
EARTH, AND ALONG WITH OTHER
PLANETS, LIKE THE ONES I
MENTIONED, WE ORBIT AROUND A
STAR.
THE STAR IS THE SUN.
SO YOU COULD SORT OF THINK
OF THAT AS OUR LITTLE
FAMILY.
BUT THAT SOLAR SYSTEM THAT
FAMILY, IS JUST ONE OF
HUNDREDS OF BILLIONS THAT
ARE IN A CITY OF STARS THAT
WE CALL THE GALAXY.
THAT'S OUR MILKY WAY GALAXY.
AND YOU CAN SORT OF SEE IT
AT NIGHT WITH THIS KIND OF
GLOWING BAND ACROSS THE SKY,
THE MILKY WAY.
BUT THERE ARE OTHER GALAXIES
BEYOND THE MILKY WAY.
AND EACH OF THEM COULD
HAVE -- FOR EXAMPLE YOU SEE
RIGHT HERE SOME COLLIDING
GALAXIES, AND AGAIN, WE'RE
LOOKING AT HUNDREDS OF
BILLIONS OF STARS.
IN THIS CASE TWO GALAXIES
IN COLLISION.
NOW IT DOESN'T MEAN THAT THE
STARS ARE ACTUALLY HITTING
EACH OTHER, THEY'RE JUST
KIND OF PASSING THROUGH EACH
OTHER, BUT THIS IS THE KIND
OF ACTIVITY WE SEE AT GREAT
DISTANCES.
MILLIONS OF LIGHT YEARS
AWAY.

Maureen says ALL RIGHT.
WE'LL HAVE SOME MORE
PICTURES TO LOOK AT LATER
BUT LET'S GO TO KTH THREE IN
OAKVILLE.
HELLO KATHY.

Kathy says HI MAUREEN.
LOVE YOUR HAIR.

Maureen says OH, THANKS.

Kathy says THOSE HUBBLE
PICTURES ARE MARVELOUS.
YOU MUST REALLY ENJOY THAT,
IVAN, WHEN YOU SEE THOSE
THINGS FOR THE FIRST TIME.

Ivan says LAST
SPRING I ACTUALLY HAD A
CHANCE TO GO DOWN TO THE
HUBBLE INSTITUTE AND MEET
THE PEOPLE WHO ARE ON THE
HUBBLE HERITAGE TEAM WHERE A
LOT OF THESE PICTURES ARE
COMING FROM.
A FEW YEARS AGO, THE HUBBLE
INSTITUTE DECIDED TO PUT
TOGETHER A GROUP OF PEOPLE
WHO WOULD START TO COMB THE
BANKS OF ALL THE
ACCUMULATING HUBBLE PICTURES
TO LOOK FOR SOME BEAUTIFUL
PICTURES THAT MAY HAVE BEEN
MISSED.
YOU KNOW AN ASTRONOMER MAY
HAVE BEEN TAKING A PICTURE
FOR SOME SCIENTIFIC
REASON --

Maureen says DIDN'T SEE THE
ARTISTIC BEAUTY.

Ivan says EXACTLY.
PRECISELY THAT.
IT'S KIND OF A HERITAGE
THING.
THAT THERE'S SOME OBJECTS
THAT ARE KIND OF TEXT BOOK
CASES, YOU KNOW, MAYBE IT'S
NOT PROVING SOMETHING
CURRENT RIGHT NOW, BUT IT'S
A PERFECT EXAMPLE OF A
CERTAIN THING, YOU KNOW?
AND THEY WANTED TO MAKE MORE
OF THESE PICTURES AVAILABLE,
AND EVERY MONTH YOU CAN GO
TO THEIR WEBSITE, THE HUBBLE
HERITAGE WEBSITE AND SEE ONE
OF THESE FANTASTIC PICTURES.

Maureen says WHAT'S YOUR
QUESTIONS KATHY?

Kathy says MY QUESTION IS I
HAVE FOR THE LAST FEW
WINTERS WONDERED WHAT THIS
STAR IS THAT I'M SEEING
AFTER DARK, AND IT'S PRETTY
WELL DUE NORTH, NORTHWEST,
AND MAYBE 40 degrees UP FROM THE
HORIZON.

Ivan says AND WHAT
TIME IS THIS?

Kathy says QUITE BRIGHT, AND
AS SOON AS IT GETS DARK YOU
NOTICE IT BUT IT'S THERE
PRETTY WELL ALL NIGHT.
I GUESS IT DOES MOVE TO THE
EAST A BIT, BUT NOT THAT I'M
NOTICING.

Ivan says RIGHT, AND
SORRY, YOU SAID NORTHWEST?

Kathy says YEAH.

Ivan says IF BY ANY
CHANCE IT'S SOUTH WEST THEN
YOU'RE DEFINITELY LOOKING AT
VENUS.

Kathy says NO, NO, THIS IS
NOT BRIGHT LIKE CUP TER.
IT'S LESS BRIGHT AND IT'S
TWINKLING, SO I'M GATHERING
IT'S A STAR.

Ivan says RIGHT, AND
THEY TEND TO TWINKLE AS THEY
GET LOWER.
ONE THE OF THE BRIGHTEST
STARS IN THE NORTHWEST THIS
FALL IN THE EVENING IS A
STAR CALLED VEGA WHICH IS
NORMALLY VERY HIGH IN THE
SKY IN THE LATE SUMMER AND
EARLY FALL, BUT BY THIS TIME
OF THE YEAR IT'S KIND OF
MOVED OVER, SWUNG OVER TO
THE NORTHWEST SO THAT'S MY
BEST GUESS AS TO WHAT THAT
MIGHT BE.
BUT OF COURSE IF I WAS
STANDING THERE BESIDE YOU,
IT WOULD BE EASIER TO SORT
OF SEE YOUR PERSPECTIVE.
BUT JUST CHECK AGAIN IN CASE,
IN CASE -- BECAUSE ARE
YOU -- WHEN YOU SAY
NORTHWEST, ARE YOU THINKING
OF YOUR STREET PERHAPS
RUNNING NORTH/SOUTH?

Kathy says NO, I'M THINKING
OF WHERE THE SUNSETS AND
WHERE THE NORTH STAR IS.

Ivan says OKAY, SO
THIS IS BETWEEN THE TWO.

Kathy says IT'S BETWEEN THE
TWO.

Ivan says WELL MY
BEST GUESS IS VEGA.

Maureen says DOES IT FORM ANY
CONSTELLATION?

Ivan says IT'S PART OF THE
CONSTELLATION LIRA THE HARP
AND ALONG WITH TWO OTHER
STARS, IT'S PART OF THIS BIG
PATTERN IN THE SKY CALLED
THE SUMMER TRIANGLE AND
REALLY IS UP HIGH DURING THE
SUMMER BUT AS YOU GET INTO
LATE FALL AND EARLY WINTER
IT MOVES OVER TO THE WEST
AND KIND OF HANGS THERE IN
THE NORTHWESTERN SKY FOR
QUITE A WHILE.
AND THE REASON IS IT'S NOT
BECAUSE IT'S NOT MOVING BUT
BECAUSE IT'S KIND OF CURVING
DOWN TOWARDS THE NORTH
INSTEAD OF GOING STRAIGHT
DOWN TOWARDS THE HORIZON,
IT'S GOT A SHALLOW CURVE
DOWN.

Maureen says IF SHE HAD ONE
OF SAY TERRENCE DICKINSON'S
BOOK AS SHE LOOKED UP, WOULD
THAT HELP HER IDENTIFY IT?

Ivan says THAT'S A
GOOD APPROACH.
“NIGHT WATCH” IN PARTICULAR
HAS SEASONAL MAPS.
BUT OF COURSE IF IT WERE
SOMETHING LIKE A PLANET,
THAT WOULDN'T BE ON THAT MAP,
SO THE OTHER APPROACH IS SKY
NEWS MAGAZINE, WHICH TERRY
DICKINSON IS THE EDITOR, HAS
MONTHLY CHART.
AND IT WOULD HAVE THE
PLANETS AS WELL AS THE STARS
IN THEIR CORRECT LOCATION.

Maureen says OKAY, GOOD LUCK.
THANK YOU, KATHY.
She reads THEA SAYS MY FIVE-YEAR-OLD
IS INTRIGUED BY SPACE AND
THE SPACE PROGRAMME AND
WANTS A TELESCOPE FOR
CHRISTMAS.
DO YOU HAVE ANY SUGGESTIONS
ON WHAT TO LOOK FOR?
ALSO WE CAN NOT FIND THE
NAME OF THE FIRST WOMAN KOSS
NOT IN ANY BOOKS -- KOSS NAT
IN ANY BOOKS IS THERE A
REASON FOR THAT?

Ivan says THERE
SHOULDN'T BE ANY REASON FOR
IT BUT IT'S FUNNY, HER NAME
JUST ESCAPES ME AS WELL.
BUT IT WAS VERY, VERY EARLY
ON IN THE RUSSIAN PROGRAM
WHERE THEY WERE JUST DOING
THE FIRST OF EVERYTHING.
YOU KNOW, WITH SPUTNIK, THE
FIRST OBJECT IN ORBIT, YURI
GREGARIN WAS THE FIRST MAN
IN SPACE, AND THEN I'M
EMBARRASSED --

Maureen says WHAT YEAR WOULD
THAT BE?

Ivan says OH, IT WAS
IN THE '60s.
SHE REALLY HAD NO PRIOR
TRAINING, BECAUSE SOME OF
THESE GUYS HAD BEEN PILOTS
AND SO ON, AND THESE SOVIET
COSMONAUTS, BUT OF COURSE
WITH WOMEN, ESPECIALLY IN
THE '60s, YOU DIDN'T REALLY
HAVE AS MUCH EQUIVALENT
TRAINING.
IT WAS AMAZING WHAT THEY
WERE DOING.
THEY WERE REALLY PIONEERS.
A BIT FRIGHTENING, BUT QUITE
INCREDIBLE.
SO BUT IN FACT THERE IS A
WEBSITE CALLED ENCYCLOPEDIA
ASTRONOTICA, I DON'T
REMEMBER THE ACTUAL WEBSITE
BUT IF TYPE THAT INTO A
SEARCH ENGINE, THEY HAVE AN
EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF TRO
NAUGHT, PAYLOADS, VIRTUALLY
EVERYTHING THAT'S EVER FLOWN,
THAT'S A GOOD PLACE TO TRY.
NOW THERE'S A QUESTION ABOUT
THE TELESCOPE.
AND THIS IS FOR A
FIVE-YEAR-OLD.

Maureen says YEAH.

Ivan says SO I'M
THINKING THAT THAT -- WELL,
WHAT MOST PEOPLE RECOMMEND
IS IT'S GOOD TO START WITH A
GOOD WORKING KNOWLEDGE OF
THE SKY.
SO GOOD BOOK, PAIR OF
BINOCULARS.
YOU CAN SEE LOTS OF THINGS
ALREADY BY DOING THOSE
THINGS BEFORE YOU GO TO A
TELESCOPE.
THE PROBLEM WITH THE
TELESCOPE IS THAT -- AND
THIS IS GETTING A LITTLE
BETTER NOW THAN IT USED TO
BE, IT USED TO BE THAT THERE
WAS JUST NO SUCH THING AS A
GOOD CHEAP TELESCOPE.
YOU KNOW, YOU WOULD SEE
THESE TELESCOPES ADVERTISED
AT A CAMERA SHOP OR
SOMETHING AND THEY'D SAY 300
POWER, OR -- BUT THEY'RE NOT
REALLY ABLE TO ACHIEVE THAT.
YOU KNOW, IN THEORY, PERHAPS,
BUT REALLY, TELESCOPES LIKE
THAT HAVE SUCH POOR OPTICAL
QUALITY --

Maureen says YOU MIGHT BE
DISAPPOINTED.
YOU'RE GOING TO EXPECT A
BETTER VIEW.

Ivan says AND THEY'LL KIND OF BE ON
RICKETY MOUNDS AND NOT EASY
TO POINT.
I MEAN, MY FIRST TELESCOPE
WAS LIKE THAT BECAUSE NO ONE
REALLY KNEW ANY BETTER AND
IT TOOK ME FOREVER TO SEE
ANYTHING AT ALL AND I WASN'T
SURE WHAT I WAS LOOKING AT.
NOW THESE DAYS THINGS ARE
IMPROVING A LITTLE BIT
BECAUSE THERE ARE TELESCOPES
NOW KIND OF IN THE 500 TO
1,000 DOLLARS RANGE THAT, YOU KNOW,
ARE QUITE GOOD.
AND THEY'RE EVEN SOME THAT
ARE A LITTLE BIT CHEAPER
NOW.
THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF
TELESCOPES.
REFRACTORS WHICH ARE MADE OF
LENS ASKS THEY'RE KIVET LONG
TUBE SHAPE, AND THEN
REFLECTORS WHICH USE CURVED
MIRRORS TO MAGNIFY THE IMAGE
OF THE SKY.
SO I GUESS THE MAIN THINGS
ARE THE MOUNT SHOULD BE VERY
STURDY.
THERE SHOULD BE SOME KIND OF
A FINDER, BECAUSE YOU CAN'T
JUST POINT A TELESCOPE AT AN
OBJECT IN THE SKY, YOU
REALLY NEED A LITTLE
SIGHTING TOOL.
AND IT SHOULD BE PORTABLE,
BECAUSE FOR MOST PEOPLE, YOU
KNOW, THEY DON'T HAVE AN
OBSERVATORY, THEY'RE GOING
TO BE TAKING THIS AROUND.

Maureen says BUT AS FAR AS
BANG FOR YOUR BUCK, I THINK
YOU'RE SAYING FOR YOUR
FIVE-YEAR-OLD A GOOD STRONG
PAIR OF BINOCULARS MIGHT BE
JUST AS EFFECTIVE.

Ivan says CAN DO A
LOT.

Maureen says YEAH.

Ivan says YEAH, AND
THEN MAYBE WAIT A FEW YEARS
AND SEE WHAT'S POSSIBLE.

Maureen says OKAY, DOES THE
NAME VALENTINA TARASHKOVA --

Ivan says OH, THAT
SOUNDS RIGHT.

Ivan smiles.

Maureen says OUR CRACKER JACK
RESEARCHERS WENT ON THE
INTERNET AND FOUND THAT ONE.
VALENTINA TARASHKOVA.
OKAY, LET'S GO TO KUSHA IN
KINGSTON?
HI.

Kusha says HI, THIS IS
ACTUALLY -- MY NAME IS
PRONOUNCED KASHA.

Maureen says THANK YOU, SORRY
ABOUT THAT.

Kusha says NO PROBLEM.

Maureen says WHAT'S YOUR
QUESTION?

Kusha says WE HAVE A TELESCOPE THAT HAS
BEEN GIVEN TO US BY MY
HUSBAND'S FATHER AND WE HAVE
SEEN THE MOONS OF JUPITER
AND IT'S QUITE GOOD.
WE ARE AFRAID, HOWEVER, TO
TAKE IT OUTSIDE IN THE
WINTERTIME.
WE'RE SORT OF WORRIED ABOUT
CONDENSATION.
IS THIS SOMETHING THAT -- WE
SHOULD BE WORRIED ABOUT THIS
OR IS THIS QUITE SAFE TO DO
THAT?
TAKE IT OUT IN THE WINTER
TIME?

Ivan says WELL THE SAME THING
HAPPENS IN THE SUMMER.
ASTRONOMERS WHO OBSERVE
RIGHT THROUGH THE NIGHT THEN
EXPERIENCE PROBLEMS WITH
CONDENSATION IN THE EARLY
MORNING HOURS WHEN THE DEW
IS NORMALLY COMING DOWN.
AND SO THEY'RE OFTEN OUT
THERE WITH HAIR DRIERS
KEEPING THEIR OPTICS DRY.
IT WON'T DAMAGE THE
TELESCOPE, BUT DEFINITELY NO
MATTER WHAT KIND OF
TELESCOPE YOU'RE USING, IF
YOU'RE GOING TO TAKE IT FROM
A WARM ENVIRONMENT TO A COLD
ENVIRONMENT, YOU HAVE TO
PLAN AHEAD OF TIME.
BECAUSE IT'S GOING TO
TAKE -- AND BECAUSE ONCE THE
TELESCOPE IS AS COLD AS THE
SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT,
THEN YOU WON'T HAVE TO WORRY
ABOUT THAT CONDENSATION, AND
IT'S GOD TO KIND OF TAKE IT
DOWN TO THAT TEMPERATURE,
YOU KNOW, EVENLY.
LIKE IF YOU HAVE SORT OF A,
I DON'T KNOW, A MUD ROOM OR
SOMETHING THAT'S A LITTLE
BIT COOLER, PUT IT IN THERE
AND THEN --

Maureen says GRADLY TAKE IT
OUT?

Ivan says YEAH, BUT
I THINK THE MAIN THING IS
DON'T BE SURPRISED IF YOU
TAKE IT OUTSIDE AND FIVE
MINUTES LATER IT'S FOGGING
UP.
SO GIVE IT TIME TO EQUALIZE.

Maureen says CAN YOU JUST RUB
THAT FOG OFF?

Ivan says THAT'S IN
THE A GOOD IDEA, BECAUSE
PUTTING OILS FROM YOUR
FINGERTIPS AND SO ON -- NOW
THERE ARE --

Maureen says THERE'S LENS
PAPER, OR WHATEVER?

Ivan says EXACTLY
BUT THE REASON THERE'S
CONDENSATION HAS TO DO WITH
THE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
AND THAT'LL BE STILL BE A
PROBLEM.
I REMEMBER HAVING THIS
PROBLEM LAST WINTER WITH THE
TOTAL EKE CHICHS THE MOON.
THERE WAS A GREAT ONE IN
JANUARY AND IT WAS A REALLY,
REALLY COLD NINE.
AND I WAS TRYING TO DO A
VIDEOTAPE OF IT, AND I HAD
THE SAME PROBLEM WITH MY
CAMERA LENS.
AND YOU JUST HAVE TO SORT OF,
YOU KNOW, ENDURE THAT, AND
YOU KNOW, PLAN AHEAD SO THAT
YOU, YOU KNOW, IT'S NICE AND
COOL.

Maureen says ABSOLUTELY.
OKAY, THANKS KASHA.
RAY FROM NORTH BAY.
HELLO, RAY?

Ray says MY QUESTION FOR
IVAN IS I WOULD LIKE TO KNOW
IF THERE ARE ANY FREQUENCIES
YOU CAN LISTEN TO WITH A
SCANNER THAT N.A.S.A. USES
TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE
SPACE STATION OR ARE THEY
RESTRICTED FOR SECURITY
REASONS?
I HAVE TWO FREQUENCIES BUT
I'VE NEVER HEARD ANYTHING ON
THEM.

Ivan says I'M SORRY,
I DON'T KNOW THE ANSWER TO
THAT.
ARE YOU TALKING HAM RADIO?

Ray says HAM AND SCANNER, YES.

Ivan says RIGHT, AND
I -- THIS IS SOMETHING I'VE
NEVER TRIED MYSELF.
SO THE -- MY BEST ADVICE
IS -- I DON'T KNOW IF YOU'VE
TRIED TO FIND OUT MORE AN
THE N.A.S.A. WEBSITE.

Maureen says YEAH, THAT'S A
GOOD IDEA.

Ivan says IF THERE'S
ANY INFORMATION THERE, BUT I
ACTUALLY DON'T KNOW WHAT THE
ANSWER TO THAT IS.
IT SEEMS LIKE IT SHOULD BE
POSSIBLE.
AND CERTAINLY THERE HAVE
BEEN CASE WHERE THERE HAVE
BEEN HAM RADIO SESSIONS
PLANNED AND ESTABLISHED WITH
THE SHUTTLE.
THAT HAS HAPPENED.
SO IN THEORY, IT SHOULD BE
POSSIBLE.
BUT I'M NOT SURE WHAT THE
FREQUENCIES ARE THAT THEY'RE
USING FOR THEIR ROUTINE
COMMUNICATIONS.

Maureen says I GUESS IF IT
CAN HAPPEN N.A.S.A. WILL
KNOW ABOUT IT BECAUSE IF
THEY DIDN'T WANT IT TO
HAPPEN THEY WOULD FINE A WAY
TO KEEP IT FROM -- I MEAN, I
SUPPOSE IF THE COLD WAR WERE
STILL ON, THERE JUST WOULD
BE NO WAY.

Ivan says WELL, BUT
THESE TYPES OF THINGS ARE
VERY PUBLIC.
THESE MANNED SPACE MISSIONS
NOW.
AND SO IN THEORY IT SHOULD
BE POSSIBLE TO GET THAT
INFORMATION.

Maureen says I DON'T KNOW IF
WE HAVE THE N.A.S.A. WEBSITE
HERE, BUT ANYWAY, THROW THAT
IN A SEARCH ENGINE.
YOU PROBABLY KNOW IT BY
HEART.
DO YOU?

Ivan says UH,
IT'S -- WELL NASA.GOV.

Maureen says AND WE'VE
GOT IT COMING UP AT THE END
OF THE SHOW.
DAVID IS IN KICHER IN, HI
DAVID.

David says I'VE GOT A
QUESTION.
HOW LONG AGO DID THEY
DISCOVER PLANET X?

Ivan says PLANET X?
WELL PLANET X IS THE NAME
THAT'S SOMETIMES GIVEN TO
THIS IDEA THAT THERE COULD
BE ANOTHER PLANET BEYOND
PLUTO.
AND AS FAR AS WE KNOW THERE
IS NO OTHER PLANET, HOWEVER
THERE ARE MANY OBJECTS THAT
ARE ORBITING THE SUN BEYOND
PLUTO.
IN FACT JUST THIS FALL IT
WAS ANNOUNCED THAT THE
LARGEST OBJECT -- THE NEXT
LARGEST OBJECT AFTER PLUTO
SO FAR WAS DISCOVERED, IN
THIS KIND OF ORBIT JUST
BEYOND THE ORBIT OF NEPTUNE.
SOME PLUTO ITSELF WAS
DISCOVERED AROUND 1930, AND
NOTHING THAT'S BEEN SEEN
SINCE THEN HAS BEEN CALLED A
PLANET.
AND WE DON'T THINK THERE'S
ANY EVIDENCE RIGHT NOW FOR
ANY OTHER PLANETS.
THAT MIGHT BE IT.
INSTEAD, ALL THESE SMALLER
OBJECTS FORM A KIND OF BELT
THAT'S CALLED THE KYPER BELT
JUST YAWN THE ORBIT OF
NEPTUNE.

Maureen says THANKS VERY MUCH,
DAVID.
WE'RE TALKING ABOUT
ASTRONOMY THIS AFTERNOON
WITH THE DISCOVERY CHANNEL'S
IVAN SEMENIUK.
IF YOU HAVE A QUESTION ABOUT
SPACE EXPLORATION, STARS,
PLANET, STUFF LIKE THAT,
GIVE US A CALL.
JUST WHILE WE'RE
ON THE SUBJECT OF PLUTO AND
NEPTUNE, WAS THERE NOT A
GIANT ASTEROID SPOTTED KIND
OF IN BETWEEN THOSE TWO?

Ivan says THAT WAS
THE ONE I WAS TALKING ABOUT.

Maureen says OKAY.

Ivan continues YEAH, NOT
SO MUCH AN ASTEROID, BUT
IT'S INTERESTING THESE
OBJECTS ARE SHOWING UP NOW.
THEY WERE THEORIZED A FEW
DECADES BACK, AND IT'S CLEAR
THAT THEY ARE OUT THERE.

Maureen says WHAT ARE THEY?

Ivan says PLUTO MAY JUST
BE THE LARGEST EXAMPLE OF
THIS BECAUSE NO ONE'S EVER
BEEN ABLE TO UNDERSTAND
PLUTO, IT'S VERY
DIFFERENT FROM THE OTHER
PLANETS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM.
URANUS AND THE NEPTUNE ARE
BIG GASSY BALLS AND THEY'RE
MAINLY MADE OF WATER INSIDE
BUT QUITE LARGE, MANY TIMES
THE SIZE OF THE EARTH BUT
PLUTO IS JUST THIS TINY
LITTLE SPEC, SMALLER THAN
THE EARTH, MADE PROBLEM LEAF
ICE AND ROCK MIXED TOGETHER
SO IT'S THOUGHT THAT THIS IS
THE KIND OF THING THAT THE
LARGER PLANETS WERE BUILT UP
OUT OF.
THAT YOU HAVE ENOUGH OF
THESE TOGETHER AND MIX ALL
THOSE INGREDIENTS, THE ICE
AND ROCK AND YOU GET THINGS
LIKE URANUS AND JUPITER AND
EVEN NEPTUNE AND SATURN SO
THESE ARE THE LEFT OVERS OF
THAT SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION
AND WE'RE STARTING TO SEE
THEM NOW, THESE OBJECTS SO
THIS OBJECT YOU JUST
MENTIONED IS I THINK THE ONE
YOU MANY.

Maureen asks ARE YOU GOING TO
GIVE IT A NAME?

Ivan replies THESE
THINGS DO GET NAMED BUT THEY
HAVEN'T BEEN NAMED YET.
SO THERE IS A NAMING
COMMITTEE FOR THE NATIONAL
ASTRONOMICAL UNION, I GUESS
THEY HAVE TO DECIDE WHAT
THEY ARE.
AT THE MOMENT THEY'RE MERELY
NAMED TRANS NEPTUNIAN
OBJECTS OR KYPER BELT
OBJECTS.

Maureen says WE HAVE TO COME
UP WITH SOMETHING SNAPPIER THAN THAT.

Ivan says BRINGS IT
MIND A FUNNY ANNIVERSARY AND
THE FACT THAT NAMES DON'T
ALWAYS STICK.
WE'RE COMING TO THE 200th
ANNIVERSARY OF THE
DISCOVERARY OF THE FIRST
ASTEROID, WHICH HAPPENED
JANUARY 1st, 1980.
AND AT THE TIME NO ONE HAD
ANY IDEA THAT THERE WAS
ANYTHING LIKE AN ASTEROID.
THERE WAS MARS, THERE WAS
JAUP TER, THERE'S THIS BIG
EMPTY SPACE IN BETWEEN.
PEOPLE WERE TALKING ABOUT
THE FACT THAT IT SEEMED LIKE
THERE SHOULD BE SOMETHING
THIS THERE BUT NO ONE HAD
SEEN ANY PLANETS AND THEN
THIS ASTRONOMY PIAZZI IN
SICILY MADE THIS OBSERVATION
OF WHAT HE THOUGHT WAS A
STAR BUT OVER A FEW WEEKS
YOU A THAT IT HAD MOVED AND
REALIZED IT HAD TO BE AN
OBJECT IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM.
SO HE NAMED IT SERIES
FERDINANDE AFTER -- SERIES
WAS THE PATRON GOD OF SISLY
AND FERDINANDE WAS AN EXILED
KING OF NAPLES LIVING IN
ITALY.
VERY QUICKLY THEY DROPPED
FERDINANDE AND KEPT SERIES
SO THE GODDESS SERIES IS THE
FIRST NAME OF THE ASTEROID.

Maureen says BUT WHO ACTUALLY COINED
THE WORD ASTEROID?

Ivan says I THINK IT
WAS WILLIAM HERSHAL, AND HE
WAS THE PREEMINENT OBSERVER
OF THE DAY ONCE THESE THINGS
WERE TURNING UP, ESPECIALLY
THIS FIRST ONE, HE LOOKED AT
ITHAD SORT OF THE BEST AND
LARGEST TELESCOPES AT THE
TIME AND WAS REALLY AMAZED
HOW TINY IT WAS.
IT DOESN'T SEEM TO BE
PARENTING MUCH OF A DISC.
I MEAN, EVEN RIGHT NOW IT
WOULD BE DIFFICULT FOR THE
HUBBLE TO SEE MUCH DETAIL,
LOOKING AT EVEN THE LARGEST
ASTEROIDS.

Maureen says REALLY.

Ivan says THEY'RE
VERY VERY SMALL.
SERIES IS ABOUT AS LARGE AS
ONTARIO, IT'S VERY SMALL,
RELATIVE TO THE EARTH.
BUT THESE ARE THE OBJECTS
THAT WILL PROBABLY GIVE US
THE SECRETS OF HOW THE OTHER
PLANETS WERE --

Maureen says WERE FORMED.
MICHAEL IN TORONTO.
HELLO, MICHAEL.

Michael says HELLO, HOW ARE
YOU DOING?

Maureen says FINE.

Michael says GOOD.
IVAN, THANKS FOR TAKING THE
QUESTION.
I THINK THEY SHOULD NAME ONE
OF THOSE HURLING NEPTUNIAN
ASTEROIDS AFTER ME, BY THE
WAY.
He laughs and continues BUT MY QUESTION IS REGARDING
THE COMMERCIALIZATION AND
PRIVATIZATION OF SPACE
EXPLORATION.

Ivan says RIGHT.

Michael says AND I'LL THROW A
COUPLE OF EXAMPLES OF YOU,
FIRST BEING THE X-TRIBES AND
THE SECOND BEING -- THERE'S
A 60 YEAR-OLD OLD
BUSINESSMAN WHO'S ACTUALLY
PAYING FOR A TICKET TO
EITHER THE MIR SPACE STATION
OR THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE
STATION.
I WAS JUST WONDERING IF YOU
COULD SHED A LIT ON --

Ivan says COULD YOU
EXPLAIN THAT FIRST ONE.
X-PRIZE?

Michael says I BELIEVE IT'S CALLED THE
X-PRIZE FOR PRIVATE
INDUSTRY.
IT'S A COMPETITION WITH A
PRIZE OF LIKE 1 MILLION DOLLARS OR
10 MILLION DOLLARS FOR THE FIRST
SUCCESSFUL REPETTED TRIP
INTO SPACE.
SO YOU HAVE TO ORBIT AND
THEN COME BACK AND THEN
RETURN WITHIN A PERIOD OF
LIKE WITH WEEKS OR SOMETHING
TO THAT EFFECT.
HAVE YOU HEARD OF THAT?

Ivan says I HAVE
HEARD OF THAT.
SO -- WELL, IT'S VERY
INTERESTING TO SEE HOW THIS
IS GOING TO DEVELOP.
IN A WAY, TECHNOLOGY IS WHAT
MAKES EVERYTHING POSSIBLE.
THE THING ABOUT SPACE BEING
A COMMERCIAL VENTURE, OR A
RIRVE VAT VENTURE IS -- YOU
KNOW, THE QUESTION IS WHAT'S
THE ECONOMIC STIMULUS AND
PEOPLE HAVE PROPOSED
DIFFERENT POSSIBILITIES.
YOU COULD GO TO THE MOON AND
DO SOME MINING OR JUST --
YOU KNOW, CLEARLY THERE ARE
ECONOMIC NECESSITIES FOR
BEING IN ORBIT.
THERE ARE ECONOMIC REASONS
FOR BEING IN ORBIT.
TO HAVE SATELLITES IN ORBIT,
CELL PHONES ARE JUST ONE
EXAMPLE OF THE KINDS OF
THINGS THAT NEED -- OR OTHER
COMMUNICATIONS SO HAVING
CHEAP DELIVERY OF THESE
PAYLOADS INTO ORBIT WOULD BE
A GREAT THING TO DO.
AND IN FACT TO SOME EXTENT
THERE IS A STRONG PRIVATE
SECTOR SPACE EXPLORATION
HAPPENING, BUT NOT IN THE
WAY THAT WE THINK OF IT WITH
MAN, SPACE FLIGHT AND IT'S
SORT OF KIND OF REALLY
PUSHING THE FRONTIER.
YOU KNOW, I GUESS YOU COULD
MAKE A COMPARISON WITH
REGULAR AIR FLIGHT, AIR
TRAVEL, WHICH, YOU KNOW, HAS
REALLY ONLY BEEN AROUND A
HUNDRED YEARS, AND REALLY
DIDN'T BECOME A COMMERCIAL
THING UNTIL SAY 60 YEARS AGO,
50 YEARS AGO, BUT THEN --
AND THEN IT BECAME KIND OF A
COMMERCIAL NECESSITY.
BUT YOU CAN SEE THE WAY AIR
TRAVEL FIT INTO THE GROWING
WORLD ECONOMY OF THE 20th
CENTURY AND HAS NOW JUST
BECOME INDISPENSABLE.
AND THE ONE THING THAT I
ALWAYS WONDER ABOUT WHEN WE
TALK ABOUT SAY SOMEONE
PAYING TO GO ON THE SHUTTLE
OR KIND OF SPACE TOURISM OR
SPACE HOTEL AND, YOU KNOW,
FOR A FEW PEOPLE, YOU CAN
SORT OF IMAGINE THERE MIGHT
BE A LIMITED MARKET OF
PEOPLE WITH A LOT OF MONEY
WHO MIGHT BE ABLE TO DO THAT,
BUT WHAT'S THAT BIG, GENERAL,
DRIVING NEED THAT WOULD
REALLY PUSH IT INTO BECOMING
A MAIM JUNIOR PLAYER IN THE
ECONOMY?
AND I THINK THAT'S WHAT
STOPS THAT SPACE BUSINESS
FROM BEING MUCH BIGGER THAN
IT IS.
HOWEVER IN THE PLACES WHERE
THE CONDITION ME REALLY --
YOU KNOW, WHERE THE
E-COMMERCE REALLY JUSTIFY IT,
THESE ARE PRIVATE
COMPANIES THAT BUILD
SATELLITES.

Maureen says YOU WERE SAYING
YOU VISITED THE COMPANY THAT
BUILD THE CANADA SPACE ARM.
I'M SURPRISED IT STILL GETS
TO BE CALLED THE CANADA ARM
AND IT'S NOT CALLED THE
WHATEVER, WHO MADE IT?

Ivan says IT'S CALLED THE CANADA
ARM TO US.
I THINK IF YOU WERE IN THE
U.S., NO ONE WOULD KNOW WHAT
YOU WERE TALKING ABOUT IF
YOU TALKED ABOUT THE
CANADIAN ARM ALTHOUGH THAT
LOGO IS ON THERE.

Maureen says HOW LONG BEFORE
THE COMPANY INSISTS THAT ITS
LOGO'S ON THE ARM?

Ivan says WELL IN THIS CASE YOU
HAVE A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
THE COMPANY AND CANADIAN
SPACE AGENCY AND N.A.S.A.
AND THIS IS THAT KIND OF A
PRO GRM BEING BECAUSE IT'S
NOT WITH US A PRIVATE SECTOR
VENTURE, BUT YOU SEE THE
COMPANY LOGO WHEN YOU'RE
LOOKING AT SOME OF THE OTHER
ASPECTS OF SPACE FLIGHT.

Maureen says YOU DO.
GOOD YES, THANKS MICHAEL.
MARY IS IN MOUG.
HELLO, MARY.

Mary says HELLO.

Maureen says GO AHEAD.

Mary says I HAVE QUESTION.
IT'S REGARDING WHEN THEY
BOOMERANG AROUND A PLANET TO
GET FURTHER, AND I KNOW
THEY ARE GETTING THE EXTRA
ENERGY FROM THE
GRAVITATIONAL FIELD, BUT I'M
WONDERING WHAT THE EFFECT IS
ON THE GRAVITATION
FIELD?
IS THE FIELD REDUCED SOMEHOW
AFTER THIS ENERGY IS TAKEN
AWAY FROM IT?

Ivan says WHAT YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT
IS THE SLING SHOT EFFECT,
WHERE YOU HAVE A SMALL PROBE
OF SOME KIND LIKE A GALILEO,
COMING NEAR A PLANET, AND
YOU KNOW, IT KIND OF PICKS
UP SPEED AS IT APPROACHES
THE PLANET AND THEN IT GETS
THROWN OFF AND ENDS UP WITH
MORE NERGE YES THAN IT
STARTED WITH.
AND THIS IS THE WAY THAT
THEY WERE ABLE TO BOOST,
FIRST OF ALL,
VOYAGEUR TO NEPTUNE -- SO
IT'S LINE INTERPLANETARY
PINBALL.

Maureen laughs.

He continues SO THE WAY IT WORKS IS IT
STEALS A LITTLE BIT OF
ENERGY.
YOU CAN IMAGINE THAT FOR A
BRIEF MOMENT IT KIND OF
FORMS A LITTLE DOUBLE PLANET
BETWEEN THE BIG GIANT PLANET
AND THE TINY LITTLE PROBE,
AND THAT THEY'RE SOMEHOW
GOING AROUND THEIR COMMON
CENTRE.
BUT YOU KNOW, THE TAKEN KNEE
LITTLE PROBE IS SO MINUSCULE
COMPARED TO THE BIG GIANT
PLANET SO THE ENERGY WOULD
ULTIMATELY BE PULLED OUT OF
THE ORBITAL ENERGY OF THE
PLANET.
SO YOU MIGHT BE AFFECTING
THE ORBIT OF THE PLANET BUT
IN FACTS IT'S SO, SO
MINUSCULE THAT IT'S -- IT'S
IMPOSSIBLE TO MEASURE.

Maureen says NOW THAT
GRAVITATIONAL PULL BECAME
VERY IMPORTANT IN APOLLO 13,
DIDN'T IT?
ISN'T THAT ACCORDING TO THE
MOVIE, ANYWAY?
THEY WERE DEPENDING ONTA TO
BRING THEM BACK DOWN TO
EARTH WHEN THEY, I DON'T
KNOW, RAN INTO TROUBLE OR
SOMETHING?

Ivan says RIGHT.
THEY WERE ALSO WORRIED ABOUT
OVERSHOOTING SO I GUESS THAT
COULD HAVE BEEN -- THEY
COULD HAVE SUFFERED THE SAME
FATE, I SUPPOSE, IF THEY
CAME TOO CLOSE.
BUT IT'S FUNNY, SOMETHING
LIKE THAT IS HAPPENING NOW
WITH THE CASSINI SPACECRAFT
APPROACHING JUPITER.
AND CASSINI'S ON ITS WAY TO
SATURN AND THE LAST TIME
CASSINI DID A FLY-BY OF
EARTH, IT ACTUALLY -- IT WAS
LAUNCHED FROM EARTH AND IT
DID A BIG CIRCLE AND THEN
RETURNS TO EARTH IT USE IT
AS A SLING SHOT.
NOT TO LAND OR ANYTHING,
JUST PASS VERY CLOSE AND
FLEW BY AND AT THAT TIME
PEOPLE WERE PROTESTING
BECAUSE THERE'S A LITTLE
NUCLEAR ENGINE ON CASSINI,
AND PEOPLE WERE SAYING WELL,
YOU KNOW, IF YOU MISDIRECT
THIS THING, THERE COULD BE A
LITTLE NUCLEAR SITUATION.
BUT ANYWAY, PROTESTS
NOTWITHSTANDING IT HAPPENED
AND EVERYTHING WORKED.

Maureen says OKAY.

Ivan says AND NOW
IT'S ON ITS WAY.
AND THERE'S ANOTHER
INTERESTING PART TO THIS,
WHICH IS THE ENERGY THAT
THESE THINGS ARE PICKING UP
IS A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT
FROM WHAT HAS BEEN
CALCULATED BY A VERY SMALL
AMOUNT.
AND SOME SCIENTISTS WERE
WONDERING WHETHER THAT
DIFFERENCE MEANS THERE'S
SOMETHING DIFFERENT ABOUT
THE FORCE OF GRAVE AT THE
THAT HAS NOT YET BEEN
CALCULATED.
THAT IN FACT WE'RE DOING
GRAVITATIONAL EXPERIMENTS
WITHOUT EVEN REALIZING IT
THESE PROBES.
THERE'S ONE SOMING UP IN
JANUARY.
THE STARDUST PROBE IS GOING
DO ANOTHER FLYBY OF EARTH
AND SO THEY ARE GOING TO WATCH TO
SEE IF THERE'S ANY DEVIATION
FROM ITS EXPECTED TRAJECTORY.

Maureen says JEAN WOULD LIKE
TO KNOW IF THE McLACHLAN
LYNN PLANETARIUM IS CLOSED,
WHERE ELSE IN TORONTO CAN A
FAMILY GO TO LEARN ABOUT THE
PLANET'S, SPACE,
CONSTELLATION, ET CETERA.

Ivan says WHAT A
GREAT QUESTION.
OF COURSE IT'S SAD TO THINK
THAT THE McLOUGHLIN'S NOT
THERE AND HONESTLY TORONTO
IS THE LARGEST CITY IN NORTH
AMERICA NOT SERVED BY A
MAJOR PLANETARIUM.
THAT SAID, THE SCIENCE
CENTRE DOES HAVE A
PLANETARIUM, AND IT IS OPEN
FOR PUBLIC SHOWS AND IT'S
ALSO USED FOR SCHOOL SHOWS
DURING THE WEEK.
SO THAT -- I SAY IT'S SMALL
BECAUSE IT CAN HOLD SAY 40
PEOPLE AT A TIME, BUT YOU
CAN GET A LOOK AT THE
CURRENT NIGHT SKY, AND FIND
OUT A LITTLE BIT ABOUT
WHAT'S HAPPENING OUT THERE.
THE SCIENCE CENTRE ALSO HAS
MOON ROCK.
SO IF YOU'VE NEVER SEEN A
PIECE OF THE MOON, I THINK
THAT'S THE ONLY ONE IN THIS
AREA WITHIN A HALF A DAY'S
DRIVE PROBABLY THAT YOU
COULD SEE.
SO ALL OF THOSE ARE COOL
THINGS SO I RECOMMEND TRYING
THAT.

Maureen says CAN YOU USE THE
OBSERVATORY UP AT THE ONE AT
YORK UNIVERSITY?

Ivan says THE YORK
UNIVERSITY HAS ITS
OBSERVATORY OPEN FOR VIEWING,
AND I BELIEVE IT'S ON
WEDNESDAYS.
I'M SORRY, BUT IT'S NOT
RIGHT AT THE TOP OF MY HEAD,
BUT IF YOU WERE TO CALL YORK
UNIVERSITY OR CHECK
(LAUGHING)
WEBSITE IT'S AT THE PETRIE
SCIENCES BUILDING.
YOU COULD ASK THE DEPARTMENT
OF ASTRONOMY AND FIZZ SFLIKS
AT YORK UNIVERSITY AND THEY
DO HAVE ONE NIGHT A WEEK FOR
THAT.
THERE'S ALSO A LITTLE BIT OF
PUBLIC VIEWING AT THE
TELESCOPES AT THE McLENNAN
PHYSICS LABS DOWN AT U.F.T.
I THINK IT'S THE FIRST AND
THIRD THURSDAY, I BELIEVE,
OF THE MONTH, AND THEN IN
THE WARMER MONTHS THERE ARE
PUBLIC TOURS OF THE DAVID
DUNLOP OBSERVATORY, THE BIG
GIANT IN RICHMOND HILL.
SO TEASE ARE ALL POSSIBLE
AND BY CALLING THESE PLACES
YOU CAN GET THE RIGHT TIMES.

Maureen says OKAY.
KATHLEEN IS IN VACAN.

Kathleen says HI HOW ARE YOU?

Maureen says FINE, THANKS.

Kathleen says THIS IS MORE AN
OBSRATION RATHER THAN A
QUESTION.
SUNDAY MORNING, THE 3rd OF
DECEMBER, JUST ASED SUN WAS
RIDING, IT WAS A VERY MISTY
MORNING AND A VERY LIGHT
SNOW FALLING AND THERE WAS A
RAINBOW WITH A BIG SUN DOG
ON EITHER END OF IT AND THEN
A DOUBLE RAINBOW AND AT THE
APEX OF EACH RAINBOW THERE
WAS A REVERSE RAINBOW, SO IT
WAS REALLY QUITE SPECTACULAR.
IT LASTED ABOUT HALF AN
HOUR.
TRIED TO GET A PICTURE OF IT
BUT MY CAMERA WOULDN'T TAKE
IT ALL IN.

Ivan says OH, MY
GOSH.
WHAT A BEAUTIFUL SITE.
I HAVE NEVER SEEN ANYTHING
QUITE AS WONDERFUL AS WHAT
YOU'VE DESCRIBED.
I'VE SEEN LOTS OF SUN DOGS
AND LOTS OF THESE KIND OF
HALOS THAT APPEAR AROUND THE
SUN.
THERE'S TYPICALLY ONE CALLED
292 DEGREE HALO, WHICH IS IF YOU
HAD AN ANGLE BETWEEN
YOURSELF AND THE SUN AND THE
EDGE OF THIS HALO, IT WOULD
MAKE A 22 DEGREE ANGLE.
AND IT ALL HAS TO DO WITH
THE -- YOU WERE SAYING IT
WAS KIND OF A MISTY MORNING,
WHAT'S GOING ON, ESPECIALLY
BECAUSE IT'S COLD, YOU HAVE
WATER IN THE HIGHER UP IN
THE ATMOSPHERE THAT'S
FREEZING OUT, AND FORMING
TINY LITTLE ICE CRYSTAALS,
AND DEPENDING ON THE
SPECIFIC CONDITIONS OF
TEMPERATURE AND WHAT WATER
IS THERE CRYSTAALS WILL FORM
IN DIFFERENT SHAPES.
AND THOSE CRYSTAALS ACT LIKE
LITTLE PRISMS SO THE
DIFFERENT SHAPED CRYSTALS
WILL REFLECT OR REFRACT
LIGHT IN DIFFERENT WAYS AND
SO IT'S THESE DIFFERENT
SHAPES THAT LEAD TO THE
VARIOUS EFFECTS SO WHEN YOU
GET LONG COLUMNAR-TYPE
CRYSTALS YOU GET ONE EFFECT,
THE FLOODER, PLAINER,
BROADER CRYSTALS YOU GET A
DIFFERENT EFFECT.
IT'S AMAZING HOW OFTEN YOU
CAN SEE SUN DOGS IN TORONTO.
BASICALLY YOU SEE THE SUN
AND A COUPLE OF ALMOST
LITTLE RAINBOWS, LIKE
SNIPPETS OF A RAINBOW ON
EITHER SIDE.
SLOX YOU'RE WATCHING,
ESPECIALLY IF YOU SEE A BIT
OF A CIRRHUS CLOUD, THE KIND OF HIGH
WHITISH CLOUD, IT'S AMAZING
HOW OFTEN IT HAPPENS.

Maureen says IS THIS AN
ASTRONOMY THING?

Ivan says IT'S AN
ATMOSPHERIC THING BUT IF
YOU'RE INTERESTED IN
ASTRONOMY YOU'RE KIND OF A
SKY WATCHER AND I THINK
THAT'S THE ESSENCE OF THIS
BEING A SKY WATCHER AND
REMEMBERING HALF OF THE
WORLD IS UP THERE AND NOT
DOWN THERE AND JUST KEEP
YOUR EYES OPEN BECAUSE
THERE'S SUCH NEAT STUFF.
I HAD A GOOD REMINDER OF
THAT THIS YEAR WITH THE
NORTHERN LIGHTS.

Maureen says DID YOU GET TO
SEE THEM?

Ivan says WE HAD SOME GREAT
NORTHERN LIGHTS.
AUGUST 11, ALSO THE NIGHT OF
THE PERCIAD METEOR SHOWER
GOT TO SEE SOME GREAT
NORTHERN LIGHTS.

Maureen says AND ASIDE FROM
THE CHRISTMAS ECLIPSE, IS
THERE ANYTHING ELSE COMING
UP OVER THE WINTER THAT YOU
THINK MEAN HE WILL SHOULD --

Ivan says I THINK
THE MOST INTERESTING THING
WOULD BE THESE PLANETS AND
WATCHING THEM MOVE.
SO JUPITER AND SATURN ARE
FANTASTIC, AGAIN, YOU SEE
THEM RISING IN THE EAST AS
THE SUNSETS.
AFTER DARK, AND YOU SEE
THESE TWO BRIGHT OBJECTS,
JUPITER IS THE BRIGHTER,
SATURN IS A BIT HIGHER AND
THEY'RE KIND OF SHIFTING
BACK AND FORTH AND THEN NOT
LONG AFTER THEY COME UP YOU
GHETTO RYON, THAT BEAUTIFUL
WINTER CONSTELLATION WITH
THE THREE STARS IN A ROW,
THAT'S THE BELT OF ORION AND
THE INTERSKY IS PARKED WITH
STARS AND WHEN YOU THROW IN
JUPITER AND SATURN IT LOOKS
FANTASTIC.

Maureen says WE'LL GET
VIVIAN'S QUESTION IN IN
MISSISSAUGA.

Vivian says GOOD AFTERNOON TO
YOU.

Maureen says HI.

Vivian says I WONDER IF YOU COULD YOU
TELL ME WHAT DO THEY MEAN
WHEN THEY SAY ONE LIGHT YEAR
AWAY, IS IT LIKE ONE
EARTH YEAR?

Maureen says I CAN’T UNDERSTAND
THIS EITHER. OK, WHAT DO YOU MEAN?

Ivan says A LIGHT
YEAR IS A MEASURE OF
DISTANCE.
SO BASICALLY IF YOU CAN
IMAGINE A YEAR IS A VERY
LONG TIME, IT'S THE AMOUNT
OF TIME -- IT'S THE DISTANCE
THAT LIGHT TRAVELS IF IT'S
BEEN TRAVELLING FOR ONE FULL
YEAR.
NOW, TO SORT OF PUT IT ALL
INTO PERSPECTIVE, THE LIGHT
FROM THE MOON TAKES JUST
OVER A SECOND TO REACH US.
SO, YOU KNOW, YOU COULD SAY
THAT THE MOON IS, YOU KNOW,
400,000 KILOMETRES AWAY BUT
YOU COULD ALSO SAY THAT THE
MOON IS JUST OVER ONE LIGHT
SECOND AWAY.
SO IT'S A PLEASURE OF
DISTANCE NOT TIME.
THE PLANETS ARE LIGHT
MINUTES AWAY.
THE SUN, FOR EXAMPLE, IS 8.3
LIGHT MINUTES AWAY.
IT TAKES THE LIGHT EIGHT AND
A HALF MINUTES OR SO TO
REACH US FROM THE SUN.
SO THE STARS NOW ARE SO FAR
AWAY THAT WE MEASURE THEIR
DISTANCE IN LIGHT YEARS.
THE CLOSEST STAR TO EARTH IS
4.3 LIGHT YEARS AWAY.
SO THE LIGHT THAT WE'RE
SEEING FROM THAT STAR LEFT
IT WHEN IT WAS 4.3 YEARS AGO,
AND CIRRIUS WHICH IS THE
BRIGHTEST STAR WE CAN SEE IN
THE WINTER SIGH IS JUST OVER
EIGHT LIGHT YEARS AWAY.

Maureen says IS THIS WHY
ASTRONOMERS ARE TRYING TO
DETERMINE THE ORIGINS OF HOW
THE EARTH CAME TO BE BY
LOOKING OUT THAT WAY AT
WHAT'S HAPPENING TO OTHER
PLANETS, I GUESS?

Ivan says SURE.
IF YOU LOOK FAR ENOUGH AWAY,
YOU ARE LOOKING TO EARLIER,
EARLIER YEARS OF THE
UNIVERSE.
NOW AT FIRST IT DOESN'T SEEM
THAT DIFFERENT.
THE UNIVERSE WASN'T THAT
DIFFERENT, YOU KNOW, EVEN
MILLIONS OF YEARS AGO, SO
THE GALAXIES THAT WE SEE
MILLIONS OF LIGHT YEARS AWAY
FROM THE MILKY WAY LOOK KIND
OF LIKE THE MILKY WAY.
BUT ONCE YOU START LOOKING
BILLIONS OF LIGHT YEARS INTO
THE DISTANCE, YOU'RE ALSO
LOOKING BILLIONS OF YEARS
INTO THE PAST.
AND YOU DEFINITELY ARE
STARTING TO SEE GALAXIES AT
A MUCH YOUNGER TIME IN THE
UNIVERSE'S HISTORY AND
ULTIMATELY IT'S POSSIBLE TO
LOOK RIGHT BACK TO THE VERY
BEGINNING.
YOU CAN'T DO IT WITH YOUR
EYE, BUT THERE ARE THESE --
THERE'S THIS KIND OF
MICROWAVE BACKGROUND THAT'S
COMING AT US FROM ALL
DIRECTIONS, THIS WEAK
MICROWAVE SIGNAL THAT WAS
FIRST DISCOVERED IN THE '60
SAID.
AND THAT'S KIND OF AN ECHO
OF THE BIG BANG.
SO THAT'S LIKE LOOKING 15
BILLION RIGHT YEARS AWAY.

Maureen says YOU'D WANT TO BE
TALKING TO STOCKWELL DAY
ABOUT THAT THOUGH.

They laugh.

She continues THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR
DOING THIS.
THANKS IVAN, GOOD TO HAVE
YOU HERE.
IVAN SEMENIUK IS AN
ASTRONOMER AND A PRODUCER AT
THE DISCOVERY CHANNEL.
HE HAS A WEBSITE AND THE
DISCOVERY CHANNEL DOES.
IT'S AN ASTRONOMY SITE.

A slate pops up that reads “Discovery Channel Astronomy page. www.exn.ca/skylights.”

Maureen continues TO FIND OUT WHEN
THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE
STATION WILL BE FLYING OVER
YOUR NEIGHBOURHOOD GO TO:

The slate changes to “International Space Station Information: www.spaceflight.nasa.gov.”

Maureen continues AND FOR MORE INFORMATION
ABOUT ASTRONOMY, CHECK OUT
THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL
SOCIETY OF CANADA'S WEB
PAGE.

The slate changes to “www.rasc.ca.”

Maureen concludes WELL, BACK
HERE ON EARTH IT’S ALL THE
TIME WE HAD FOR MORE TO LIFE.
BUT JOIN US AGAIN MONDAY
THROUGH FRIDAY 1:00 TO 2:00.

Watch: Astronomy