Transcript: Weather | Jun 01, 2000

(music plays)
The opening sequence shows a wooden table with a small lit candle as several words fly by: Nutrition, medicine, prevention, treatment, health.
Fast clips show different sets of hands performing activities on the table such as pulling petals from a daisy, drawing a big red heart, tuning a violin, flipping through the pages of a book, cooking, and pouring a glass of red wine.
In animation, the title appears inside the shape of a house: “More to life.”

Then, Maureen Taylor appears in a studio with yellow walls and a small TV set in the background, which reads “More to life.”

Maureen is in her late thirties, with wavy blond hair in a bob. She's wearing a bright pink cardigan over a matching blouse, and a thin pearl necklace.

Maureen says HELLO, AND WELCOME
TO “MORE TO LIFE.”
I'M MAUREEN TAYLOR.
LATER IN THE PROGRAMME WE'LL
INTRODUCE TO YOU TORONTO'S
HERD OF FIBERGLASS MOOSE.
BUT FIRST, YOU'VE GARDENED
IN NORTHERN OR EASTERN OR
SOUTHWESTERN ONTARIO ALL
YOUR LIFE AND YOU KNOW WHICH
PLANTS ARE HARDY IN YOUR
ZONE.
BUT GLOBAL WARMING HAS
GARDENERS RETHINKING THAT
HARDINESS MAP.
WE'RE GOING TO TALK ABOUT
GLOBAL WARMING AND OTHER
WEATHER WONDERS THIS
AFTERNOON WITH OUR FAVOURITE
WEATHER MAN, DAVID PHILLIPS.

David is in his late fifties, clean-shaven, with side-parted white-blond hair. He’s wearing rimless glasses and a light blue shirt.

Maureen continues HE'S A SENIOR CLIMATOLOGIST
WITH ENVIRONMENT CANADA.
IF YOU WANT A PREDICTION
ABOUT THE WEATHER FORECAST
FOR YOUR HOLIDAY OR IF YOU
HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT
HURRICANES, TORNADOES AND
FLOODS, GIVE US A CALL.

A caption appears on screen. It reads ".416-484-2727. 1-888-411-1234."
Then, it changes to “moretolife@tvo.org”

Maureen says AND WE ALSO HAVE
COPIES OF DAVID'S BOOK “THE
CLIMATES OF CANADA,” TO GIVE
AWAY TO CALLERS WHOSE
QUESTIONS GET TO AIR.

She shows a copy of David’s book and then says
WELCOME BACK.
HI.

Dave says HI MAUREEN,
NICE TO BE WITH YOU.

Maureen says HAVE WE SEEN
ENOUGH EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL
WARMING NOW THAT GARDENERS
CAN RETHINK WHEN THEY PLANT?

The caption changes to "David Phillips. Senior Climatologist."

Dave says WELL,
THAT'S A TOUGH QUESTION.
I THINK WE'VE SEEN CERTAINLY
IN THE LAST COUPLE OF YEARS
QUITE A CHANGE.
I MEAN, WE'VE HAD IN ONTARIO,
FOR EXAMPLE, SOUTHERN
ONTARIO AND NORTHERN ONTARIO,
WE'VE HAD THE LAST COUPLE OF
SPRINGS HAVE BEEN ONE OF THE
WARMEST ON RECORD.
WE HAD LAST SPRING, OR TWO
SPRINGS AGO THE WARMEST
SPRING IN 52 YEARS.
LAST YEAR, THE SIXTH
WARMEST, AND I KNOW MY WIFE
WAS GIVING ME A LOT OF A
TOUGH TIME, BECAUSE SHE SAID
“WELL WHEN CAN I PLANT?!”
YOU KNOW, IT'S THAT KIND OF
TRADITIONAL LONG MAY WEEKEND
SHE SAW NEIGHBOURS PLANTING
WELL AHEAD OF HERS TO GET A
GOOD START ON THE GROWING
SEASON AND I KEPT SAYING
WELL, YOU KNOW, ONE OR TWO
YEARS DOES NOT A TREND MAKE.
IT'S BETTER TO BE CAUTIOUS.
AND I THINK THIS YEAR'S BEEN
A GOOD EXAMPLE.
EVEN THOUGH THE LAST
SIGNIFICANT FROST WE HAD
HERE IN SOUTHERN ONTARIO WAS
ABOUT APRIL THE 12th, BUT
EVEN PLANTING EARLIER THAN
THE MAY LONG WEEKEND WOULD
HAVE NOT DONE YOU VERY MUCH
GOOD BECAUSE THE TEMPERATURE
HAS BEEN RATHER COOL AND
NIGHTTIME TEMPERATURES COOL,
THE SOIL HAS BEEN VERY COOL,
SO YOU WOULDN'T -- YOU COULD
PLANT, AND YOU DIDN'T SUFFER
THE RISK OF FROST BUT IT
WOULD JUST SIT THERE.
EXACTLY.

Maureen says WELL IT WAS A
WEIRD MAY, WASN'T IT?
THE SECOND WEEK OF MAY WAS
HOT HOT HOT!

Dave says YES.
WE HAD IN TORONTO, FOR
EXAMPLE, TEMPERATURES GOT UP
TO 30 degrees, AND IN MOST PLACES
SOUTH OF TORONTO THE
TEMPERATURES WERE EVEN
WARMER THAN 30 degrees.
AND THEN -- AND PEOPLE
PRAYING FOR RAIN, YOU KNOW?
THIS WAS -- RAIN WAS ONE OF
THE -- IF IT RAINED IT WAS A
REAL HERO TYPE OF ELEMENT,
AND YET IT'S ALMOST AS IF WE
PRAYED TOO LONG, YOU SEE?
THAT THINGS KIND OF COOLED
OFF.
BUT AS IT TURNED OUT, MAY IS
ACTUALLY STILL WARMER THAN
NORMAL.

Maureen says IS IT?

Dave says YES, IT'S
SURPRISING AND MOST PEOPLE
FIND THAT VERY DIFFICULT TO
UNDERSTAND.

Maureen says YEAH, BECAUSE
THE LAST BIT'S SEEMED RATHER COOL.

Dave says THAT'S
RIGHT, RATHER COOL.
BUT PRECIPITATION HAS REALLY
BEEN THE BIG STORY.
PLACES LIKE MOUNT FOREST IN
CENTRAL ONTARIO, WE'VE HAD
THREE TIMES THE NORMAL MAY
PRECIPITATION.
IT'S NOT ENOUGH TO IMPROVE
THE LAKE LEVEL ISSUE, BUT
CERTAINLY IT'S GOOD NEWS IN
THE SENSE THAT IT'S HELPED
TO RESTORE SOME OF THE
GROUND WATER, THE RIVERS AND
THE CREEKS, AND FARMERS
PROBABLY ARE SEEING RAIN
MORE AS A VILLAIN NOW.
THEY CAN'T GET ON THEIR
FIELDS.
THEY'RE HOPING FOR DRY
WEATHER, SO BUT THEY
CERTAINLY HAVE GOT THE
MOISTURE GOING INTO THE
GROWING SEASON.

Maureen says LET'S TALK ABOUT
THOSE LAKE LEVELS.
WHICH LAKES ARE AFFECTED?

Dave says WELL ALL THE LAKES.
LAKE ONTARIO SEEMS TO BE
CLOSER TO NORMAL THAN THE
OTHER LAKES, BUT ALL THE
OTHER LAKES ARE STILL WELL
BELOW NORMAL.
THEY'RE NOT AT THEIR RECORD
LOWS.
THEY WERE LOWER LEVELS IN
THE 1960s AND THE 1930s.
BUT WHAT WE'VE SEEN IN THE
LAST COUPLE OF YEARS IS THE
MOST DRAMATIC DROP IN
LEVELS.
YOU KNOW, FROM THE '60s,
FROM THE '70s AND THE '80s,
WE WERE IN HISTORICALLY VERY
HIGH LEVELS.
IN FACT A WHOLE GENERATION
OF PEOPLE BROUGHT UP
THINKING LEVELS OF LAKES
WERE AT THAT LEVEL.
SO FINALLY IN THE LAST
COUPLE OF YEARS, BECAUSE OF
FORMER TEMPERATURES AND
LOWER PRECIPITATION TOTALS,
THE LAKES HAVE FALLEN
DRAMATICALLY.
YOU ALMOST HAVE TO GO BACK
TO THE 1920s AND EARLY '30s
TO SEE SUCH A DRAMATIC DROP
IN THE LAKES.
LANE SUPERIOR, HURON,
MICHIGAN IS PARTICULARLY IN
BAD SHAPE.
IN FACT THEY SAY IN GEORGIAN
BAY IT USED TO BE THE BAY OF
30,000 ISLANDS, THEY NOW
HAVE 60,000 ISLANDS.
AND SO THERE IS CERTAINLY
CONCERN.
AND THIS WET WEATHER THAT
WE'VE HAD IN LATE APRIL AND
MAY IS NOT GOING TO MAKE
VERY MUCH DIFFERENCE.
YOU ALMOST NEED SEVERAL
SEASONS OF MONSOONAL TYPES
OF RAIN TO CORRECT THE
PROBLEM.

Maureen says WAS THE PROBLEM
SNOWFALL AND SNOWMELT?

Dave says IT WAS.
PART OF THE PROBLEM, FOR
EXAMPLE, WE HAD IN LAKE
SUPERIOR ABOUT 40 percent OF THE
WATER SUPPLY FOR THAT LAKE
COMES FROM SNOW.
AND SNOWFALL UP IN THAT AREA
WAS LESS THAN HALF OF NORMAL,
AND INDEED, WE'VE NEVER SEEN
IN THE YEARS THAT WE'VE BEEN
MONITORING SNOW COVER TO
HAVE THE SNOW COVER
DISAPPEAR IN MARCH.
AND IT DID THIS YEAR.
IT USUALLY CAN GO TO APRIL.
AND SO THERE WASN'T A LOT OF
SNOW TO FEED THE LEVELS, AND
SO THEY HAVE STAYED AT QUITE
LOW LEVELS.
BUT IT'S RATHER INTERESTING.
A COUPLE OF PROBLEMS.
ONE IS THE FACT THERE HAS
BEEN AN INORDINATE NUMBER OF
MONTHS WHERE WE'VE HAD LOWER
THAN NORMAL -- NORMAL
PRECIPITATION TOTALS, BUT
PROBABLY THE REAL DIFFERENCE
OVER OTHER YEARS IS TWO
THINGS.
ONE IS THAT TEMPERATURES
HAVE BEEN SO WARM.
SO THERE'S BEEN LOTS OF
EVAPORATION TAKING PLACE IN
THE LAKES.
AND PARTICULARLY IN THE
WINTERTIME.
WHERE YOU COULD ALWAYS COUNT
ON ICE COVER, AND SORT OF
THE EVAPORATION COULD
HIBERNATE, AND IT CAN'T.
I MEAN IT'S JUST -- WATER IS
LEAVING THE LAKE.
AND THE OTHER THING,
MAUREEN, IS THE GREATER
DEMANDS ON THE WATER.
WE'RE PULLING WATER OUT OF
THE LAKE SYSTEM AND OUT OF
THE RIVERS AND THE CREEKS
LIKE NEVER BEFORE TO -- FOR
INDUSTRY AND FOR WATER IN
HOMES, AND SO THERE'S A
GREATER CONSUMPTIVE USE, FOR
IRRIGATION, FOR WATERING
GOLF COURSES.
AND SO WE'RE USING MORE
WATER, THERE'S LESS GOING
INTO THE SYSTEM AND THERE'S
MORE EVAPORATING SO IT'S NOT
A MYSTERY THAT THE LEVELS
ARE DOWN.

Maureen says YOU'VE SAID IT'S
NOT -- IT IS EVAPORATING,
RIGHT?

Dave says YES.

Maureen says WELL MY
RUDIMENTARY UNDERSTANDING OF
WEATHER WOULD BE IF YOU HAVE
ALL THAT EVAPORATION IT
WOULD CREATE RAIN.
OH, I GUESS IT DID, WE GOT
THE RAIN BUT IT'S TOO
LATE --

Dave says WELL, IT'S
SOMEWHERE ELSE.
USUALLY YOU CAN CREATE MORE
CLOUD BUT THOSE CLOUDS WILL
MOVE OFF AND IT MAY BE IN
EUROPE THAT THEY'RE
EXPERIENCING THE HEAVIER
RAIN FROM THE EVAPORATION.
IT WOULD BE KIND OF NEAT TO
KNOW.
AND PEOPLE BACK IN THE
FARMERS IN THE '30s USED TO
PLANT TREES, THINKING THAT
IF THIS EVAPORATED, THIS
WOULD CAUSE CLOUDS AND RAIN.
BUT NOT WHERE THEY WERE
FARMING.

Maureen says NO.
OKAY, INTERESTING.
WE'RE TALKING ABOUT WEATHER
WITH SENIOR CLIMATOLOGIST
DAVID PHILLIPS.
HE'S THE AUTHOR OF “THE
CLIMATES OF CANADA,” AND YOU
REALLY LOOK LIKE YOU KNOW A
LOT ABOUT WEATHER IF YOU
READ THIS BOOK.
WE HAVE COPIES OF IT TO GIVE
AWAY BUT YOU DO HAVE TO GIVE
US A CALL WITH A WEATHER
QUESTION.
SO IN TORONTO THE NUMBER IS...

The phone numbers and email reappear briefly.

Maureen says AND HEATHER IS
IN TORONTO.
HI HEATHER.
WELCOME.

The Caller says HI.

Maureen says HI.

The Caller says I WAS CURIOUS, IN
THE PAST YEARS WE HEARD
ABOUT ACID RAIN AND OUR
LAKES BEING PRISTINE CLEAN
BUT QUITE DEAD.
YOU EVEN HEARD OF THE
EFFECTS OF IT IN EUROPE BUT
I'M NOT HEARING SO MUCH OF
IT NOW.
IS IT A DEAD ISSUE?
IS IT JUST AS PROBLEMATIC?

Dave says WELL, IT'S
CERTAINLY -- WE'VE COME A
LONG WAY.
WE'VE RECOGNIZED THE PROBLEM,
WHAT WE'VE KNOWN ABOUT, OH,
TEN OR 15 YEARS AGO, WHAT WE
KNEW ABOUT ACID RAIN HAS
COME TRUE.
I MEAN, WE COULD HAVE MOVED
MUCH FASTER THAN WE DID ON
IT.
BUT WE CERTAINLY -- WHAT
CONCERNS SCIENTISTS IS THAT
THE GENERAL PUBLIC THINKS
THE ISSUE HAS BEEN SOLVED
AND IN FACT IT HASN'T BEEN.
THERE ARE STILL A LOT OF
CONCERN ABOUT ACID RAIN.
WE HAVE TO BE VIGILANT ABOUT
WHAT WE PUT INTO THE
ATMOSPHERE, AND CERTAINLY
WE'RE SEEING SOME RECOVERY.
SO THE LESSON IS THAT YES,
THERE IS SOME OPTIMISM, THAT
PEOPLE CAN MAKE A
DIFFERENCE.
YOU CAN CORRECT A PROBLEM.
BUT IT'S CERTAINLY NOT BEEN
SOLVED TOTALLY.

Maureen says SO ARE THERE
STILL LAKES AROUND ONTARIO
THAT WOULD BE CONSIDERED
DEAD LAKES BECAUSE OF ACID RAIN?

Dave says YES, VERY
MUCH SO.
AND CERTAINLY THEY'RE ON
THEIR WAY TO RECOVERY BUT IT
WILL TAKE A LONG TIME.

Maureen says IS THAT
SOMETHING THAT WE DO -- I
KNOW YOU'RE NOT THE GUY IN
THERE CLEANING UP THE LAKES,
BUT CAN WE CLEAN THEM UP
FROM THIS END?
OR IS IT JUST A MATTER OF
KEEPING THE TOXINS OUT OF
THE AIR IN THE FIRST PLACE?

Dave says WELL I
THINK IT'S BOTH.
WE CAN ENGINEER OUR WAY OUT
OF IT.
SOME LAKES ARE RECOVERED BY
PUTTING IN BASE MATERIALS TO
COUNTERACT THE HIGHER ACID
LEVELS.
BUT REALLY, I ALWAYS AM
CONCERNED ABOUT ENGINEERING
YOUR WAY OUT OF A SOLUTION.
I THINK THE PROBLEM IS TO
CORRECT THE PROBLEM AT THE
SOURCE, WHICH WOULD BE
HAVING CLEANER AIR WOULD
SOLVE THAT PROBLEM, ALONG
WITH OTHER PROBLEMS.

Maureen says YOU'VE BROUGHT
IN A NUMBER OF INSTRUMENTS
TODAY THAT HELP YOU PREDICT
THE WEATHER.
DO YOU WAN TO -- WELL,
LET'S GO TO YOUR CRYSTAL
BALL FIRST.
WHAT IS THAT?

Dave places an instrument on the table. It is a crystal globe held by a semicircular metal structure with a triangular structure wrapped around it, that has a thin slit.

Dave says OKAY.
WELL THIS IS SUCH AN
INTERESTING INSTRUMENT, AND
IT'S BEEN AROUND FOR A LONG
TIME.
ONE OF THE THINGS NEAT ABOUT
THE INSTRUMENTS THAT I
BROUGHT IN WE THINK ABOUT
Meteorology AS A
HIGH-TECH SCIENCE, AND IT IS.
COMPUTERS AND RADAR AND
SATELLITES, BUT YOU KNOW, WE
HAVE SOME OF THE VERY BASIC
INSTRUMENTS HAVE BEEN
DEVELOPED MORE THAN 150
YEARS AGO.
THIS IS WHAT WE CALL A
CAMPBELL STOKES AND IT'S
ACTUALLY A SUNSHINE
RECORDER.
SO PEOPLE SAY YES,
METEOROLOGISTS DO USE
CRYSTAL BALLS TO SEE WHAT
THE FORECAST IS GOING TO BE
BUT THAT'S NOT THE CASE.
WHAT WE DO IS WE -- IT'S THE
SAME OLD PRINCIPLE.
YOU KNOW, IT'S SO
DELIGHTFULLY SIMPLE.
IT'S SO INGENIOUS.
IT'S THE SAME KIND OF
PRINCIPLE WHERE YOU TAKE A
MAGNIFYING GLASS AND YOU
BURN A PIECE OF PAPER.

He places a strip of paper between the crystal sphere and the triangular structure, and then says
AND WHAT WE DO, BEHIND THIS
SUNSHINE RECORDER IS THAT WE
PUT A STRIP OF PAPER, WE
FEED IT IN BEHIND IT LIKE SO,
AND THEN THE SUN WILL, AS IT
PASSES ACROSS THE HORIZON,
WILL BURN THIS PIECE OF
PAPER AT THE BACK.
SO AT THE END OF THE DAY,
WHEN WE TAKE THE STRIP OF
PAPER OFF, AND I CAN SHOW
YOU THAT IT SHOWS YOU HOW,
BY THIS CHAR MARK, HOW MANY
HOURS OF BRIGHT SUNSHINE.

He shows Maureen a strip of paper with a straight burn line across it.

He says YOU KNOW, ON THIS SIDE, FOR
EXAMPLE, YOU CAN TELL WHEN
THE -- THIS IS ACTUALLY --
HERE, I HAVE IT UPSIDE-DOWN,
LET ME TURN IT THIS WAY.

Maureen says JUST TILT IT A
LITTLE MORE TOWARD THE
CAMERA.

Dave says AND WE CAN
SEE THE SUN CAME UP ABOUT
6:30 AND THEN IT BURNED THE
PAPER AND THEN ALL OF A
SUDDEN IT LOOKS LIKE ABOUT
JUST BEFORE EIGHT O'CLOCK IT
STOPPED AND CLOUD COVER ASK
THEN IT STARTED BEING SUNNY
AGAIN FOR MOST OF THE DAY.

Maureen says NEAT!

Dave says SO BY
COUNTING THE NUMBER OF
MINUTES, HOURS IN MINUTES,
WE CAN DETERMINE HOW MUCH
SUNSHINE YOU HAD AND IT'S
CALLED A BRIGHT SUNSHINE
BECAUSE IT TAKES ABOUT 15
MINUTES BEFORE THE SUN IS
POWERFUL ENOUGH TO START
BURNING THE PAPER.
SO THAT'S A CAMPBELL STOKES
BRIGHT SUNSHINE RECORDER.

Maureen says BOY, SOME
ENERGETIC STUDENT COULD
PROBABLY DESIGN ONE OF THOSE
FOR A SCIENCE FAIR PROJECT.

Dave says ABSOLUTELY,
THAT'S INTERESTING.
VERY EXPENSIVE.
ABOUT 2,000 dollars, VERY NICELY
GROUND GLASS, BUT IT'S A
MARVELOUS -- IT'S A KIND OF
A HEAVY PAPERWEIGHT THERE.

Maureen says ALL RIGHT, WE'LL
TALK ABOUT SOME OF THE
OTHERS IN A BIT.
LET'S GO TO KEN IN BROOK
FALLS.
HI KEN.

The Caller says HELLO.

Maureen says HI.
WHAT'S YOUR QUESTION FOR
DAVE?

The Caller says OKAY, THE
QUESTION I HAD WAS I WAS
WONDERING HOW -- WONDERING
HOW OFTEN DO WE GET SEVERE
TORNADOES IN ONTARIO?
AND NORMALLY HOW FAR NORTH
WOULD THEY GO?

Dave says OKAY.
WE GET ON AVERAGE ABOUT 15
TO 20 TORNADOES A YEAR IN
ONTARIO.
THE GOOD NEWS IS ABOUT 90 percent
OF THEM ARE WEAK.
WHAT WE CALL F-0, F-1.
THEY'D GET UP TO MAYBE TOPS
175 KILOMETRES PER HOUR.
STILL ENOUGH TO KNOCK,
UPROOT TREES AND KNOCK DOWN
BARNS, BUT NOT THE KIND OF
DEVASTATING KINDS OF
TORNADOES YOU WOULD GET IN
TORNADO ALLEY DOWN IN
OKLAHOMA OR KANSAS.
NOW THE MOST PREVALENT AREA
IN ONTARIO, AND WE'VE
LEARNED A LOT ABOUT THIS IN
RECENT YEARS, IS AN AREA
BETWEEN BOTH LAKE ONTARIO --
LAKE ERIE AND LAKE HURON.
THERE'S AN AREA WHERE THE
LAKE BREEZE SEEMS TO COME
TOGETHER AND PRODUCE A
HIGH-RISK AREA, WHERE THE
LAKE BREEZE COMES TOGETHER
BETWEEN THOSE TWO LAKES, AND
THAT'S ALMOST LIKE A MINI
TORNADO ALLEY FOR ONTARIO.
THEY CAN TRAVEL FAR NORTH.
I REMEMBER ONE OF THE WORST
TORNADOES IN ONTARIO HISTORY
WAS BACK IN 1970 IN SUDBURY.
THING KILLED SEVEN PEOPLE
AND IT WAS A SURPRISE
BECAUSE IT CAME SO EARLY IN
THE MORNING.
MOST TORNADOES AND SEVERE
THUNDERSTORMS OCCUR LATE IN
THE AFTERNOON-EARLY EVENING.
BUT THIS ONE CAME AT 8:30 IN
THE MORNING AND WAS REALLY A
TRAGIC STORY.
DID A LOT OF DAMAGE AND
KILLED PEOPLE AND INJURED
PEOPLE.
BUT WHO WOULD HAVE THOUGHT
TORNADOES COULD HAVE COME SO
FAR NORTH AS SUDBURY?
BUT THERE HAVE BEEN
TORNADOES EVEN NORTH OF THE
ARCTIC CIRCLE, WE HAVE
SPOTTED THE ODD FUNNEL CLOUD
AND TORNADO.
BUT THEY ARE MORE COMMON THE
FURTHER SOUTH YOU GO, THE
MORE COMMON ARE TORNADOES.

Maureen says IS THAT THAT?
WHAT DOES HEAT HAVE TO DO IN
CREATING --

Dave says YES, THE
VERY IMPORTANT INGREDIENT
FOR COOKING A TORNADO WOULD
BE HEAT AND HUMIDITY, BUT
IT'S REALLY -- YOU ALSO HAVE
TO HAVE COOL AIR, TOO, TO
KIND OF SHOW THE CONTRAST IN
CONDITIONS.
BUT TYPICALLY, YOU NEED THE
KIND OF WARM, HUMID,
UNSTABLE KIND OF ATMOSPHERE,
AND THE -- ACTUALLY THE PEAK
SEASON IS NOT SORT OF IN
MIDDLE JULY, MIDDLE AUGUST.
IT TYPICALLY IS IN THE MAY-JUNE
PERIOD THIS TIME OF THE
YEAR.
BECAUSE YOU GET THE WARM,
THE HEAT AND THE HUMIDITY,
BUT YOU ALSO NEED THE KIND
OF COOL AIR TO COME IN AND
PUT A KIND OF A CAP OVER
THAT WARM HUMID AIR.
SO THAT WARM, HUMID AIR IS
RISING FROM THE SURFACE AND
YOU'VE CAPPED IT AND IT'S
SORT OF LIKE PUTTING A TOP
ON A POT BOILING ON THE
STOVE.
AND IT GETS ANGRIER BELOW
THAT AND TRIES TO BREAK
THROUGH AND IT CAN'T, AND
FINALLY IT DOES AND IT
DEVELOPS INTO A SEVERE
THUNDERSTORM, WHICH COULD
HAVE EMBEDDED IN THERE
TORNADOES.

Maureen says WOW.
OKAY, GREAT QUESTION.
THANK YOU, KEN.
ALEXANDRA IS IN TORONTO.
HI ALEXANDRA.

The Caller says HELLO.

Maureen says HI.

The Caller says I WONDER IF YOUR
GUEST COULD EXPLAIN THE
PHENOMENA OF THE CHINOOK AND
ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE
SINUS HEADACHES AND
MIGRAINES THAT PEOPLE IN
CALGARY SEEM TO SUFFER.

Dave says RIGHT.
WELL ALEXANDRA, THE CHINOOK
HAS BEEN BLAMED ON SO MANY
THINGS.
THE CHINOOK IS A WIND.
IT'S -- WE USE THE WORD
CHINOOK IN CANADA, AND IN
SOUTHERN ALBERTA, BUT THEY
ALSO HAVE CHINOOKS IN DENVER
AND CHINOOKS IN OTHER PARTS
OF THE WORLD.
THEY DON'T CALL THEM
CHINOOKS, THEY MAY BE PHONE
WINDSOR PELCIA WINDS IN THE
AND DECEMBER.
THEY ARE -- -- IN THE ANDES.
THEY ARE ACTUALLY WARM, DRY
AIR THAT FLOWS OVER A
MOUNTAIN AND AS IT DESCENDS
THE MOUNTAIN, ON THE LEEWARD
SIDE, IT ACTUALLY WARMS UP.
IT'S SORT OF LIKE A BICYCLE
PUMP.
WHEN YOU ACTUALLY COMPRESS
THAT AIR IT WARPS UP AND IT
ARRIVES ON THE FOOTHILLS AND
ON THE SURFACE, OR ON THE
LOWLANDS OF ALBERTA AS A
VERY WARM, DRY, GUSTY KIND
OF WIND.
AND YOU'RE ABSOLUTELY RIGHT.
PEOPLE HAVE BLAMED THE
CHINOOK ON SO MANY AILMENTS.
I REMEMBER MEETING A WOMAN
ONCE WHO SAID THAT, WELL,
SHE ALWAYS KNEW WHEN THE
CHINOOK WINDS BLOW BECAUSE
HER CHURCH CHOIR SANG OFF
KEY.
SO EVEN THAT WAS BLAMED ON
THE LOWLY CHINOOK.
BUT YES, PEOPLE HAVE
SUGGESTED THAT CHINOOK WINDS
DO CAUSE MIGRAINE HEADACHES
BECAUSE -- AND I THINK THE
CONNECTION IS THAT IT'S A
DRAMATIC CHANGE IN THE
WEATHER.
YOU CAN ALMOST SEE THAT
CHINOOK ARCH COMING, AND
THERE'S A DRAMATIC CHANGE IN
TEMPERATURE, AND WIND
STRENGTH, AND HUMIDITY OF
THE AIR IN ONE HOUR.
I'VE SEEN TEMPERATURE GOES
FROM minus 25 degrees TO PLUS 2 degrees IN LESS
THAN AN HOUR.
SO IT'S THAT DRAMATIC CHANGE
OF WEATHER.
IT'S ALMOST LIKE THE BODY
NEEDS TO BECOME
ACCLIMATIZED.
AND WHEN YOU -- WHEN YOU
INTRODUCE SOME SUDDEN CHANGE
OF WEATHER, IT'S ALMOST AS
IF, IF YOU ARE INCLINED FOR
MIGRAINES OR LUMBAGO,
ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATISM, THEN
YOU SEEM TO HAVE WORSE BOUTS
OF IT DURING THOSE TIMES.

Maureen says IS THERE ANY
CHANGE IN BAROMETRIC
PRESSURE WITH A CHINOOK?

Dave says THERE IS A
BIT ALTHOUGH MOST PEOPLE
SUGGEST MIGRAINES ARE VERY
MUCH CONNECTED TO AIR
PRESSURE.
I THINK, MAUREEN, IT'S A
LITTLE BIT OF A MYTH BECAUSE
WHAT WE'VE FOUND -- WE
TALKED TO PEOPLE WHO
SUFFERED MIGRAINES AND THEY
THOUGHT THEY WERE WEATHER
MIGRAINERS, IT'S
INTERESTING.
WHEN THEY FLY OFF TO SOME
VACATION SPOT, THEY GET INTO
AN AIRCRAFT, THEY DON'T
OFTEN FIND THAT THEY HAVE
MIGRAINES.
AND OF COURSE WHEN YOU'RE IN
AN AIRCRAFT, YOU'LL GO
THROUGH GREATER PRESSURE
CHANGES THAN YOU WOULD ON
THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH.
SO IT MAY BE PRESSURE, BUT
IT'S USUALLY TEMPERATURE,
HUMIDITY, THE WHOLE BALL OF WAX.

Maureen says YOU WERE TALKING
ABOUT HUMIDITY.
IS THAT WHAT THIS MEASURES HERE?

Dave takes out another instrument and says THAT'S RIGHT.

The instrument is a metal box with a handle on top and a glass pane on one side, as well as a vertical structure resembling a chimney. The glass pane reveals a needle that marks a drum covered in paper inside the instrument.

Dave says THIS IS ONE OF MY FAVOURITE
INSTRUMENTS.
YOU HEAR THAT EXPRESSION “A
BAD HAIR DAY?”

Maureen says YEAH, WELL --

Dave says WELL IT'S TRUE.
I MEAN, ON A DAY LIKE
YESTERDAY, EVERYBODY WAS
COMPLAINING ABOUT THEIR
HAIR!
AND THIS IS WHAT WE CALL A
HAIR HYGROMETER.
AND IT IS BASED ON THE
PRINCIPLE THAT HAIR WILL
EXPAND OR CONTRACT DEPENDING
HOW HUMID IT IS OUTSIDE.
AND WHAT WE SEE HERE -- THIS
IS A REGISTERING INSTRUMENT
SO, WE CAN ACTUALLY PUT A
PIECE OF PAPER ON THIS DRUM
AND WE CAN GO AWAY, WE CAN
GET A RECORD OF HOW HUMID IT
WAS FOR THE LAST 24 HOURS.
BUT RIGHT IN HERE -- I'M NOT
SURE IF YOU CAN SEE IT,
MAYBE THE CAMERA CAN FOCUS
ON THIS PARTICULAR COLUMN
HERE.
AND THERE'S A WHITE STRAND HERE.

Inside the chimney-like structure hangs a white strand of hair.

Maureen says YEAH, IS THAT HAIR?

Dave says THAT'S HAIR.
IT'S A HUMAN HAIR.

Maureen says THAT'S A PRETTY
THICK PIECE OF HAIR.

Dave says WELL THERE
MAY BE SEVERAL STRANDS THERE
ACTUALLY AND IT'S BLOND
BECAUSE BLOND HAIR ACTUALLY
WORKS BETTER THAN DARK HAIR.
AND IT'S HUMAN HAIR.
DIFFERENT KIND OF HAIR HAVE
BEEN USED BUT WE FIND HUMAN
HAIR WORKS THE BEST.
IT EXPAND ABOUT 2.5 percent FROM
VERY MOIST AIR AND SO BY
EXPANDING IT WILL AFFECT THE
LINKAGE HERE AND CAUSE A
TRACE ON THE DRUM.
AND IT WAS KIND OF
INTERESTING.
I GOT A COUPLE LITTLE CUTE
STORIES TO TELL YOU ABOUT.
DURING -- ONE OF THE SOURCES
FOR THIS HAIR WAS DURING THE
WAR YEARS, WERE FROM WOMEN
THAT WOULD GO IN TO BECOME A
NUN.
AND THEY WOULD SHAVE THEIR
HEAD, AND THAT WAS HUMAN
HAIR THAT THEY WOULD USE FOR
THESE HAIR HYGROMETERS.

Maureen says NUN'S HAIR?

Dave says NUN'S HAIR.
AND THEN DURING THE WAR
YEARS THEY COULDN'T GET HAIR
FROM EUROPE SO UNCLE SAM,
DURING THE WAR YEARS, THEY
PUT AN ADVERTISEMENT, THEY
WANTED WOMEN TO SEND IN,
PREFERABLY BLOND HAIR,
UNPROCESSED HAIR, AT LEAST A
FOOT LONG TO-DISPRB THEY GOT
300 KILOMETRES OF HUMAN HAIR
THAT THEY USED FOR WEATHER
BALLOONS AND INSTRUMENTS
LIKE THIS.

Maureen says I GUESS AS
SOMEONE WHOSE HAIR GOES
“BINGGGG” IN HUMIDITY WHY,
DOES THIS HAPPEN AND WHAT DO
YOU TO COUNTER THE EFFECTS
OF HUMIDITY ON HUMAN HAIR?

Dave says WELL, I
DON'T KNOW.
I MEAN, THAT'S NOT A WEATHER
QUESTION --

Maureen says NO, IT'S A HAIR
QUESTION!

Dave says IT'S A
HAIR QUESTION!
BUT CERTAINLY, PEOPLE DO --
IT'S QUITE CLEAR.
MOST PEOPLE WON'T ARGUE
THAT.
THEY'LL SAY “WELL, YES, I
CAN CERTAINLY TELL THE
WEATHER BY THE SHAPE AND
KINKINESS OF MY HAIR.”

Maureen says IS IT A MOISTURE THING?

Dave says It is.
WHAT HAPPENS IS THE AIR WILL
ABSORB THE MOISTURE AND
BECOME LONGER, AND DURING
DRY -- JUST LIKE IN
FURNITURE WILL BECOME STUCK
DURING DRY WEATHER SO, WILL
ONE'S HAIR.
AND IT WILL CONTRACT AND
THEN THIS WILL ALLOW THE
INSTRUMENT TO NOTE THAT
CHANGE AND WE CAN GET A
RECORD OF IT.
NOW WE DON'T USE THIS KIND
OF INSTRUMENT ANYMORE.
THIS IS BACK IN THE, KIND OF
IN THE DARK AGES, BUT IT'S
KIND OF A NEAT THING.

Maureen says IT'S FUN.

Dave says YEAH, IT
IS FUN.

Maureen says ALL RIGHT.
BACK TO THE PHONES.
HELL SLEN IN NORTH BAY.
HI HELLEN.

The Caller says HELLO.

Maureen says HI.
WHAT'S YOUR QUESTIONS
HELLEN?

The Caller says I WAS CALLING TO
FIND OUT IF WE SEEM TO HAVE
MORE THUNDERSTORMS AND
LIGHTNING STRIKES, AND I
WANTED TO KNOW IF WE'LL BE
SEEING MORE OF THAT WITH
POWER OUTAGES AND THE POWER
SURGES CAUSING DAMAGE TO TV
DISHES AND ELECTRICAL HOME
APPLIANCES.

Dave says HMM.
GEE, YOU KNOW, HELLEN ASKS A
VERY GOOD QUESTION, BECAUSE
THE ISSUE OF WHETHER WE'RE
SEEING MORE EXTREME WEATHER
IS ONE THAT CLIMATOLOGISTS
HAVE A DIFFICULT TIME
ANSWERING.
YOU KNOW, YOU ALMOST --
BELIEVE IT OR NOT, YOU GET
MORE EXTREME WEATHER WHEN
PEOPLE BECOME MORE EDUCATED
WITH WEATHER.
WHEN YOU TELL THEM ABOUT
WEATHER, THEY ENSCROI IT,
THEY WANT A LOT AND THEY'RE
OBSERVANT OF IT AND THEY'RE
REPORTING IT.
WE HAVE 1-800 NUMBERS, WE
HAVE WEATHER RADIO, SO THAT
SOMETIMES -- MORE POPULATION,
PEOPLE SPREAD OUT MORE, SO
THERE ARE MORE KIND OF
PEOPLE SEARCHING FOR EXTREME
WEATHER, AND SO THIS TENDS
TO PRODUCE MORE EXTREME
WEATHER.
AT LEAST WE HAVE MORE
REPORTS OF IT.
WE'RE COMING TO THE SEVERE
WEATHER SEASON, OF COURSE.
THIS IS -- ONTARIO TYPICALLY
GETS ANYWHERE FROM 35
THUNDERSTORM DAYS DOWN IN
WINDSOR, LONDON, WHICH IS
THE THUNDERSTORM CAPITAL OF
CANADA TO ABOUT 28 IN THE
OTTAWA AREA TO ABOUT 15 TO
18 UP IN NORTHERN ONTARIO.
SO CERTAINLY THIS IS AN AREA
THAT KNOWS THUNDERSTORMS.
AND IT'S QUITE POSSIBLE THAT
WE'RE GOING TO SEE AN ACTIVE
YEAR.
IT'S GOING TO BE A WARMER
SUMMER.
IT'S GOING TO BE -- SO THAT
WILL BE A NECESSARY
INGREDIENT FOR MORE
THUNDERSTORMS.
SO LIKELY WE MIGHT SEE MORE
LIGHTNING STRIKES MORE
THUNDERSTORMS THIS YEAR
BECAUSE OF THE -- OF GLOBAL
WARMING ALSO.
I MEAN, WHEN YOU WARM UP THE
WORLD, WE FIND THAT A 1 degrees
INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE WILL
CAUSE ABOUT 6 percent MORE
LIGHTNING STRIKES.
SO IT'S VERY LIKELY THAT THE
KIND OF VIOLENT WEATHER, THE
SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS, WE'RE
GOING TO SEE MORE OF IT IN
THE FUTURE.

Maureen says NOW, CAN WE TALK
ABOUT THE FORECAST?

Dave says YES.

Maureen says DO WE HAVE RAIN,
MORE RAIN IN OUR FORECAST
THIS SUMMER?

Dave produces a few sheets of paper with charts and says WELL, I
HAVE BROUGHT RIGHT HOT OFF
THE COMPUTER -- THIS
AUDIENCE IS THE FIRST TO SEE
THIS IN ALL OF CANADA.
JUNE 1st IS WHEN WE ISSUE
OUR SUMMER FORECAST, AND NOW
THIS IS THE TEMPERATURE
FORECAST FOR CANADA.
AND WE HAVE THREE CATEGORIES.
WE HAVE ABOVE NORMAL, BELOW
NORMAL AND NEAR NORMAL
TEMPERATURES.
THIS IS FOR THE SUMMER
SEASON OF JUNE, JULY AND
AUGUST.
AND WHAT WE'RE SEEING
HERE -- YOU SEE A LOT OF
WHITE ACROSS CANADA.

He shows a map of Canada with a coloured pattern.

He continues BUT THE ONE AREA WHERE WE'RE
FORECASTING WARMER THAN
NORMAL CONDITIONS OF COURSE
IS HERE IN SOUTHERN CENTRAL
AND A GOOD CHUNK OF NORTHERN
ONTARIO.
SO WE'RE SUGGESTING THAT
WE'RE GOING TO SEE A WARMER
SUMMER THAN NORMAL.
THE AREA TO THE NORTH OF
CANADA WILL SEE LIKELY
COOLER THAN NORMAL
CONDITIONS, BUT THE REST OF
CANADA IS LIKELY TO BE MORE
SEASONABLE, NORMAL KINDS OF
CONDITIONS.
SO THE LAST COUPLE OF
SUMMERS HAVE BEEN WARMER
THAN NORMAL AND WE MIGHT SEE
A REPEAT OF THAT THIS YEAR.
NOW PRECIPITATION, THIS IS
THE MAP OF PRECIPITATION --
OOPS!

Maureen says OOPS.

Dave says A LITTLE
BIT MORE, AND IT PROBABLY IS
A GOOD INDICATION IT'S
UPSIDE-DOWN.
WE ALWAYS HAVE A TOUGHER
TIME FORECASTING
PRECIPITATION.

Maureen says TOUGHER THAN
TEMPERATURE?

Dave says IT IS.
YOU CAN GO 89 DAYS AND BE
RIGHT ON TEMPERATURE AND THE
ONE DAY WHERE YOU'RE A
LITTLE DIFFERENT IS NOT
GOING TO AFFECT THE AVERAGE
BUT WITH PRECIPITATION YOU
COULD HAVE 89 DAYS OF
DRYNESS AND HEY, WE WERE
RIGHT AND THEN YOU GET A
TEXAS GULLY-WASHER ON THAT
LAST DAY AND THEN YOU'VE
LOST IT.
BUT WHAT WE'RE SEEING IS A
LITTLE BIT MORE COMPLEX.
WE SEE A LITTLE BIT MORE
COLOUR ON THIS MAP.
WE SEE IN ONTARIO THAT
EASTERN ONTARIO, WE'RE
CALLING FOR IT TO BE DRIER
THAN NORMAL.
SO WARMER AND DRIER THAN
NORMAL.
SO MIGHT BE A GOOD VACATION
KIND OF WEATHER.
WE'RE SEEING IN THE WINDSOR,
LONDON AND WESTERN ONTARIO,
INTO THE NORTHERN PART OF
ONTARIO, WE'RE SEEING WETTER
THAW THAN NORMAL, AND THE
WHITE AREA, WHICH WOULD BE
THE -- MOST OF THE GOLDEN
HORSESHOE AND UP INTO --

Maureen says OTTAWA AREA, TOO?

Dave says WELL
OTTAWA IS HERE SO, IT'S BEEN
DRIER THAN NORMAL, SO
BETWEEN KITCHENER AND OTTAWA
WE'RE SEEING NEAR NORMAL,
SEASONABLE KIND OF
PRECIPITATION TOTALS.

Maureen says BUT THAT BLUE
OUT IN THE PRAIRIES MAKES ME
WORRY ABOUT THEM FOR DROUGHT
THIS SUMMER.

Dave says WELL,
THAT'S TRUE.
THEY'VE BEEN GETTING A LOT
OF RAIN LATELY, SO THEY'VE
GOT A LOT OF MOISTURE GOING
INTO THE SEASON.
BUT YOU'RE ABSOLUTELY RIGHT
THERE.
IS CONCERN THAT THEY'RE
HEADED FOR A BIG DROUGHT IN
THE UNITED STATES, AND DRY
AND VERY DRY AND WARM
TEMPERATURES, AND THERE WAS
SOME CONCERN THAT THIS MAY
SPILL INTO THE NORTHWARD.
NOW THE GOOD NEWS IS THAT WE
SEE TEMPERATURES WILL BE
NEAR NORMAL, BUT
PRECIPITATION'S LOWER THAN
NORMAL.
YOU'RE ABSOLUTELY RIGHT.
THERE'S A HEADS-UP FOR
FARMERS THAT THERE MAY BE
SOME PROBLEMS FOR MOISTURE
OUT IN WESTERN CANADA.

Maureen says OKAY, WELL THANK
YOU FOR BRINGING THAT TO US FIRST.

Dave says OKAY!

Maureen turns to a nearby computer screen and says
WE HAVE AN
E-MAIL FROM LARRY, HE'S IN
ENTERPRISE, ONTARIO.
“IF IT'S TRUE THAT SEASONS
ARE BECOMING LONGER AND
GLOBAL WARMING IS A FACT,
DOES IT NOT ALSO MEAN POLAR
ICE CAPS ARE MELTING?
AND IF SO, WHAT AFFECT, IF
ANY, DOES THIS HAVE ON THE
INLAND WATER LEVELS?”

Dave says WELL,
CERTAINLY WE'RE SEEING A
CHANGE OF THE LENGTH OF SEASONS.
WE'RE SEEING THAT WINTERS
ARE TENDING TO BECOME A
LITTLE SHORTER, SUMMERS A
LITTLE LONGER, ALTHOUGH THIS
YEAR IS AN EXCEPTION.
WE'RE SEEING SPRING THIS
YEAR IS -- TRADITIONALLY IT
SEEMS TO BE ABOUT LAST
NUMBER MICKLY 91 DAYS LONG.
THE LAST COUPLE OF YEARS
WE'VE HAD -- WE'VE ALMOST
GONE FROM SLUSH TO SWEAT IN
JUST OVERNIGHT AND GONE FROM
HEATING TO AIR CONDITIONING.
SO THERE'S BEEN LOTS OF FREE
ENERGY THAT WE'VE HAD THIS
PARTICULAR YEAR.
SO THIS IS KIND OF A GOOD
NEWS SITUATION.
IN TERMS OF THE ICE COVER
THERE IS A MAJOR CONCERN,
AND WE'RE ALREADY BEGINNING
TO SEE IT WE'RE SEEING THAT
THE EXTENT OF THE ICE COVER
IS REDUCED AND ALSO THE
THICKNESS OF THE ICE COVER.
AND IT'S A DOUBLE WHAMMY,
BECAUSE WHAT HAPPENS IS THAT
WHEN YOU REDUCE THE ICE
COVER, YOU ACTUALLY CAUSE
CONDITIONS TO WARM UP EVEN
FASTER.
BECAUSE THE ICE IS A GOOD
REFLECTOR OF RADIATION SO
WHEN THE RADIATION COMES IN
AND IT SEES ICE, THICK ICE,
OR SNOW COVER, WILL REFLECT
AWAY AND STAY COOL.
BUT WHEN YOU IN FACT REDUCE
THAT ICE COVER, THEN MORE OF
THE RADIATION IS ABSORBED
AND THAT WILL -- IT'S CALLED
A POSITIVE FEEDBACK
MECHANISMS, WILL MELT MORE
OF THE SNOW AND ICE, WILL
CAUSE EVEN LESS SNOW AND
ICE, AND SO THAT MORE SOLAR
RADIATION WILL BE ABSORBED
AND YOU'LL GET TO THE POINT
WHERE YOU WILL BE -- THE ICE
CAP WILL DISAPPEAR.
AND SO THAT IS, OF COURSE,
QUITE A CONCERN AND IT WILL
CHANGE WEATHER PATTERNS.
WHEN WE TALK ABOUT GLOBAL
WARMING IT'S NOT AS, IF
MAUREEN, WE'RE TALKING ABOUT
TYPHOONS IN WINNIPEG AND
SAND STORMS IN St. JOHNS.
IT'S NOT CLIMATE THAT WILL
BE TOTALLY DIFFERENT THAN OURS.
WHAT THE CHANGE WILL BE IS
THE KINDS OF EVENTS WE MIGHT
SEE ONCE IN 80 YEARS, YOU
MIGHT SEE ONCE IN 20 YEARS,
SO THAT'S THE KIND OF A
CHANGE.
SO WE MAY SEE LONGER SEASONS,
LONGER SUMMERS, SPRING MAY
BE LONGER AND WINTERS MAY BE
SHORTER.

Maureen says HMM!
NOW THE INLAND LAKES THAT
HE'S ASKING ABOUT, WOULD
THOSE BE AFFECTED?
WOULD LAKE LEVELS BE
AFFECTED?

Dave says WELL, COULD BE.
WE'RE SUGGESTING THAT THE --
IT'S NOT NECESSARILY THE ICE
AND SNOW CONDITIONS IN THE
HIGH ARCTIC THAT MIGHT
AFFECT THAT WHAT WE'RE
SEEING IN SOUTHERN LATITUDES,
LIKE RIVERS AND CREEBS AND
THE GREAT LAKES BASIN,
TYPICALLY WE'RE GOING TO SEE
WARMER TEMPERATURES.
WE MAY SEE MORE
PRECIPITATION BUT WE'LL NEED
MORE, JUST TO SATISFY THE
EVAPORATION THAT'S NEEDED.
SO THE SUGGESTION IS THAT WE
WILL LIKELY SEE REDUCED
WATER LEVELS, SO THAT WHAT
WE'RE SEEING IN THE LAST
COUPLE OF YEARS MAY BE A DRY
RUN, A DRESS REHEARSAL OF
THE KIND OF THING THAT MAY
BE TYPICALLY NORMAL SO WHAT
WE'RE SEEING AS BIZARRE AND
WEIRD NOW MAY BE THE NORM IN
A DECADE OR MORE.

Maureen says AND JUST BEFORE
I GO TO THE NEXT CALLER WHAT
DO YOU MAKE OF THESE PEOPLE,
SOME OF THEM ARE SCIENTISTS,
SOME AREN'T, WHO JUST
MAINTAIN THAT THERE'S NOT
ENOUGH GOOD SCIENTIFIC PROOF
THAT GLOBAL WARMING IS
REALLY HAPPENING, OR IS EVEN
A PHENOMENA NONE.

Dave says SURE.
IT IS STILL A DEBATE.
IT'S A FIERCE, ACRIMONIOUS
DEBATE BECAUSE IT'S SO
COMPLEX.
THERE'S SO MUCH AT STAKE.
AND WE'RE TALKING -- DAVID
SUZUKI HAS SAID IT'S THE
MOST IMPORTANT SLOW MOTION
CATASTROPHE THAT HUMAN KIND
HAS EVER FACED.
IT IS IMPORTANT AND COMPLEX.
IT'S SOMETHING THAT -- IT'S
COMPLEX BECAUSE IF WE'RE
GOING TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT
IT, WE HAVE TO DO SOMETHING
ABOUT IT BEFORE THE EVIDENCE
IS TOTALLY CLEAR.
AND IT MAY VERY WELL -- THE
EFFECTS WILL BE GREATER
MAYBE IN 30 YEARS THAN THEY
ARE NOW, BUT IT WILL TAKE A
CHANGE OF LIFESTYLE AND
APPROACH TO THINGS.
I THINK THERE IS A DEBATE,
BUT CLEARLY THE NUMBERS ARE
IN BALANCE.
I MEAN, OFTEN THE MEDIA
REPORTS IT AS WELL, THIS
SCIENTIST IS SAYING THIS AND
THIS SCIENTIST IS SAYING
THAT AND IT LOOKS LIKE A
DEBATE AND THE PUBLIC IS
CONFUSED AND FOR A GOOD
REASON.
THEY'RE SAYING, “WELL GEE,
IF SCIENTISTS CAN'T GET IT
STRAIGHT WHY SHOULD I MAKE
ANY SACRIFICES?”
WHEN IN FACT YOU'RE REALLY
TALKING ABOUT, YOU KNOW, 90 percent
OF THE SCIENTISTS BELIEVE
THAT IT'S A REAL CONCERN.
IT'S AN ISSUE THAT WE NEED
TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT, AND
THE OTHER 10 percent ARE DOUBTING
THOMASES THAT WANT MORE PROOF.
WELL, IF WE WAIT FOR MORE
PROOF, IT MAY BE TOO LATE OR
IT'S GOING TO BE A LOT MORE
EXPENSIVE, MORE DIFFICULT TO
CORRECT THE PROBLEM.

Maureen says OKAY.
ALL RIGHT, WE'RE TALKING
ABOUT WEATHER THIS AFTERNOON
WITH DAVID PHILLIPS, HE'S A
SENIOR CLIMATOLOGIST WITH
ENVIRONMENT CANADA, AND THE
AUTHOR OF THE CLIMATES OF
CANADA.
WE HAVE SOME COPIES OF HIS
BOOK TO GIVE AWAY THIS
AFTERNOON, BUT YOU HAVE TO
GIVE US A CALL WITH YOUR
WEATHER QUESTION FOR DAVID.
SO IN TORONTO...

The numbers and email reappear briefly.

Maureen says AND JIM IS NEXT.
HELLO JIM.

The Caller says HELLO.

Maureen says HI.

The Caller says SPEAKING OF A
SLOW MOTION CATASTROPHE, HOW
IS THE HOLE IN THE OZONE
LAYER AFFECTING OUR
ATMOSPHERE IN THE ARCTIC
THERE?
IS IT AFFECTING THE ARCTIC
ICE CAPS AT ALL?

Dave says WELL JIM,
YOU TALK ABOUT OZONE HOLE,
WE TYPICALLY THINK OF THE
OZONE HOLE AS IN ANTARCTICA.
ACCIDENTALLY DISCOVERED
ABOUT 1985 BY BRITISH STINSS
AND WE'VE BEEN CONCERNED
ABOUT IT EVER SINCE.
IT'S BEEN GROWING.
AND WHAT WE'RE SEEING IN THE
LAST FEW YEARS IS THAT --
AND IT REALLY ISN'T A HOLE,
ACTUALLY, AS LIKE A
DOUGHNUT.
IT'S A DIMINISHING OF THE
OZONE LAYER, BUT WE
SOMETIMES GIVE A LABEL TO
THESE THINGS ASK IT SORT OF
STICKS, AND THAT'S WHAT WE
HAVE THERE.
BUT WHAT WE'RE SEEING IN
OTHER PARTS OF THE GLOBE,
WE'RE SEEING A DIMINISHING
OF THE OZONE LAYER.
NOW THIS OZONE LAYER IS VERY
CRUCIAL TO HUMAN LIFE.
THIS IS THE AREA OF GASES,
VERY THIN.
IF WE PRESSED ALL OF THE
LAYERS OF THE OZONE
TOGETHER, WOULD BE PROBABLY
THE THICKNESS OF TWO DIMES
SO IT'S A VERY THIN LAYER OF
CONSTABLE TRIGS OF GASES BUT
WE'RE SEEING A DIMINISHING
OF THIS IN OTHER LATITUDES,
AND WE'RE SEEING JUST IN THE
LAST FEW YEARS EVIDENCE OF
AN ARCTIC HOLE, OR AN ARCTIC,
SIGNIFICANT ARCTIC DIMINISHING.
WE REALLY DON'T LIKE TO CALL
IT AN ARCTIC OZONE HOLE, BUT
IT CLEARLY IS BEGINNING TO
APPEAR.
NOW IT'S NOT ALWAYS THERE.
IN SOME YEARS IT'S MORE
PRONOUNCED THAN IN OTHER
YEARS.
THE ARCTIC OZONE HOLE ALWAYS
SEEMS TO BE THERE.
IT'S QUITE PRONOUNCED.
THE GOOD NEWS IS THAT -- AND
I THINK THERE IS SOME
SUCCESS.
WE HAVE SEEN BECAUSE OF THE
MONTREAL PROTOCOL, WHICH IS
A MEASURE BY WHICH COUNTRIES
ARE BEGINNING TO CUT DOWN ON
THEIR CHLOROFLUROMETHANES
AND TO IMPROVE, USE
DIFFERENT KINDS OF CHEMICALS
THAT ARE NOT A DANGER TO THE
OZONE LAYER THAT WE'RE
BEGINNING TO SEE A SLOWING
OF AT LEAST THE DECREASE OF
THE OZONE.
AND SO THERE IS SOME
SUGGESTION THAT, YOU KNOW,
WITHIN 30, 40 YEARS, THAT
WE'LL BE ABLE TO REPAIR OR
AMEND THE PROBLEM.
IT WILL ALWAYS BE A
FLUCTUATION, BECAUSE EVEN
NATURE CAN CAUSE CHANGES IN
THE OZONE LAYER, BUT IT'S
ALSO HUMAN BEINGS THAT ARE
DOING THAT AND THAT'S WHAT
WE HAVE TO REPAIR, AND THERE
IS SOME SUCCESS STORIES TO
REPORT.

Maureen says DO YOU SEE A DAY
WHEN WE WON'T NEED TO WORRY
ABOUT SLATHERING SUN SCREEN
ON OURSELVES IN THE SUMMER
MONTHS?

Dave says WELL, I'M
NOT SO SURE THAT I WOULD SEE
ANY DAY.
I THINK THAT IT MAY BECOME
LESS OF A RISK, BUT CLEARLY
NOW, IT'S SOMETHING THAT
SHOULD BE A CONCERN.
WE SHOULD ALWAYS, I THINK,
ENJOY THE SUN IN MODERATION,
AND PEOPLE SHOULD BE WARY
OF THE FACT THAT IT DOES
CAUSE HEALTH PROBLEMS, AND
IF ONE WANTS TO ENJOY IT,
THEY SHOULD BE WILLING TO
USE CLOTHING THAT IS, THAT
PREVENTS THOSE PROBLEMS OR
SUNSCREEN.

Maureen says OKAY JIM, THANK
YOU.
GRACE IS IN TORONTO.
HELLO, GRACE.

The Caller says HELLO.

Maureen says HI.

The Caller says I'M GOING TO A
TRIP TO NOVA SCOTIA THIS
SUMMER AND I WANTED TO KNOW
WHAT TIME WOULD BE THE BEST
TO GO.

Maureen says MMM CUP.
BE THAT SPECIFIC?

Dave says GOSH, YOU
KNOW, WE ARE A SEASONAL
FORECAST.
I HOPE I DIDN'T SOUND AS IF
THIS WAS -- YOU PUT MONEY ON
IT I WOULDN'T BET THE FAMILY
FARM ON THIS PARTICULAR
FORECAST.
I THINK THAT IT'S VERY
DIFFICULT.
WE KNOW, FOR EXAMPLE, WE
HAVE A JUNE FORECAST, WHICH
IS PRETTY GOOD, AND WE'RE
SEEING THAT JUNE IS WARMER
THAN NORMAL.
WHAT WE'RE SEEING FOR NOVA
SCOTIA, WHAT OUR FORECAST
SAYS FOR NOVA SCOTIA ARE
NORMAL TEMPERATURES, LIKELY
A BETTER CHANCE THAT THEY'RE
GOING TO BE WARMER AND NEAR
NORMAL THAN BELOW NORMAL.
WE DON'T SEE ANYTHING THAT
WOULD CAUSE COOLER THAN
NORMAL TEMPERATURES, AND
WE'RE LIKELY TO SEE DRIER
THAN NORMAL CONDITIONS.
SO IT MAY BE ACTUALLY GOOD
HOLIDAY WEATHER.
BUT IN TERMS OF WHEN YOU
WANT TO GO, GEE, YOU WOULD
HAVE TO ACTUALLY CONSULT
MORE THE WEATHER FORECAST AS
OPPOSED TO A CLIMATE
FORECAST TO MAKE SURE THAT
YOU'RE NOT DISAPPOINTED BY
THE WEATHER.

Maureen says OR TALK TO A
NOVA SCOTIAN.
“AUGUST IS BETTER THAN JULY
AND THE LAST TWO WEEKS OF
AUGUST ARE BETTER THAN
WHATEVER.”
WHAT KIND OF HIGH, HOT
TEMPERATURES CAN THEY EXPECT
ON THE EAST COAST, USUALLY?
HERE IN ONTARIO WE CAN GET
TO WHAT, 32 degrees?

Dave says YES, EXACTLY.
OUR WARMEST TEMPERATURE EVER
HERE IN ONTARIO WAS UP IN
THE LOW '60s BACK IN 1937.
LAST YEAR, FOR EXAMPLE, I
CONSIDER A HOT DAY AS ONE
WHERE THE TEMPERATURE GETS
ABOVE 30 degrees.
ON AVERAGE IN SOUTHERN
ONTARIO, WE GET ABOUT 12 A
YEAR, 12 A SUMMER.
LAST SUMMER WE HAD ABOUT 22.

Maureen says 22 DAYS ABOVE
30 degrees.

Dave says 22 HOT DAYS.
BUT WHAT'S REALLY
INTERESTING IS IT'S NOT SO
MUCH THE CHANGE OF HIGH
TEMPERATURES THAT WE'RE
SEEING A REAL CHANGE.
INDEED, IF YOU LOOK AT MAYBE
50, 60 YEARS AGO, OUR
TEMPERATURES AREN'T ANY
WARMER THAN THEY WERE THEN.
I MEAN, WE'RE GETTING A LOT
WARMER TEMPERATURES, BUT IN
TERMS OF THE REAL HOT,
SCORCHING DAY, WE'RE NOT
SEEING ANYMORE.
BUT WHAT WE'RE REALLY SEEING
ARE NIGHTTIME TEMPERATURES.
NIGHTTIME TEMPERATURES ARE
SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER NOW
THAN THEY WERE -- YOU KNOW,
100 YEARS AGO, LET ME JUST
USE A TORONTO EXAMPLE.
A TEMPERATURE ABOVE 18 degrees --
NOW THAT'S WHAT I WOULD
CONSIDER A WARM NIGHT IN
TORONTO.
THERE WAS AN AVERAGE OF 100
YEARS AGO, TWO OF THOSE PER
SUMMER.
NOW THE AVERAGE IS SOMETHING
LIKE 18 degrees TO 20 degrees.
SO THERE'S SIGNIFICANT
WARMER NIGHTS BECAUSE OF
INCREASED CLOUD COVER THAT'S
TRAPPING THE HEAT IN AND
MAKING FOR MORE SLEEPLESS
NIGHTS IN CITIES.

Maureen says IT IS.
YEAH, THOSE OF US WHO CAN
GET AWAY WITHOUT AIR
CONDITIONING ARE FINDING IT
HARDER BECAUSE IT'S HOT AT
NIGHT NOW.

Dave says THAT'S RIGHT.

Maureen says THANKS VERY MUCH,
GRACE, FOR YOUR QUESTION.
DAWN IS IN LONDON.
HELLO, DON.

The Caller says HI MAUREEN.

Maureen says HI.

The Caller says I WONDER IF YOU
COULD EXPLAIN TWO
OCCURRENCES THAT I'VE SEEN
DURING MY LIFE, AND ONE OF
THEM IS THUNDER DURING A
SNOWSTORM.

Dave says RIGHT.

The Caller says AND A SEVERE
LIGHTNING AND THUNDERSTORM
WITHOUT RAIN.

Dave says WITHOUT RAIN.
OKAY, THE FIRST ONE IS WHAT
WE CALL A THUNDER SNOW.
IT'S RARE.
ONCE A YEAR YOU WILL HEAR --
HAVE A THUNDERSTORM IN THE
MIDDLE OF THE WINTERTIME,
AND IT CATCHES PEOPLE OFF
GUARD.
YOU TYPICALLY DON'T ALWAYS
SEE THE LIGHTNING BECAUSE OF
THE CLOUD SEEMS TO BE
THICKER AND MORE OF IT.
SO IT'S OFTEN SHIELDED.
AND BUT YOU OFTEN HEAR THE
THUNDER.
BUT PEOPLE MOST REPORT THEM
AS SONIC BOOMS OR AIRCRAFT.
THEY'RE OFF GUARD.
I MEAN, MIDDLE OF JULY, YOU
JUST SAY WELL THERE'S
THUNDER BUT NOT IN THE
MIDDLE OF JANUARY.
BUT THEY ARE CAUSED BY THE
SAME KIND OF CONDITIONS,
SORT OF AN UNSTABLE KIND OF
SITUATION WHERE YOU HAVE
COOL AIR TRAPPING IN WARMER
AIR AT THE GROUND AND YOU
CREATE AN UNSTABLE
ATMOSPHERE, AND IT USUALLY
TYPICALLY IS WARM AIR FROM
THE GULF OF MEXICO COMING
NORTHWARD AND COLLIDING WITH
KIND OF COLD AIR AND IT
PRODUCES THIS KIND OF A
THUNDERSTORM-TYPE OF
SITUATION.
YOU DON'T ALWAYS GET SNOW
FROM THEM, BUT YOU CAN GET A
HEALTHY DUMP OF SNOW FROM A
THUNDER SNOW.
NOW THE OTHER QUESTION YOU
ASKED IS YOU GET THUNDER AND
LIGHTNING BUT NO RAIN.
THAT'S VERY COMMON.

Maureen says I'VE SEEN THAT.

Dave says YES.
ABOUT HALF THE THUNDERSTORMS
ARE DRY THUNDERSTORMS.
THEY'RE A SCOURGE TO FOREST
FIREFIGHTERS BECAUSE ALL
THEY DO IS CAUSE FIRES AND
DON'T PUT OUT FIRES -- OR
FOREST FIRES.
BUT TYPICALLY HALF THE TIME.
AND THEY ARE -- ESPECIALLY
IF YOU'RE WAITING FOR THAT
MILLION DOLLAR RAIN AND YOU
SEE THAT BLACK HORIZON AND
THUNDER AND LIGHTNING AND
THEN NOTHING.
YOU JUST GET THE WORST PART
OF IT, YOU DON'T GET THE
BENEFICIAL RAINS.
IT CAN BE VERY FRUSTRATING
TO A FARMER WANTING SOME
PRECIPITATION.

Maureen says WHAT MIGHT MAKE
THE RAIN NOT COME DOWN.

Dave says WELL IT
COULD BE JUST WHERE YOU
HAPPEN TO BE.
OFTEN IN A THUNDERSTORM YOU
HAVE ISOLATED SHOWERS, SO
YOU WOULD HAVE THUNDER, OR
YOU WOULD HAVE LIGHTNING AND
THUNDER GENERALLY, AND WE
CAN SEE LIGHTNING SOMETIMES
50, 60 KILOMETERS AWAY
LONGER, AND WE CAN HEAR
THUNDER 25, 30 KILOMETERS
AWAY OR FARTHER, BUT IN
TERMS OF JUST RIGHT OVER
WHERE YOU ARE, IT MAY NOT BE
PRECIPITATION.
FOR EXAMPLE THE LAST COUPLE
OF YEARS, WE'VE SEEN SO MANY
EXAMPLES WHERE IT WAS
RAINING NORTH OF THE 401 BUT
NOT SOUTH OF THE 401.
FARMERS WHO WERE DOWN IN
HAMILTON AREA, IN Flamborough
AREA COULDN'T GET ANY RAINS
AND THOSE UP IN CENTRAL
ONTARIO NORTH OF THE 401
SEEMED TO GET, WHEN THE
STORMS CAME, THEY GOT ALL OF
THE DRENCHING RAINS.

Maureen says IF YOU'RE
CAMPING DURING A THUNDER AND
LIGHTNING STORM WHERE SHOULD
YOU BE?
IN THE TENT?
IN YOUR CAR?
BOOKING THE CLOSEST MOTEL
ROOM?

Dave says WELL YOU
KNOW, THERE ARE CAMPERS THAT
ARE KILLED EVERY YEAR BY
LIGHTNING.
CERTAINLY A TENT IS NOT A
GOOD PLACE, BUT IF YOU'RE IN
A TENT, DON'T HANG ONTO THE
STEEL POLE, FOR ONE THING,
BUT SOME PEOPLE ARE KILLED
BY THE FACT THAT IT WOULD --
LIGHTNING WOULD HIT A
TREE --

Maureen says AND THE TREE
WOULD FALL.

Dave says FALL, OR
LIGHTNING WOULD GO ALONG AND
THROUGH THE ROOTS AND THEN
UP THROUGH THE FENCE -- OR
THROUGH THE TENT.
I THINK THE CAR IS ALWAYS TO
ME THE SAFEST PLACE TO BE.
NOT IN A TORNADO, BUT
DEFINITELY IN A
THUNDERSTORM.
I DON'T KNOW OF ANYBODY
THAT'S EVER BEEN KILLED
SITTING IN A CAR.
PEOPLE HAVE BEEN STUNNED,
AND CAR TIRES HAVE JUST
EXPLODED DURING A LIGHTNING
STORM, BUT AS LONG AS IT'S
NOT A CONVERTIBLE AND IT'S
THE BACK OF A PICK-UP TRUCK,
THOSE ARE NOT GOOD PLACES,
BUT IN THE CAB, AND NOT
TOUCHING ANYTHING METAL,
JUST WAITING IT OUT 10 OR 15
MINUTES AND LIKELY YOU WON'T
BE A STATISTIC.

Maureen says OKAY.
DAVID, LAST SUNDAY WE WERE
OUT IN THE COUNTRY AROUND
THE FOREST, ONTARIO AREA,
AND AT ONE TIME DURING THE
AFTERNOON WE NOTICED THIS
HUGE DARK GREY RING AROUND
THE SUN.
AND AROUND THAT RING THE
COLOURS OF THE RAINBOW.
WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?
DO YOU KNOW?
THIS IS FROM HENRY.

Dave says HMM.
WELL, WE REFER TO THIS AS A
HALO.
A PARAHELIA, IT'S SOMETIMES
REFERRED TO AND WHAT IT IS
IS OFTEN A SIGN OF RAIN TO
COME.
AND YOU TYPICALLY SEE THEM
MORE IN THE COLD SEASON OF
THE YEAR.
NOW VERY HIGH UP IN THE
ATMOSPHERE, WHERE YOU COULD
SEE THIS FEATURE, IT'S QUITE
COLD.
IF YOU ARE ON AN AIRCRAFT
AND YOU'RE FLYING AT SAY
30,000 FEET, AND SOMETIMES
AIRCRAFT WILL SHOW YOU THE
TEMPERATURE OUTSIDE, AND
YOU'RE OFTEN THINKING EVEN
ON THE HOTTEST DAY, YOU'RE
DEALING WITH TEMPERATURES OF
Minus 40 degrees, minus 30 degrees.
SO AT THOSE HIGH LEVELS IT'S
QUITE COLD.
AND SO A LOT OF THE CLOUD
COVER IS FULL OF CRYSTALS,
ICE CRYSTALS.
AND SO OFTEN THE VERY THIN
ICE CRYSTALS WILL PASS IN
FRONT OF THE SUN AND IT WILL
CAUSE A REFRACTION OF THE
RAYS TO PRODUCE THAT KIND OF
A HALO.
BUT IT'S OFTEN A SIGNAL THAT
WITHIN THE NEXT 36 HOURS
YOU'RE GOING TO GET A BOUT
OF PRECIPITATION.
RAIN IF IT'S IN THE MILD
SEASON, AND SNOW IF IT'S IN
THE COLD SEASON.
NOT ALWAYS WORKS, BUT ABOUT
TWO-THIRDS OF THE TIME.

Maureen says ALL RIGHT.
THANK YOU FOR THAT QUESTION.
YOU'VE GOT ANOTHER GADGET
OVER HERE.
WHAT DOES THAT DO?

Dave takes out a long instrument and says YES.

The instrument looks like a ruler with a metal rod.

Dave continues NOW MAUREEN, THIS IS CALLED
A SLING SYCHROMETRE.
NOW IT'S SORT OF REPLACED
THE HUMIDITY.
AND IT'S GOT TYPICALLY --
IT'S VERY SIMPLE.
IT'S JUST TWO THERMOMETERS.
THE ONLY DIFFERENCE IS
THERE'S ONE THAT HAS A
LITTLE GAUZE SLEEVE ON.
AND THAT SURROUNDS THIS --
THEY'RE BOTH MERCURY
THERMOMETERS BUT THIS ONE
HAS A -- NOW WHAT I HAVE TO
DO, AND I HAVE TO KIND OF
WET THIS GAUZE HERE.
AND TO MAKE IT, MAKE IT
MOIST.
NOW WHAT WE DO IS WE -- IT'S
CALLED A SLING SYCHROMETRE.
SO WHAT YOU SEE -- IF I CAN
MOVE A LITTLE WAY HERE AND
HOLD THE HANDLE HERE, YOU
CAN SEE IT'S LIKE THIS.

He grabs the gadget by a little metal handle and swings it around quickly.

He says OKAY SO, WHAT WE DO IS WE
JUST SLING IT AROUND LIKE THIS.
AND WHAT WE'RE DOING BY THIS
IS WE'RE PUSHING AIR BY
THOSE TWO THERMOMETERS.
AND SO NOW THEY'RE
REGISTERING THE TEMPERATURE
INSIDE YOUR STUDIO HERE.
IT'S PROBABLY A LITTLE
WARMER THAN IT WOULD BE
OUTSIDE.
BUT THE KEY THING IS WHAT WE
WANT TO DO IS WE WANT TO
TAKE THE DIFFERENCE IN
TEMPERATURE BETWEEN THE ONE
THAT DOESN'T HAVE THE SOCK
ON IT AND THE ONE THAT DOES
HAVE THE WET SOCK ON IT.
AND SO WE'RE LIKELY TO SEE A
DIFFERENCE, AND THEN I'LL
MAYBE JUST GET YOU TO READ
THOSE TEMPERATURES.

Maureen says OKAY.
THE TOP ONE --

Dave says THAT'S THE
DRY BULB.
RIGHT IT'S JUST SHY OF 24.

Dave says OKAY.

Maureen says AND THE BOTTOM
ONE IS 17.

Dave says 17.
NOW THE DIFFERENCE -- WHEN
WE STARTED OUT, IF WE HAD
READ THOSE THERMOMETER, THEY
WOULD HAVE BEEN THE SAME.
THEY MIGHT HAVE BEEN 24.

Maureen says I BELIEVE YOU.

Dave says AND WHAT
HAPPENS IS THAT THE WARM AIR
GOES AROUND THAT LITTLE
WETTED SOCK, AND IT
EVAPORATES THAT AIR.
IT'S LIKE GETTING OUT OF THE
SHOWER, AND YOU KNOW HOW YOU
FEEL THAT KIND OF COOL WHEN
YOU TOWEL OFF?
WELL IT'S THE WATER ON YOUR
BOD SEE EVAPORATING AND
THAT'S TAKING THE ENERGY
FROM THE AIR SO, IT'S
COOLING THAT THERMOMETER.
NOW THE DIFFERENCE TELLS YOU
HOW DRIT AIR IS.
IF THEY WERE THE SAME, THEN
THERE WOULD PROBABLY BE FOG
IN HERE.
WE WOULD BE IN A CLOUD, YOU
SEE?
BUT IF WE WERE IN A DESERT,
THOSE TWO TEMPERATURES WOULD
BE TOTALLY DIFFERENT,
BECAUSE THE AIR WOULD JUST
BE -- THE WATER WOULD JUST
BE SUCKED OUT OF THAT SLEEVE
AND THE TEMPERATURE WOULD
FALL SO WE MIGHT SEE A
SPREAD WHERE YOU MIGHT HAVE
24 AND 10.
SO THE GREATER THE
DIFFERENCE IS, THE DRIER THE
AIR IS.

Maureen says I SEE.

Dave says AND SO
WHAT WE WOULD DO IS TAKE THE
DIFFERENCE, WHICH IS IN THIS
CASE 7 degrees, WHICH IS QUITE A
BIT, AND THEN WE WOULD LOOK
UP TABLES AND WE COULD
CALCULATE THE RELATIVE
HUMIDITY OR THE DEW POINT.
AND THAT'S HOW YOU GET THE
HUMIDITY.

Maureen says OH, THIS IS YOUR
RELATIVE HUMIDITY THING.

Dave says THAT'S
RIGHT.

Maureen says OKAY.
LET'S GO TO ED, HE'S IN
BALDWIN.
HI ED.

The Caller says HI, HOW ARE YOU?

Maureen says GOOD, THANKS.

The Caller says GOOD.
DAVE, I SAW A PROGRAMME JUST
RECENTLY THAT STATED THAT
THE NAMIB DESERT ON THE
WESTERN COAST OF AFRICA IS
CREEPING EASTWARD, AND IT'S
STARTING TO TAKE OVER THE
VILLAGES OF THE AFRICANS,
PEOPLE, AND THEY HAVE TO
KEEP FIGHTING THE DESERT TO
KEEP IT AWAY.
IS THAT A PHENOMENON THAT'S
GOING TO CONTINUE OR -- LIKE
WHAT IS THE -- WHAT IS THE
STORY BEHIND THAT?

Dave says WELL, ED,
I'M NOT FAMILIAR WITH THE
PARTICULAR CASE THAT YOU'RE
DESCRIBING, BUT CERTAINLY
DESERTIFICATION IS A SERIOUS
PROBLEM.
IT'S CERTAINLY A CONSIDERED
IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING,
AND IT'S AN INTERESTING ONE.
IT'S NOT ONLY IS IT POSSIBLE
THAT WEATHER PATTERNS ARE
CHANGING TO PRODUCE LESS
PRECIPITATION TO SUSTAIN A
VEGETATION AND CAUSING THE
DESERT TO EXPAND, BUT IT
COULD ALSO BE AN
OVERPOPULATION OF PEOPLE
EKING OUT AN EXISTENCE AND
REMOVING SOME OF THE
VEGETATION COVER.
SO THAT INADVERTENTLY THEY
ARE CAUSING MORE OF THE
DESERT TO OCCUR.
AND SO WE'RE SEEING BOTH
PHENOMENA IN MANY PARTS OF
THE WORLD.
NATURE CAUSING DRY AREAS AND
A REDUCTION IN VEGETATION
AND EXPANSION OF TWO DESERTS,
AND ALSO BECAUSE OF AN
OVER-POPULATION, AN
OVER-PRODUCTION, NOT AN
ECOSYSTEM THAT'S SUSTAINED,
THAT WE'RE SEEING ALSO
GREATER DESERTIFICATION.
EXAMPLES WE SEE IN OTHER
PARTS OF THE WORLD.
YES.

Maureen says OKAY, THANKS FOR
THE QUESTION, ED.
AN E-MAIL “DOES THE JET
STREAM CAUSE WEATHER FRONTS
TO MOVE AS THE TV WEATHER
PEOPLE LIKE TO SAY OR IS IT
THE DIFFERENCE IN
TEMPERATURE BETWEEN THE
OPPOSITE SIDES AFFRONT THAT
PRODUCES THE JET STREAM AND
THE JET STREAM MOVES WHEN
THE FRONT MOVES?”

Dave says OH, THAT'S
A GOOD ONE.
IT'S THE CHICKEN AND THE EGG
TYPE OF -- AND CERTAINLY THE
PERSON E-MAILING IT, THEY
HAVE IT RIGHT IN THE SENSE
THAT IT IS IN FACT A
DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERATURE.
WHEN YOU EVER COLD AIR
MEETING WARM AIR AT THOSE
VERY HIGH LEVELS IT CAUSES
PRESSURE DIFFERENCES WHICH
CAUSE WIND DIFFERENCES.
THE GREATER THE CONTRAST,
YOU GET VERY COLD ARCTIC AIR
MEETS TROPIC AIR, YOU CAN
MAKE SURE THE JET STREAM'S
GOING TO BE PRETTY STRONG,
MAYBE BLOWING AT 500
KILOMETRES PER HOUR BUT IF
THE DIFFERENCES AREN'T TOO
GREAT THE JET STREAM MIGHT
MEANDER AT 75 TO 100
KILOMETRES PER HOUR SO WHERE
THE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
IS THE GREAT GREATEST, YOU
HAVE THE PRESSURE
DIFFERENCES WHICH WOULD
CAUSE THE WIND DIFFERENCES.
NOW IT TENDS TO BE, WHEN WE
SEE THE JET STREAM, THE
E-MAILER IS RIGHT.
WHERE WE LIKE TO TRACK THE
JET STREAM, BECAUSE OFTEN
WHAT HAPPENS, STORMS TRY TO
HOOK A RIDE ON THE JET
STREAM.
YOU KNOW, IT'S A NICE WAY TO
COME ACROSS THE COUNTRY.
SO YOU FIND OUT WHERE THE
JET STREAM, AND THE STORM
WILL JUST RIDE THAT, JUST
LIKE A ROLLER COASTER ACROSS
THE COUNTRY, AND SO
THEREFORE WHERE YOU FIND THE
JET STREAM, YOU HAVE LOTS OF
WEATHER.
LOTS OF STORM ACTIVITY.
SO IF THE JET STREAM IS
RIGHT OVER TOP OF YOU, LIKE
IT'S BEEN A LOT IN MAY, THEN
YOU'RE GOING TO HAVE A LOT
OF CLOUD, A LOT OF RAIN, A
LOT OF WIND AND A LOT OF
WEATHER.
BUT IF IT'S QUITE A WAYS
REMOVED, WELL THEN YOU'RE
NOT GOING TO HAVE.
THERE'S AN EXPRESSION WE
SOMETIMES USE IN THE WEATHER
OFFICE “THERE'S NO WEATHER
TODAY.”
AND WE KNOW THAT'S KIND OF
SILLY, THERE'S ALWAYS
WEATHER, BUT IT MEANS
THERE'S NO WEATHER TO WORRY
US.
IT COULD BE SUNNY AND MILD
OR CLOUDY AND COOL BUT
PEOPLE AREN'T GOING TO BE
INCONVENIENCED BY THE
WEATHER.

Maureen says I SEE.
ALL RIGHT, GOOD.
CLIFFORD IS IN WATERLY.
HELLO, CLIFFORD.

The Caller says GOOD AFTERNOON.

Maureen says HI.

The Caller says MY QUESTION TO
DAVID, HE DESCRIBED THE
PATHWAYS THAT THE TORNADOES
FOLLOW IN SOUTHERN ONTARIO,
AND MY QUESTION IS DOES THE
SMOG FROM THE SOUTH FOLLOW
THOSE SAME PATHWAYS, AND IS
IT PLOTTED?

Dave says WELL, WE
CERTAINLY HAVE HEARD A LOT
ABOUT SMOG LATELY, AND THERE
ARE CERTAIN CORRIDORS FOR SMOG.
THERE'S CERTAIN ACTUALLY
PATHWAYS FOR WEATHER.
ONE OF THE THINGS THAT'S SO
INTERESTING ABOUT THE
WEATHER IN SOUTH, SOUTHERN
ONTARIO IS THAT IT IS A
FAVOURITE STORM TRACK AREA.
THERE ARE NOT MANY STORMS
BORN IN NORTH AMERICA THAT
DON'T SOMEHOW SEE THEIR WAY
THROUGH SOUTHERN ONTARIO AND
THAT'S WHY IT'S ALWAYS A
CHALLENGE TO FORECAST THE
WEATHER HERE.
IT'S NOT LIKE ARIZONA WHERE
ALL YOU WORRY ABOUT IS
WHETHER THE SKY'S A LITTLE
BLUER ONE DAY COMPARED TO
ANOTHER.
SO THE WEATHER IN SOUTHERN
ONTARIO CHANGES ABOUT ONCE
EVERY THREE DAYS IN THE
WINTERTIME, ONCE EVERY FOUR
OR FIVE DAYS IN THE SUMMER
TIME ON AVERAGE.
BUT THIS SORT OF FAVOURED
AREA IS ALSO AN AREA THAT
HAPPENS TO BE A FAVOURED
STORM AREA FOR PULLING UP
POLLUTANTS FROM THE SOUTH.
WE TYPICALLY SEE ABOUT --
OUR SMOG PROBLEMS,
STATISTICS TELL US, ABOUT
HALF THE PROBLEM IS A RESULT
OF SMOG, AIR QUALITY
PROBLEMS FROM THE UNITED
STATES, AIR POLLUTION, AND
ABOUT 50 percent FROM OURSELVES.
AND BUT TYPICALLY, WHEN YOU
EVER SMOG PROBLEMS, IT'S
BOTH A COMBINATION OF AIR
POLLUTION PROBLEMS, BUT
MOSTLY WEATHER.
YOU'LL GET A TYPE OF
CIRCULATION WHERE THE
WEATHER JUST SORT OF SITS
THERE.
THERE'S NO VENTILATION,
YOU'RE BREATHING THE SAME
AIR DAY AFTER DAY SO
TOMORROW'S AIR IS WORSE THAN
TODAY'S AIR, BUT SOMETIMES
IF YOU HAVE SYSTEMS MOVING
THROUGH, CAN KIND OF CLEANSE
THE AIR, CAN RAIN AND CLEAN
THE AIR.
BUT SOMETIMES UNDER SMOG
ALERTS YOU HAVE BIG HIGH
PRESSURE AREAS THAT JUST SIT
THERE AND JUST CAUSE THE AIR
TO GET PROGRESSIVELY WORSE.

Maureen says HMM!
OKAY.
WE'RE OUT OF TIME BUT IT WAS
GREAT TO HAVE YOU.
AND HAVE A GREAT SUMMER.

Dave says THANK YOU,
MAUREEN, YOU, TOO.

Maureen says HOPE THE
PREDICTIONS ARE TRUE.
WE'LL CHECK NEXT TIME.
DAVID PHILLIPS IS A SENIOR
CLIMATOLOGIST AT ENVIRONMENT
CANADA.
YOU CAN GET THEIR SUMMER
FORECAST ON THEIR WEBSITE.

A slate reads “Environment Canada. www.ec.gc.ca”

Maureen continues AND WE'RE LUCKY ENOUGH TO BE
ABLE TO OFFER EVERYBODY
WHOSE QUESTION GOT TO AIR
TODAY A COPY OF DAVID'S BOOK
SO, WE'LL BE IN TOUCH, BOTH
E-MAIL AND CALLERS.
YOU MAY THINK IT'S BEEN
RANGE MOOSE IN TORONTO IF
YOU PAY A VISIT HERE THIS
SUMMER.
HUNDREDS OF LIFE-SIZED MOOSE
SCULPTURES CRAFTED BY LOCAL
ARTISTS ARE POPPING UP ALL
OVER TOWN.
WHAT'S it like to paint a moose?
Let’s take a look.

Watch: Weather