Transcript: Ep. 5 - Lions of the Deep | Apr 02, 2019

As music plays, sea lions swim in the ocean.

A male narrator says SEALS, SEA LIONS
AND WALRUSES ARE PINNIPEDS,
A FAMILY WHO'S LATIN NAME
MEANS WING OR FIN FOOTED.

(music plays)

Sea lions rest on seaside rocks.

The Narrator continues CARNIVOROUS MARINE MAMMALS,
THEY SPEND MUCH OF THEIR LIVES
AT SEA, BUT REST, MATE AND
REAR THEIR YOUNG ON LAND.
SURPRISINGLY, THEIR CLOSEST
RELATIVES ARE BEARS.
THIRTY-THREE DIVERSE SPECIES
OF PINNIPED SCRATCH OUT A LIVING
IN SOME OF EARTH'S MOST
HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS
AND THERE IS NO SHORTAGE
OF PREDATORS
WITH A TASTE FOR SEAL MEAT.

(Dramatic music plays)
Fast clips show sea lions basking in the sun, then sea lions escaping from sharks as humans watch from a boat. A shark catches a sea lion.

The Narrator continues AROUND THE GLOBE MANY PINNIPED
POPULATIONS ARE GROWING,
WHILE OTHERS ARE CRASHING.
THESE WILD FLUCTUATIONS
IN NUMBERS REMAIN A MYSTERY.

A caretaker follows a young sea lion along a walkway flanked by wire mesh.

The Narrator says AT THE OPEN OCEAN
RESEARCH CENTRE,
SPECIALLY TRAINED SEA LIONS
HELP SCIENTISTS INVESTIGATE
THE ANIMAL'S ENERGY REQUIREMENT
AND DIVING PHYSIOLOGY.

A trainer feeds a sea lion and sends it into open water.
Now several large plastic containers containing baby seals sit inside a large tent.
In a lab, a scientist looks through a microscope. Another researcher classifies samples.

The Narrator continues IN VANCOUVER'S MARINE MAMMAL RESCUE CENTRE
ABANDONED AND INJURED HARBOUR
SEALS ARE NURSED BACK TO HEALTH
AND RELEASED INTO THE WILD.
AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, RESEARCHERS STUDY
MANY FACETS OF PINNIPED BIOLOGY.
YOU CAN LEARN A LOT ABOUT
ANIMALS FROM WHAT THEY EAT
AND WHAT THEY EXCRETE.

A sea lion in a pool swims and hops around playfully.

The Narrator continues REMARKABLY INTELLIGENT
AND EASILY TRAINED,
SEALS AND SEA LIONS ARE POPULAR
ATTRACTIONS AT MARINE PARKS
AND AQUARIUMS AND LIKE
PINNIPEDS IN THE WILD
THESE GUYS CERTAINLY
LOVE A BIG MEAL.

(Playful music plays)
In a marine park, a trainer feeds a sea lion a huge fish.

He SAYS GOOD GIRL!

Music plays as the opening sequence rolls.

The title of the show appears against clips showing images of marine life. It reads "The Blue Realm."

(music plays)
A sea lion wearing a harness hops onto a pier and hobbles up to a trainer who feeds it.

The Narrator says ON CANADA'S
WEST COAST, A DEDICATED TEAM
OF PROFESSIONALS WORK TOGETHER
TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
AN INTRIGUING GROUP OF ANIMALS,
PINNIPEDS,
MORE COMMONLY KNOWN
AS SEALS AND SEA LIONS.

A blond trainer in her thirties feeds a sea lion.

The Narrator continues VETERINARIANS, SCIENTISTS,
BIOLOGISTS AND STUDENTS
FROM THE VANCOUVER AQUARIUM AND
UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ARE TRYING TO ANSWER
SEVERAL PUZZLING QUESTIONS
SURROUNDING PINNIPEDS.
THEY ALSO HOPE TO UNLOCK
TWO GREAT MARINE MYSTERIES.
WHY ARE STELLER SEA LIONS
THRIVING IN CANADIAN WATERS,
WHILE IN NORTHERN ALASKA
AND RUSSIA THEIR NUMBERS
ARE FALLING AT
AN UNPRECEDENTED RATE?
AND WHY ARE NORTHERN
FUR SEAL POPULATIONS
CRASHING IN THE BERING SEA?

Fast clips show sea lions and furry seals in the wild. Then, a 3D image of a sea lion spins against a black background, revealing a title: Lions of the deep.

A time-lapse clip shows clouds rolling onto a coastal city.
A caption reads "Port Moody. British Columbia."

The Narrator says AT THE UBC
OPEN WATER RESEARCH STATION
HIGHLY TRAINED SEA LIONS
PROVIDE RESEARCHERS
WITH NEW INSIGHTS INTO PINNIPED
BEHAVIOUR AND BIOLOGY.

In a small room by the water, a trainer feeds a sea lion wearing a harness. Then, the trainer removes the harness.

The Narrator continues FRESH SEAFOOD IS THE
ANIMAL'S PRIME MOTIVATOR
AND A KEY TRAINING TOOL.
GAINING THEIR TRUST AND
COOPERATION IS CHALLENGING WORK.
THEY JUST NEED
A LITTLE INCENTIVE.

A woman in her twenties loads a bucket with fish. Then, a man in his forties, with graying blond hair and a goatee stands in a small room.
A caption appears on screen. It reads "Nigel Waller. Senior Marine Mammal Trainer."

NIGEL SAYS STELLER SEA LIONS
IN THE WILD EAT A QUITE BIT
OF HERRING.
WHEN THE HERRING COMES IN
TO LAY EGGS AND STUFF
THERE IS A LOT OF IT AROUND.
THEY'LL DEFINITELY EAT
AS MUCH OF IT AS THEY CAN.
HERRING IS A VERY HIGH FAT FISH,
SO IT'S VERY CALORICALLY DENSE,
IT'S GOT A LOT OF ENERGY,
KEEPS THE ANIMALS
AT A GOOD, HEALTHY WEIGHT.
RIGHT NOW THESE ANIMALS ARE
EATING BETWEEN FIVE AND EIGHT
KILOGRAMS OF HERRING A DAY.

As he slips a pill into a herring, he says
WE'RE SUPPLEMENT THE HERRING
WITH VITAMINS IN ORDER
TO REPLACE THE NUTRIENTS
THAT GET LOST IN
THE FREEZING PROCESS.

The Narrator says UNLIKE DOGS THAT ARE
TRAINED WITH FOOD AND PRAISE,
SEA LIONS ARE ALL
ABOUT THE TREATS.

NIGEL cuts up herring and weighs it in a small cooler.

He SAYS SEA LIONS ARE VERY
FOOD-MOTIVATED ANIMALS.
SO, WE USE HERRING AS
THEIR PRIMARY REINFORCER
TO GET THEM TO DO THE RESEARCH
THAT WE NEED THEM TO DO.
IF YOU WALK OUT THERE AND
ASK THEM TO DO SOMETHING
WITHOUT A BUCKET OF FISH
THEY GIVE YOU A LOOK
THAT SAYS, "WHERE IS MY FISH?"
AND THEY WON'T HAVE
TO DO ANYTHING.
BUT WHEN THEY SEE THE FISH
THEY'RE READY TO GO
AND THEY'LL DO ANYTHING
WE ASK THEM.

A bald trainer walks down a pier carrying two buckets of fish.

The Narrator says IT'S FIRST THING
IN THE MORNING AND THE SEA LIONS
HAVE A HEAVY DAY
OF IN-WATER TRAINING.

He SAYS SITKA.

The Narrator says NOTHING
GETS THEIR ATTENTION
LIKE A BUCKET OF FRESH HERRING.

The man opens a cage and a young sea lion rushes out.
Then, Sitka sits on a metal platform next to the trainer, who holds a bucket of herring.

He says NOW, SITKA HERE HAS GOT
A REALLY COOL VOCALIZATION.

He wiggles his fingers and Sitka GROWLS.

The man points and says OKAY, SITKA, LET'S PUT...

[SITKA runs and GROWLS]

The man says LET'S PUT YOUR HARNESS ON.

As he signs commands and puts on Sitka's harness, the man says
WE CAN ATTACH ALL SORTS
OF DIFFERENT EQUIPMENT
TO THE HARNESS AND THAT WAY
WE CAN FIND OUT WHAT'S GOING ON
WITH THE ANIMALS,
HOW MUCH ENERGY THEY USE,
HOW THEY SWIM,
ALL SORTS OF COOL INFORMATION.

The man touches an antenna attached to a device on the harness and says THIS DEVICE HERE IS CALLED
A VHF TAG AND THIS TRANSMITS
A RADIO SIGNAL,
SO WE KNOW WHERE SITKA IS
AND WE CAN TRACK HER
WHEREVER SHE GOES.
SO, THESE ARE A COUPLE OTHER
COOL PIECES OF RESEARCH
EQUIPMENT THAT WE USE.

He picks up a black device about the size of a small matchbox and says THIS IS CALLED AN ACCELEROMETER
AND IT TELLS US HOW SHE SWIMS.

He shows another small device about the size of a lemon, and says THIS DEVICE HERE IS CALLED
A TIME DEPTH RECORDER.
SO, THIS TELLS
HOW DEEP SHE SWIMS,
IT'LL ACTUALLY GIVE US
WATER TEMPERATURE.

A caption reads "Troy Neale. Marine Mammak Department Co-Ordinator."

Troy says WE HAVE A CAMERA HERE THAT
WE CAN MOUNT ONTO THE HARNESS
OF THE SEA LIONS
AND THAT WAY THE ANIMALS
CAN ACTUALLY TAKE THEIR OWN,
THEIR OWN VIDEO FOOTAGE
AND WE CAN SEE REALLY
WHAT THE ANIMALS ARE DOING
WHEN THEY'RE OUT IN THE WILD
WHEN WE CAN'T SEE THEM.

[SITKA SNORTS]

Troy continues SHE'S REALLY A WILD ANIMAL
AND SITKA HAS ALL OF
THOSE WILD TENDENCIES.
WE WORK VERY CLOSELY WITH THESE
GUYS TO BE ABLE TO HAVE THEM
USED TO US AND USED
TO OTHER PEOPLE AROUND,
BUT IT TAKES A LOT OF TIME AND
PATIENCE TO GET TO THAT POINT.

Out in the open, Sitka swims up to a boat, hops onto it and hobbles into a cage.

Troy says GOOD GIRL, SITKA.

Troy unhooks a boat and sails away with Sitka in the cage. A sign on the boat reads "U.B.C. The University of British Columbia. Marine Mammal Research Unit."

The Narrator says THE FIRST TRAINING
EXERCISES OF THE DAY
ARE SWIM TESTS.
THE ANIMALS ARE ALWAYS EAGER
TO VENTURE INTO THE OPEN SEA.

The boat stops in open water. Troy opens the cage and feeds Sitka a fish.

He says READY FOR A SWIM?
OKAY, GO, IN THE WATER.

He makes a sign and Sitka jumps into the water.

Troy says ALL RIGHT, SITKA,
RIGHT HERE.

Later, the boat moves and Sitka swims along.

Troy says SO, WHEN I HAVE SITKA SWIMMING
ALONG THE BOAT HERE LIKE THIS,
WHEN I PUT MY HAND DOWN
IT MEANS FOR HER TO GO
DIVE UNDERWATER AND
SWIM NEXT TO THE BOAT.
AND SHE'LL STAY DOWN THERE
FOR A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME
ABOUT 30 SECONDS, EVEN
UP TO A MINUTE SOMETIMES
AND THEN IF I RAISE MY HAND UP
IT MEANS FOR HER TO SURFACE
AND THAT MEANS I AM GOING
TO GIVE HER REINFORCEMENT.

He feeds her a fish and continues
THAT'S WHAT WE CALL A BRIDGE
AND A BRIDGE TELLS THE ANIMALS
WHEN THEY'VE DONE THE BEHAVIOUR
THAT WE'VE LOOKED FOR.

A clean-shaven, curly-haired man in his fifties stands on the boat.
A caption reads "Doctor Andrew Trites. Marine Mammal Research Unit."

ANDREW SAYS THE SEALS
AND SEA LIONS HAVE GOT
DIFFERENT WAYS TO SWIM.
THE SEALS USE THEIR HIND
FLIPPERS, THEY RELY ON LOT
OF BLUBBER TO STAY WARM, WHEREAS
THE SEA LIONS AND FUR SEALS
USE THEIR FRONT FLIPPERS.
IT TURNS OUT TO BE
NOT THE MOST EFFICIENT
WAY TO SWIM.
WHAT WE'VE LEARNT HERE IS THAT
THEY'RE NOT GREAT DIVERS.
WE'RE REALLY SURPRISED TO
REALIZE JUST THAT THE AVERAGE
DIVE TIME IS ONLY ABOUT
THREE MINUTES MAX
AND THAT TURNS OUT TO BE
AN EFFICIENT WAY
THAT THEY CAN DIVE CONTINUOUSLY
OVER AND OVER.

(music plays)
Nigel stands on a pier and makes a sign. A sea lion hops onto the pier.

The Narrator says NEW TECHNOLOGY
HAS BEEN INSTRUMENTAL
IN MANY RECENT BREAKTHROUGHS
AT THE RESEARCH STATION.
SOME OF THESE ADVANCES
COME FROM SURPRISING SOURCES.

Andrew and Nigel crouch on the pier next to a sea lion wearing a harness with several devices attached.

Andrew says THE ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERS AND LARGELY THOUGH
THE CELL PHONE INDUSTRY
HAVE GONE FAR FASTER
AND FAR FURTHER THAN WHAT
THE BIOLOGISTS HAVE BEEN
ABLE TO KEEP UP WITH.
WE CAN NOW RECORD DATA
16 TIMES PER SECOND.
WE GOT THREE DIMENSIONAL
ACCELEROMETERS THAT MEASURE
FORWARDS, UPWARDS, SIDEWAYS,
MAGNETOMETERS,
NOW EVEN GYROSCOPES.
SO, ONE OF THE THINGS WE'VE
BEEN DOING HERE IS APPLYING
THESE BRAND NEW TECHNOLOGIES
FOR THE FIRST TIME.
FROM THAT WE CAN KNOW EXACTLY
WHERE THEY'VE GONE IN THE OCEAN,
WHERE THEY DIVE TO,
HOW LONG THEY STAY DOWN
AND FOR THE FIRST TIME
TRULY UNDERSTAND
WHAT THE ANIMALS ARE DOING
WHEN WE CAN'T SEE THEM
UNDERWATER.

As he feeds Sitka inside a small room, Troy says
ONE OF THE THINGS THAT
WE DO WITH THE ANIMALS
AS A REALLY BIG REWARD
WHEN THEY'VE DONE A GREAT JOB
AND SITKA HAS DONE
A GREAT JOB TODAY,
WE LIKE TO GIVE THEM A TREAT
AND THAT'S IMPORTANT.
EVERYBODY LIKES TO GET
TREATS SOMETIMES.
NOW A TREAT FOR A SEA LION
LIKE THIS, IS A BIG SALMON.
SO, THAT'S WHAT I GOT HERE
AND SITKA SEES IT.
SO THERE IS A BIG
SALMON FOR SITKA.

He feeds Sitka a huge salmon.

He says NOW, SHE'S A PRETTY BIG ANIMAL AND SHE CAN EAT
A PRETTY BIG SALMON.
NOW, THAT IS A TREAT.

He smiles.

[SITKA GROWLS]

(music plays)
Clips show the boat docked to a small platform surrounded by water.

Andrew says THE OPEN WATER
RESEARCH STATION HAS BEEN
THE JEWEL IN OUR CROWN.
IT'S THE MOST NOVEL THING
THAT ANYBODY HAS ATTEMPTED.

Nigel opens a cage and a young sea lion hops into the water.

Andrew continues NO ONE THOUGHT IT WAS POSSIBLE
TO TRAIN STELLER SEA LIONS
TO BEGIN WITH, BUT THEN TO GO
THAT NEXT STEP AND SAY,
WE'RE NOW GOING TO OPEN
THE DOOR, LET THEM GO SWIM
AND DO WHAT THEY WANT,
PEOPLE SAID,
THEY'RE JUST GOING TO DISAPPEAR.

Nigel says GOOD GIRL, BONI.
DOME.

Andrew continues BUT WE HAD CONFIDENCE
IN THE TRAINERS
AND THEY CAME UP WITH A SYSTEM
AND IT'S WORKED BEAUTIFULLY
AND NOW LITERALLY IT'S LIKE
TAKING YOUR DOG OUT FOR A WALK
AND TAKING IT OFF LEASH
AND THEY'RE DOING
THESE INCREDIBLE THINGS
THAT NO ONE EVER THOUGHT
WOULD BE POSSIBLE.

Footage from a camera attached to Boni's harness shows her swimming into an underwater cage. Boni surfaces inside a glass dome in the platform. A plastic pipe emerges from the dome.

Nigel says GOOD GIRL, BONI.
GOOD GIRL.

Andrew says BONI IS RESTING
INSIDE A METABOLIC DOME.
WE'RE TRYING TO GET
A BASELINE MEASUREMENT.
WE WANT TO KNOW HOW MANY
CALORIES DOES SHE BURN
JUST TO REST AND
FLOAT IN THE OCEAN.
AIR IS BEING DRAWN THROUGH
THIS TUBE CIRCULATED
AND CONTINUOUS TO BEING SAMPLED
BY OUR CO2 AND OXYGEN ANALYZER
INSIDE THE STELLER PILOT
AND IN JUST A COUPLE OF MINUTES
WE CAN NOW START MAKING HER
WORK FOR HER FOOD AND FROM THAT
WE'RE GOING TO FIND OUT
HOW MANY CALORIES DOES IT COST
A SEA LION TO GO DOWN TO DEPTH
TO FIND IT'S FOOD, EAT IT
AND COME BACK TO THE SURFACE.

A blond woman in her twenties feeds herring into a tube that goes into the sea.
A caption reads "Lia Bijman. Pinniped Intern."

LIA SAYS SO WE'RE JUST
PUMPING THE FISH DOWN
IN ORDER TO SEND IT DOWN
TEN METRES TO THE SEA LION,
SO THAT SHE CAN
FORGE FOR THE FISH
AT THE BOTTOM OF THE TUBES.

Nigel says WE'RE GOOD TO GO.
START.

Footage from Boni's harness camera shows how she swims out of the cage and down to the end of the tube to eat the fish being pumped down by Lia.

Andrew says THE ANIMAL
IS SWIMMING, IT'S DIVING,
IT'S GOING BACK TO THE SURFACE.
IT'S DOING WHAT A SEA LION
WOULD DO NATURALLY.
WHAT WE'RE DOING AS SCIENTISTS
IS WE ARE SAMPLING
ALL THE AIR THAT IT'S BREATHING.
WE'RE SUCKING IT THROUGH
THE TUBES, THROUGH ANALYZERS
AND IT'S ALL ENDING UP HERE
ON OUR LAPTOP COMPUTER.
THIS IS THE DATA WE NEED.

A short-haired, clean-shaven man analyzes data on a computer.
A caption reads "Brandon Russell. Research Technician."

Brandon says THE ANALYZERS ARE
READING THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION
AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION
THAT IS BEING PRODUCED
INSIDE THE DOME.
SO, THAT'S TELLING US HOW MUCH
OXYGEN IS BEING CONSUMED BY BONI
AND HOW MUCH CARBON DIOXIDE
SHE'S PRODUCING
AFTER EVERY DIVE.

Andrew says WE CAN NOW DO
SOME BACK CALCULATIONS
TO CONVERT THAT INTO CALORIES.
SO, NOW WE KNOW HOW MANY
CALORIES DO THE ANIMAL SPEND
TO DIVE TO DIFFERENT DEPTHS
AND TO SPEND DIFFERENT AMOUNTS
OF TIME UNDERWATER.

Boni swims up to the surface and hops onto a floating platform.

The Narrator says PINNIPEDS ARE
GENERALLY VERY TRAINABLE ANIMALS
BUT LIKE MANY SPECIES, THEY HAVE
THEIR DIFFICULT MOMENTS.
USUALLY THOUGH THEY ARE
A DELIGHT TO WORK WITH
AND A FAVOURITE
OF MANY TRAINERS.

Nigel feeds Boni.

Then, he says STELLERS ARE A
FANTASTIC ANIMAL TO TRAIN.
THEY'RE VERY STUBBORN
AND THEY CAN TEST YOU.
THEY MAKE LIFE INTERESTING.
THEY KEEP YOU ON
YOUR TOES FOR SURE.

On the boat, as he feeds Boni, he says
GIVE ME A KISS.

Boni gives him a kiss and he says GOOD.
DOES SHE LOVE ME?
NO!
SHE JUST LOVES THE FISH
THAT I GIVE HER FOR DOING
WHAT I ASK HER TO DO.

Now Boni hops out of the water and into her cage.

[SPLASH, CLATTER]

Nigel says GOOD GIRL, BONI, GOOD GIRL.
ALL RIGHT, LET'S GO HOME.
GOOD GIRL, BONI.

As he locks the cage and feeds her, he says SO THIS BEHAVIOUR,
GOING BACK IN CAGE TO GO HOME,
IS PROBABLY THE MOST IMPORTANT
BEHAVIOUR THESE ANIMALS DO.
SO, THIS ONE IS ALWAYS
REINFORCED HEAVILY.

He continues to feed her. The boat moves.

(music plays)

Andrew says THE ANIMALS ARE GIVING
US AN ENORMOUS WEALTH OF DATA,
THINGS THAT NO ONE EVER THOUGHT
WOULD BE POSSIBLE TO DO.
NO ONE HAS EVER TRIED
TO TRAIN STELLER SEA LIONS
TO DO THE TYPES OF THINGS
THAT THEY'RE DOING HERE.
WE'RE NOW GETTING INTO THE HEADS
AND THE MINDS OF THE SEA LIONS.
WE NOW UNDERSTAND
WHAT MOTIVATES THEM,
WHAT THE LIMITATIONS ARE
AND NOW WE CAN TAKE THIS DATA
AND NOW REFLECT BACK ON WHAT
WE'VE BEEN OBSERVING IN THE WILD
FOR THE FIRST TIME I THINK,
UNDERSTAND WHAT'S DRIVING
THAT SYSTEM AND WHY STELLER SEA
LIONS ARE IN TROUBLE IN ALASKA.

The boat is docked to a pier.
(Playful music plays)
Nigel leads Boni out of her cage.

The Narrator says IT'S THE END
OF ANOTHER RESEARCH DAY
AND TIME TO HEAD BACK TO
THE FACILITY'S HOLDING PENS.
THE SEA LIONS OF COURSE
ALWAYS HAVE THE OPTION
TO SIMPLY RUN OR RATHER
SWIM AWAY TO THE OPEN OCEAN,
BUT THEY NEVER DO.

Boni hops into the water and out again, onto a metal platform. Then, she hobbles into an office where Brandon and Troy work sitting behind desks.

The Narrator says HAZY, SITKA AND BONI
LIKE TO HAVE ONE LAST TREAT
BEFORE RETIRING
FOR THE EVENING.

Boni GROWLS loudly.

The Narrator continues HARBOUR POLICE SOMETIMES
DROP OFF LARGE SALMON
CONFISCATED FROM POACHERS
AND WHEN WHOLE SALMON
IS THE ENTRÉE,
THERE IS A PALPABLE
EXCITEMENT IN THE AIR.

On the pier, Nigel feeds Boni a large salmon and says GOOD GIRL.

The Narrator says SOMETIMES THOUGH A
LARGE FISH DOESN'T QUITE
GO DOWN ON THE FIRST TRY.

Boni scoffs up the fish, but it gets stuck and she spits it out again.

[HUFF]

She eats it.

(Tranquil music plays)
Now on a wide and hazy beach, waves lap gently against the shore as about a dozen fur seals rest on the sand.
A caption reads "Pribilof Islands. Bering Sea."

The Narrator says THESE REMOTE ALASKAN
BEACHES WERE ONCE CROWDED
WITH NORTHERN FUR SEALS
AND STELLER SEA LIONS.
NOW, THE BEACHES
ARE MOSTLY BARREN.
MILLIONS OF FUR SEALS ONCE
CONGREGATED ON THESE SHORES.

Fur seals rest on large rocks by the water. Babies hop from one rock to another.

Andrew says THE PRIBILOF ISLANDS
OF ALASKA ARE LOCATED
IN THE MIDDLE OF THE BERING SEA.
IT'S LIKE TWO FLOATING
AIRCRAFT CARRIERS
AND THAT IS THE HOME BASE
FOR THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS
OF SEA BIRDS AND 1.3 MILLION
NORTHERN FUR SEALS
THAT WAS THE MOTHER LODE.
THERE'S REGIONS OF
THE COASTLINE
AS YOU GO FROM CALIFORNIA
UP IN THE SOUTHEAST ALASKA
WHERE WE'RE SEEING ALMOST
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH
OF ELEPHANT SEALS,
HARBOUR SEALS,
CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS,
STELLER SEA LIONS.
AS YOU GO FURTHER NORTH
THROUGH THE GULF OF ALASKA
ALL THE WAY OVER TO RUSSIAN
AND NORTHERN JAPAN,
THEY'VE COLLAPSED.
IT'S BEEN A ROLLER COASTER DIVE,
OVER 80 PERCENT
OF THESE POPULATIONS
HAVE JUST DISAPPEARED.
THE CURIOUS THING HAS BEEN
THAT THEY DISAPPEARED
UNDER OUR WATCH.
WE HAVE ALL THIS
MODERN TECHNOLOGY
AND WE'RE LEFT
SCRATCHING OUR HEADS
AND THERE'S NO BODIES.
WE DON'T KNOW
WHERE THEY'VE GONE,
WHAT'S HAPPENED TO THEM.

Andrew walks along a paved pathway.
A caption reads "Vancouver. Canada."
Andrew walks into a building with a sign that reads "Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory. AERL."

The Narrator says DR. ANDREW TRITES
IS ONE OF THE WORLD'S FOREMOST
AUTHORITIES OF PINNIPEDS.
HE HEADS THE MARINE
MAMMAL RESEARCH UNIT
AT THE UNIVERSITY
OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.

Andrew walks up a staircase. Whale skeletons hang from a tall ceiling.

Andrew says A LOT OF
OUR FOCUS HAS BEEN ON
WHY ARE THE SEA LIONS DECLINING?
WHY ARE THE FUR SEALS
DECLINING IN ALASKA?
AND A LOT OF PEOPLE THINK
THAT IT'S TIED INTO
THE TYPES OF FISH
THAT THEY'RE EATING.

A female scientist in a lab coat carefully cuts a large fish.

Andrew continues SO, WE'VE BROUGHT FISH
FROM ALASKA TO OUR LAB HERE
AND WE'RE TRYING TO FIND OUT
JUST HOW GOOD IS THIS FISH.
HOW MANY CALORIES DOES IT HAVE?
DOES IT HAVE ENOUGH TO MAKE
A SEA LION HEALTHY?
WE NEEDED TO KNOW A COUPLE
THINGS ABOUT THE FISH.
IS IT A SEA LION EATING SIZE?
HOW OLD IS THE FISH?

The Narrator says AND TO FIND OUT HOW
OLD FISH ARE YOU SIMPLY HAVE
TO DISSECT THEIR HEADS, LOCATE
AND REMOVE THEIR EAR BONES.

The scientist cuts open the fish head and uses a pair of tweezers to remove a small bone.
Then, a young man in a lab coat feeds pieces of fish into a meat grinder.

Andrew says JUST LIKE ON A TREE
THEY'VE GOT ANNUAL GROWTH RINGS,
IF WE SECTION THAT
WE CAN COUNT THE RINGS
TO KNOW HOW OLD THE FISH IS.
AND FINALLY WE'RE GOING TO TAKE
THE FISH AND GRIND IT UP
JUST AS HOW IT'S ENDED UP
IN A SEA LION STOMACH
AND WE'LL TAKE A SAMPLE
OF THAT AND PUT IT INTO
THE BOMB CALORIMETER ULTIMATELY
AND WE'RE GOING TO BURN THAT
TO SEE HOW MANY CALORIES
DOES THAT WHOLE FISH HAVE.

The young man feeds grinded fish meat into a large machine with a touchscreen.

Andrew says JUST AS WE WOULD DETERMINE HOW
MANY CALORIES ARE IN THE FOOD
THAT WE EAT, WE'RE USING THE
SAME TECHNIQUES TO DETERMINE
HOW MANY CALORIES ARE IN
THE FOOD THAT SEALS
AND SEA LIONS EAT.
A LOT OF WHAT WE KNOW
ABOUT THE NUTRITION OF FISH
IS BUILT FOR HUMANS, WHERE
WE JUST LOOK AT THE FILLETS,
BUT OF COURSE A SEA LION
DOESN'T EAT THE FILLETS,
THEY EAT THE WHOLE FISH.
SO, WE HAVE TO DO
A FULL BODY WORK UP.

The Narrator says WHAT THEY EAT,
HOW MUCH THEY EAT AND
OTHER NUTRITION DATA IS CRUCIAL
TO UNDERSTANDING PINNIPEDS
BUT SOME OF THE SCIENTISTS'
MOST VALUABLE RESEARCH TOOLS
ARE THE ANIMAL'S FECES.

A bald man in his forties wearing a lab coat opens a walk-in freezer and takes out a sealed container. He opens it and puts on rubber gloves.

He says WHEN YOU'RE WORKING WITH POOP YOU GOT TO MAKE SURE
YOU GLOVE UP.

A caption reads "Morgan Davies. Research Technician."

As he cleans and filters samples, Morgan says
YOU CAN FIND SO MUCH INFORMATION
FROM POOP IT'S NOT EVEN FUNNY,
ALTHOUGH IT'S A LITTLE BIT FUNNY
AS MOST PEOPLE FIND OUT,
BUT YOU CAN FIND HARD PARTS,
WHICH WOULD BE
THE INDIGESTIBLE BONES
THAT ANIMALS ARE EATING.
WE CAN FIND THEIR
STRESS HORMONE LEVELS
FROM SUB-SAMPLING IT FROM THAT.
WE CAN NOW USE NEW TECHNIQUES
FOR GETTING GENETICS,
SO WE CAN FIND OUT WHAT
THEY'RE EATING AS WELL
AND COMPARE IT WITH THOSE BONES
THAT WE PULL OUT.
POOP MAY VERY WELL BE OUR MOST
IMPORTANT SCIENTIFIC TOOL.

Andrew holds a container with samples and says WHAT MOST PEOPLE
DON'T REALIZE IS JUST HOW MUCH
INFORMATION IS CONTAINED
WITHIN A POOP SAMPLE
OR WHAT WE CALL SCATS.
THESE SCAT SAMPLES
WHICH JUST LOOKS LIKE WASTE
LYING ON THE ROCKS
CONTAINS AN INCREDIBLE AMOUNT
OF INFORMATION THAT HELPS US
UNLOCK THE MYSTERY
OF THE ANIMALS' LIVES.

In a lab, a woman looks into a microscope as a young man wearing a mask sorts samples into sealed bags.

A caption reads "Austen Thomas. U.B.C. Graduate Student."

AUSTEN, clean-shaven, with short brown hair, SAYS WHAT I AM DOING
RIGHT NOW IS I AM SEPARATING
THE HARD PARTS IN
THE HARBOUR SEAL SCATS
FROM THE WHAT WE CALL
THE MATRIX MATERIAL,
WHICH IS ESSENTIALLY
THE, YOU KNOW
THE STINKY PART OF THE SCAT.
WE'RE TRYING TO QUANTIFY
THE PROPORTIONS
OF DIFFERENT SPECIES
OF PREY DNA.
WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO DO NOW
IS GO THE NEXT STEP FURTHER
AND SAY GO BEYOND JUST
IDENTIFYING WHAT'S THERE
TO ACTUALLY QUANTIFYING
THE PROPORTIONS.
YOU REALLY CAN LEARN A LOT
FROM WHAT COMES OUT OF
THE BACK END OF AN ANIMAL.

He stirs and filters scats.

Andrew says WHAT WE HAVE HERE
IS A CSI LAB DEDICATED
TO SOLVING MYSTERIES
ABOUT SEALS AND SEA LIONS.
UNIVERSITIES ARE OFTEN AT
THE FOREFRONT OF NEW IDEAS.
YOU GOT SOME OF THE BRIGHTEST,
YOUNGEST MINDS
THINKING OUTSIDE THE BOX AND
SO WE'RE ABLE TO COMBINE SKILLS
FROM ENGINEERING, STATISTICS,
FOOD AND NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES.
WE'RE ABLE TO WORK ACROSS
DISCIPLINES AND DO THINGS
IN QUITE NOVEL WAYS AND
COME UP WITH NEW TECHNIQUES
AND ORIGINAL NEW IDEAS
AND INSIGHTS INTO THINGS
THAT OTHERS MAY HAVE
MISSED COMPLETELY.

(music plays)
Now clips show people queuing up outside an aquarium with a sign that reads "Vancouver Aquarium."

The Narrator says AT THE VANCOUVER
AQUARIUM SOME OF THE STAR
ATTRACTION ARE PINNIPEDS,
BUT THESE ANIMALS
ARE NOT JUST PERFORMERS,
THEY'RE RESEARCH PARTNERS.

Four young sea lions swim in a small pool.

The Narrator says STELLER SEA LIONS
AND NORTHERN FUR SEALS
ARE KEY PARTICIPANTS IN ONGOING
STUDIES INTO WHY THE ANIMALS
ARE DISAPPEARING
IN ALASKA AND RUSSIA.

A trainer opens a cage door and a tiny sea lion hobbles out.

The trainer SAYS GOOD GIRL, ANI!

A caption reads "Billy Lasby. Training Co-Ordinator."

Billy, in his thirties, with a full beard, says
NORTHERN FUR SEALS ARE JUST ONE
OF THE CALMEST ANIMALS I WORKED
AND THERE IS VERY
LITTLE NERVOUSNESS
IN MOST CASES.

He stands next to a cage and says GO AHEAD, EAT.

Ani sticks her head into the cage.

He says SO, RIGHT NOW I AM
JUST MEASURING ANI.
SO, I AM MEASURING HER
FROM THE TIP OF HER NOSE
RIGHT TO HER TAIL,
BUT WHILE DOING THIS YOU WANT
TO KEEP IT VERY POSITIVE,
SO I AM JUST FEEDING
HER THROUGHOUT.

Andrew supervises and says BOOK HER A HAIRCUT.

BILLY tries different command signs and Ani obeys, as he says HERE YOU GO.
GO, YEAH GOOD.
LEFT.
GOOD.
OPEN.
VERY GOOD.
NORTHERN FUR SEALS ARE
AN AMAZING ANIMAL TO WORK.
TRAINING THESE GUYS IS NOT TOO
DIFFERENT THAN TRAINING A PUPPY.
YOU START VERY, VERY SMALL,
THEIR ATTENTION IS GOING TO BE
A LOT SMALLER THAN
AN ADULT ANIMAL OF COURSE.
SO, WE START VERY, VERY SMALL
WITH LOTS OF REINFORCEMENT.

He gestures at another sea lion and says TUKU, ON THE SKIFF.

The tiny animal hops onto a boat.

Now a sea lion stands inside a small chamber with an open door.

As he feeds it, Billy says THIS IS ONE OF THE METABOLIC
CHAMBERS AND WE PRACTICE
PLACING THEM IN AND OUT,
PRETTY MUCH EVERY SINGLE DAY
AND MAYBE ONCE EVERY
COUPLE OF WEEKS
TO EVERY COUPLE OF MONTHS,
DEPENDING ON THE STUDY,
WE WILL HAVE THEM IN THERE
FOR A CERTAIN OF TIME,
USUALLY ABOUT BETWEEN
60 TO 80 MINUTES
AND IT MEASURES HER
RESTING METABOLIC RATE.
PRETTY MUCH ALL THE ANIMALS
THAT ARE HERE
I HAVE RAISED FROM PUPS,
SO THERE IS DEFINITELY
A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
MYSELF AND THE ANIMALS
THAT ARE HERE AT THE AQUARIUM
AND AT OUR OPEN WATER SITE.

A sea lion hobbles up to Billy and BARKS.

Andrew says WE BROUGHT FUR SEALS
FROM ALASKA FROM
THE PRIBILOF ISLANDS TO THE
VANCOUVER AQUARIUM TO HELP SOLVE
SOME OF THE MISSING PIECES
OF THEIR LIFECYCLE.
WE DON'T KNOW, FOR EXAMPLE,
HOW MUCH FOOD DO THEY REQUIRE?
ARE THEY GETTING ENOUGH TO EAT?
WE DON'T KNOW ANYTHING
ABOUT THEIR GROWTH CURVES.
WE MEASURE THEIR LENGTHS,
THEIR WEIGHTS TO UNDERSTAND
WHAT TIME OF THE YEAR
DO THEY NEED MORE FOOD,
WHAT TIME OF THE YEAR
DO THEY NEED LESS?
THESE ANIMALS ARE HELPING US
SOLVE AN INCREDIBLE
ECOLOGICAL MYSTERY, THAT NOT
ONLY TOUCHES THE BERING SEA,
BUT THE ENTIRE
NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.

Now a crowd gathers by a large pool at the aquarium.

[CHEERS, APPLAUSE]

A female TRAINER SAYS AND ON THE FAR SIDE
OF THE HABITAT, WE WILL SOON...

In a clip, the crowd watches as two female trainers command seals out of the water and feed them.

Andrew says AS A RESEARCHER
I'VE GOT A LOT OF IDEAS
OF THINGS WE COULD DO BUT
I AM NOT AN ANIMAL TRAINER.
I AM NOT A VET.
WHAT I REALIZED EARLY ON
IS THAT NOBODY MAKES PROGRESS
AS A RESEARCHER ALONE.
IT'S ONLY BY WORKING
WITH OTHERS.
WHAT THE AQUARIUM OFFERS IS,
THEY NOT ONLY HAVE EXPERTISE
IN CARING FOR ANIMALS,
THEY'RE PHENOMENAL AT TRAINING
AND I ALSO RECOGNIZED
THAT IT'S EXPENSIVE.
PEOPLE DON'T APPRECIATE WHAT
THE COST IS TO CARE FOR ANIMALS,
THE AMOUNT OF INDIVIDUAL
ATTENTION ONE ANIMAL REQUIRES.

The Narrator says AND ADMISSION FEES
AT AQUARIUMS HELP FUND
IMPORTANT RESEARCH.

(Rock music plays)

A trainer in her thirties with long brown hair stands next to a pool and waves at the audience as she SAYS HELLO, EVERYBODY.
ONCE AGAIN,
MY NAME IS KIRSTEN GIVING
YOU A WAVE RIGHT HERE
ON THE WILD COAST JUST OPPOSITE
TO THAT GREEN TENT,
THANKS FOR WAVING BACK.
AND I AM WONDERING HOW MANY
OF YOU ARE EXCITED
FOR THE 12:00 O'CLOCK SEAL
AND SEA LION SHOW?

[CHEERS]

Kirsten says FANTASTIC.
JUST THE ENTHUSIASM
I WAS EXPECTING BECAUSE WE'RE
GOING TO BE LEARNING ABOUT
THESE INCREDIBLE MARINE MAMMALS.
NOT ONLY...

Andrew says TO SUCCEED AT THIS
YOU NEED PARTNERSHIPS
AND SO WE HAVE A PARTNERSHIP
WITH THE VANCOUVER AQUARIUM AND
THEY PROVIDE ALL THE HUSBANDRY
AND TRAINING EXPERTISE,
CARE OF THE ANIMALS
AND FROM THE UNIVERSITY
WE'RE PROVIDING THE
RESEARCHERS, THE IDEAS
AND THE HYPOTHESIS TESTS
BUT IN THE END
IT'S A COLLABORATION OF IDEAS.

Fast clips show snippets of the seal and sea lion show, where the trainers command the animals to open their mouths, roll over, and perform other movements.

KIRSTEN SAYS SO ON BEHALF
OF MYSELF, THE TRAINERS
AND INCREDIBLE MARINE MAMMALS,
WE ALL WISH YOU
A FANTASTIC REST OF YOUR DAY
AT THE VANCOUVER AQUARIUM.
THANKS SO MUCH FOR COMING OUT.

[APPLAUSE]

The Narrator says AFTER THE
PERFORMANCES THERE IS STILL
WORK TO DO, ESPECIALLY WITH THE
STELLER SEA LIONS AND FUR SEALS.

A sea lion crawls up a ramp and approaches Billy.

He says SIT DOWN.
THAT'S A GOOD GIRL
GOOD!

He places a cone connected to a tube over the sea lion's face.

The Narrator says AND LIKE THEIR
COUNTERPARTS AT THE OPEN OCEAN
RESEARCH CENTRE,
AQUARIUM ANIMALS ALSO NEED
A FISHY INCENTIVE.

BILLY removes the cone and feeds the animal fish as he SAYS YEAH, THESE ANIMALS
ARE VERY FOOD MOTIVATED.
FASTEST WAY TO THEIR HEART
IS THROUGH THEIR STOMACH
THAT'S FOR SURE.

The sea lion BARKS. Then, a clip shows a blond trainer in her thirties running next to a pool, back and forth, as a sea lion in the water follows her.

The Narrator says TRAINING IS NOT
THE ONLY IMPORTANT FACET
TO PINNIPED LIFE
AT THE AQUARIUM.
KEEPING THE ANIMALS FIT
BOTH IN MIND AND BODY
IS A TOP PRIORITY FOR THE STAFF.

She feeds it and practices commands.
A caption reads "Danielle Hyson. Senior Marine Mammal Trainer."

DANIELLE SAYS THEY DO GET A LOT OF
NATURAL EXERCISE IN THE WILD,
SO WE LIKE TO SIMULATE THAT HERE
WITH HIGHER ENERGY LEAPS
AND JUMPS AND JUST GENERAL
HIGHER ENERGY BEHAVIOURS.
IT'S ALSO A LOT OF FUN
FOR THEM TO DO AS WELL.
WE GIVE THEM TOYS AND THINGS
TO PLAY WITH ON A REGULAR BASIS
AND WE TRY TO MIX IT UP AS MUCH
AS POSSIBLE TO KEEP IT VARIED.

She waves at the animal in the water, who GROWLS.

She feeds it.

[GROWL]

She says STELLER SEA LIONS ARE AMAZING
ANIMALS TO WORK WITH.
I MEAN TO BE ABLE TO HAVE
THE RELATIONSHIP THAT WE HAVE
WITH THESE ANIMALS AND WORK
WITH THEM DAY IN AND DAY OUT
IT'S DEFINITELY A PLEASURE.
THEY ALL HAVE INDIVIDUAL
PERSONALITIES AND THEY ALL HAVE
DIFFERENT STRENGTHS
AND WEAKNESSES
AND US KIND OF HAVING
TO WORK WITH THEM
KEEPS US ON OUR TOES AND
IT'S JUST REALLY A LOT OF FUN
TO BE ABLE TO COMMUNICATE
WITH AN ANIMAL AND HAVE
SUCH A STRONG WORKING
RELATIONSHIP WITH THEM.

Fast clips show a man and a woman analyzing data on a monitor in a lab.

The Narrator says ALL THE ANIMALS
AT THE AQUARIUM
REQUIRE EXTENSIVE
VETERINARY CARE.
IT'S A TEAM EFFORT TO KEEP
ALL THE PINNIPEDS HEALTHY.

A caption reads "Doctor Martin Haulena. Head Veterinarian."

Martin, in his late forties, with gray hair and a stubble, says
MY JOB AS THE
VETERINARIAN AT THE VANCOUVER
AQUARIUM IS BASICALLY
TO MAINTAIN THE ANIMALS
IN OUR COLLECTION IN THE
BEST HEALTH POSSIBLE.
SO, A LARGE PART OF MY JOB
IS DESIGNING A HEALTH
MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR EACH OF
THE SPECIES THAT WE DEAL WITH
AND THAT'S BECOMES VERY,
VERY INDIVIDUALIZE,
ESPECIALLY FOR
THE MARINE MAMMALS.

In fast clips, Martin performs a checkup on a sea lion as Danielle distracts it and gives it commands. Martin performs a sonography on the animal.

Martin says WE DO HAVE ANIMALS LIVING
A LOT LONGER THAN THEY WOULD
IN THE WILD, FOR EXAMPLE,
SO WE HAVE A LOT OF THESE
OLD AGE PROBLEMS
TO CONTEND WITH.
VERY OLD SEA LIONS
MIGHT DEVELOP CATARACTS.
WE HAVE POTENTIALLY
SOME ARTHRITIC ISSUES
IN OLD SEA LIONS, CERTAINLY
DENTAL PROBLEMS BECOME AN ISSUE
AS ANY ORGANISM AGES.
SOME OF OUR OLD ANIMALS
HAVE COME UP WITH CANCERS
AS THEY'VE AGED.
SO, IT CERTAINLY BECOMES
A SORT OF GERIATRIC MEDICINE.
I'VE BEEN WORKING WITH PINNIPEDS
IN PARTICULAR FOR CLOSE TO ABOUT
25 YEARS NOW AND EVERY DAY
I STILL FIND SOMETHING NEW
THAT'S ABSOLUTELY FASCINATING
ABOUT THE SPECIES.
AND HONESTLY, I HAVE GOT
THE COOLEST ANIMALS
IN THE WHOLE WORLD TO WORK
WITH AND I WAS FASCINATED
BY MARINE MAMMALS
AS EARLY AS AGE SEVEN
AND THAT'S NEVER LEFT ME.

(music plays)
A sign with a picture of a seal reads "Vancouver Aquarium Marine Mammal Rescue Centre."
In a large tent, baby seals sit in large plastic containers.

The Narrator says HARBOUR SEAL MOTHERS
OFTEN LEAVE THEIR PUPS
ON SHORE UNATTENDED WHEN
THEY HEAD OUT TO FEED.
BABY ANIMALS ARE SOMETIMES
THEN ABANDONED OR INJURED.
MANY OF THEM ARE EVENTUALLY
BROUGHT TO THE VANCOUVER
AQUARIUM MARINE MAMMAL
RESCUE CENTRE.

A woman with auburn hair in a bun checks on the baby seals.
A caption reads "Sion Cahoon. Veterinary Technician."

SION SAYS RIGHT NOW JANEL
IS DOING A PHYSICAL EXAM
ON THIS LITTLE GIRL PATEN,
WHO CAME IN YESTERDAY.
WE DO AN EXAM ON EVERY ANIMAL
WHEN THEY FIRST COME IN,
SO WE CHECK ALL THE BODY SYSTEMS
JUST TO MAKE SURE
THAT EVERYTHING IS OKAY
AND CHECK AND SEE
IF THERE'S ANY WOUNDS,
THAT KIND OF THING.
WE START AT THE TIP OF THE NOSE
AND WORK OUR WAY DOWN
TO THE TAIL, SO CHECK
ALL THE SENSORY ORGANS,
EYES, EARS, MOUTH, NOSE,
TEETH, GUMS, HEART, LUNGS,
GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM,
MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
AND ESTIMATE ON HOW OLD WE THINK
THEY ARE AND ATTITUDE WISE.
SO, SHE'S OBVIOUSLY
PRETTY BRIGHT AND ALERT.

Another woman with dark auburn hair checks on the seals in the tent.
A caption reads "Lindsaye Akhurst. Manager."

LINDSAYE SAYS THE MAJORITY
OF THE ANIMALS THAT COME IN
TO OUR CENTRE ARE HARBOUR SEALS
AND A LOT OF THEM ARE NEONATES,
SO THEY'RE LESS THAN A WEEK OLD
WHEN THEY FIRST COME IN
TO THE CENTRE.
MOST PART THE HARBOUR SEALS
ARE SEPARATED FROM THEIR MOTHERS
FOR WHATEVER REASON THAT IS.
OTHER SPECIES OF PINNIPEDS
COULD BE DISENTANGLEMENTS
THAT WE BROUGHT THEM IN FOR.
SOME OF THEM ARE EMACIATED
FOR WHATEVER REASONS.
SO, EACH CASE IS DIFFERENT.

People wearing blue T-shirts that read "Rescue volunteer" weigh fish in a small room.

The Narrator says THE YOUNGER PUPS ARE
BRIEFLY FED A SPECIAL FORMULA
TO SIMULATE THEIR
MOTHER'S RICH MILK.
AS SOON AS POSSIBLE THOUGH THE
ANIMALS ARE INTRODUCED TO FISH,
THE NUTRITIOUS FOOD THEY WILL
NEED TO SURVIVE IN THE WILD.

SION SAYS HERRING IS A PRETTY
HIGH FAT FISH SO FOR THESE GUYS
WHEN THEY'RE JUST WEANING
ONTO FISH WE WANT TO THEM
TO GAIN LOTS OF WEIGHT AND GET
A GOOD LAYER OF BLUBBER ON THEM
BEFORE THEY GET RELEASED.

She drops several small fish into a plastic container for a baby seal to eat.

LINDSAYE SAYS SO ONCE THE ANIMALS
ARE STRONG ENOUGH
AT A CERTAIN WEIGHT AND WE'RE
ABLE TO ACTUALLY START
FISH SCHOOLING THEM,
SO WHAT THAT MEANS IS THAT
WE WILL OFFER THEM HERRING.
SOME OF THE GUYS IT TAKES
A LITTLE BIT LONGER TO LEARN
HOW ACTUALLY FISH SCHOOL
AND CATCH THE FISH.

The Narrator says EVEN CHASING A DEAD
HERRING IS CRITICAL TRAINING
THESE MARINE MAMMALS
WILL NEED
WHEN THEY'RE EVENTUALLY
RELEASED.
IT STILL REQUIRES
A BIT OF PRACTICE.

The baby seal eats one of the herrings tail first.

A male voice SAYS NORMALLY IT WOULD
GO THE OTHER WAY?

LINDSAYE SAYS NORMALLY
THEY GO HEAD FIRST,
BUT WHATEVER FLOATS YOUR BOAT.

LINDSAYE picks up a pup and carries it to a small room with a sign that reads "The Med Shed."

The Narrator says MANY OF THE PUPS
BROUGHT TO THE RESCUE CENTRE
ARE IN REASONABLY GOOD HEALTH,
MOST ARE JUST HUNGRY
AND DEHYDRATED,
HOWEVER SOME HAVE SERIOUS
INJURIES OR INFECTIONS
THAT NEED PROMPT ATTENTION.
VETERINARIAN STAFF FROM
THE VANCOUVER AQUARIUM
ARE BROUGHT IN FOR EXAMS
AND TREATMENT WHEN NECESSARY.

Martin walks in. LINDSAYE places the pup on an examination table.

The Narrator continues THIS PUP, BEETLEJUICE,
HAD AN EYE INJURY
THAT MIGHT REQUIRE SURGERY.

MARTIN checks Beetlejuice and SAYS IT'S VERY MUCH
KIND OF A HURT-HEALTH APPROACH
TO THESE GUYS.
THERE IS DEFINITELY AN INITIAL
PHYSICAL EXAM AND THEN
AS WE NOTICE OTHER PROBLEMS
ASSOCIATED WITH THEIR STRANDING
SO WE SEE SECONDARY PROBLEMS
LIKE A BAD EYE HERE
ON POOR BEETLEJUICE.
AND WE GET A LITTLE BIT MORE
INTENSIVE WITH THEIR EXAM
AND WITH OUR CARE.
I THINK WE HAVE A VERY,
VERY GOOD SUCCESS RATE.
OVER THE LAST THREE
OR FOUR YEARS WE'VE HAD
REALLY, REALLY GOOD SUCCESS
AND GOING, YOU KNOW
70 PERCENT TO 75 PERCENT AND NOW
APPROACHING 80 PERCENT SUCCESS.
SO, THAT'S ACTUALLY PHENOMENAL.

[SEAL CRIES]

Martin says HE'S A GOOD BOY.

(music plays)
A fast-motion clip shows LINDSAYE carrying the pup back to its enclosure.

The Narrator says IT DOESN'T TAKE LONG
FOR THE PUPS TO REGAIN
THEIR STRENGTH AND TO THRIVE.
IN A MATTER OF WEEKS THEY'RE
NEARLY READY FOR RELEASE
BACK INTO THE WILD.

LINDSAYE walks up to a large pool where several baby seals swim

She SAYS THESE ANIMALS ARE
PRETTY MUCH READY FOR RELEASE.
THEY GOT ABOUT A WEEK
OR TWO LEFT IN OUR CENTRE.
MOST OF THEM ARE OVER 15 KILOS
AND WE LIKE THEM TO BE
ABOUT 20, 20 PLUS KILOS
FOR RELEASE.
THEY'RE ALL COMPETING REALLY
WELL FOR THEIR FOOD
AND THEY'RE GETTING LOTS OF
CONDITIONING TIME IN THE POOL.
WE DEFINITELY LIKE TO MAKE SURE
THAT THEY ARE HEALTHY
THAT EVERYTHING IS RUNNING
PROPERLY INSIDE TO GIVE THEM
THE BEST CHANCE TO SURVIVAL THAT
WE CAN WHILE THEY'RE OUT THERE.

A sign on the side of the pool reads "Pre-release pool 2."

The Narrator says WITH SO MANY ANIMALS
FLOODING INTO THE RESCUE CENTRE
IT HELPS TO ASSIGN THEM NAMES.

LINDSAYE SAYS EACH YEAR
WE HAVE A NAMING THEME.
THIS YEAR IT'S ASTRONOMY.
IT'S A GREAT OPPORTUNITY FOR OUR
VOLUNTEERS AND PEOPLE THAT HAVE
HELPED US OUT WITH THE RESCUES,
TO NAME THE ANIMALS.
WE DON'T CALL THEM BY THAT NAME,
BUT IT'S MORE OF ASSOCIATION
SO WE CAN TELL THEM
APART ON PAPER.
YOU CAN DEFINITELY SEE THE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FEW OF THEM
AND A LOT OF THEM HAVE
A LOT OF DIFFERENT MARKINGS,
DIFFERENT COLORINGS, DIFFERENT
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS IN GENERAL.
SO, A FEW OF THEM WE CAN TELL
APART JUST BY LOOKING AT THEM.

Fast clips show seal pups in different tanks and pools. Rounded in shape, they have thick gray fur darker on the back and lighter on the belly, with black spots all over.

LINDSAYE continues IT'S A HUGE TEAM EFFORT HERE
WITH OUR STAFF AND OUR
VOLUNTEERS AND WE WOULD NOT
BE ABLE TO RUN THIS WHOLE CENTRE
WITHOUT THE HELP
OF OUR VOLUNTEERS.

In a room, volunteers work.

A voice says WE NEED ANOTHER LID.

Another voice says FOR WHO?

A caption reads "Mary Alice Mirhady. Volunteer."

MARY, in her fifties, with short brown hair and glasses, SAYS I VOLUNTEER HERE
AT MARINE MAMMAL RESCUE
BECAUSE I ENJOY MAKING
A POSITIVE CONTRIBUTION
TO THE ENVIRONMENT.
SEALS PERHAPS ARE NOT THE MOST
ENDANGERED SPECIES, BUT THEY'RE
AN INDICATOR SPECIES.
SO, WHEN WE SEE THEM COME IN
WE CAN SEE, OH, OUR ENVIRONMENT
IS DOING PRETTY WELL, AND IT'S
REALLY FUN TO BE ABLE TO SAY,
"GOODBYE SEAL," WHEN THEY
GO BACK TO THE OCEAN.

Now in the ocean, a diver swims surrounded by dozens of sea lions.

The Narrator says LIKE SHARKS,
DOLPHINS AND OTHER LARGE
AQUATIC ANIMALS,
SEALS AND SEA LIONS
NOW HAVE AN ENTHUSIASTIC
FAN CLUB.
IN MANY PARTS OF THE WORLD
SCUBA DIVERS AND SNORKELERS
CAN SWIM WITH THE ANIMALS
IN THEIR NATURAL HABITAT,
BUT SOME PEOPLE QUESTION WHETHER
THESE CLOSE INTERACTIONS
MIGHT ALTER THE BEHAVIOUR
OF WILD PINNIPEDS.

(music plays)
Clips show several divers surrounded by sea lions, some of which play with the bubbles released from the diving gear.
Then, a wide shot shows a tranquil coast. A caption reads "Hornby Island. British Columbia."
Several boats sit at bay by a pier.

Now a man stands in a room wearing a woollen hat. He's in his thirties, clean-shaven.
A caption reads "Robert Zielinski. Hornby Island Diving."

ROBERT SAYS HORNBY ISLAND DIVING
HAS BEEN OPERATING
FOR OVER 40 YEARS,
A FAMILY RUN BUSINESS.
MY FATHER STARTED THE BUSINESS
IN THE EARLY '70S
AND NOW MY WIFE AND MYSELF,
AMANDA, OPERATE THE BUSINESS.
WE HAVE INTRODUCED MANY DIVERS
TO SEA LIONS OVER THE YEARS.

Clips show Robert and others carrying diving gear onto a docked boat.

Robert continues WHEN WE HAVE GROUPS THAT COME,
WE'RE VERY CAREFUL TO GIVE
DETAIL BRIEFINGS AS TO
THE ETIQUETTE IN THE WATER.
WHEN WE'RE AROUND THE SEA LIONS
WE LIKE TO MAKE SURE
WE DON'T DISTURB
THE ANIMALS ON SHORE.
RESTING IS AN IMPORTANT PART
OF THEIR DAILY ACTIVITY,
SO WE DON'T HAVE
ANY IMPACT ON THAT.

The boat travels into the open sea.

The Narrator says MARINE MAMMALS,
ESPECIALLY ORCAS
AND OTHER WHALES ARE CURRENTLY
PROTECTED FROM DISTURBANCE
BY TOURISM ACTIVITIES.
WHALE WATCHING IN PARTICULAR
IS A CLOSELY REGULATED INDUSTRY.
SOME AUTHORITIES NOW WANT
TO GIVE SEALS AND SEA LIONS
THE SAME LEVEL OF PROTECTION.

The boat approaches a series of rocks just above sea level, where dozens of sea lions rest peacefully in the sun.

ROBERT SAYS SO, THE ANIMALS
WE'RE SEEING HERE IN THIS AREA
ARE TRANSIENT ANIMALS.
THEY'RE HERE JUST FEEDING
AND THEY'RE GOING TO FOLLOW
THE HERRING IN THIS AREA
UNTIL IT LEAVES THE STRAIT OF
GEORGIA AND THEN THEY WILL
HEAD OFF TO THEIR RESPECTIVE
BREEDING GROUNDS,
WHETHER THAT'S NORTH
OR SOUTH FROM HERE.
MOST OF THE STELLERS WE SEE ARE
FROM THE OREGON COAST SO THEY
WILL FOLLOW THAT HERRING BACK
OUT OF THE STRAIT OF GEORGIA
AND JUAN DE FUCA AND THEN WILL
CONTINUE THEIR JOURNEY HOME.

On the boat, several divers don wetsuits and put on diving gear.

The Narrator says CANADA'S DEPARTMENT
OF FISHERIES AND OCEANS OR DFO
HAS RECENTLY PROPOSED NEW
REGULATIONS RESTRICTING
CLOSE APPROACH TO ALL
MARINE MAMMALS,
INCLUDING SEALS AND SEA LIONS.
IF ENFORCED, THESE NEW RULES
WILL EFFECTIVELY KILL
THIS FLEDGLING INDUSTRY.

Divers jump into the water. Then, they kneel on the ocean floor as sea lions swim around them curiously.

The Narrator continues PINNIPEDS ARE INTENSELY CURIOUS
ANIMALS AND SCUBA DIVERS
CLAD IN NEOPRENE AND SPORTING
ALL KINDS OF INTERESTING GADGETS
ARE IMPOSSIBLE TO RESIST.

ROBERT SAYS WE JUST ASK OUR GROUPS
THAT ARE IN THE WATER TO KEEP
THEIR HANDS TO THEMSELVES,
JUST ALLOW THE ANIMALS
TO COME TO THEM, YOU KNOW
IT'S THE ANIMALS CHOICE
TO COME TO THE DIVER.
WE DON'T EVER ALLOW GROUPS
TO ACTIVELY GO AFTER SEA LIONS,
BUT IF THE SEA LION
WISHES TO COME INTERACT WITH
A DIVER, THAT'S THEIR CHOICE.
THEY HAVE THEIR MOODS.
SOME DAYS THEY'RE NOT INTERESTED
IN YOU IN THE LEAST BIT
AND OTHER DAYS THEY'RE
VERY INTERESTED.
THEY WANT TO TEST EVERY
PIECE OF EQUIPMENT YOU HAVE.
THEY'RE JUST LIKE BIG DOGS
PLAYING WITH YOU IN THE WATER.
YOU KNOW THEY GET VERY EXCITED,
ANYTHING IN THE WATER
WHETHER IT BE A DIVER
OR A STICK FLOATING BY,
THEY'RE JUST EAGER
TO INTERACT WITH IT
AND TRY AND FIGURE OUT
WHAT IT IS.

In short clips, dozens of sea lions swim around the divers and observe them closely. Divers film using small underwater cameras.

(music plays)

The Narrator says THE QUESTION
REMAINS, DOES THIS TYPE OF
INTERACTION NEGATIVELY IMPACT
THE BEHAVIOUR AND WELL BEING
OF MARINE MAMMALS, ESPECIALLY
SEALS AND SEA LIONS?
THE JURY IS STILL OUT
ON THE ISSUE.

ROBERT SAYS THE INTERACTION OF
SCUBA DIVERS AND SEA LIONS
DOES HAVE SOME CONTROVERSY.
SOME PEOPLE IN DFO BELIEVE THAT
WE'RE NEGATIVELY IMPACTING
THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE SEA LIONS.
WE'VE DONE THIS FOR ENOUGH
YEARS THAT OUR PHILOSOPHY
OF OUR BUSINESS IS,
YOU KNOW WE'RE VERY CAREFUL
TO HOW WE INTERACT WITH ANIMALS
AND IF WE FELT WE WERE HAVING
A NEGATIVE IMPACT
ON THE ANIMALS,
WE WOULD CHANGE OUR
OPERATING PROCEDURES.

The Narrator says ONE SURE THING,
THESE PLAYFUL SEA LIONS
SEEM TO ENJOY HAVING THE DIVERS
PAY THEM A VISIT.

Now a wide shot shows a rocky shore with mountains in the distant background.
A caption reads "Victoria. Vancouver Island."

A group of divers sit on a boat and listen to an instructor who stands.

The instructor SAYS OKAY GUYS, WELCOME
ABOARD JUAN DE FUCA WARRIOR.
WE'RE HEADING OUT TO RACE ROCKS.
WE'RE NINE MILES RIGHT OUT
INTO THE MIDDLE OF
JUAN DE FUCA STRAIT.
ABOUT A 15 OR 20
MINUTE RUN TODAY.

The boat speeds into open waters and approaches a small rocky island with a lighthouse.

The instructor says SO, WELCOME TO RACE ROCKS,
YOU GUYS.
WE'RE JUST ENTERING THE,
ENTERING THE PARK.

A caption reads "Erin Bradley. Ogden Point Dive Centre."

Erin, in his late thirties, clean-shaven continues
WE'RE NOT ALLOWED
TO ANCHOR, TIE UP,
PEE TO THE SIDE OF THE BOAT,
TIE TO THE KELP
ANY OF THAT SORT
OF STUFF IN HERE.
THERE IS SPEED LIMIT
IN HERE FOR BOATS TOO.
VESSELS AREN'T ALLOWED TO GO
ANY MORE THAN FIVE KNOTS
OVER GROUND.
WE CALL THIS OUT HERE
RACE ROCKS, THE BACHELOR PAD
FOR THE SEA LIONS.
THESE ARE ALL MALES.
DONE THEIR BUSINESS
AND THEY'RE COMING AND
RELAXING ON THE ROCKS.

The boat inches up to a stone pier, where a young woman crouches and helps tie the boat.

The Narrator says JULIE BOWSER
IS ONE OF THE ISLAND'S
STUDENT CARETAKERS.
SHE'S HAPPY TO HOST
SOME RARE VISITORS
ON HER REMOTE OUTPOST.

ERIN SAYS THOUGHT WE'D SAY HI
BEFORE WE GO OUT FOR A DIVE.

Erin and the divers hop off the boat.

The Narrator says JULIE INVITED
THE DIVERS ONTO THE ISLAND
FOR A QUICK TOUR BEFORE THE TEAM
DON THEIR SCUBA EQUIPMENT.
RACE ROCKS IS A NATIONAL
HISTORIC SITE AND A STRICTLY
PROTECTED ECOLOGICAL PRESERVE.
SITUATED IN THE STRAIT OF JUAN
DE FUCA, ITS RUGGED SHORES
ARE BATTERED BY STRONG WINDS
AND TIDAL CURRENTS.
IT'S AN IDEAL RESTING SPOT
AND HAUL-OUT SITE FOR PINNIPEDS.
MANY OF THESE ANIMALS ARE
EXHAUSTED FROM LONG MIGRATIONS
ALONG THE COAST.

People watch the sea lions and take pictures.

Julie points and says HE'S ON THE MOVE!
HE'S ON THE MOVE!

Then, two people walk up to the a black and white lighthouse.

The Narrator says THE ORIGINAL
80 FOOT TALL LIGHTHOUSE
FROM 1860 STILL STANDS TODAY.
MASSIVE GRANITE BLOCKS QUARRIED
IN SCOTLAND WERE SHIPPED
AROUND CAPE HORN TO CONSTRUCT
THE TOWER'S BASE.

Julie stands inside the lighthouse.
A caption reads "Julie Bowser. Pearson College."

JULIE, in her thirties with chin-length brown hair, SAYS MY JOB TITLE IS THE
ECO-GUARDIAN OF THE RESERVE.
SO MY JOB IS TO TRY
AND KEEP THE PLACE
AS NATURAL AS IT CAN BE
FOR THE SPECIES OUT HERE.
MAINLY MY JOB IS TO WATCH OUT
FOR THE BOATS OUT HERE.
SO, WHALE WATCHERS THAT
COME IN AND GET TO CLOSE
OR SPEED THROUGH THE RESERVE
AND THEY ACT AS A DISTURBANCE
TO THE WHALES AND THE SEA LIONS
AND THE SEALS.

Clips show sea bird chicks standing in tall grass.

The Narrator says RACE ROCKS IS ALSO AN IMPORTANT BIRD SANCTUARY.
AT CERTAIN TIMES OF THE YEAR
THE ISLAND IS PACKED
WITH NESTING SEA BIRDS.
THE STAR ATTRACTIONS THOUGH
ARE THE SEALS AND SEA LIONS.

Clips show divers getting geared up.
A caption reads "Neil McDaniel. Zoologist, Cameraman."

NEIL, in his late forties, with a full gray beard, SAYS WE'VE BEEN COMING HERE
FOR PROBABLY 30 YEARS OR SO.
I MEAN THE SEA LIONS ARE
USUALLY HERE ALL THE TIME,
ALTHOUGH THE NUMBERS CHANGE
THROUGHOUT THE YEAR
AS THEY MOVE AROUND.
THERE AREN'T SO MANY RIGHT NOW,
I MEAN AT THIS TIME OF YEAR
THEIR NUMBERS ARE FAIRLY LOW,
BUT AT CERTAIN TIMES OF YEAR
THERE'LL BE HUNDREDS
AND HUNDREDS OF THEM HERE.

He jumps into the water and another man passes him a professional underwater camera. Other divers jump in.
Fast clips show divers swimming in murky green water with abundant algae.

The Narrator says UNLIKE AT HORNBY
ISLAND, THE CALIFORNIA
AND STELLER SEA LIONS AT
RACE ROCKS WEREN'T SO EAGER
TO JOIN THE DIVERS.
THE LEVEL OF INTERACTION
ON ANY GIVEN DIVE IS ENTIRELY
UP TO THE SEALS AND SEA LIONS.

As he sits on a boat, NEIL SAYS WHEN WE FIRST GOT IN
IT WAS PRETTY SLIM PICKINGS,
THEY WEREN'T TOO ACTIVE SO WE
LET RIGHT UP AGAINST THE ROCKS,
POPPED OUR HEADS UP
A COUPLE OF TIMES.
THEY'RE ALL JUST LYING THERE
SOAKING UP THE SUN.
THEY WEREN'T INTERESTED
IN COMING AND PLAYING.
THEN ALL OF A SUDDEN
A BIG CALIFORNIAN
CAME IN AND GIVE US
A GOOD FLYBY.
I MEAN YOU'RE GOING TO REMEMBER
THESE ANIMALS ARE BIG MALES
ABOUT 2,000 POUNDS PLUS AND IF
THEY WANT TO DO DAMAGE TO YOU
IT CERTAINLY COULD.
I MEAN THEY'RE BIG ANIMALS,
SO YOU HAVE TO,
YOU HAVE TO BE CAREFUL.

The Narrator says DEPENDING ON HOW
THINGS PROGRESS WITH CANADA'S
DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES
AND OCEANS NEW POLICIES,
THIS TYPE OF DIVING TOURISM
MAY BECOME A THING OF THE PAST.

(music plays)
Clips show baby sea lions playing on a narrow pebbly beach.

The Narrator says GLOBALLY,
MOST SPECIES OF PINNIPEDS
ARE GENERALLY THRIVING.
THE MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT
OF THE EARLY '70S
EFFECTIVELY ENDED COMMERCIAL
EXPLOITATION OF SEALS
AND SEA LIONS AND THEIR
NUMBERS HAVE REBOUNDED.

Andrew says SOME OF THE MOST
VISIBLE COMPONENTS
OF THE MARINE ECOSYSTEM
ARE THE SEALS AND SEA LIONS
BECAUSE THEY HAUL OUT,
WE CAN COUNT THEM.
IF WE SEE CHANGE IN THE NUMBERS,
THAT TELLS US SOMETHING
IS GOING ON.
PINNIPEDS ARE LIKE THE CANARY
IN THE COAL MINE.
IT'S AN EARLY WARNING INDICATOR.
IF YOU SEE THE SEALS
OR SEA LIONS DECLINING
IT'S TELLING YOU
SOMETHING IS NOT RIGHT.
THE DECLINES IN THE GULF OF
ALASKA, ALEUTIAN ISLANDS,
RUSSIAN WATERS, THEY ALL
BEGAN IN THE LATE 1970S.
IT COINCIDES WITH THE
BUILDUP OF FISHING.
SO I THOUGHT,
AS MOST PEOPLE THOUGHT,
WELL, THAT'S PRETTY OBVIOUS, ISN'T IT?
EXCEPT THAT WE COULD FIND
ANY CONNECTION BETWEEN
WHERE THE FISHERIES OPERATED,
THE AMOUNTS OF FISH CAUGHT,
THE RATES OF DECLINE,
NOTHING ADDED UP.

In a clip, Andrew sits in an office and works on a computer, then reads from a large and thick book. A sea lion skull sits on his desk.

He continues THAT THEN LED US INTO LOOKING
AT ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS.
WE THEN ENDED UP WITH
A SECOND HYPOTHESIS.
THE FIRST WAS THAT FISHING
HAD DEPLETED THE PREY
AND SO THERE IS LESS QUANTITY.
THE OTHER WAS THAT IN FACT
THE QUANTITY HAD INCREASED,
BUT WHAT WAS DIFFERENT IS THAT
THE QUALITY HAD CHANGED.
THE DIET OF THE SEA LIONS IN
THE PAST WAS NOT COD OR POLLOCK.
THEY WERE EATING IN THE PAST
THE OILIER, FATTIER FISHES.
IT WAS THOUGHT, MAYBE THERE'S
SOMETHING NUTRITIONALLY
WRONG WITH THIS FISH.
IT BECAME KNOWN AS THE
JUNK-FOOD HYPOTHESIS,
WHICH WAS THEY'RE EATING
TOO MUCH OF LOW QUALITY FOOD.
IN HINDSIGHT IT PROBABLY
SHOULD HAVE BEEN CALLED
THE NUTRI-LIGHT HYPOTHESIS
OR THE LOW-CAL HYPOTHESIS,
BECAUSE WHAT SEEMS TO HAVE
HAPPENED IS, THERE SEEMS TO BE
A LOT OF PREY FOR THEM TO EAT,
BUT IT'S LOW ENERGY.
SO, IT'S EFFECTIVELY LIKE
PEOPLE TRYING TO LIVE
IN A FIELD OF CELERY.
THERE IS A HUGE BIOMASS THERE.
THERE'S ALL KINDS TO EAT,
BUT YOU KEEP EATING AND YOU'LL
BE FULL AND STILL HUNGRY
BEFORE YOU'VE EVER GOTTEN
ENOUGH TO MEET YOUR NEEDS.
SO, THAT WAS ONE OF THE
HYPOTHESIS THAT WE TESTED
WITH OUR CAPTIVE SEALS
AND SEA LIONS.
WE FED THEM FISH THAT THEY
USED TO EAT IN THE PAST
AND WE REALIZED THAT THEY
WERE VERY HAPPY AND CONTENT,
BUT WHEN WE PUT THEM
ONTO A DIET OF POLLOCK
WHAT THEY'RE CURRENTLY EATING,
WE DISCOVERED A REALLY
SURPRISING THING, WHICH WAS
THAT THE YOUNG ANIMALS
WERE GETTING FULL BEFORE
THEY'D EATEN ENOUGH.
IT WAS ONE OF THOSE MOMENTS
WHERE YOU GO, OF COURSE,
AN ANIMAL CAN GET FULL,
BUT ALL OF US HAVE BEEN THINKING
MARINE MAMMALS
ARE JUST GLUTTONS.
THEY NEVER GET SATIATED.
THEY JUST EAT AND EAT AND EAT.
NO, THEY'RE LIKE PEOPLE,
THEY CAN GET FULL.
AND IF YOU'RE A YOUNG ANIMAL
AND YOU FILL YOUR STOMACH
WITH LOW ENERGY FISH,
YOU'RE NOT GOING TO MAKE IT.

The Narrator says AT ONE TIME
SEALS AND SEA LIONS
WERE AGGRESSIVELY HUNTED
FOR THEIR LUSH PELTS.
MANY PINNIPEDS WERE CONSIDERED
THREATS TO COMMERCIAL FISHING
AND WERE SLAUGHTERED, SIMPLY
TO REDUCE THEIR POPULATIONS,
BUT NOW THE ANIMALS ARE
PROTECTED AND THEIR NUMBERS
ARE ON THE RISE, EXCEPT
IN THE FAR NORTHERN PACIFIC.

At the Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory, Andrew observes a sea lion skeleton on display.

He says WITH PINNIPEDS WE'VE
NOW SCRATCHED BELOW THE SURFACE
AND WE'RE GOING DEEPER
AND DEEPER WITH IT.
THEY REALLY HAVE BEEN
OUR EYES AND EARS
INTO AN ENTIRE ECOSYSTEM.
THEY'RE SHOWING US THINGS
THAT WE NEVER KNEW ABOUT.
THEY'RE MAKING US REALIZE
HOW COMPLEX IT IS
AND ALSO HOW CAREFUL
WE NEED TO BE
ABOUT NOT TIPPING
THAT BALANCE FURTHER.

Music plays as the end credits roll.

Narration, Robert Henderson.

Produced by Erin Skillen and Hilary Pryor.

Copyright 2013, May Street Productions.

Produced in association with Discovery World.

Watch: Ep. 5 - Lions of the Deep