Transcript: Eco-Systems for Students Part 2 | Mar 26, 1999

(music plays)

The opening slate pops up with a countdown timer from 7 seconds and the title “TVO’s Virtual Classroom. Get connected.”
The “V” in “Virtual” is a tick, the “A” in “classroom” is an at sign with an extended loop that turns into a power cord with a plug at the end, and the first “O” in “classroom” is a spinning globe.

A blue slate appears. It reads “To log on; Pick up handset, press pound; key in I.D number, then press number sign; press 1 to confirm; hang up.”

When the countdown finishes, David appears on screen. He’s in his thirties; he has brown hair and is clean-shaven. He wears a light jean shirt over a white t-shirt.

He smiles and says HELLO.
AND WELCOME TO THE
VIRTUAL CLASSROOM.
MY NAME IS DAVID WARD.
I AM A PROFESSOR OF URBAN
ECOLOGY AT SIR SANDFORD FLEMING
COLLEGES SCHOOL OF NATURAL
RESOURCES IN LINDSAY, ONTARIO.
IN MY POSITION AS PROFESSOR OF
URBAN ECOLOGY, I TEACH ACROSS
FOUR PROGRAMS.
I TEACH A COMMON SEMESTER
WHERE STUDENTS LEARN ABOUT THE
FUNDAMENTALS OF NATURAL
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT.
I TEACH IN A PROGRAM
ENTITLED ENVIRONMENTAL PEST
MANAGEMENT, WHERE STUDENTS
LEARN HOW TO MANAGE INSECTS,
DISEASE, AND SMALL MAMMALS IN
AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT SO THEY
DON'T BECOME A PROBLEM.
I TEACH IN AN ARBORICULTURE
PROGRAM WHICH IS THE CARE OF
ORNAMENTAL TREES.
AND I TEACH IN A PROGRAM KNOWN
AS ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT.
BEFORE I SAY ANY MORE ABOUT
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT, I'D LIKE
TO INTRODUCE MY GUEST, MY
ASSOCIATE, AND A GOOD FRIEND
OF MINE, BARB ELLIOTT.

Barb is in her thirties; she has short blond wavy hair, she wears glasses and a green blouse.

He continues BARB, I KNOW FOR A FACT
THAT YOU TEACH AN
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT.
PERHAPS YOU COULD TELL
STUDENTS A LITTLE BIT ABOUT
YOURSELF, YOUR AREA OF
EXPERTISE, AND WHAT ECOSYSTEM
MANAGEMENT IS.

She nods and says CERTAINLY, DAVID.
THANK YOU.
AND WELCOME.
YES, MY AREA OF EXPERTISE
IS ACTUALLY AS AN
AQUATIC ECOLOGIST.
I STUDIED FISHERIES BIOLOGY
WHEN I WAS AT UNIVERSITY.
AND I TEACH NOW IN THE
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
AT THE SCHOOL OF
NATURAL RESOURCES.
AND THE REAL FOCUS OF THAT
PROGRAM IS BASICALLY HELPING
HUMANS TO LIVE BETTER
AND MORE SUSTAINABLY
WITHIN ECOSYSTEMS.
SO LEARNING HOW TO MAKE USE
OF ECOSYSTEMS IN TERMS OF
HARVESTING THE FOREST, AND
THOSE SORTS OF ACTIVITIES
IN A WAY THAT SUSTAINS THE
FOREST AND THE ECOSYSTEM
FOR THE LONG RUN.
SO I TEACH IN AREAS OF AQUATIC
ECOSYSTEMS, TALKING ABOUT
LAKES, RIVERS, WETLANDS,
MARINE ECOSYSTEMS, FOREST
ECOSYSTEMS, AS WELL.
SO I COVER THE WHOLE RANGE
OF ECOSYSTEMS THAT WE FIND
ON THE GLOBE.
AND I ALSO TEACH A COURSE
WHERE STUDENTS LEARN HOW TO
MEASURE AND MONITOR CONDITIONS
IN ECOSYSTEMS, SO THAT WE CAN
LEARN WHETHER OR NOT THE
ECOSYSTEM IS STILL HEALTHY,
AND HOW IT'S FUNCTIONING.
SO LOTS OF DIFFERENT AREAS.

He says BARB, WELL, CERTAINLY, YOU
AND I ARE GOING TO BE HERE
FOR THE NEXT HOUR.
AND ALONG THE WAY, WE ARE
GOING TO INVITE ENTOMOLOGIST
DOCTOR JIM MADDER.
THERE IS ANOTHER GROUP THAT
IS GOING TO BE HERE FOR THE
ENTIRE GROUP, AS WELL.
AND THAT, TO ME, IS A RATHER
SIGNIFICANT GROUP AND A GROUP
WE CAN'T DO THIS WITHOUT.
THAT IS OUR GROUP OF STUDENTS.
OUR GROUP OF VIRTUAL
CLASSROOM STUDENTS.
OUR STUDENT AUDIENCE, I GUESS,
I CAN REFER TO THEM AS.
AND THEY ARE OUT THERE
RIGHT NOW, AS WELL.
AND THEY'VE BEEN SET UP IN
SUCH A WAY THAT THEY CAN
INTERACT BOTH WITH US AND
OUR GUESTS A LITTLE BIT LATER.
NOW, IN ORDER TO DO THAT, IN
ORDER TO INTERACT WITH US,
WE'VE PUT UP A LITTLE
BIT OF A POWERPOINT HERE.
IF WE CAN HAVE THE POWERPOINT.
IT SHOWS JUST HOW STUDENTS
CAN CONNECT WITH US.
IF YOU HAVE A QUESTION FOR
MYSELF, IF YOU HAVE A QUESTION
FOR BARB, IF YOU HAVE A
QUESTION FOR DOCTOR MADDER A
LITTLE BIT LATER,
THIS IS HOW YOU DO IT.

A black slate appears; it shows a telephone and reads “to call; pick up your handset; press number sign then 9; put handset down; wait for instructor. To cancel call, press number sign then 0.”

He continues BUT I REPEAT, ONCE AGAIN, IF
YOU WANT TO TALK TO BARB
OR MYSELF;
WE'LL CERTAINLY
BE IN TOUCH.
BARB, TODAY'S LECTURE
IS ENTITLED ECOSYSTEMS;
RESTORATION AS A
MEANS OF RECOVERY.
COUPLE OF KEY WORDS IN THERE
THAT CATCH MY ATTENTION.
ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION IS
BASICALLY AT THE ROOT OF
TODAY'S LECTURE.
PERHAPS YOU COULD DEFINE WHAT
ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION MEANS?

She explains WELL, IN A SCIENTIFIC WAY, WE
DEFINE IT AS SUCH, AND THAT'S
THE PROCESS OF ASSISTING
THE RECOVERY OF
ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY.
NOW, THERE'S A WHOLE
BUNCH MORE BIG WORDS.
BUT REALLY WHAT THAT MEANS IS
WE'RE TRYING TO ENSURE THAT
ECOSYSTEMS CAN
CONTINUE TO FUNCTION.
SO FOR EXAMPLE, ECOSYSTEMS CAN
CONTINUE TO PHOTOSYNTHESIZE
AND USE CARBON DIOXIDE TO MAKE
OXYGEN, THEY CAN CONTINUE TO
CYCLE NUTRIENTS, AND
DECOMPOSES IN THE SYSTEM CAN
STILL FUNCTION, AND ALSO, THAT
THE ECOSYSTEM WILL STAY WITH
ALL ITS PARTS, BASICALLY.
THAT'S IT'S A WHOLE ECOSYSTEM.
SO WE'RE NOT MISSING SPECIES.
WE'RE NOT MISSING PLANTS,
WE'RE NOT MISSING ANIMALS,
AND THE INTERACTIONS IN TERMS
OF THE LIVING THINGS AND THE
NON-LIVING THINGS
WILL CONTINUE.
SO RESTORATION IS TRYING TO
BRING THAT BACK, IN SOME CASES,
AND HELP MAKE SURE THAT
THAT SUSTAINS ITSELF OVER
THE LONG TERM.
BECAUSE, OF COURSE, WE DEPEND
ON THOSE SYSTEMS, TOO.
THAT'S WHAT IT MEANS IN THE
SORT OF SCIENTIFIC TERMINOLOGY.

He says VERY GOOD.
ASSISTING THE RECOVERY
OF ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY.
I HEARD YOU SAY THAT.
THAT'S VERY GOOD, BARB.
BARB, THAT DEFINITION
WILL CERTAINLY HELP US
ALONG OUR WAY.
ANOTHER THING THAT WILL HELP
US ALONG OUR WAY, I THINK, IS
A BIT OF A ROAD MAP THAT
YOU PULLED TOGETHER.

She nods and picks up a sheet of paper. She says ABSOLUTELY.

He continues I KNOW YOU HAVE A ROAD MAP,
AND I WAS HOPING YOU COULD
SHARE IT WITH OUR
STUDENT AUDIENCE.

A blue paper with the sketch of the wetlands water cycle appears.
It reads “Wetlands” as a title and shows the water in the wetlands; joined by arrows to a city, then back into the wetlands in the form of rain.

She says ABSOLUTELY.
WHAT WE'RE GOING TO START WITH
IS, FIRST OF ALL, WE'RE GOING
TO GET SOME INTERACTION FROM
THE AUDIENCE OUT THERE IN
TERMS OF A TERM WE'RE GOING
TO USE A LOT THIS AFTERNOON.
AND THAT'S THE TERM WETLANDS.
BEFORE WE CAN REALLY TALK
ABOUT RESTORATION OR BRINGING
BACK THINGS, OR MAKING SURE
SYSTEMS ARE FUNCTIONING,
WE NEED TO LEARN ABOUT
SOME OF THOSE SYSTEMS.
SO WE'RE GOING TO FOCUS
IN ON AQUATIC SYSTEMS THIS
AFTERNOON, FORTUNATELY,
AND START WITH WETLANDS.
AND WE'LL GET SOME INTERACTION
FROM THE LEARNERS OUT THERE
ABOUT WHAT THE TERM WETLANDS
ACTUALLY MEANS TO THEM.

He says VERY GOOD.

She points to the sketch of plants representing the wetlands and continues AND AFTER THAT, WE'RE GOING
TO GO VISIT A WETLAND AND LOOK
AT SOME FOOTAGE THAT WE TOOK
ACTUALLY LAST SUMMER WHEN IT
WAS A LOT WARMER, AND TALK A
LITTLE BIT ABOUT WETLANDS
AND WHAT'S GOING ON IN A
WETLAND IN TERMS OF WHAT'S
HAPPENING THERE.
SOME OF THE IMPACTS THAT WE
MIGHT HAVE ON A WETLAND.
AND FROM THERE, WE'RE THEN
ACTUALLY GOING TO GO TO YOUR
BACKYARD, I BELIEVE, IN
FENELON FALLS, AND LOOK AT
PART OF AN AQUATIC SYSTEM
THERE, AND FIND OUT SOME OF
THE IMPACTS AND EFFECTS
THAT HUMANS HAVE ON AQUATIC
ECOSYSTEMS AND FIND OUT WHAT
SOME OF THESE THINGS ARE.
SO YOUR HOUSE IS SORT OF IN A
RURAL ENVIRONMENT, A LITTLE BIT.
SO FROM THERE, WE'RE THEN GOING
TO MOVE INTO A MORE URBAN
ENVIRONMENT, AND GO THE NEXT
STEP AND FIND OUT WHAT HAPPENS
IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT TO
WATER, AND THE PATH OF WATER
AS IT TRAVELS THROUGH THERE,
AND FIND OUT WHAT SOME OF THE
IMPACTS ARE.
AND THAT'S WHEN DOCTOR MADDER'S
GOING TO JOIN US AND TAKE US
THROUGH THE WATER TRAVELLING
THROUGH THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.
AND THEN FROM THERE WE'RE
GOING TO GO BACK AND TALK A
LITTLE BIT ABOUT WHAT
CAN WE DO ABOUT THAT?
HOW CAN WE HELP MAKE SURE
THOSE AQUATIC SYSTEMS AND
WETLANDS ARE FUNCTIONING WELL.
SO THAT'S WHERE WE'RE
GOING TO GO THIS AFTERNOON.

He says VERY GOOD.
BARB, TWO THINGS ARE
HAPPENING RIGHT NOW.
ONE IS, WE'RE ACTUALLY, WE'VE
GOT SOMEONE WHO IS TRYING TO
CALL IN ALREADY.

She says GREAT.

He continues SO MAYBE SOMEONE HAS A QUESTION
FOR THE AQUATIC ECOLOGIST.
BUT BEFORE WE TAKE THAT CALL,
SOMETHING I WANT TO SHARE
WITH OUR STUDENTS SUCH THAT
THEY CAN BE THINKING ABOUT IT
OVER THE NEXT TWO MINUTES,
AND THAT IS WE ARE GOING
TO DEFINE WETLANDS.
WHEN I SAY WE, I DON'T MEAN
BARB AND I, I MEAN ALL OF US.
WE'RE GOING TO EXPECT YOU TO
CALL IN, IN A COUPLE OF MINUTES
AND SHARE WITH US HOW YOU
WOULD DEFINE WETLANDS.
HOW SIGNIFICANT YOU THINK
WETLANDS ARE, AND WE'RE GOING
TO TRY TO COME UP WITH SOME
KIND OF A DEFINITION THAT
WE ARE ALL COMFORTABLE WITH.
BUT IN THE MEANTIME, WE'VE
GOT JEFFREY AT SIR SANDFORD
ON THE LINE.
HELLO, JEFFREY.
HELLO, JEFFREY.

He looks at Barb, smiles and says OKAY, SOME KIND OF A TECHNICAL
CHALLENGE GOING ON THERE WITH
THE VIRTUAL CHALLENGE.
THAT'S ONE OF THE FUN THINGS
ABOUT THE VIRTUAL CLASSROOM,
AND CERTAINLY NOT SOMETHING
WE CAN'T ALL WORK THROUGH.
SO BACK TO THE DRAWING
BOARD, LITERALLY.
I'D LIKE SOME CALLERS TO CALL
IN, PERHAPS FROM LEE'S CLASS
IN PETERBOROUGH, OR PERHAPS
FROM OUR OTHER CLASS AT
FATHER McGIVNEY, IN MARKHAM,
I UNDERSTAND, THERE'S A CLASS
THERE, AS WELL.
BUT WE NEED SOMEONE TO
DO WHAT THEY CAN TO GET
ON TELEVISION TODAY.
WE'RE GOING TO DO WHAT
WE CAN TO GET YOU ON.
AND TO CALL IN AND HELP
US WITH OUR DEFINITION
OF WETLANDS.
BARB, WHILE WE WAIT FOR A
CALL, WE TAKE A LOOK AT IT,
AND I SEE IT'S BROKEN DOWN
INTO TWO WORDS THERE, I SEE,
DO I NOT?

A slate appears. It reads “Wetlands.”

She marks “Wet” and “lands” with a blue marker and says YOU DO.
THAT'S A GOOD STARTING POINT
FOR PEOPLE TO THINK ABOUT.
WETLANDS IS BASICALLY
TWO WORDS, WET, LANDS.
SO THAT'S A BIT OF A CLUE AS
TO WHAT THESE THINGS MIGHT BE.

David says HOLD THAT THOUGHT, BARB,
BECAUSE WE'VE GOT JOSHUA ON
THE LINE FROM PETERBOROUGH.
HELLO, JOSHUA.

Joshua says HEY.

David asks HOW ARE YOU?

He answers GOOD.
HOW ARE YOU?

David says GOOD.
GOT A BIT OF SNOW
IN PETERBOROUGH?

Joshua says WHAT'S THAT?

David asks GOT A BIT OF SNOW
IN PETERBOROUGH?

He says OH YEAH, WE GOT A LOT.

David says YEAH, I BET YOU DO.
JOSHUA, DID YOU HAVE SOMETHING
TO CONTRIBUTE IN REGARDS TO
OUR DEFINITION OF WETLANDS?

Joshua says YEAH, HOW DID YOU GET
INTERESTED IN WETLANDS?

David chuckles and says JOSHUA HAS A QUESTION, BARB.
I THINK MAYBE YOU SHOULD TALK
TO THE WOMAN WHO LIKES TO GO
OUT THERE WITH THE MOSQUITOES
IN THE WETLAND, JOSHUA.
GO AHEAD, BARB.

She says WELL, JOSHUA, HOW I GOT
INTERESTED IN WETLANDS IS THAT
I'VE BASICALLY LOVED NATURE
FROM WHEN I WAS VERY SMALL.
AND PARTICULARLY, I STARTED
FISHING WHEN I WAS ABOUT
FIVE YEARS OLD.
I LOVE THE AQUATIC
ENVIRONMENT.
I LOVE FISH.
I THINK THEY ARE FASCINATING,
PARTICULARLY BECAUSE THEY ARE
HARD TO SEE.
WE HAVE TO KIND OF GET
THEM OUT OF THE WATER
TO LOOK AT THEM.
SO THAT WHOLE SYSTEM, BECAUSE
I'M REALLY FASCINATED BY FISH
AND WHERE THEY LIVE, I'M REALLY
INTERESTED IN THOSE PLACES.
AND WETLANDS ARE CERTAINLY
PART OF THAT ENVIRONMENT.
SO I'VE JUST GROWN
UP WITH THAT.
AND I STUDIED FISHERIES
AT GUELPH, SO I'M REALLY
INTERESTED IN IT.

David says THAT'S VERY GOOD.
JOSHUA, BEFORE WE LOSE
YOU, JOSHUA'S GONE?
THAT'S TOO BAD.
BUT WE DO HAVE SOMEONE ELSE?
OKAY, JEFFREY.
AND NEXT TIME SOMEBODY CALLS
WITH A QUESTION, BARB,
WE'RE NOT GOING TO LET THEM GO
WITHOUT US GETTING A QUESTION
OF OUR OWN OUT OF THERE.

She chuckles and answers NO.

David says SO JEFFREY, ARE
YOU OUT THERE?

Jeffrey says YUP, RIGHT HERE.

David asks WHERE YOU CALLING FROM?

He says I'M CALLING FROM
FATHER McGIVNEY.

He says WHAT IS WHAT, IN MARKHAM?

Jeffrey answers YES, IT IS.

David says VERY GOOD.
JEFFREY, DID YOU HAVE
SOMETHING TO CONTRIBUTE TO
OUR DEFINITION OF WETLANDS?
OR DID YOU HAVE A QUESTION?

Jeffrey says MY DEFINITION OF WETLANDS
IS LANDS THAT ARE WET.

A laughter in Jeffrey’s background is heard.

David writes down “Lands that are wet” on the slate and puts in ABSOLUTELY.
I CAN HEAR A FEW PEOPLE
LAUGHING AT YOU IN THE
BACKGROUND, THERE, JEFFREY,
AND I CAN SEE WHY THEY
FIND THAT COMICAL BUT,
ACTUALLY, YOU HIT THE NAIL
RIGHT ON THE HEAD.
HOW WET, JEFFREY?

He says VERY WET.

David says YEAH.
BUT I MEAN ARE YOU TALKING
ABOUT SIX, EIGHT, TEN,
TWELVE FEET DEEP OF WATER?
OR ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT MAYBE
A FOOT DEEP OF WATER, A METRE
DEEP OF WATER?
ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT WATER
BELOW THE SOIL SURFACE?

He says I'M TALKING ABOUT THE WATER
THAT'S BELOW THE SOIL SURFACE.

David says CERTAINLY A CONSIDERABLE
AMOUNT OF IT IS, ABSOLUTELY.
BARB, DID YOU WANT TO
ELABORATE HOW MUCH DEPTH THERE
REALLY IS TO WETLAND WATER?

Barb says WELL, IT CAN BE UP TO A
COUPLE OF METRES IN SOME CASES.
BASICALLY, A STARTING POINT,
AND THAT'S A REALLY GOOD
STARTING POINT, IS
LANDS THAT ARE WET.
AND THESE LANDS CAN BE WET,
EITHER ALL THE TIME,
OR SEASONALLY.
ONE OF THE THINGS ABOUT
WETLANDS THAT HELPS DEFINE
THEM IS THEY ARE PLACES WHERE
THE WATER HAS SLOWED DOWN.
SO WE'RE NOT TALKING ABOUT
RIVERS, LARGE BODIES OF WATER
LIKE LAKES.
WE'RE TALKING ABOUT PLACES
WHERE WATER HAS SLOWED DOWN.
SAY, A BEND IN THE RIVER,
THE WATER SLOWS DOWN.
AND AS A RESULT OF THAT WATER
SLOWING DOWN, AND PARTLY AS A
RESULT OF IT BEING SHALLOW
AS WELL, THERE ISN'T AS MUCH
OXYGEN IN THE WATER
IN MOST CASES.
SO THAT HELPS DETERMINE THE
KINDS OF PLANTS THAT GROW THERE.
SO CERTAINLY, LANDS THAT ARE
WET IS A GOOD STARTING POINT.
AND SHALLOW WATER, GENERALLY.

David says VERY GOOD.
IS JEFFREY STILL THERE?

Jeffrey says YEAH, RIGHT HERE.

He asks DID YOU HAVE ANYTHING ELSE
YOU WANTED TO CONTRIBUTE TO
YOUR DEFINITION OF
WETLANDS, JEFFREY?

Jeffrey says IS IT TWO FEET?

Barb chuckles and answers IT CAN BE TWO FEET.
IT CAN BE SIX FEET.

David says CAN BE TWO INCHES.

She says YES.

David continues THERE HAS TO BE SOME WATER,
BUT IT DOESN'T HAVE TO BE
WATER YEAR ROUND.

She nods and says THAT'S RIGHT.
AND SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT
WETLANDS ARE PLACES WHERE THE
WATER LEVEL CHANGES
SEASONALLY.

David says RIGHT.
THAT'S PROVIDING FOOD AND
HABITAT FOR ALL KINDS OF
DIFFERENT ORGANISMS.

David nods and says OKAY, JEFFREY?

Jeffrey says OKAY, THANKS A LOT.

David looks at Barb and says THANKS FOR THE CALL.
THERE YOU GO.
THERE'S A CERTAIN AMOUNT
OF FUN, BARB, CALLING IN TO
THE VIRTUAL CLASSROOM,
YOU CAN GO HOME AND SAY
YOU WERE ON TV TODAY.
SO JEFFREY CERTAINLY
DID A GOOD JOB THERE.
YEAH.

Barb says SOME EXAMPLES OF JUST TYPES
OF WETLANDS TO HELP PEOPLE
THINK ABOUT THAT ARE SWAMPS
ARE A TYPE OF WETLAND WHERE WE
HAVE STANDING TREES,
MARSHES, BOGS, AND FENS.
THERE ARE THOSE
EXAMPLES OF WETLANDS.
SO THAT MIGHT HELP GET THE
STUDENTS THINKING A BIT MORE
ABOUT SOME OF THE
CHARACTERISTICS.

David says ACTUALLY, WE'VE GOT
ANOTHER CALL, BARB,
FROM FATHER McGIVNEY.

A male voice says HELLO.

David says HELLO AT FATHER McGIVNEY.
WHO ARE WE TALKING TO?

Alex says TALKING TO ALEX.

David asks ALEX?

He answers YEAH.

David says ALEX, DO YOU HAVE ANY
QUESTIONS, OR DO YOU HAVE
SOMETHING TO CONTRIBUTE TO
OUR DEFINITION OF WETLAND?

He says IT'S WET, AND IT'S SWAMPY.

David says SWAMPY.
SWAMP IS AN INTERESTING
WORD, HEY BARB?

Barb writes “swampy” on the slate.

David continues YOU SEE, ALEX, SOMETHING
HAPPENS HERE THAT'S KIND OF
FUNNY, AND I HOPE YOUR PEERS
WHO ARE LAUGHING BEHIND YOU
ARE AWARE OF THIS.
THERE ARE WORDS WE USE EVERY
DAY, BUT IT'S ONLY WHEN
WE ARE ASKED TO DEFINE
THEM THAT WE REALIZE
IT'S NOT QUITE
SO EASY SOMETIMES.
SO A WORD LIKE SWAMPY IS AN
INTERESTING ONE THAT WE OFTEN
DEFAULT TO BECAUSE
SWAMP IS AN OLD WORD.
IN FACT, BEFORE WE CALLED THEM
WETLANDS, WE CLEARLY CALLED
THEM SWAMPS.
BUT YET A SWAMP SUGGESTS MAYBE
IT'S NOT QUITE SO IMPORTANT,
AND A WETLAND SUGGESTS
IT'S OF EXTREME IMPORTANCE.
ALEX, DO YOU THINK A
WETLAND IS IMPORTANT?

He answers IT HELPS TO CONTAIN
THE WATER FROM RUN OFF.

Barb writes “Collect water from run-off.”

David says YES, ABSOLUTELY.
WETLANDS COLLECT WATER.
DIFFERENT PERIODS OF THE
SEASON, DIFFERENT PERIODS OF
THE YEAR, DIFFERENT AMOUNTS
OF WATER, DIFFERENT LEVELS.
VERY GOOD, ALEX.
WAS THERE ANYTHING ELSE
YOU WANTED TO CONTRIBUTE?

He adds PREVENTING FLOODING.

Barb writes “prevent flooding.”

David says WETLANDS PREVENT FLOODING.
YEAH, THEY HOLD WATER.
SO A PART OF RESTORATION, PART
OF RESTORING WETLANDS IS PART
OF FLOOD WATER MANAGEMENT.
MUNICIPALITIES HAVE A SINCERE
INTEREST, OR A SERIOUS
INTEREST, IN RESTORING
WETLANDS FOR THE PURPOSE OF
PROTECTING THE COMMUNITY
AGAINST FLOODS.
IN FACT, I WOULD SUGGEST
THERE ARE OPPORTUNITIES FOR
ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION
PROFESSIONALS TO WORK FOR
MUNICIPALITIES IN BUILDING
WETLANDS FOR THE PURPOSE OF
FLOOD PROTECTION.
PROTECTION AGAINST FLOODS.
DID YOU WANT TO ADD
SOMETHING TO THAT, BARB?

She says NO, THAT'S A
REALLY GOOD POINT.
AND WE SEE THAT HAPPENING,
ESPECIALLY IN SOUTHERN ONTARIO
WHERE WE HAVE LOST A LOT OF
OUR WETLAND AREAS BECAUSE
THEY'VE BEEN CONSIDERED TO BE

She wrinkles her nose and adds SWAMPY, MUCKY, GOOEY PLACES
THAT AREN'T REALLY
GOOD FOR ANYTHING.
SO THERE'S LOTS OF
ORGANIZATIONS OUT THERE
THAT ARE TRYING TO
WORK TO RESTORE THOSE.
BUT JUST ANOTHER POINT TO
ADD, JUST THE WHOLE IDEA OF
WETLANDS AND THE
DIFFERENT KINDS WE HAVE.
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A SWAMP
AND A BOG, FOR EXAMPLE, ONE
OF THE DIFFERENCES IS THAT
THE WATER IS MOVING A LOT
SLOWER IN A BOG.
IN FACT, WE HAVE STANDING
WATER IN SOME BOGS WHERE THE
WATER DOESN'T MOVE AT ALL.
AND BECAUSE OF THAT,
AS I WAS SAYING,
THE OXYGEN LEVEL IS DIFFERENT.
AND BECAUSE OF THAT, THE
PH LEVEL IS DIFFERENT.
SO WE TEND TO FIND BOGS BEING
VERY ACIDIC, AND A SWAMP OR A
MARSH, NOT BEING SO ACIDIC.
SO THAT DETERMINES THE KINDS
OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS THAT
LIVE THERE.
SO THERE'S SORT OF A GRADIENT
OF CHANGE BETWEEN THOSE
DIFFERENT AREAS.
BUT THEY ARE ALL WETLANDS
BECAUSE THEY CONTAIN WATER.

David says VERY GOOD.
ANDREW?

Andrew says HELLO.

David asks DO YOU HAVE A QUESTION
FOR BARB OR SOMETHING
YOU WANT TO CONTRIBUTE
TO OUR DEFINITION?

Andrew says ACTUALLY, I HAVE SOMETHING
I'D LIKE TO CONTRIBUTE.

David says GO RIGHT AHEAD.

He says SWAMPLANDS HAVE A LOT
OF VEGETATION IN THEM.

Barb writes “lots of vegetation” on the slate.

David says YEAH, THEY DO.
ISN'T THAT FUNNY?
WE REFER TO THEM AS WETLANDS,
AND YET, VEGETATION IS A
VERY, VERY BIG
PART OF A WETLAND.
SO MAYBE WHAT SHOULD WE
CALL THEM THERE, ANDREW?
SHOULD WE CALL THEM
VEGETATION LANDS?

Andrew suggests VEGETATION WETLANDS.

David says NO, YOU'RE RIGHT.
IT'S AN EXCELLENT POINT.

Andrew says VERY WELL.
THANK VERY MUCH.

David asks ANYTHING ELSE YOU
WANTED TO ADD, ANDREW?

He says OH, I LOVE THIS PROGRAM.
IT'S GREAT.

David says GREAT, GREAT.
THAT'S GOOD FEEDBACK.
WE'RE ENJOYING YOUR
CONTRIBUTION, AS WELL.
WHAT WE'RE GOING TO DO NOW,
ANDREW, YOU CAN SIT BACK, AND
YOU CAN SEE SOMETHING JUST A
LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT THAN WHAT
WE'VE BEEN DOING
UP TO THIS POINT.
LAST SUMMER, IN ANTICIPATION
OF TODAY'S LECTURE, WE WENT
OUT TO FENELON FALLS, AND
LINDSAY IN THE PETERBOROUGH
AREA, AND WE COLLECTED
SOME VIDEO CLIPS.
AND BARB, I THINK YOU'RE ON
RIGHT NOW, AND YOU'RE GOING TO
SHARE WITH US A FEW THOUGHTS
ON WETLANDS AND WET AREAS, AND
SOME OF THE SECRETS THEY HOLD,
AND SOME OF THE LESSONS THAT
CAN BE LEARNED.
SO GO AHEAD, BARB.

He presses a button.

Barb appears on screen. She stands in the midst of some tall grass. She’s in her thirties; has short blond wavy hair and wears a light blue checkered shirt and a matching jean vest.

She says HI, EVERYONE, MY NAME IS BARB
ELLIOTT, AND I'M AN AQUATIC
ECOLOGIST AT THE SCHOOL
OF NATURAL RESOURCES AT
SIR SANDFORD FLEMING
COLLEGE IN LINDSAY.

The image opens to show her standing in a wetland of brown water wearing rubber boots.

She continues WE ARE STANDING RIGHT NOW AT
THE DOLL PROPERTY, WHICH WAS
RECENTLY DONATED TO THE
COLLEGE, AND WE HAVE A LIVING
LABORATORY NOW THAT WE CAN
USE TO EXPLORE THIS WONDERFUL
WETLAND THAT'S HERE BEHIND ME.
AND A WHOLE LOT OF OTHER
NATURAL RESOURCES THAT
WE'RE REALLY INTERESTED
IN LEARNING ABOUT.
SO HERE I AM.
THIS IS A GREAT PLACE.
AND WHY AM I HERE, YOU ASK,
STANDING IN THIS WETLAND?
IT'S BECAUSE OUR PROGRAM
TODAY IS GOING TO
TALK ABOUT WETLANDS.
THEIR IMPORTANCE IN TERMS OF
ECOSYSTEMS, AND HOW WE NEED TO
LEARN FROM THEM SO THAT
WE CAN MAKE SURE THEY ARE
STILL HERE IN THE FUTURE.
THEY HAVE MANY
STORIES TO TELL US.
AND IF WE JUST LOOK
AROUND US, WE CAN HEAR
SOME OF THOSE STORIES.

The image opens to show her standing in a wetland of brown water wearing rubber boots.

She continues YOU NOTICE I'M STANDING IN
SOME WATER HERE, AND JUST WHEN
I CAME IN HERE THIS AFTERNOON,
I SAW SOME BUBBLES COMING UP.
AND I THOUGHT, WOW,
THAT'S REALLY COOL.
AND THOSE BUBBLES TELL ME
THERE'S A WHOLE LOT OF
DECOMPOSITION GOING ON
RIGHT BENEATH MY FEET.
WETLANDS CAN TELL US ALL SORTS
OF STORIES, IF WE TAKE THE
TIME TO LISTEN TO THEM.
AND BUBBLES ARE ONE WAY WE
CAN LISTEN TO THAT STORY.
UNDERNEATH MY FEET HERE
IS A WHOLE BUNCH OF MUCK.
AND MUCK IS REALLY
IMPORTANT TO A WETLAND.
AND IT CAN TELL US A
WHOLE LOT OF THINGS.
I'LL JUST GET SOME FOR YOU.

She leans over the water and puts her hands in to reach for the sediment below. She cups her hands and shows some mud.

She says OH, NICE.
HERE'S LOVELY MUCK
THAT I'VE GOT HERE.
AND THERE'S ALL SORTS OF DIRT
AND STONES IN THIS MUCK.
AND THERE'S LITTLE REMAINS
OF PLANTS THAT HAVE
GROWN HERE BEFORE.
LOOKING AT THIS MUCK, I CAN
LEARN ABOUT WHAT MAYBE GREW
HERE A LONG TIME AGO,
WHAT'S GROWING HERE NOW,
AND WHAT
COULD
GROW
HERE IN THE FUTURE.
AND THAT'S PART OF WHAT
RESTORATION IS ALL ABOUT.
SO MUCK CAN TELL US A STORY IF
WE TAKE THE TIME TO LOOK AT IT.
IT'S JUST LIKE A BOOK,
THE CHAPTERS OF A BOOK.
THE PAGES ARE A LITTLE HARDER
TO OPEN, BUT IT'S REALLY
COOL STUFF.
SO THAT'S PART OF THE
WETLAND THAT'S REALLY,
REALLY IMPORTANT.
I'M JUST GOING TO
PUT THIS BACK NOW.

She leans over again and drops the mud back in the water.

She continues YOU'RE HERE TODAY TO LEARN
ABOUT WETLANDS, AND TO FIND
OUT ABOUT HOW YOU CAN RESTORE
THEM FOR THE FUTURE, AND MAKE
SURE THAT THEY ARE
HERE FOR A LONG TIME.
THIS WETLAND HERE, THAT I'M
STANDING IN, IS A MARSH.
IT'S GOT ALL SORTS
OF CATTAILS IN IT.

An image of the cattails blowing in the breeze appears. They are tall and green and have a white tip at the end.

She says AND THESE CATTAILS ARE REALLY
IMPORTANT IN TERMS OF HELPING
FILTER THE WATER SO IT IS
CLEAN AND CLEAR FOR PEOPLE
LIKE YOU AND I TO DRINK
AND FOR ANIMALS TO USE.
IN WETLANDS LIKE THIS, WE CAN
SEE, SOMETIMES, INFLUENCES OF
HUMAN ACTIVITY.
AND THIS WETLAND HERE HAS HAD
SOME HUMAN ACTIVITY THAT HAS
GONE ON IN THE PAST, AND WE
CAN SEE SOME EVIDENCE OF THAT
HERE THIS AFTERNOON.
IN FACT, WE'RE GOING TO LOOK
AT SOME OTHER WETLANDS, AND
AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS TODAY, AND
WE'RE GOING TO FOLLOW THE
PATH OF WATER AS IT TRAVELS
THROUGH WETLANDS, IN THE
COUNTRYSIDE AND IN THE CITY,
AND FIND OUT HOW WE, AS
HUMANS, CAN CHANGE THE COURSE
OF WATER AS IT TRAVELS
THROUGH THOSE PLACES AND LEARN
ABOUT WHAT EFFECT THAT HAS
ON ECOSYSTEMS AND ALSO ON US.
AND WE'RE GOING TO DO
THAT A LITTLE LATER ON.
BUT RIGHT NOW, HERE IN THIS
WETLAND, I'M GOING TO SHOW YOU
A COUPLE OF THINGS THAT ARE
EVIDENCE OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES
RIGHT HERE ON THIS LANDSCAPE.
ONE, FOR EXAMPLE, IS THE
RAILWAY LINE THAT IS TRAVELLING
RIGHT THROUGH THIS WETLAND

She moves her hands to either side and continues
JUST IN FRONT OF ME HERE.
THIS IS AN OLD RAILWAY LINE.
IT HASN'T BEEN USED FOR ABOUT
30 YEARS, BUT IT'S STILL HERE.
THE FORMATION OF
IT IS STILL HERE.
SO WE MIGHT ASK OURSELVES, HOW
HAS THAT CHANGED THE WATER AS
IT'S MOVED THROUGH
THIS WETLAND?
WHAT EFFECT MIGHT THAT HAVE?
I NOTICED, ON THIS RAILWAY
BED, WHEN I WAS WALKING DOWN
HERE TODAY, THERE'S ACTUALLY
PLACES WHERE TURTLES HAVE USED
IT TO LAY SOME EGGS.
SO IT'S USEFUL FOR
WILDLIFE IN SOME WAYS.
HOW HAS IT AFFECTED THE COURSE
OF WATER, THOUGH, AS IT GOES
THROUGH THE LANDSCAPE?
SO THAT'S AN
IMPORTANT QUESTION.
ANOTHER THING I SEE WHEN I'M
OUT HERE IN THIS WETLAND

She turns behind and points to a line of dry tree trunks.

She says IS A
WHOLE BUNCH OF DEAD
TREES BEHIND ME.
AND LOOKING AT THEM TODAY, I
SAW LOTS OF TREES, DEAD TREES,
OR SNAGS AS WE CALL
THEM, WITH HOLES IN THEM.

A trunk with round holes dug into it appears on screen.

She continues SO I KNOW THERE'S BEEN
WOODPECKERS OUT HERE MAKING
HOLES, AND MAKING HOUSES,
AND USING THOSE TREES.
BUT MY QUESTION IS, HOW
DID THOSE TREES DIE?
WELL, THAT TELLS ME SOMEHOW
THE WATER LEVEL IN THIS PLACE
AS CHANGED OVER TIME.
MAYBE THAT WAS BECAUSE OF
HUMAN ACTIVITY, MAYBE THE
RAILROAD, MAYBE IT'S BEAVERS
THAT HAVE CHANGED THE WATER
LEVEL AND CREATED THESE DEAD
SNAGS THAT OTHER WILDLIFE
CAN USE.
SO THAT'S SOMETHING ELSE I
WANT TO FIND OUT ABOUT HOW
THAT CHANGE HAS HAPPENED.
AND ANOTHER CHANGE, WHICH I
CAN'T EVEN SEE FROM HERE, BUT
I KNOW IS HERE IN THIS REGION,
IN THE KAWARTHA REGION HERE
OF ONTARIO, IS THAT A LOT OF
THE LAKES AND RIVERS IN THIS
AREA, THE FLOW HAS BEEN
CHANGED TO MAKE WAY FOR THE
TRENT-SEVERN WATERWAY SO
PEOPLE CAN MOVE THEIR BOATS
BETWEEN SOME OF
THE GREAT LAKES.
SO IN THE COURSE OF DOING
THAT, WE'VE CHANGED THE WAY
WATER MOVES THROUGH THE
LANDSCAPE, AND CHANGED THE
LEVELS OF IT, AS IT FLOWS.
THAT'S SOMETHING I CAN'T EVEN
SEE FROM HERE, BUT I KNOW
FROM BEING IN THIS AREA,
THAT THAT'S ANOTHER EFFECT
THAT WE HAVE ON WATER.
I'M SURE YOU WANT TO FIND
OUT MORE ABOUT WETLANDS.
I DO, TOO, BECAUSE I
THINK THEY ARE SO COOL.
SO TO DO THAT, WE'RE GOING TO
NOW JOIN MY GOOD FRIEND AND
URBAN ECOLOGIST DAVID WARD
BACK IN THE STUDIO,
AND HE'S GOING TO TAKE YOU
ON THE REST OF OUR JOURNEY.

She turns and walks through the wetland.

Back in the studio, David asks BARB, WERE THERE
ANY MOSQUITOES?

She smiles and says IT WAS WINDY THAT DAY.
AND IT WAS WARM.

He says LUCKY FOR YOU.
IT ACTUALLY LOOKED
EXTREMELY INVITING.
AND WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT WHAT
THAT PARCEL OF LAND MUST LOOK
LIKE TODAY.
BARB, DESPITE THE FACT IT'S
COVERED IN SNOW AND ICE,
THERE'S STILL AMPLE
LIFE IN THERE?

She says ABSOLUTELY.
THERE'S ALL SORTS OF THINGS
GOING ON UNDER THE ICE.
INSECTS OVER WINTERING
AND THINGS.
THERE'S LOTS OF
STUFF HAPPENING.

He says I COULDN'T HELP
BUT THINK OF THAT.
BARB, I MADE A FEW NOTES
WHILE I WAS WATCHING YOUR
PRESENTATION, THERE.
AND I HAVE A COUPLE
OF QUESTIONS FOR YOU.
YOU AS AN AQUATIC ECOLOGIST,
IF YOU WERE GIVEN YOUR CHANCE
TO RESTORE ANYTHING YOU
WANTED, WHAT WOULD YOU CHOOSE
TO RESTORE?

She answers WELL, I WOULD CHOOSE TO
RESTORE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,
I CERTAINLY WOULD.
AND WETLANDS ARE A
BIG PART OF THAT.

David says I DON'T DOUBT
THAT FOR A SECOND.
BARB, WHY MIGHT YOU
CHOOSE TO RESTORE THEM?

She explains WELL, BECAUSE I KNOW HOW
VALUABLE THEY ARE IN TERMS OF
CONTRIBUTING TO WHAT WE CALL
BIODIVERSITY, WHICH IS THE
DIVERSITY OF LIFE
ON THE PLANET.
AND I KNOW, AND WE'LL FIND
OUT VERY SOON, HOW VALUABLE
THEY ARE IN TERMS OF THE
FUNCTIONS THAT THEY PERFORM.

David continues BARB, BEFORE WE CAN RESTORE
SOMETHING, WE HAVE TO
RECOGNIZE THAT, WELL,
WHAT DOES RESTORE MEAN?
WE'RE PUTTING BACK SOMETHING.
SO MY QUESTION IS WHAT
WAS ONCE THERE BEFORE?

She says WELL, WHAT WAS ONCE THERE
BEFORE, IN A LOT OF CASES
IN SOUTHERN ONTARIO, WERE
ECOSYSTEMS AND WATERSHEDS
WHERE WE HAD NATURAL RIVERS
FOLLOWING THE PATHWAY THEY
FOLLOW, AND WETLANDS AND BOGS
AND MARSHES AND SWAMPS, AND
PARTICULARLY ALONG THE GREAT
LAKES, WE'VE LOST A LOT OF
COASTAL WETLANDS THERE.
SO WHAT WAS ONCE THERE WAS AN
INTEGRATED SYSTEM, BASICALLY
BASED ON WHERE THE WATER
WANTED TO GO ON THE LANDSCAPE.
AND WHAT'S THERE NOW
IS A LOT OF CHANGE.
WE'VE CHANGED THE
PATH OF WATER.
WE'VE CHANNELIZED IT, WE'VE
PAVED OVER WETLANDS, SO WE'VE
REALLY ALTERED THE WAY WATER
MOVES ALONG A LANDSCAPE.
AND NOW, WE'RE FEELING
WHAT THOSE IMPACTS ARE.

He says BARB, IN ONE WORD, CAN WE
PUT BACK WHAT WAS ONCE THERE?

She answers SOMETIMES.

He laughs.

She continues SOMETIMES WE CAN.
SOMETIMES WE CAN'T.
SO THAT'S WHY WE HAVE TO KNOW
WHAT WAS ONCE THERE BEFORE
AND FIND OUT IF WE
CAN BRING THINGS BACK.
SOME THINGS WE CAN'T BRING
BACK EXACTLY AS THEY WERE,
BUT WE CAN CERTAINLY TRY.

David says BARB, YOU'RE ABOUT AS GOOD AS
THE ONE WORD ANSWERS AS I AM.
SO UNDERSTAND WE HAVE
JEFFREY ON THE LINE.
JEFFREY, ARE YOU OUT THERE?

Jeffrey says YES, I AM.

David says WHERE YOU CALLING
FROM, JEFFREY?

He answers I'M CALLING FROM
PETERBOROUGH, ONTARIO.

David says PETERBOROUGH.
DID YOU HAVE A QUESTION FOR
BARB OR MYSELF, JEFFREY?

He answers I'D JUST LIKE TO ADD TO
YOUR DEFINITION OF WETLANDS.

David encourages YEAH, GO RIGHT AHEAD.

He says WELL, ACCORDING TO MY
CALCULATIONS, DUE TO THE
AZONAL SOIL TYPES, THE
WETLANDS WOULD HAVE A
LOW ACIDITY CONTENT.

David says RIGHT.
CERTAINLY THEY DO.
WELL, OBVIOUSLY WHAT JEFFREY
HAS CONTRIBUTED THERE, BARB,
IS THAT WETLANDS SERVE
ALL KINDS OF PURPOSES.
AND THAT BUFFERING ACIDIC
PROPERTIES IS ONE OF THEM.
AND CERTAINLY, HIS POINT
BEING, IN OUR AREA, OR IN
THE PETERBOROUGH AREA,
THE SOILS ARE NOT
NECESSARILY ACIDIC SOILS.
SO WE'RE GOING TO FIND A
CERTAIN TYPE OF WETLAND THERE.
WE WILL FIND MORE
MARSHES AND SWAMPS PROBABLY
THAN WE WILL BOGS.
BECAUSE BOGS WE FIND
IN MORE ACIDIC REGIONS.
AND WE FIND THAT IN NORTHERN
ONTARIO, MORE THAN THE SOUTH.
SO CERTAINLY, YES, DEPENDING
ON THE SOIL TYPE, AND THE
WATER FLOW, AND ALL THOSE
OTHER FACTORS, WE'RE GOING TO
HAVE DIFFERENT KINDS OF
WETLANDS IN DIFFERENT AREAS.
HE'S ABSOLUTELY RIGHT.

David says BARB, IN AN EFFORT TO BUILD
ON WHAT JEFFREY JUST SAID,
LET'S TALK NOW ABOUT
YOUR MYSTERY BOX.

She says ABSOLUTELY, DAVE.

She turns to a box right next to her.

David says YOU'VE BROUGHT IN A
BOX OF THINGS THERE.

She smiles and says I HAVE.
I'VE BROUGHT IN A BOX.

David says AND PULL ONE OF THEM OUT
RIGHT NOW IF YOU DON'T MIND.
AND I'M GOING TO EXPLAIN A
LITTLE BIT OF WHAT WE ARE
GOING TO DO RIGHT NOW.

She answers SURE.

She pulls out a yellow sponge.

David says SO BARB PULLED OUT A SPONGE.
VERY NICE SPONGE, VERY
NICE,

He smells it and says CLEAN SPONGE.
WHAT WE'RE GOING TO DO IS
BARB AND I ARE GOING TO SPEND
A MINUTE TALKING ABOUT HOW
THIS SPONGE REPRESENTS
SOMETHING IMPORTANT
TO DO WITH A WETLAND.
SO LET'S GET THAT
PERFECTLY STRAIGHT.
BARB AND I ARE GOING TO TALK
FOR A COUPLE OF MINUTES
ABOUT HOW THIS SPONGE
REPRESENTS SOMETHING VALUABLE
ABOUT WETLANDS.
NOW, BARB'S BOX IS FULL OF ALL
KINDS OF DIFFERENT THINGS.

She answers ABSOLUTELY.

David says WANT TO PULL SOME
OF THEM OUT, BARB?

She answers SURE.

She takes some items out of the box and puts them on the desk.

David says PUT THEM ON TOP OF OUR
GRAPHICS DISPLAY HERE.
WHAT IS THAT, BARB?

She says THIS IS A JAR OF TUMS.
MINT FLAVOURED.

David adds THAT MIGHT TIE IN WITH
SOMETHING JEFFREY JUST SAID.
WHAT ELSE DID YOU
PULL OUT THERE?

She says SOME IVORY SOAP.

He repeats IVORY SOAP.

She continues RICE-A-RONI IN
CASE WE GET HUNGRY.

He says VERY GOOD.
FEEL LIKE THE
GALLOPING GOURMET.

She says DON'T KNOW WHAT WE'RE
GOING TO MAKE WITH THIS,
BUT WE'LL SEE.
WE'RE MAKING A WETLAND.
I HAVE A LITTLE PILLOW HERE,
A SMALL PILLOW, FROM MY
DAUGHTER'S DOLL HOUSE.

He says OH, VERY NICE.

She pulls some filters out and says AND WE HAVE SOME
COFFEE FILTERS HERE.

He says COFFEE FILTERS, OKAY.
AND EACH OF THESE REPRESENTS
SOMETHING SIGNIFICANT

She adds ABOUT A WETLAND.
SOME FUNCTION OR VALUE.

She pulls out a beater and he says AND AN EGG BEATER.

She says YEAH.

He says OKAY, PARK THAT FOR A SECOND
THERE, MY FRIEND, AND LET'S
TALK ABOUT, TO GIVE AN EXAMPLE
NOW TO OUR STUDENT LEARNERS,
LET'S TALK ABOUT WHAT THE
SPONGE REPRESENTS, AS IT
APPLIES TO SOMETHING
OF VALUE IN A WETLAND.

She answers OKAY, WELL I'LL ASK YOU,
DAVE, WHAT WOULD YOU USE
A SPONGE FOR?
TELL ME.

He says I HAVE A 150-POUND
NEWFOUNDLAND DOG AT HOME
WHO IS EXTREMELY SLOPPY
ABOUT THE WAY HE DRINKS
OUT OF THE WATER DISH.
ON A GOOD DAY WHEN HE DRINKS
OUT OF THE WATER DISH.
AND USUALLY I END UP USING A
SPONGE TO SOP UP HIS MESS,
HIS DRIPPINGS, ON
THE KITCHEN FLOOR.
SO I GUESS THE ANSWER TO YOUR
QUESTION, BARB, I USE IT
FOR ABSORPTION.

She says OKAY, GREAT.
THE SAME THING
HAPPENS IN A WETLAND.
WETLANDS ARE REALLY GOOD AT
HOLDING WATER,

She crunches up the sponge and says JUST LIKE
THIS SPONGE DOES.
BOGS, FOR EXAMPLE, THEY
CONTAIN A LOT OF SPHAGNUM MOSS.
AND SPHAGNUM MOSS IS A TYPE
OF PLANT THAT HAS A CELL
STRUCTURE THAT ALLOWS IT
TO HOLD AND RETAIN WATER.
AND THIS IS REALLY IMPORTANT
BECAUSE IN PERIODS WHERE
THERE'S LOTS OF WATER, WETLANDS
HOLD WATER, AND THEN IN THE
DRY SEASON, THEY ARE ABLE TO
LET THAT WATER OUT GRADUALLY.
SO WETLANDS, AS ONE OF OUR
CALLERS ALREADY MENTIONED,
THEY HELP TO CONTROL FLOODING.
THEY HELP TO REGULATE WATER
FLOW WITHIN A WATERSHED.
SO THAT'S WHAT THIS
SPONGE REPRESENTS.

David says BARB, SOMETHING THAT BRINGS
TO MY MIND IS PEAT MOSS PLAYED
A BIG ROLE IN THAT, CORRECT?

She says YES.

David says THE ROLE OF PEAT MOSS.
I UNDERSTAND PEAT MOSS CAN
ABSORB UP TO 20 TIMES ITS
WEIGHT IN WATER.

She says THAT'S RIGHT.

David says SO TO ME, FROM NOW ON, WHEN
I THINK OF A SPONGE, AND I
THINK OF HOW IT APPLIES TO
WETLANDS, I TOO WILL THINK OF
HOW IT HOLDS WATER.

Barb adds AND THAT'S WHY SOME PEOPLE
PUT IT ON OUR GARDENS,
FOR EXAMPLE.
WE ADD SPHAGNUM, WE ADD PEAT
TO OUR GARDEN TO HELP HOLD THE
WATER BECAUSE OUR
SOIL IS REALLY SANDY.

He says VERY GOOD.

She says SO THAT'S A GOOD PURPOSE.

David says BARB, YOU AND I COULD GO ON
AND TALK ABOUT THESE ALL DAY,
BUT IT'S MORE IMPORTANT TO ME
RIGHT NOW THAT WE GET SOME
INTERACTION FROM SOME
OF OUR STUDENT LEARNERS.

She says ABSOLUTELY.

David says SO INDEED, THINK ABOUT WHAT
THE RICE-A-RONI REPRESENTS.
THINK ABOUT WHAT THIS LITTLE
PILLOW THAT BARB BROUGHT
IN REPRESENTS.
THE SOAP, THE TUMS.
JEFFREY, I THINK, HE JUST
ABOUT, WITHOUT EVEN KNOWING
WHAT HE NECESSARILY WAS DOING,
HE JUST ABOUT HIT RIGHT ON
THE MONEY WITH WHAT
TUMS REPRESENT.
SO THERE'S NO REASON HE CAN'T
CALL BACK IF HE HAS SOMETHING
ELSE TO ADD IN A SIMILAR VEIN.
AND THE COFFEE
FILTERS, AS WELL.
OH, YEAH, THE EGG BEATER.
THE ALMIGHTY EGG BEATER.
BARB, UNTIL WE GET A CALL, WHY
DON'T YOU HELP ME UNDERSTAND
BETTER WHAT THE EGG
BEATER REPRESENTS?
I CAN'T FOR THE LIFE OF
ME FIGURE THAT ONE OUT.

She says IT'S A DIFFICULT ONE.
WHAT DO YOU USE
AN EGG BEATER FOR?
YOU COOK A LOT.
WHAT DO YOU USE
AN EGG BEATER FOR?

He laughs and says YEAH, I COOK A LOT.
I USE AN EGG BEATER FOR
BREAKING DOWN THE EGG
WHEN I PUT IT IN A FRYING PAN.

Barb says RIGHT.
BREAKING IT DOWN,
STIRRING IT UP, RIGHT?
OKAY, WELL WE HAD ONE CALLER
ALREADY MENTION THERE ARE A
LOT OF PLANTS IN WETLANDS,
A LOT OF VEGETATION.
AND WHAT THIS EGG BEATER IS
ILLUSTRATING IS PLANTS WITHIN
A WETLAND, FOR EXAMPLE, ARE
REALLY IMPORTANT AT CYCLING
NUTRIENTS, PHOSPHOROUS, AND
NITROGEN THROUGH THE SYSTEM,
AND THEY ARE ALSO REALLY
IMPORTANT AT PRODUCING OXYGEN
TO GIVE BACK
INTO THE SYSTEM.
SO EGG BEATERS ARE
ILLUSTRATING THE FACT
THAT WETLANDS CYCLE
THINGS THROUGH THEM.

He comments EXCELLENT.

Barb says AND THEY ARE VERY
EFFICIENT AT THAT.
SO THAT'S WHAT
THAT REPRESENTS.

David says BARB, WE'VE GOT
DANIEL, I BELIEVE.
DANIEL FROM PETERBOROUGH.
ARE YOU ON THE
LINE THERE, DANIEL?

Daniel says YEAH.
YOU CAN JUST CALL ME DAN.

David says DAN?
YOU GOT IT, DAN.
DAN, WHICH OF OUR WETLAND
REPRESENTATIVE COMPONENTS DID
YOU WANT TO COMMENT ON HERE?

Dan says I JUST WANTED TO SAY
I THINK THE RICE-A-RONI
REPRESENTS FOOD.

He answers FOOD.
ABSOLUTELY.
DAN, THAT'S FOOD FOR WHOM?
FOR US OR FOOD FOR HABITAT?

He says FOR HABITAT.

David says YEAH.
THE TRUTH OF THE MATTER IS
WE PUT THIS OUT WITH THE
INTENTION OF MEANING FOOD
FOR US, BUT DAN'S NOT WRONG
WHEN HE SUGGESTS THAT IT'S
FOOD FOR HABITAT AS WELL.
BARB, COULD YOU
ELABORATE A BIT?

She says SURE.
IT'S VERY IMPORTANT.
WE PUT THIS OUT JUST AS AN
ILLUSTRATION, AND I LIKE WHAT
DAN'S MENTIONED.
CERTAINLY, WETLANDS ARE REALLY
IMPORTANT AS PROVIDING HABITAT.
AND PART OF THAT HABITAT
IS FOOD FOR LOTS OF
DIFFERENT WILDLIFE.
AND THAT'S REALLY IMPORTANT.
AND ALSO, WE BENEFIT FROM
WETLANDS BY GETTING SOME
PRODUCTS SUCH AS WILD
RICE IN OUR COUNTRY.
AND THE WAY THEY HARVEST RICE
IN ASIA IS IN RICE PADDIES,
WHICH ARE BASICALLY WETLANDS.
SO THAT PROVIDES A LOT
OF FOOD FOR PEOPLE.
AND ALSO WE GET PRODUCTS
LIKE CRANBERRIES.
CRANBERRIES, THAT'S A BIG
PRODUCT FROM WETLANDS.

David says AND BLUEBERRIES.

She says YEAH, BLUEBERRIES, TOO, YEAH.
SO THEY'RE REALLY IMPORTANT
IN TERMS OF FOOD FOR
ALL
ANIMALS, HUMANS AND OTHERS.
SO THAT'S REALLY GOOD.

David says VERY GOOD.
WE'VE GOT A CALL NOW FROM
FATHER McGIVNEY SCHOOL
IN MARKHAM.
HELLO, IS THERE SOMEBODY
AT FATHER MCGIVNEY?

Lorraine says HI.

David says WHO ARE WE TALKING TO?

She answers LORRAINE.

David says LORRAINE?

She says I JUST WANT TO SAY FOR THE
SOAP, IT'S LIKE THE WETLANDS
CLEAN THE WATER AND STUFF.
AND FOR THE COFFEE
FILTER, IT FILTERS IT.
AND FOR THE TUMS, IT LOWERS
THE ACIDITY LEVEL OF THE WATER.
THAT'S WHAT I THINK.

David laughs and says OKAY, LORRAINE, YOU WERE
A LITTLE BIT GREEDY THERE.
THAT'S GREAT, THOUGH.
BARB, LET'S GO
BACK THROUGH THOSE.
LORRAINE HIT THESE SUCKERS
RIGHT ON THE MONEY.

Barb says SHE DID.

David says GO AHEAD.

Barb explains CERTAINLY, THE SOAP IS
ILLUSTRATING THE FACT WETLANDS
ARE VERY EFFICIENT AT
COLLECTING A LOT OF THINGS
FROM THE ENVIRONMENT THAT ARE
ACTUALLY HARMFUL TO US IN
TERMS OF HEAVY METALS
AND VARIOUS TOXINS.
AND WITHIN THE ROOTS OF
CATTAILS, FOR EXAMPLE, THEY'RE
REALLY EFFICIENT AT COLLECTING
THOSE METALS OUT OF
THE ENVIRONMENT.
AND AS SHE ALSO SAID, WITH THE
COFFEE FILTERS, YES, THEY ARE
GOOD AT FILTERING WATER,
FILTERING PARTICLES, AND
FILTERING VARIOUS
ELEMENTS OUT OF THE WATER.
THAT WAS REALLY GOOD.

David says VERY GOOD.

Barb says AND THE LAST ONE WAS THE
TUMS, I GUESS SHE ALSO
MENTIONED, YES.
AND THAT WHOLE IDEA THAT
WETLANDS CAN HELP TO SORT OF
ADJUST THE WATER, THE PH
LEVELS BY AGAIN FILTERING SOME
OF THESE THINGS OUT AND USING
SOME OF THOSE NUTRIENTS.

David says VERY GOOD.
BARB, WE STILL HAVEN'T GOT
AN ANSWER TO THE PILLOW.
AND I KNOW WE HAVE A
CALL ON THE LINE THERE.
WHERE'S THE CALL
COMING FROM, GUYS?

Mike says FROM McGIVNEY.

David says WHO ARE WE TALKING TO?

He answers MIKE.

David says MIKE, ARE YOU HERE WITH A
THOUGHT ON WHAT THE PILLOW
REPRESENTS, OR DO YOU HAVE
SOMETHING ELSE TO CONTRIBUTE?

Mike says I JUST WANT TO SAY
THAT THE PILLOW REPRESENTS
WHERE THE BIRDS CAN REST.

David nods and says YEAH, RIGHT ON.
IT'S A RESTING SPOT FOR
MIGRATORY BIRDS, YEAH.
I MEAN, NOT JUST BIRDS, BUT
CERTAINLY MIGRATORY BIRDS ARE
A BIG PART OF IT.

Barb says THAT'S REALLY IMPORTANT.
AND ONE OF THE BIG CONCERNS
WITH PRAIRIE WETLANDS, FOR
EXAMPLE, WETLANDS OUT IN
SASKATCHEWAN AND MANITOBA, IS
WE ARE LOSING A LOT OF THOSE,
WHAT ARE CALLED SLEWS OR
POTHOLES ON THE PRAIRIES
FOR AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES.
AND THOSE ARE REALLY CRITICAL
PLACES FOR BIRDS ON THEIR
LONG TRIPS BETWEEN THE
BREEDING GROUNDS AND THE
WINTERING GROUNDS.
BUT ANOTHER POINT, CERTAINLY,
IT'S NOT ONLY A RESTING STOP
FOR BIRDS, FOR EXAMPLE, BUT
ALSO WETLANDS ARE REALLY
IMPORTANT NURSERY AREAS FOR
LOTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FISH.
FOR EXAMPLE, MUSKIE AND PIKE
WILL LAY THEIR EGGS IN SHALLOW
WATER WHERE WE HAVE LOTS OF
VEGETATION, FOR EXAMPLE,
CATTAILS AND THINGS LIKE THAT.
AND THEY WILL LAY THEIR
EGGS IN THOSE AREAS.
SO WETLANDS, OR THOSE
SHORELINE AREAS WHERE THE
WATER IS MOVING SLOWLY ARE
REALLY IMPORTANT NURSERY AREAS
FOR A LOT OF FISH SPECIES.
SO THAT'S A REALLY GOOD POINT.
BOTH RESTING AND NURSERY.

David says VERY GOOD.
BARB, WE HAVE ANOTHER COMMENT
FROM FATHER McGIVNEY.
HELLO, WHO ARE WE TALKING TO?

Mike says HELLO, THIS IS MIKE.

David says MIKE?

Mike adds A DIFFERENT ONE.

David smiles and says MIKE, THANKS FOR
MAKING THAT CLEAR.
WHAT DID YOU WANT
TO SHARE WITH US?

He says I JUST WANTED TO ADD ABOUT
WHEN BARB WAS IN THAT
WETLANDS, AND SHE WAS TALKING
ABOUT THE DEAD TREES
AND THE LOGS, COULDN'T IT
BE POSSIBLE THAT WAS CAUSED
BY ACID PRECIPITATION?

Barb nods and says THAT'S A REALLY
GOOD QUESTION.
IN THIS CASE, PROBABLY NOT
BECAUSE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC
LOCATION OF THAT WETLAND.
BECAUSE WE'RE IN SOUTHERN
ONTARIO, WE HAVE VERY,
LIMESTONE ROCK HERE, SO
SEDIMENTARY ROCK, SO THERE IS
A LOT OF BUFFERING CAPACITY
WITHIN THE SOIL AND THE ROCK.
SO IN THAT PARTICULAR CASE, I
WOULD SAY PROBABLY NOT, BUT
CERTAINLY, YOU ARE RIGHT IN
SOME CASES, THAT COULD HELP
CONTRIBUTE TO THAT, TO
TREES DYING THAT WAY.
THE INITIAL CAUSE, THOUGH, IS
USUALLY THAT THE WATER LEVEL
HAS CHANGED, AND THE
TREES GET FLOODED.
THEIR ROOTS GET FLOODED OUT.
BUT CERTAINLY, THAT IS A
REALLY GOOD POINT IS THAT CAN
CERTAINLY CONTRIBUTE
TO THAT HAPPENING.

David says AND MIKE'S QUESTION
IS AN EXCELLENT ONE.
MIKE DIDN'T HAVE THE BENEFIT
OF STANDING THERE ON THAT SITE
AND SEEING HOW THE WATER
TABLE HAD CHANGED OVER RECENT
YEARS, THE WAY WE DID.
BUT HE'S RIGHT ON THE MONEY
EVEN TO JUST BE LOOKING AT
THINGS LIKE THAT, MUCH
LESS QUESTIONING THEM.
BARB, IN A NUTSHELL, ARE THOSE
SNAGS, THOSE TALL STANDING
DEAD TREES, SOMETIMES
IN THE EYES OF PEOPLE
THEY ARE BAD THING.
BUT I'M ASKING YOU,
IN THE EYES OF NATURE,
WHAT'S THEIR ROLE?

She answers THEY'RE INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT.
SNAGS PROVIDE WHAT WE CALL
MICROHABITATS, LITTLE SORT OF
MINI HABITATS WHERE THE
TEMPERATURE MAY BE A LITTLE
BIT WARMER, IT MAY BE A LITTLE
BIT DRIER, THERE'S MORE
SHELTER THERE.
THEY'RE REALLY IMPORTANT, BOTH
IN WETLAND AREA, AND ALSO IN
THE FOREST, AND EVEN NOW IN
OUR FORESTRY PRACTICES, WE TRY
TO INCLUDE SNAGS IN TERMS OF,
WE ACTUALLY HAVE A NUMBER OF
SNAGS PER HECTARE WE SHOULD
HAVE IN DIFFERENT FOREST
SYSTEMS TO ALLOW FOR CAVITY
NESTING BIRDS AND MAMMALS.
SO THEY'RE REALLY IMPORTANT.
AND WETLANDS THEY ARE REALLY
IMPORTANT FOR WOOD DUCKS,
FOR EXAMPLE, AS NESTING.

David says BARB, YOU'VE DONE A GOOD JOB
OF ILLUSTRATING WHY WETLANDS
ARE IMPORTANT, AND WHY WE'VE
DECIDED RESTORING THEM IS A
WORTHWHILE ENDEAVOR, I THINK
NOW IT'S IMPORTANT THAT WE
TAKE A LOOK AT WHAT IS
CURRENTLY IN THE SPOT WHERE
WETLANDS HAVE BEEN AND
PROBABLY SHOULD BE AGAIN.
AND IN ORDER TO DO THAT, I'M
GOING TO ASK FOR A LITTLE HELP
FROM A GOOD FRIEND, RUDYARD.
AND I THINK I'LL LET THE
VIDEO DO THE TALKING.

He pushes a button and he appears in a clip on a grassy bank next to a lake. He has short brown hair and wears khaki shorts and a shirt. He holds a large black and white hairy dog on a leash.

He says NOW LET'S JUST THINK ABOUT
THIS FOR A SECOND.
RUDYARD AND I, WE BOUGHT THIS
LITTLE HOME, COTTAGE, SIX
WEEKS AGO, HERE ON THE
SHORES OF STURGEON LAKE.

He points to a wooden cabin painted light yellow, with a dark roof.

He continues SOMETIMES WHAT I LIKE TO DO
IS THINK, WHAT WAS HERE A
HUNDRED YEARS AGO?
AND CERTAINLY, THERE WAS
PROBABLY A NICE ROCKY
SHORELINE, THERE MIGHT HAVE
BEEN A SANDY SHORELINE.
THERE WERE CEDARS, FOR
EXAMPLE, OR ALL KINDS OF
CONIFEROUS TREES, OR PERHAPS
THERE WAS A MAPLE BEECH WHITE
PINE CLIMAX FOREST.
BUT WHATEVER THERE WAS HERE A
HUNDRED YEARS AGO, OR EVEN AS
RECENTLY AS 60 YEARS AGO,
NO LONGER IS THE CASE.
LET'S TAKE A LOOK AROUND
NOW AND WE'LL SEE EXACTLY
WHAT WE HAVE.

A clip shows short thick grass.

He says WE'VE GOT KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS,
IMPORTED FROM AFRICA,
GROWING UP TO THE EDGE OF
A CHANNEL THAT'S MAN-MADE.
THIS CHANNEL WAS DUG.
WHAT WE HAVE HERE, IS WE
HAVE STURGEON LAKE ABOUT
100-150 FEET FROM HERE.
AND IN AN EFFORT TO GET
OUR BOAT TRAFFIC IN HERE,
WE'VE CUT OURSELVES A CHANNEL.

The walls of the channel are made of planks of wood.

He continues NOW, INSTEAD OF HAVING A
GENTLE, SLOPING EDGE SO THE
CREATURES IN THE WATER COULD
FIND THEIR WAY UP ONTO THE
SOIL, WE HAVE THIS SERIOUS
CHANGING GRADE, REPRESENTED
HERE IN FRONT OF MY PROPERTY
BY A RETAINING WALL BUILT OUT
OF CREOSOTE-SOAKED TIMBER,
RAILWAY TIES, THAT ARE TOXIC
TO THE CREATURES IN THE WATER,
AS THOSE TOXINS LEACH INTO
THE WATER.
WE'VE DONE OUR BEST TO MAKE SURE
THERE'S A MONO CULTURE HERE.
BY A MONO CULTURE, I MEAN,
ONE PLANT, RATHER THAN
A DIVERSITY OF PLANTS.
WE'VE PLANTED TREES THAT
ARE GENETICALLY PROGRAMMED
TO KILL THEMSELVES.

He points to a tall tree in front of his cabin.

He continues THEY'RE EXOTICS THAT WE'VE
BROUGHT IN FROM OTHER COUNTRIES.
IN AN EFFORT TO GET OUR BOAT
TRAFFIC THROUGH HERE SMOOTHLY,
WE HAVE TO KILL THE GROWTH
THAT OCCURS AT THE BOTTOM OF
THIS CHANNEL.
AND BY DOING SO WE
HAVE TWO ALTERNATIVES.
WE CAN SPRAY IT WITH A
CHEMICAL THAT WILL KILL THE
WEEDS THAT GROW, AS WELL AS
KILLING EVERYTHING ELSE THAT'S
IN THAT WATER, OR WE CAN PUT
DOWN A BLACK PIECE OF PLASTIC
THAT WON'T ALLOW THE
WEEDS TO GROW THROUGH IT,
BUT WON'T ALLOW ANYTHING
ELSE TO GROW EITHER.
THESE ARE SOME OF THE
OPTIONS THAT WE HAVE.
THESE ARE SOME OF THE
THINGS WE HAVE CHANGED.
AND THESE ARE SOME OF THE
THINGS WE HAVE TO CONSIDER
THAT ARE COMPLETELY DIFFERENT.
RUDYARD HERE IS A
PERFECT EXAMPLE.
NOWHERE IS THERE A NATURAL
ECOSYSTEM THAT HAS A 150-POUND
NEWFOUNDLAND DOG
RUNNING THROUGH IT.

He pats Rudyard and says THIS IS A HUMAN CREATION, JUST
AS MUCH AS EVERYTHING ELSE HERE.
AND THIS HUMAN CREATION LOVES
NOTHING MORE, WHEN I COME
HOME FROM WORK, THAN TO SPEND
THE REST OF HIS DAY

He points to the channel and says IN THAT
HUMAN CREATION.
WHICH ONCE AGAIN, CREATES
CONSIDERABLE DISTURBANCE
TO ALL THE CREATURES THAT
INHABIT THAT SPACE, AS WELL.
SO THAT'S JUST A BRIEF LOOK
AT SOME OF THE CHANGES THAT
HUMANS HAVE INDUCED ON THIS,
WHAT WAS ONCE AN EXTREMELY
NATURAL OR BEAUTIFUL
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT.

Back in the studio, David says MY 150-POUND NEWFOUNDLAND DOG,
NEVER MIND MY THREE DOMESTIC
CATS, WHICH ARE RESPONSIBLE
FOR KILLING 4.4 MILLION
SONG BIRDS PER DAY
IN NORTH AMERICA.
THERE'S NO DOUBT THE THINGS
WE LOVE CAN BE QUITE HARMFUL
ON THE ENVIRONMENT.
BARB, INTERESTING
THING JUST HAPPENED.
WE TOOK A LOOK AT HOW THINGS
ARE, AFTER YOU DID AN
EXCELLENT JOB OF SHOWING US
HOW THINGS ARE SUPPOSED TO BE.
BUT WE TOOK A LOOK AT HOW
THINGS ARE IN A MORE RURAL
ENVIRONMENT, AS
YOU NOTED EARLIER.
WHAT I'D LIKE TO DO NOW, OR
WE'D LIKE TO DO NOW IS TAKE
A LOOK AT HOW THINGS LOOK
IN A LITTLE MORE OF
AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT.
AND TO DO THAT, WE'VE
INVITED, AS A VIRTUAL GUEST,
DOCTOR JIM MADDER, AN ENTOMOLOGIST
FROM SIR SANDFORD FLEMING
COLLEGES SCHOOL OF
NATURAL RESOURCES.
AND I BELIEVE JIM IS
ON THE LINE RIGHT NOW.
HELLO, JIM.

Jim says HELLO, DAVID.
HI, BARB.

Barb answers HI.

David says NICE TO HEAR FROM YOU.
THE THING, THOUGH, BARB, A LOT
OF PEOPLE MAY NOT KNOW JUST
WHAT JIM LOOKS LIKE.

He presses a button and a caricature of Jim appears on screen. He’s in his forties; has straight black hair, a moustache and stubble beard and he wears glasses.
A caption on the picture reads “Doctor Jim Madder.”

David continues SO WE'VE PULLED A LITTLE BIT
OF A PICTURE HERE OF JIM SO
NOW PEOPLE HAVE A LITTLE
BETTER IDEA OF WHAT JIM LOOKS
LIKE BECAUSE OVER THE NEXT
FIVE MINUTES, JIM'S GOING TO
BE SHARING WITH US A FEW
THOUGHTS ON HOW WATER MOVES
THROUGH THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT,
RATHER THAN IN A NATURAL
WETLAND ECOSYSTEM.
AND THEN, JIM'S GOING TO
TAKE SOME QUESTIONS AS WELL.
SO CERTAINLY WATCH THIS VIDEO,
ENJOY THIS VIDEO, AND ENJOY
JIM'S DIALOGUE
OVER THIS VIDEO.
BUT BEFORE YOU GO, JIM, I HAVE
A QUICK QUESTION FOR YOU.
SOME PEOPLE HAVE BEEN
QUESTIONING IN THE PAST,
WHY WOULD WE INVITE AN
ENTOMOLOGIST TO TALK ON
THE MOVEMENT OF WATER
THROUGH AN URBAN SYSTEM?
BARB AND I HAVE A PRETTY GOOD
UNDERSTANDING OF THE LINK
BETWEEN INSECTS AND WATER,
BUT WE WERE HOPING THAT YOU
COULD ELABORATE ON
THAT A LITTLE BIT.

He answers SURE.
THE DIVERSITY OF INSECTS
IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS IS
REMARKABLE.
THEY LITERALLY FILL EVERY
NICHE FROM TRITOVORE,
HERBIVORE, CARNIVORE.
THEY CONVERT BIOMASS OR
MATERIALS FROM ONE STAGE IN
THE ECOSYSTEM, TO THE NEXT,
AND THEY ARE TREMENDOUS FOOD
FOR OTHER SPECIES.
YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT DUCKS,
AND OTHER SPECIES OF MAMMALS
IN THE AREA.
SO THEY'RE REMARKABLY
IMPORTANT.

David says THAT'S EXCELLENT.
JIM, I'M GOING TO ROLL THE
TAPE NOW, AND YOU CAN SHARE
WITH OUR STUDENTS
YOUR THOUGHTS.
AND WE'RE GOING TO WELCOME
THEIR CALLS WHEN YOU ARE DONE.

Jim says THANK YOU.

A clip shows a shallow stream with rocks in it, surrounded by green bushes and trees.

He says I WANT YOU TO COMPARE THE AREA
WE'RE LOOKING AT NOW AND SEE
HOW THE STREAM CHANGES.
WE MOVE FROM THIS AREA
THAT'S RELATIVELY PRISTINE
AND NOT CHANGED VERY MUCH
BY HUMANS COMPARED TO
THE URBAN AREA THAT WE'LL
GET TO IN A LITTLE BIT.
THIS IS AN AREA THAT'S
UPSTREAM OF THE URBAN AREA.
WATER MOVES THROUGH
IT FAIRLY SLOWLY.
IT'S A STREAM THAT MEANDERS.
WATER TAKES ITS TIME
TO GET THROUGH HERE.
EROSION IS REALLY LOW.
WE HAVE A CHANCE WE'RE GOING
TO LOOK DOWN INTO THE WATER
HERE A LITTLE BIT AND SEE
THAT IT'S RELATIVELY CLEAR.
THERE ISN'T A LOT OF
TURBIDITY OR MUD IN THAT
WATER, AS WELL.
AND IN THIS AREA, YOU CAN
SEE THERE IS EASY ACCESS
FOR WILDLIFE.

The clip shows some yellow wildflowers. Behind them a large concrete pipeline appears.

He continues THEY WANT TO GET IN HERE
AND TAKE A DRINK OF WATER,
THEY CAN EASILY DO THAT.
THE VEGETATION HERE, IN FACT,
RUNS REALLY SMOOTHLY FROM THE
DRY LAND AREA INTO THE WATER.
AND IN THIS AREA WITH LARGER
ROCKS, YOU CAN PROBABLY SEE
THIS AREA IN THE SPRINGTIME
WOULD HAVE BEEN FLOODED WITH A
LITTLE BIT OF HIGHER WATER IN
THE AREA, BUT YOU'D HAVE
RELATIVELY CONSTANT
STREAM FLOW.
YOU CAN SEE THE WATER THERE.
IT IS RELATIVELY CLEAR, AS IT
TRAVELS THROUGH THIS AREA,
THOUGH, MOVING TOWARDS THE
MORE URBANIZED AREA,
WE TEND TO STRAIGHTEN
OUR STREAMS AND RIVERS.

The clip shows the stream running in a straight line towards a culvert up ahead.

He explains THEY DON'T MEANDER AS MUCH.
YOU CAN SEE IT HERE, IT'S
GETTING FAIRLY STRAIGHT.
OUR ROADS ARE STRAIGHT.
WE TEND TO DEAL WITH LAND,
SELL LAND AND BUY LAND IN
SQUARE PARCELS.
HERE, IT'S ENTERING
INTO THE URBAN AREA.

The mouth of the concrete block has a railing to prevent blockages.

He says YOU CAN SEE IT'S GRATED TO
PREVENT PEOPLE FROM GETTING
IN THERE.
BUT FROM THIS POINT ON,
THERE'S NOT MUCH SUNLIGHT
THAT GETS IN THERE.
THERE'S VIRTUALLY
NO VEGETATION.
THE BIODIVERSITY DECLINES
QUITE SIGNIFICANTLY, AND HERE
YOU SEE SOME AREAS WHERE
RUNOFF FROM STREETS OR ROADS
WOULD GO DIRECTLY INTO THAT
STREAM, CARRYING BOTH SALT
AND SEDIMENT.

The clip shows the sewer grates on the street near a shop.

He continues YOU'RE ACTUALLY LOOKING
AT THIS STREAM RIGHT NOW.
THE STREAM RUNS THROUGH THIS
COMMERCIAL AREA, UNDERNEATH
THAT CONCRETE AREA LOOKS LIKE
A WALKWAY, BUT IN FACT
THE STREAM IS RUNNING
THROUGH THERE.
PEOPLE HAVE WANTED TO USE THIS
AREA, SO THEY'VE COVERED OVER
THIS STREAM, AND IN FACT BUILT
DRIVEWAYS AND COMMERCIAL
ESTABLISHMENTS IN
HERE RIGHT OVERTOP.

The clip moves along the street towards a parking lot.

He says UNDERNEATH THERE,
THE STREAM IS GOING.
IT'S REALLY QUITE A
HARSH ENVIRONMENT NOW
FOR MOST ORGANISMS.

The clip shows a grate in the stream’s route and running water is heard.

He says HERE, THE WATER FLOWING OUT
FROM THAT ENCLOSED AREA, IT'S
NOW CHANNELIZED, THE STREAM,
IT'S STRAIGHT UP AND DOWN.
EROSION CAN BE A MAJOR
PROBLEM, SO THEY'VE BUILT
BLOCKS ALONG THE
SIDE TO STOP EROSION.
THERE'S A MAJOR BLOCKAGE FOR
ANY FISH THAT WANT TO TRY AND
GET UP THAT STREAM, THEY ARE
SIMPLY NOT GOING TO MAKE IT UP
THAT STREAM AT ALL.

The clip shows a large channel of water where the stream reaches. David appears on the screen and walks out of view.

He says AND HERE, WE'RE GOING TO SOME
CONCRETE AREA, AGAIN WITH
ANOTHER CATCH BASIN, OR WATER
THAT WOULD FLOW DOWN DIRECTLY
INTO THAT STREAM, CARRYING
SEDIMENTS, AND WHERE IT FLOWS
OUT INTO THIS LOCAL LAKE,
HERE, TYPICALLY, IF YOU HAD A
CHANCE TO LOOK DOWN THROUGH
THAT, YOU'D SEE A PILE OF
SEDIMENT AT THE BOTTOM.
THIS IS AN AREA THAT FISH
MIGHT NORMALLY BREED IN,
BUT WITH ALL THE SEDIMENTS
IN THERE, THEY ARE SIMPLY NOT
GOING TO DO THAT.

The water below looks brown and somewhat dirty.

He says SO IT MAY LOOK NICE AT THIS
LEVEL, BUT DOWN BELOW,
IT'S A PRETTY
HARSH ENVIRONMENT.
IT'S CHANGED REALLY
DRAMATICALLY COMPARED
TO WHAT IT WAS UP ABOVE
THE URBANIZED AREA.

Back in the studio David says JIM, I THINK THAT'S
QUITE INTERESTING.
BUT SOMETHING I COULDN'T HELP
THINK OF, WATCHING WATER'S
JOURNEY THROUGH THE URBAN
ENVIRONMENT WAS HOW DIFFERENT
THAT URBAN ENVIRONMENT
MUST LOOK TODAY.
I CAN'T HELP BUT THINK ABOUT
ALL THE SNOW THAT'S THERE
IN FENELON FALLS.
AND JUST AS SIGNIFICANT, THE
SALT THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN PUT
DOWN ON THE ROADS.
IT MUST HAVE FOUND ITS WAY
INTO THAT URBAN WATERWAY.
SO I GUESS MY BIG QUESTION TO
YOU IS, HOW DOES THE SALT, AS
IT FINDS ITS WAY INTO THAT
SYSTEM, HOW DOES IT AFFECT THE
LIFE IN THAT SYSTEM?

Jim answers SURE, CHANGING THE SALINITY
OF ANY AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM WILL
CHANGE THE SPECIES PRESENT.
THEY'LL TEND TO GET A SHOCK
OF SALT DURING THE WINTER.
SO YOU'D HAVE NORMALLY WATER
THAT IS NOWHERE NEAR SALINE,
AND THEN A VERY HIGH DEGREE
OF SALINITY, SO THE SPECIES
THERE HAVE TO BE
ABLE TO HANDLE THAT.
MOST AQUATIC ORGANISMS BREATHE
ACROSS GILLS, AND SALT WILL
DRAMATICALLY ALTER THE
PERMEABILITY OR MOVEMENT OF
OXYGEN ACROSS THAT GILL,
SO IT WILL REDUCE THE SPECIES
THAT ARE THERE TO THOSE
THAT CAN HANDLE SALT.
IN SOME PARTS OF ONTARIO,
ESPECIALLY ALONG SOME OF THE
DITCHES, FOR EXAMPLE, ON THE
401, WE'VE ACTUALLY CHANGED
SOME OF THE SPECIES THAT ARE
PRESENT TO ONES THAT ARE MORE
USUALLY FOUND NEAR THE OCEAN.
THE SALT WATER THAT COMES
OFF THE 401 GOING INTO THOSE
DITCHES IS SO SALTY, THERE
ARE SOME MOSQUITO SPECIES NOW
THAT LIVE THERE THAT WOULDN'T
NORMALLY LIVE THERE.
IN FACT, THEY ARE
ASSOCIATED WITH THE OCEAN.

David says WOW!

Barb says THAT'S AMAZING.

David says JIM, SARAH'S CALLED
FROM FATHER MCGIVNEY.
I GUESS SHE HAS A
QUESTION FOR DOCTOR MADDER.
GO AHEAD, SARAH.

Sarah answers I DIDN'T REALLY
HAVE A, YEAH, I DO.
FROM MY RESEARCH ON WATER
POLLUTION, WATER POLLUTION HAS
A GREAT IMPACT ON WETLANDS,
AND IT GREATLY AFFECTS OUR
ECOSYSTEM AND DRINKING
WATER AND STUFF.
SO I JUST WANTED TO KNOW HOW
YOU GUYS GO ABOUT CLEANING UP
THE WETLANDS WHEN THERE
ARE SOURCES OF NONPOINT
SOLUTIONS IN OUR WATER?

David points out JIM, A COUPLE OF KEY WORDS I
TOOK OUT OF SARAH'S QUESTION
WERE IN REGARDS TO THE
POLLUTION AND HOW IT
ULTIMATELY AFFECTS
OUR DRINKING WATER.
THAT'S INTERESTING BECAUSE
MUCH OF WHAT WE HAVE BEEN
TALKING ABOUT TODAY HAS BEEN
IN REGARDS TO HOW POLLUTION
AFFECTS THE LIFE IN
THE WETLAND ECOSYSTEM.
COULD YOU ELABORATE A LITTLE
BIT ON HOW IT MIGHT AFFECT OUR
DRINKING WATER?

Jim says YEAH.
A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT
PARTS OF THAT.
WE SPEND A LOT OF MONEY
PURIFYING OUR DRINKING WATER
JUST BECAUSE OF THOSE NONPOINT
SOURCE POLLUTIONS THAT SARAH
WAS REFERRING TO.
WE NEED TO GET RID
OF THE NUTRIENTS.
NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION
TENDS TO BE THINGS WHICH MIGHT
COME IN THROUGH FARMING,
OR OVER LARGER AREAS.
SO WE NEED TO SPEND MONEY IN
ORDER TO REDUCE THE NUTRIENTS
THAT ARE PRESENT.
PERHAPS DO SOME TREATMENT TO
MINIMIZE THE PESTICIDES, IF
THEY WOULD ALSO BE PRESENT.
THE WAY YOU GO ABOUT ACTUALLY
DEALING WITH THIS IS TRYING
TO REDUCE THE OVERALL INPUTS.
TRYING TO GET NUTRIENTS THAT
ARE ON FIELDS THAT BREAK DOWN
SLOWLY, ONLY TO BE THERE
WHEN THERE IS LESS RUNOFF.
WE HAVE SOME LEGISLATION IN
ONTARIO THAT PREVENTS OR
MINIMIZES THE AMOUNT OF MANURE
BEING SPREAD ON TOP OF SNOW.
THE IDEA THERE BEING, AS SOON
AS THAT SNOW MELTS, A LOT OF
THAT MANURE AND NUTRIENTS ARE
GOING TO END UP IN YOUR LOCAL
STREAMS AND RIVERS.
IF THE MANURE IS PUT THERE
FIRST, AND THE SNOW COMES
SECOND, THEN THE WATER WILL
TEND TO DRIVE THE NUTRIENTS
DOWN, AS OPPOSED TO RUNNING
OFF OF THE SURFACE RUNOFF.
SO THERE'S LEGISLATION
THAT CAN BE DONE.
PEOPLE REALLY DON'T WANT TO
POLLUTE THEIR LOCAL STREAMS
OR RIVERS, SO A LOT OF
IT IS PUBLIC EDUCATION.
USING THE PROPER PESTICIDES,
USING THEM ONLY WHERE
NECESSARY, THOSE TYPES OF
THINGS, WILL ALL DECREASE
NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION.
POINT SOURCE POLLUTION YOU
DEAL WITH THE INDIVIDUAL ISSUE.

David says WE HAVE ANOTHER CALL FOR
DOCTOR MADDER FROM FATHER McGIVNEY
IN MARKHAM.
WHO DO WE HAVE ON THE LINE?
HELLO?
DO WE HAVE A
CALLER ON THE LINE?

A beeping sound is heard.

David says PERHAPS SOMEONE'S STRUGGLING
A LITTLE BIT THERE WITH
THE TECHNOLOGY.
BUT WE'VE GOT ANOTHER
CALL BACKED UP.
LOOKS LIKE WE'VE GOT A COUPLE.
THIS CALL IS COMING
FROM PETERBOROUGH?

A male voice says YES, IT IS.

David asks WHO DO WE HAVE ON THE LINE?

Jeff says IT'S JEFF, AGAIN.

David says JEFF, GO AHEAD.
WHAT'S YOUR QUESTION
FOR DOCTOR MADDER?

Jeff says I'M DOING A PROJECT ON
HAMILTON HARBOUR, AND I WAS
JUST WONDERING IF YOU
HAD ANY SUGGESTIONS.

David says JIM, I KNOW YOU SPENT A FEW
YEARS IN GUELPH, AND YOU MUST
HAVE SEEN THAT HAMILTON
HARBOUR ONCE OR TWICE,
JUST SOUTH TO THERE.
ANYTHING YOU WANTED
TO SHARE WITH JEFF?

Jim says YEAH, I THINK, WHAT YOU WANT
TO DO IS DO A COMPARISON TO
WHAT IT LOOKED LIKE, AND SOME
OF THE ISSUES IT HAD TO DEAL
WITH 20 YEARS AGO, COMPARED
TO WHERE IT IS NOW.
IT'S IMPROVED DRAMATICALLY
OVER THE PAST 20 YEARS.
IT STILL HAS A WHOLE VARIETY
OF ISSUES GOING ON WITH IT,
HEAVY METAL TYPES OF ISSUES,
BUT IF YOU LOOK AT COOTES
PARADISE, WHICH IS THE AREA
BEHIND BURLINGTON BAY, GOING
INTO THE BOTANICAL GARDENS,
IT'S REALLY QUITE A REMARKABLE
DIVERSITY OF LIFE
THAT'S THERE.
AND IF YOU TAKE A LOOK AT
THE WETLANDS, THEY'VE DONE
REMARKABLY WELL AT RECLAIMING
THEM, RESTORING THEM, THEY'VE
DONE A TERRIFIC JOB WITH THAT.
IT DOESN'T ELIMINATE ALL OF
THE PROBLEMS THAT THEY HAVE.
CERTAINLY, THERE'S STILL A
LARGE AMOUNT OF NUTRIENTS
GOING INTO THAT.
AND SOME OF THEIR ISSUES
AROUND HEAVY METALS ARE THERE.
ONCE YOU'VE GOT HEAVY METALS
IN THE SEDIMENTS UNDERNEATH
THAT AREA, THEY ARE GOING
TO BE THERE FOR DECADES,
AND THEY'RE REALLY
DIFFICULT TO DEAL WITH.
SO IF YOU ARE LOOKING FOR
INFORMATION, SOME OF MY
FRIENDS, WHEN I WAS GOING TO
UNIVERSITY OF GUELPH, WERE
ACTUALLY STUDYING THAT AREA,
SO I IMAGINE GUELPH WOULD HAVE
A FAIR BIT OF
INFORMATION ON THAT AREA.

David says VERY GOOD.
BARB, YOU WANTED TO ADD
SOMETHING TO DO THAT?

Barb adds YEAH, I JUST WANTED
TO ADD SOMETHING TO WHAT
DOCTOR MADDER WAS SAYING.
CERTAINLY COOTES PARADISE IS
A FASCINATING PLACE TO STUDY.
YOU'VE PICKED A GREAT PROJECT.
ONE OF THE ISSUES IN COOTES
PARADISE, IN ADDITION TO THE
METALS AND CONTAMINATED
SEDIMENTS THAT DOCTOR MADDER WAS
TALKING ABOUT IS WE HAVE
CARP IN COOTES PARADISE.
AND CARP ARE AN INTRODUCED
SPECIES INTO OUR AQUATIC
SYSTEM, AND WHAT THEY DO IS
THEY ACTUALLY UPROOT A LOT OF
THE AQUATIC VEGETATION.
SO SOME OF THE EFFORTS OF
TRYING TO RESTORE THAT
VEGETATION ARE THWARTED A
BIT BY THE CARP BECAUSE THEY
ACTUALLY UPROOT
THAT VEGETATION.
SO THEY'VE TRIED TO ACTUALLY
CREATE WHAT THEY CALL
EXCLOSURES TO GET CARP OUT,
AND PUT PLANTS, TRY AND PUT
PLANTS INSIDE AN ENCLOSURE AND
KEEP THE CARP OUT, AND SEE IF
THEY CAN REVEGETATE
IN THAT WAY.
AND THE OTHER THING THAT CARP
DO, IS THEY ACTUALLY, BY
UPROOTING THOSE PLANTS AND
FEEDING ON THEM, THEY STIR UP
THOSE SEDIMENTS THAT DOCTOR
MADDER WAS TALKING ABOUT.
SO WE GET THOSE CONTAMINANTS
COMING BACK INTO THE SYSTEM,
SORT OF CYCLING AGAIN.
SO THAT DOES CAUSE A PROBLEM.
THE CANADIAN CENTRE FOR INLAND
WATERS IS DOWN THERE IN
BURLINGTON, AND THAT WOULD
CERTAINLY BE A SPOT THAT THIS
STUDENT COULD ALSO LOOK
FOR SOME INFORMATION.

David says IT'S INTERESTING.
ONE OF THE THINGS I TAKE OUT
LISTENING TO BOTH YOU AND JIM
TALK ABOUT THE THINGS THAT
HAVE GONE ON IN COOTES
PARADISE, ALL I HEAR IS
THERE'S BEEN A NEED FOR
ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION
PROFESSIONALS, THERE'S BEEN
JOB OPPORTUNITIES,
THAT'S PRETTY CLEAR.
AND I DON'T THINK FOR ONE
SECOND THOSE OPPORTUNITIES
ARE GOING AWAY.
I THINK THEY ARE JUST
GOING TO INCREASE.
SO IT'S INTERESTING WHAT
I HEAR YOU TALKING ABOUT.
WE'VE GOT ASHLEY ON THE
LINE FROM PETERBOROUGH.
HELLO, ASHLEY.
PICK UP YOUR PHONE, ASHLEY.
HAVING A FEW TROUBLES
WITH THE CONNECTION?

A male voice on the phone says HOLD ON, ASHLEY WILL
BE HERE IN A SECOND.

David smiles and says JUST ABOUT GOT ASHLEY THERE.
THAT'S GOOD.
THERE'S A FEW CHALLENGES
ASSOCIATED WITH THE VIRTUAL
CLASSROOM, BUT I THINK
THEY'RE ALL WORTH IT.
IT'S CERTAINLY A
FUN WAY TO INTERACT.
HELLO, ASHLEY?
ASHLEY, ARE YOU OUT THERE?
OKAY, WELL I THINK WHILE THEY
TRY TO SORT THINGS OUT AT THE
PETERBOROUGH END, BARB,
WHILE WE'VE GOT DOCTOR MADDER
ON THE LINE WE SHOULD TRY
TO GET ANOTHER CALLER IN.
I UNDERSTAND WE HAVE ONE.
WE GOT ANOTHER CALL,
JEFFREY AT FATHER McGIVNEY.
GO AHEAD, JEFFREY.

Jeffrey says HI.
MY QUESTION IS
ABOUT WETLANDS.
HOW DOES THE CLIMATE
AFFECT WETLANDS?

David says HOW DOES THE CLIMATE
AFFECT WETLANDS?
JIM, HOW DOES THE CLIMATE
AFFECT WETLANDS, AND
SPECIFICALLY, MAYBE
SOME OF THE LIFE IN IT?

Jim explains SURE.
THE OVERALL CLIMATE IS GOING
TO HAVE DRAMATIC EFFECTS UPON
WHAT SPECIES ARE PRESENT.
IF YOU THINK OF A WET
MARSHLAND AREA THAT WOULD BE
OUT, SAY, NEAR WINNIPEG, THIS
IS GOING TO HAVE MUCH, MUCH
COLDER TEMPERATURES RIGHT
NOW, AS WELL AS MUCH WARMER
TEMPERATURES
DURING THE SUMMER.
IT'S A CONTINENTAL
TYPE OF CLIMATE.
THE SPECIES THERE ARE GOING
TO HAVE TO BE ABLE TO HANDLE
EXTREMES IN TEMPERATURE.
MORE LIKELY IN THOSE AREAS
YOU ARE GOING TO END UP WITH
WETLANDS THAT IN FACT DRY
DURING PART OF THE YEARS, SO
YOU'RE GOING TO HAVE TO HAVE
PARTS OF THE LIFE CYCLE THAT
CAN WITHSTAND
DESICCATION, ALSO FROST.
TYPICALLY, AS YOU GO FROM THE
TROPICAL ENVIRONMENTS AND
CLIMATES TO THE NORTHERN ONES,
THERE ARE LESS SPECIES, AND
LESS BIODIVERSITY, JUST BECAUSE
OF THOSE TYPES OF ISSUES.
THEY CAN'T HANDLE AS
HARSH AN ENVIRONMENT.
SO BIODIVERSITY
TENDS TO DECLINE.
IN CLIMATES THAT ARE MORE
HARSH, YOU TEND TO GET LARGER
NUMBERS OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES.
IF YOU'VE EVER BEEN UP IN
THE TUNDRA, THE NUMBER OF
MOSQUITOES AND BLACK FLIES IS
REMARKABLE, BUT THE ACTUAL
DIVERSITY OF SPECIES IS LESS.
SO AS WE GO THROUGH, AND
AGAIN, THERE'S A GREAT DEAL
DISCUSSED ABOUT GLOBAL
WARMING, THAT MIGHT VERY WELL
AFFECT THE NUMBER
OF SPECIES WE HAVE.
AS THE ENVIRONMENT BECOMES
MORE HARSH, TYPICALLY, THE
BIODIVERSITY DECLINES.

David says VERY GOOD.
JIM, JUST WANT TO THANK YOU.
SOMETHING PRETTY SPECIAL ABOUT
THE FACT THAT WE CAN CALL YOU
AT YOUR OFFICE IN PETERBOROUGH,
AND BARB AND I CAN HAVE
DIALOGUE WITH YOU, BUT THERE'S
SOMETHING EVEN MORE SPECIAL
ABOUT THE FACT THAT STUDENTS
IN MARKHAM CAN CONNECT UP
WITH AN EXPERT.
HE CAN TAKE AN HOUR OUT
OF HIS DAY AND FIELD
THEIR QUESTIONS.
SO ONCE AGAIN, JIM,
THANKS VERY MUCH
FOR YOUR INVOLVEMENT
IN TODAY'S LECTURE.

Jim answers IT'S BEEN A PLEASURE.
THANK YOU, DAVE AND BARB.

Barb smiles and says THANKS, JIM.

David says AND I UNDERSTAND WE HAVE ONE
MORE CALL TO SQUEEZE IN HERE
FROM FATHER McGIVNEY.
SO WHO DO WE HAVE ON
THE LINE FROM MARKHAM?

A male voice says ESAN.

David says ESAN.

He says I HAVE A QUESTION.
I JUST WANT TO KNOW, FOR
WETLANDS, IS THERE MORE WATER
IN THE WINTER OR
IN THE SUMMER?

David says IS THERE MORE WATER IN THE
WINTER OR IN THE SUMMER?
BARB, MAYBE YOU COULD USE THIS
QUESTION TO TALK ABOUT HOW
WATER FLUCTUATES FROM
SEASON TO SEASON.

Barb answers YES.
THAT'S A REALLY GOOD QUESTION.
AGAIN, IT WOULD VARY DEPENDING
ON THE TYPE OF WETLAND YOU
ARE TALKING ABOUT, BUT LET'S
USE OUR AREA AS AN EXAMPLE.
AND WE CAN THINK OF WATER
AS A TYPE OF PRECIPITATION.
RIGHT NOW, WE'VE GOT A LOT
OF SNOW OUT THERE AND ICE.
SO WE HAVE WATER IN THAT, IN
A DIFFERENT FORM, AS PART OF
A WATER CYCLE.
NO IS GENERAL, IN THIS AREA,
YOU COULD PROBABLY SAY THERE
IS MORE WATER IN THAT WETLAND
IN THE WINTER, AND THEN IT
GRADUALLY COMES
OUT IN THE SUMMER.
BUT, OF COURSE, THAT IS GOING
TO CHANGE AS THE SEASONS CHANGE.
AND CERTAINLY SUMMER IS A
TIME WHERE WETLANDS CONTRIBUTE
THAT EXTRA WATER TO THE SYSTEM
THAT THEY'VE BEEN HOLDING ONTO
FOR THOSE WINTER
AND SPRING MONTHS.
SO IT DOES FLUCTUATE.
PROBABLY WINTER TO SPRING,
WHEN WE HAVE THAT TRANSITION,
WHEN WE HAVE THAT SNOW MELT,
IS WHERE WE WOULD HAVE THE
BULK OF WATER IN A WETLAND.
BUT IT WOULD CERTAINLY
CHANGE OVER TIME.
AND THE TYPE OF PLANTS THAT
ARE IN THOSE WETLANDS WILL
HELP DICTATE HOW MUCH
WATER IS RETAINED IN THERE.
SO THAT'S A REALLY
GOOD QUESTION.
AND WATER LEVELS DO
FLUCTUATE OVER TIME.
AND IN THIS AREA, FOR EXAMPLE,
AS I WAS SAYING IN THE VIDEO,
THERE'S FLUCTUATIONS THAT
HAPPEN BECAUSE OF OTHER
ORGANIZATIONS REGULATING
THAT WATER LEVEL.
SO WE GET WATER LEVELS
CHANGING BECAUSE OF HUMAN
NEEDS WITHIN THE SYSTEM.
SO THAT CAN AFFECT THE
WATER LEVELS, AS WELL.
NOT ONLY THOSE HUMAN CHANGES,
BUT ALSO NATURAL CHANGES.
THE GREAT LAKES, FOR EXAMPLE,
GO THROUGH A 7-10 YEAR CYCLE
WHERE THE WATER LEVEL
CHANGES OVER THOSE 7-10 YEARS.
SO IT GOES FROM HIGHS TO LOWS.

David comments WOW.
EXCELLENT ANSWER, BARB.
BARB, BETWEEN YOU AND JIM,
YOU'VE DONE AN EXCELLENT JOB
OF NOTING WHAT
WAS WHAT IS,
BUT ONCE AGAIN, I WANT A CALL
ON THE HELP OF MY GOOD
FRIEND RUDYARD, AND TRY TO
ILLUSTRATE, JUST BRIEFLY
ILLUSTRATE ONCE AGAIN,
WHAT POSSIBLY COULD BE.

She says GREAT.

He presses a button and appears in a clip walking alongside Rudyard towards the water.

He stands at the lake shore and says SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT.
EVEN WHAT'S HERE ISN'T
EXACTLY WHAT WAS ONCE HERE.
BECAUSE ONCE UPON A TIME, THE
TREES THAT STOOD HERE

He holds out his hands and says WERE
JUST MASSIVE.
BUT THIS MORE CLOSELY
RESEMBLES WHAT WAS ONCE HERE,
COMPARED TO WHAT
WE JUST LOOKED AT.
AND THIS ALSO RESEMBLES WHAT
COULD BE HERE WITH JUST A
LITTLE BIT OF WORK.
SO THE QUESTION IS,
WHAT DO WE WANT?
RETAINING WALLS AND BLUEGRASS.

He points around him and asks OR BEECH, BIRCH, AND BASSWOOD?

Back in the studio; David chuckles and comments THAT'S A RATHER INVITING
PAN, AS WELL, EH, BARB?
BASS, BIRCH OR BEECH.

She jokes ON THE BEACH.

He comments IT CERTAINLY COULD BE A
LITTLE DRAMATIC, BUT ON A DAY
LIKE THIS, THAT SHOT
WAS QUITE INVITING.
BARB, I UNDERSTAND WE'VE GOT
A COUPLE OF CALLS BACKED UP.
WHERE'S THE FIRST
ONE COMING FROM?
FATHER McGIVNEY IN MARKHAM.
HELLO.

A male voice says HELLO.

David says HELLO.
WHO ARE WE TALKING TO?

Mike answers IT'S MIKE.

David says HI, MIKE.
GOT A QUESTION FOR
THE AQUATIC ECOLOGIST?

Mike says YEAH.
I JUST WANTED TO
KNOW IN THE WETLANDS,
WHAT DO YOU GUYS
FIND IN THE SOIL?

Barb says GOOD QUESTION.
WHAT DO YOU FIND IN
THE SOIL IN WETLANDS?
WELL, IN THE SOIL, THAT'S ONE
OF THE MOST IMPORTANT PARTS
OF THE WETLANDS BECAUSE IN
THAT SOIL WE'LL FIND ROOTS OF
PLANTS, FOR ONE THING.
AND IN SOIL IS WHERE WE FIND
ALL THE DECOMPOSERS IN THE
SYSTEM, ALL THE BACTERIA, AND
THINGS THAT ACTUALLY BREAK
DOWN PLANT MATTER AND ORGANIC
MATTER, SO LIVING MATTER INTO
FORMS THAT CAN BE TAKEN UP
AGAIN BY PLANTS WITHIN
THE SYSTEM.
SO IN THAT SOIL WE FIND BITS
OF DECOMPOSING PLANTS, WE FIND
THE BACTERIA, AND WE
FIND DIFFERENT KINDS OF
INVERTEBRATES THAT ARE THERE.
AND THEY ARE THERE TO HELP
BREAK DOWN THOSE ELEMENTS AND
BRING THEM BACK UP THROUGH THE
PLANT ROOTS INTO THE SYSTEM.
SO WE FIND ALL
SORTS OF NUTRIENTS.
WE FIND VARIOUS ESSENTIAL
NUTRIENTS IN THE SOIL.
SO SOIL IS REALLY
IMPORTANT IN ANY SYSTEM.
AND QUITE OFTEN WE OVERLOOK IT
BECAUSE IT IS UNDER OUR FEET.
IT'S A VERY
IMPORTANT COMPONENT.

David says VERY GOOD.
WE HAVE ANOTHER
CALL FROM MARKHAM.
GOT SOMEONE ON THE LINE
FROM FATHER McGIVNEY?

Mike says HI, THIS IS MIKE.

David says GO AHEAD, MIKE.

Mike says I HAVE A QUESTION ABOUT
THE WETLANDS AGAIN.

David says YES?

Mike explains THIS BRINGS UP THE TOPIC OF
EXTREME CLIMATE EVENTS,
AND JUST LIKE HOW WE HAD A
COUPLE OF WEEKS WITHOUT SNOW
JUST BEFORE.
WITH THE WETLANDS, WOULDN'T IT
BE, THE WATER WOULD FREEZE,
AND THAT'S WHY THE
TREES DOWN THERE DIED?

David says CERTAINLY, NO, WHAT MIKE HAS
BROUGHT TO OUR ATTENTION,
ONCE AGAIN, BARB, IS EXTREME
TEMPERATURES, AND HOW CHANGES
CAN OCCUR.
MIKE, I WAS DRIVING FROM
PETERBOROUGH TO FENELON FALLS
ABOUT THE FIRST
WEEK OF DECEMBER.
AND WE HAD A VERY WARM SPELL,
AND IT WAS QUITE FOGGY,
AND IT WAS QUITE A RAINY NIGHT.
WE ACTUALLY HAD LEOPARD
FROGS CROSSING THE ROAD.
SO HERE WE ARE, DECEMBER 8th,
AND WE'VE GOT LEOPARD FROGS
CROSSING THE ROAD
NORTH OF PETERBOROUGH.
NOW, THAT TELLS YOU SOMETHING
ABOUT HOW WARM, HOW MILD
IT WAS, AND HOW MUCH MOISTURE
THERE WAS IN THE SOIL.
IN PART, I WOULD SUSPECT IT
WAS TRICKING THE FROGS INTO
THINKING WE WERE AT A WARMER
TIME OF YEAR THAN IT WAS,
BUT ALSO IT'S POSSIBLE
THEY WERE BEING FLOODED
OUT OF THEIR WINTER HOMES.
SO THERE THEY WERE
CROSSING THE ROAD.
SO THAT JUST SUGGESTS ONE
SHORT MONTH AGO IT WAS
EXTREMELY WARM, AND TODAY
HERE IT IS EXTREMELY COLD.
IN THE EXAMPLE I GAVE OF THE
LEOPARD FROGS, I WOULD SUGGEST
MANY OF THEM DIDN'T
FIND THEIR WAY BACK INTO
THEIR WINTER HOMES.
THEY HAVE TO BURROW QUITE
DEEP, AND IT CAN BE QUITE A
STRESSFUL ENDEAVOR, AND
QUITE A LOT OF WORK.
SO THERE'S A SPECIFIC EXAMPLE.
BARB, DID YOU HAVE SOMETHING
YOU WANTED TO ADD?

She says YEAH, AND THAT CERTAINLY GOES
BACK TO DOCTOR MADDER'S POINT
ABOUT HOW THE CLIMATE CHANGE
IS GOING TO AFFECT OUR SYSTEMS.
BUT ANOTHER EXAMPLE, ANOTHER
PLACE ALONG LAKE ONTARIO THAT
THEY ARE TRYING TO RESTORE IS
A PLACE CALLED SECOND MARSH
IN OTTAWA.
AND ONE OF THE THINGS THEY
WERE TRYING TO DO THERE WAS
ACTUALLY REPLANT SOME
OF THE NATIVE PLANTS.
AND ONE WINTER, WHAT HAPPENED
WAS, THE GROUND FROZE, SO THE
PLANT ROOTS AND THE SEEDS THAT
HAD BEEN LAID DOWN IN THE
FALL FROZE INTO THE SOIL, AND
THEN THE WATER LEVEL CHANGED.
THE WATER LEVEL CHANGED IN THE
GREAT LAKES FOR A BUNCH OF
DIFFERENT REASONS, AND
BASICALLY, THE ICE DISLODGED,
THAT FROZEN SOIL DISLODGED AND
FLOATED UP AND TOOK ALL THE
SEEDS WITH IT.
SO THERE'S ALL SORTS OF WAYS
THAT CLIMATE CHANGE CAN AFFECT
AN ECOSYSTEM.
SO YOUR FROG EXAMPLE IS
REALLY GOOD, TOO, AS WELL.

David says BARB, I UNDERSTAND WE HAVE
OUR LAST CALL OF THE DAY
ON THE LINE.
WHO DO WE HAVE?
WHO'S THE LUCKY DUCK
TO GET THEMSELVES ON TV
ONE LAST TIME TODAY?

Jeff says THIS IS JEFF,
FROM PETERBOROUGH.

David says GO AHEAD, JEFF.

He says MY QUESTION IS WHY
IS, HOLD ON, HOLD ON.
HOLD ON FOR A SECOND.

Barb comments HE'S FORMULATING
HIS QUESTION.

Jeff says AN INTELLIGENT ONE, TOO.

David says DID YOU LOSE IT, JEFF?

Jeff asks IS IT EFFICIENT IN CLEANING
THE WATERS IN WETLANDS?

David says GO AHEAD, BARB.

Barb answers YES, WETLANDS ARE REALLY
EFFICIENT AT CLEANING AND
PURIFYING THE WATER.
AND, IN FACT, WE NOW HAVE TAKEN
THAT IDEA, OR THAT FUNCTION OF
WETLANDS, AND ACTUALLY PUT IT
INTO SOME OF OUR BUSINESS
AND INDUSTRY.
FOR EXAMPLE, THERE ARE SOME
COMPANIES THAT ACTUALLY HAVE
CREATED WHAT'S CALLED
A LIVING MACHINE.
AND WHAT IT DOES IS IT'S A
WHOLE SERIES OF CONTAINERS
WITH WATER AND VARIOUS
PLANTS AND FISH IN THEM THAT
ACTUALLY FILTERS THE WATER,
JUST LIKE A WETLAND DOES, AND
CREATES A PURE WATER THAT THEY
CAN PUT BACK INTO THE SYSTEM.
AND THERE'S SOME ORGANIZATIONS
AND COMPANIES AROUND THE
WORLD THAT ARE USING
THAT TECHNOLOGY.
IT'S CALLED THE
LIVING MACHINE.
AND PEOPLE CAN ACTUALLY CREATE
A WETLAND IN THEIR BACKYARD
TO HELP FILTER THE WATER.

David says BARB BECAUSE WE PUT OUR
ENERGIES INTO TAKING A COUPLE
LAST CALLS, WE NOW HAVE
TO DO A QUICK SIGN OFF.
SO ALL I WANT TO SAY IS WE ARE
GOING TO PUT UP, AFTER BARB
AND I SIGN OFF, WE'RE GOING TO
PUT UP THREE WEB ADDRESSES IN
CASE TEACHERS, FACILITATORS,
OR STUDENTS WANT ADDITIONAL
INFORMATION ON WETLANDS
AND, MORE SPECIFICALLY,
WETLAND RESTORATION.
SO OTHER THAN THAT, I WANTED
TO SAY THANK YOU TO ALL THOSE
WHO WERE INVOLVED TODAY, BUT
MOST OF ALL, THANK YOU TO
OUR STUDENT AUDIENCE BECAUSE
WITHOUT YOU, THIS JUST
WOULDN'T HAVE WORKED.
SO KEEP AN EYE FOR MORE
INFORMATION ON THE
VIRTUAL CLASSROOM.
ASK YOUR TEACHERS ABOUT IT.
AND KEEP AN EYE FOR BARB AND
I BECAUSE WE'LL BE BACK.
THANK YOU.

Barb says THANK YOU.

A green slate appears. It reads “Info on wetlands” as a title.
Three website addresses appear below; they read www.digitalfrog.com/products/wetlands.html; www.wetlands.ca; www.great-lakes.net/ecosystem/wetlands.html.

The caption changes to “Please remember to log off! Pick up handset. Press number sign then 7. Press 1 to confirm. Hang up headset. See you next time!”

Watch: Eco-Systems for Students Part 2