Transcript: Eco-Systems for High School Students | Sep 15, 1998

(music plays)

The opening slate pops up with a countdown timer from 7 seconds and the title “TVO’s Virtual Classroom. Get connected.”
The “V” in “Virtual” is a tick, the “A” in “classroom” is an at sign with an extended loop that turns into a power cord with a plug at the end, and the first “O” in “classroom” is a spinning globe.

When the countdown finishes, David appears on screen. He’s in his thirties; he has brown hair and is clean-shaven. He wears a light jean shirt over a white t-shirt.

He smiles and says HELLO, WELCOME TO THE
VIRTUAL CLASSROOM.
MY NAME IS DAVID WARD.
I AM A PROFESSOR OF URBAN
ECOLOGY AT SIR SANFORD FLEMING
SCHOOL OF NATURAL RESOURCES
IN LINDSAY, ONTARIO.
I TEACH IN FOUR DIFFERENT
PROGRAMS AT FLEMING COLLEGE,
ONE OF THEM IS A COMMON
SEMESTER WHERE STUDENTS LEARN
THE FUNDAMENTALS OF MANAGING
NATURE AND TECHNOLOGY;
ANOTHER PROGRAM WITHIN WHICH
I TEACH IS ENVIRONMENTAL
PEST MANAGEMENT, WHERE
STUDENTS LEARN TO MANAGE
INSECTS, DISEASE,
MAMMALS AND WEEDS,
MOSTLY IN AN URBAN
ENVIRONMENT,
IN SUCH A WAY THAT THEY
DON'T BECOME A PROBLEM;
ANOTHER PROGRAM THAT I
TEACH IN IS ARBORICULTURE,
WHICH IS THE
CARE OF URBAN TREES;
AND A FOURTH PROGRAM
THAT I TEACH IN
IS ECOSYSTEMS
MANAGEMENT.
ACTUALLY, THAT'S
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT.
I WON'T SAY ANYMORE ABOUT
THAT BECAUSE I SUSPECT
OVER THE NEXT HOUR YOU'LL
HAVE A LOT CLEARER
PICTURE OF WHAT, INDEED,
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT IS.
I SHARE THIS INFORMATION
WITH YOU FOR TWO REASONS;
ONE, BECAUSE I'M PROUD
OF MY ACHIEVEMENTS,
AS I'M SURE
YOU ARE YOURS.
AND TWO, BECAUSE I WANT
YOU TO HAVE AN IDEA
OF WHERE I'M COMING FROM
WITH TODAY'S LESSON.
WHAT I MEAN BY THAT
IS, I WORK BEST IN
A QUESTION-ANSWER
ENVIRONMENT.
AND I ENCOURAGE YOU TO CALL
IN WITH YOUR QUESTIONS.
IF YOU HAVE AN ANECDOTE
OR STORY YOU'D LIKE TO SHARE,
I ENCOURAGE YOU TO CALL
IN WITH THAT, AS WELL.
BUT TODAY WILL
GO MUCH SMOOTHER,
AND IT'LL BE A LOT MORE FUN
FOR ME, IF YOU DO, INDEED,
FIND A WAY TO GET YOURSELF
IN HERE AND TO CALL IN.
TO CALL IN, YOU PICK
UP THE RECEIVER,
YOU PRESS pound 9
AND YOU HANG UP.
OUR SYSTEM, OUR
TECHNICIAN,
AND MYSELF WILL TAKE
CARE OF THE REST.
LOOK FORWARD
TO YOUR CALLS.
I'D LIKE TO EXPLAIN A
LITTLE BIT MORE ABOUT
TODAY'S LECTURE, WHICH
IS ENTITLED “ECOSYSTEMS;
RESTORATION AS A
MEANS OF RECOVERY.”
THERE IS A KEYWORD IN
THERE THAT I WOULD LIKE
YOU TO THINK ABOUT;
THAT WORD IS RESTORATION.
IN THIS CASE,
ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION.
WHAT I'M GOING TO DO IS, I'M
GOING TO PASS THE TORCH NOW
TO A GOOD FRIEND AND
A COLLEAGUE OF MINE,
AND I'M GOING TO
ASK HER TO EXPLAIN
WHAT THE NEXT HOUR
HAS IN STORE.
HER NAME IS BARB ELLIOTT,
AND SHE'S AN AQUATIC ECOLOGIST.

He smiles and says THAT'S A PRETTY
COOL JOB TITLE.
AN AQUATIC ECOLOGIST.
WHAT I'D LIKE YOU TO DO IS
I'D LIKE YOU TO LISTEN TO BARB.
I'D LIKE YOU TO LISTEN
TO WHAT BARB HAS TO SAY
ABOUT WHAT THE NEXT
HOUR HAS IN STORE.
BUT WHILE BARB IS TALKING,
SHE'S GOING TO SHARE WITH
YOU A FEW THOUGHTS OF HER
OWN ON WHAT RESTORATION IS,
OF WHAT ECOLOGICAL
RESTORATION IS.
AND I WOULD LIKE IT IF YOU
WOULD FIND A WAY TO DEFINE
ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION
FROM YOUR OWN PERSPECTIVE.
AND WHAT WE'LL DO IS, WHEN
WE COME BACK FROM BARB,

A slate appears on screen, it has a handwritten caption on it that reads “Restoration.”

He continues I'M GOING TO ASK
YOU TO CALL IN
WITH YOUR THOUGHTS ON
WHAT RESTORATION IS.
I'M GOING TO ASK YOU
TO SHARE THEM WITH ME.
AND THEN WE'RE GOING TO
SHARE THEM WITH EACH OTHER.
SO IN THE MEANTIME, I'M
GOING TO PASS THE TORCH TO BARB.
ENJOY.

He presses a button.

Barb appears on screen. She stands in the midst of some tall grass. She’s in her thirties; has short blond wavy hair and wears a light blue checkered shirt and a matching jean vest.

She says HI, EVERYONE.
MY NAME IS BARB ELLIOTT,
AND I'M AN AQUATIC ECOLOGIST
AT THE SCHOOL
OF NATURAL RESOURCES
AT SIR SANFORD FLEMING
COLLEGE IN LINDSAY.

The image opens to show her standing in a wetland of brown water wearing rubber boots.

She continues WE ARE STANDING RIGHT
NOW AT THE DALL PROPERTY
WHICH WAS RECENTLY
DONATED TO THE COLLEGE,
AND WE HAVE A
LIVING LABORATORY NOW
THAT WE CAN USE TO
EXPLORE THIS WONDERFUL
WETLAND THAT'S
HERE BEHIND ME,
AND A WHOLE LOT OF OTHER
NATURAL RESOURCES
THAT WE'RE REALLY INTERESTED
IN LEARNING ABOUT.
SO HERE I AM.
THIS IS GREAT PLACE.
AND WHY AM I
HERE, YOU ASK,
STANDING IN
THIS WETLAND?
IT'S BECAUSE OUR
PROGRAM, TODAY,
IS GOING TO TALK
ABOUT WETLANDS.
THEIR IMPORTANCE IN
TERMS OF ECOSYSTEMS,
AND HOW WE NEED TO LEARN
FROM THEM SO WE CAN
MAKE SURE THEY'RE STILL
HERE IN THE FUTURE.
THEY HAVE MANY
STORIES TO TELL US.
AND IF WE JUST
LOOK AROUND US,
WE CAN HEAR SOME
OF THOSE STORIES.

She looks down at the brown water and says YOU NOTICE I'M STANDING
IN SOME WATER HERE.
AND JUST WHEN I CAME IN
HERE THIS AFTERNOON,
I SAW SOME
BUBBLES COMING UP.
AND I THOUGHT, WOW,
THAT'S REALLY COOL.
AND, YOU KNOW, THOSE
BUBBLES TELL ME THAT
THERE'S A WHOLE LOT OF
DECOMPOSITION GOING ON
RIGHT BENEATH MY FEET.
WETLANDS CAN TELL US
ALL SORTS OF STORIES
IF WE TAKE THE TIME
TO LISTEN TO THEM.
AND BUBBLES ARE ONE WAY WE
CAN LISTEN TO THAT STORY.
UNDERNEATH MY FEET HERE
IS A WHOLE BUNCH OF MUCK.
AND MUCK IS REALLY
IMPORTANT TO A WETLAND.
AND IT CAN TELL US A
WHOLE LOT OF THINGS.
I'LL JUST GET
SOME FOR YOU.

She leans over the water and puts her hands in to reach for the sediment below. She cups her hands and shows some mud.

She says OH, NICE, OH, HERE'S LOVELY
MUCK THAT I'VE GOT HERE.
AND THERE'S ALL SORTS OF
DIRT AND STONES IN THIS MUCK.
AND THERE'S LITTLE REMAINS
OF PLANTS THAT HAVE
GROWN HERE BEFORE.
LOOKING AT THIS MUCK,
I CAN LEARN ABOUT
WHAT MAYBE GREW HERE
A LONG TIME AGO,
WHAT'S GROWING HERE
NOW, AND WHAT COULD
GROW HERE IN THE FUTURE.
AND THAT'S PART OF WHAT
RESTORATION IS ALL ABOUT.
SO MUCK CAN TELL US
A STORY IF WE TAKE
THE TIME TO LOOK AT IT.
IT'S JUST LIKE A BOOK,
LIKE THE CHAPTERS
OF A BOOK;
THE PAGES ARE A LITTLE
HARDER TO OPEN,
BUT IT'S REALLY
COOL STUFF.
AND SO THAT'S PART
OF THE WETLAND
THAT'S REALLY,
REALLY IMPORTANT.
I'M JUST GOING TO
PUT THIS BACK NOW.

She leans over again and drops the mud back in the water.

She continues YOU'RE HERE TODAY TO
LEARN ABOUT WETLANDS,
AND TO FIND OUT ABOUT HOW
YOU CAN RESTORE THEM
FOR THE FUTURE, AND MAKE SURE
THEY'RE HERE FOR A LONG TIME.
THIS WETLAND HERE THAT I'M
STANDING IN IS A MARSH.
IT'S GOT ALL SORTS
OF CATTAILS IN IT.

An image of the cattails blowing in the breeze appears. They are tall and green and have a white tip at the end.

She says AND THESE CATTAILS ARE
REALLY IMPORTANT IN TERMS
OF HELPING FILTER THE
WATER SO IT'S CLEAN AND
CLEAR FOR PEOPLE LIKE
YOU AND I TO DRINK,
AND FOR ANIMALS TO USE.
IN WETLANDS LIKE THIS,
WE CAN SEE SOMETIMES
INFLUENCES OF
HUMAN ACTIVITY.
AND THIS WETLAND HERE HAS
HAD SOME HUMAN ACTIVITY
THAT HAS GONE
ON IN THE PAST.
AND WE CAN SEE SOME
EVIDENCE OF THAT
HERE THIS AFTERNOON.
WE'RE GOING
TO LOOK AT SOME
OTHER WETLANDS AND
AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS TODAY,
AND WE'RE GOING TO FOLLOW
THE PATH OF WATER AS
IT TRAVELS THROUGH WETLANDS,
IN THE COUNTRYSIDE,
AND IN THE CITY, AND FIND
OUT HOW WE, AS HUMANS,
CAN CHANGE THE COURSE
OF WATER AS IT TRAVELS
THROUGH THOSE PLACES, AND
LEARN ABOUT WHAT EFFECT
THAT HAS ON ECOSYSTEMS,
AND ALSO ON US.
AND WE'RE GOING TO DO
THAT A LITTLE LATER ON.
BUT RIGHT NOW HERE
IN THIS WETLAND,
I'M GOING TO SHOW YOU A
COUPLE OF THINGS THAT
ARE EVIDENCE OF HUMAN
ACTIVITIES RIGHT HERE
ON THIS LANDSCAPE.
ONE, FOR EXAMPLE, IS
THE RAILWAY LINE THAT'S
TRAVELLING RIGHT
THROUGH THIS WETLAND

She moves her hands to either side and continues
JUST IN FRONT OF ME HERE.
THIS IS AN OLD
RAILWAY LINE.
IT HASN'T BEEN USED
FOR ABOUT 30 YEARS,
BUT IT'S STILL HERE.
THE FORMATION OF
IT IS STILL HERE.
SO WE MIGHT ASK OURSELVES,
HOW HAS THAT CHANGED
THE WATER AS IT'S MOVED
THROUGH THIS WETLAND?
WHAT EFFECT
MIGHT THAT HAVE?
I NOTICED ON THIS RAILWAY
BED WHEN I WAS WALKING DOWN
HERE TODAY, THAT
THERE'S ACTUALLY PLACES
WHERE TURTLES HAVE USED
IT TO LAY SOME EGGS.
SO IT'S USEFUL FOR
WILDLIFE IN SOME WAYS.
HOW HAS IT AFFECTED THE
COURSE OF WATER, THOUGH,
AS IT GOES THROUGH
THE LANDSCAPE?
SO THAT'S AN
IMPORTANT QUESTION.
ANOTHER THING I SEE WHEN
I'M OUT HERE IN THIS WETLAND

She turns behind and points to a line of dry tree trunks.

She says IS A WHOLE BUNCH OF
DEAD TREES BEHIND ME.
AND LOOKING AT THEM TODAY
I SAW LOTS OF DEAD TREES
OR SNAGS AS WE CALL THEM,
WITH HOLES IN THEM.

A trunk with round holes dug into it appears on screen.

She continues SO I KNOW THERE'S BEEN
WOODPECKERS OUT HERE
MAKING HOLES AND
MAKING HOUSES,
AND USING THOSE TREES.
BUT MY QUESTION IS, HOW
DID THOSE TREES DIE?
WELL, THAT TELLS ME
SOMEHOW THE WATER LEVEL
IN THIS PLACE HAS
CHANGED OVER TIME.
MAYBE THAT WAS BECAUSE
OF HUMAN ACTIVITY,
MAYBE THE RAILROAD, MAYBE
IT'S BEAVERS THAT
HAVE CHANGED THE WATER
LEVEL AND CREATED
THESE DEAD SNAGS OTHER
WILDLIFE CAN USE.
SO THAT'S SOMETHING ELSE
I WANT TO FIND OUT ABOUT
HOW THAT CHANGE
HAS HAPPENED.
AND ANOTHER CHANGE, WHICH
I CAN'T EVEN SEE FROM HERE,
BUT I KNOW IS HERE
IN THIS KAWARTHA REGION
HERE OF ONTARIO, IS THAT
A LOT OF THE LAKES AND
RIVERS IN THIS AREA, THE
FLOW HAS BEEN CHANGED
TO MAKE WAY FOR THE
TRENT-SEVERN WATERWAY,
SO PEOPLE CAN MOVE
THEIR BOATS
BETWEEN SOME OF
THE GREAT LAKES.
SO IN THE COURSE
OF DOING THAT,
WE'VE CHANGED THE WAY
WATER MOVES THROUGH THE
LANDSCAPE, AND CHANGED THE
LEVELS OF IT AS IT FLOWS.
THAT'S SOMETHING I CAN'T
EVEN SEE FROM HERE,
BUT I KNOW FROM
BEING IN THIS AREA,
THAT THAT'S ANOTHER
EFFECT WE HAVE ON WATER.
I'M SURE YOU WANT TO FIND
OUT MORE ABOUT WETLANDS.
I DO, TOO BECAUSE I
THINK THEY'RE SO COOL.
SO TO DO THAT, WE'RE
GOING TO NOW JOIN
MY GOOD FRIEND AND URBAN
ECOLOGIST, DAVID WARD,
BACK IN THE STUDIO, AND
HE'S GOING TO TAKE YOU
ON THE REST OF
OUR JOURNEY.

She turns and walks through the wetland.

Back in the studio, David smiles and says IS THAT WOMAN
BRAVE, OR WHAT?
JUST THINK ABOUT THE
MOSQUITOES OUT THERE.
MOSQUITOES REPRODUCE IN
STILL, STANDING WATER.
AND THAT WOMAN WAS JUST
ABOUT OVER HER BOOTS
IN STILL, STANDING WATER.
ACTUALLY, THAT
WOMAN IS BRAVE.
I'M SURE YOU CAN ALSO SEE
SHE'S QUITE PASSIONATE
ABOUT WHAT SHE TEACHES.
BARB IS A TEACHER AT
SIR SANFORD FLEMING
SCHOOL OF NATURAL
RESOURCES AS WELL.
SHE'S ACTUALLY AN
AWARD-WINNING TEACHER.
AND I HAVE TO TELL
YOU THE TRUTH,
THE DAY WE WERE OUT
SHOOTING THAT VIDEO CLIP
WAS ACTUALLY QUITE COOL.
SO THE MOSQUITOES WEREN'T
NEAR AS BAD AS I HINTED AT
BECAUSE THEIR LIMIT OF
TOLERANCE IS SUCH
THEY DON'T APPRECIATE
THE COLD THEMSELVES.
BUT WE CERTAINLY DID.
AND BARB SHOWED THAT.
THAT WAS ACTUALLY QUITE AN
INVITING SHOT, I THOUGHT.
THERE ARE TWO THINGS
BARB COMMENTED ON THAT
I WOULD LIKE TO
ELABORATE ON.
ONE OF THEM WAS A
REFERENCE TO SNAGS,
THE TALL, STANDING DEAD
TREES IN THE MIDDLE
OF THE WETLAND AREA THAT
SHE WAS STANDING
AT THE DALL PROPERTY.
SOMETHING I NOTICED,
37 DIFFERENT MAMMALS
AND BIRDS IN SOUTHERN
ONTARIO USE SNAGS
AT SOME POINT IN
THEIR LIFE FOR EITHER
FOOD OR HABITAT.
THAT'S JUST ONE THING
I WANTED TO MAKE YOU
ECOLOGICALLY AWARE OF.
THE OTHER THING WAS BARB'S
REFERENCE TO TURTLES.
I ACTUALLY HAD AN OCCURRENCE
IN THE LAST 10 DAYS
OF PARTICULAR
IMPORTANCE TO ME.
I HAVE A GRAVEL DRIVEWAY
REALLY CLOSE TO THE WATER.
YOU'LL SEE THAT A LITTLE BIT
LATER ON IN TODAY'S LESSON.
BUT THIS GRAVEL DRIVEWAY
IS NOT A WHOLE LOT DIFFERENT
THAN THE GRAVEL
RAILWAY BED THAT BARB
WAS SHARING WITH US.
AND SNAPPING TURTLES,
SOME AS OLD AS 50 AND
60 YEARS, AS BIG AS A
TELEVISION MONITOR,
FOUND THEIR WAY UP
INTO MY DRIVEWAY,
AND BETWEEN ME AND
THE NEIGHBOURS' KIDS,
WE COUNTED OVER 100 EGGS
LAID BETWEEN TWO TURTLES.
A SMALL PAINTED TURTLE
LAID A FEW EGGS, AS WELL.
BUT THE POINT OF THIS
ANECDOTE IS THOSE
TWO NESTING SITES, A
TURTLE WOULD DIG A HOLE,
TAKE A TEMPERATURE PROBE
AND DETERMINE IF INDEED
THE DRIVEWAY WAS THE IDEAL
PLACE TO LEAVE THESE EGGS,
WOULD LEAVE THE EGGS,
AND THEN LEAVE.
WE FENCED OFF THE AREA,
TRIED TO KEEP THE RACCOONS AWAY.
THE RACCOONS DUG
UNDER THE FENCE
AND DISTURBED
ALL THE EGGS.
SOMEONE WOULD SAY, WHY ARE
YOU MANAGING NATURE IN SUCH
A WAY THAT YOU'RE
RESTRICTING THE RACCOONS
FROM FINDING THE EGGS?
WELL, ECOLOGICALLY, OUR
URBAN ENVIRONMENT HAS CHANGED
SO MUCH THAT I BELIEVE
THAT THE RACCOON
HAS GOT A LOT BETTER DEAL
THAN THE TURTLES DID.
AND THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT
IS SUCH NOW THAT
THE RACCOONS ARE THRIVING,
AND THE TURTLES ARE DECLINING.
SO WE DID EVERYTHING IN
OUR POWER TO RESTRICT
THE RACCOONS FROM REACHING
THESE TURTLE EGGS,
AND THEY STILL
GOT TO THEM.
SO THAT WAS JUST A LITTLE
PERSONAL ANECDOTE
I WANTED TO SHARE WITH
YOU IN REGARDS TO SOME
ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
THAT BARB HAD SHARED WITH YOU.
ONE OF THE THINGS I HAD
SAID WE WANTED TO DO
BEFORE WE WENT TO OUR
VIDEO CLIP OF BARB
WAS ASK FOR A DEFINITION
OF RESTORATION.

The slate reading “Restoration” appears once more.

He says SO I'M HOPING TO GET
A FEW CALLS IN NOW.
YOU CAN CALL IN WITH
YOUR OWN DEFINITION
OF WHAT RESTORATION IS.
WE COULD COLLECT
YOUR THOUGHTS,
AND THEN MOVE
INTO THE GROUP.
IF YOU DON'T CALL US, WE
HAVE THE ABILITY TO CALL YOU.
SO YOU MIGHT
WANT TO CALL US.
YOU MIGHT WANT TO COLLECT
YOUR THOUGHTS AND COME UP
WITH YOUR OWN DEFINITION
OF RESTORATION,
AND THEN CALL US.
BECAUSE IF I PICK YOUR
NAME OFF THIS COMPUTER SCREEN,
I MIGHT BE PUTTING
YOU ON THE SPOT.
SO SOMETHING
TO THINK ABOUT.

He looks at the screen and says YEAH, LOOKS LIKE WE'VE GOT
SOMEBODY COMING ON HERE.
SO STAND BY.

A dial tone is heard.

He continues I'VE ACTUALLY GOT A DIAL
TONE IN MY EAR, DAVID.
SO I'M GOING TO
CONNECT THERE.
LIFT THE PHONE UP.
ALL RIGHT.
OKAY.
ONE OF THOSE LITTLE
TECHNICAL GLITCHES THAT
GOES ALONG WITH THE
VIRTUAL CLASSROOM.
BIT OF A LEARNING
CURVE GOING ON HERE,
BUT HAVING NO
LESS FUN.
HELLO?

A female voice answers HELLO.

David asks HOW ARE YOU?

She answers I'M FINE.

David asks WHO AM I SPEAKING?

She says IT'S MICKEY SCHIFFER.

David says HI, MICKEY.
WHERE ARE YOU CALLING
FROM, MICKEY?
PETERBOROUGH?

Mickey says I'M CALLING FROM
PETERBOROUGH.

David says I JUST WANT TO TELL OUR
PRODUCTION PEOPLE, MICKEY,
BEFORE YOU GO ON, THAT
THERE'S A CONSIDERABLE
ECHO IN MY EAR, AND
IT'S DISTRACTING.

He says FOR ME, TOO.

David tilts his head and says MAYBE IT HAS SOMETHING
TO DO WITH THE TELEVISION
VOLUME AT YOUR END
OF THINGS, MICKEY,
I'M NOT SURE.
BUT I SHARE THAT
INFORMATION WITH
OUR PRODUCTION PEOPLE.
I'M SURE THEY'LL DO
WHAT THEY HAVE TO DO.
AND I ENCOURAGE YOU TO GO
ON AND SHARE WITH ME
YOUR DEFINITION OF
RESTORATION, PLEASE.

She says IN TERMS OF DEFINITION
FOR RESTORATION,
PROBABLY HAS SOMETHING TO
DO WITH REPAIRING
OF WHAT USED TO BE.

As she speaks David draws a line over the word restoration on the slate and writes repair.

She continues FOR EXAMPLE, LAKE SHORES
THAT HAVE BEEN DESTROYED
IN TERMS OF THE TREES
THAT HAVE BEEN REMOVED,
AND PLANTINGS THAT
HAVE BEEN REMOVED
FOR WONDERFUL GREEN GRASS
THAT'S FERTILIZED
ALL THE TIME.
I DON'T THINK THAT'S
A GOOD THING TO DO.
AND I THINK PEOPLE
ARE GOING BACK
TO THE ORIGINAL
LAKE SHORES AGAIN.
AND I BELIEVE THAT
IS RESTORATION.

David appears in a frame on the right hand of the slate and says YEAH, THAT'S PRETTY
EXCITING, EH MICKEY?
I MEAN, JUST WHAT
YOU DESCRIBED THERE,
ABOUT HOW THE LAKE SHORE
NO LONGER RESEMBLES
WHAT IT ONCE DID.
I LIKED YOUR USE
OF THE WORD REPAIR.
IT SEEMS TO ME, THAT'S
PART OF THE NEXT JOURNEY,
IS CONTINUE TO REPAIR.
TO DO AWAY WITH THAT
EXOTIC TURF GRASS
YOU DESCRIBED,
AND TO PUT BACK
WHAT WAS
ORIGINALLY THERE.
GOOD FOR YOU, MICKEY.
DID YOU HAVE ANY OTHER
THOUGHTS ON RESTORATION?
ANY OTHER WAY YOU
MIGHT DEFINE IT?
ANY OTHER ANGLE YOU
MIGHT COME AT IT FROM?

She says REHABILITATION,
REMEDIATION.

He draws another line on the slate and writes “rehab. And remediation.”

He says ISN'T THAT INTERESTING.
ALL R WORDS.

She says I'M USED TO THAT.

He says I UNDERSTAND.
VERY GOOD.
THANKS, MICKEY.
THANKS FOR THE CALL.
I THINK MICKEY'S
EXAMPLES WERE GOOD ONES.
I THINK THE THOUGHT
OF REPAIRING.
THERE WAS ONE OTHER THING
MICKEY SAID THAT
I WANT TO COMMENT ON.
IT WAS IN REGARDS TO
PUTTING BACK WHAT ONCE WAS.
I THINK THERE ARE MANY
DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS YOU
CAN COME AT A DEFINITION
OF ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION
FROM, BUT FOR THE PURPOSE
OF TODAY'S LESSON,
I WOULD LIKE TO
CONCENTRATE ON THE ONE TERM
MICKEY USED, REPAIR,
AND THE OTHER THAT
SHE ELUDED TO, PUTTING
BACK WHAT ONCE WAS.
OKAY, WE'VE
BEEN FORTUNATE,
WE'VE HAD BARB ELLIOTT
SHARE WITH US
WHAT A NATURAL WETLAND
ECOSYSTEM MOSTLY LOOKS LIKE.
WE HAVE COME UP WITH A
DEFINITION OF ECOLOGICAL
RESTORATION WE
CAN ALL LIVE WITH.
AND WHAT I'D LIKE TO DO
NOW IS CONNECT UP WITH
DOCTOR JIM MADDER IN
REGARDS TO HOW A HUMAN
CREATED WATER SYSTEM
IS USUALLY MANAGED.
HELLO, JIM.

Jim answers HELLO, DAVID.

David asks HOW ARE YOU?

He says DOING WELL.

David continues GOOD.
JIM, A LOT OF OUR
LISTENERS DON'T KNOW
WHAT JIM MADDER
LOOKS LIKE.
YOU CAN THANK JOHN
LYON FOR THAT ONE.

A caricature depicting Jim appears. It’s drawn in black marker and shows a man in his thirties with straight black hair, a moustache and a stubble beard. He wears glasses.

Jim chuckles.

David continues I THINK JOHN LYON MAY
NOT BE EMPLOYED TOMORROW,
BUT NONETHELESS, I THINK
JOHN DID A GREAT JOB
PULLING THAT
TOGETHER FOR ME.

Jim comments I THINK I NEED
TO SHAVE.

David says WELL, ANYHOW.
I THINK HE DID A FINE
JOB, AND THAT LOOKS
SOMEWHAT LIKE DOCTOR MADDER.
BUT I GUESS THE POINT IS
WE HAVE DOCTOR JIM MADDER
ON THE PHONE.
JIM IS AN ENTOMOLOGIST.
AND SOME WOULD ASK WHY
AN ENTOMOLOGIST
WOULD TALK ABOUT WATER.
JIM, IT'S NO SECRET TO ME
THE ROLE WATER PLAYS
WITH INSECTS.
COULD YOU ELABORATE
ON THAT A LITTLE BIT?

He says SURE.
AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS ON MANY
ESPECIALLY THE
LOWER ONES,
THE LEVELS OF THOSE ECOSYSTEMS
ARE FILLED BY INSECTS.
EVERYTHING FROM
CHIRONOMIDS TO BLACK FLIES,
MOSQUITOES,
DEPENDING IF THERE IS
STANDING WATER
OR RUNNING WATER.
SO REALLY, INSPECTS PLAY
A CRITICAL ROLE
IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS.
AND THEY ARE REALLY THE
FOOD FOR LARGER ORGANISMS,
SUCH AS FISH OR
SMALL MAMMALS
THAT ALSO LIVE IN
THAT ECOSYSTEM.

David says VERY GOOD, JIM.
JIM, ONE OF THE THINGS I'D
LIKE TO DO NOW, I GUESS,
WE'RE GOING TO ROLL THE
VIDEO CLIP OF WATER
AS IT MOVES THROUGH
A HUMAN-MADE WATER
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.
AND I WAS JUST WONDERING
IF YOU COULD TALK OVER IT
WHILE WE DO THAT.

He answers SURE, WILL DO.

David listens through his earphone and says YEAH, IT'S NOT AT
THIS POINT, DAVID.
GO AHEAD, JIM.

A clip shows a shallow stream with rocks in it, surrounded by green bushes and trees.

Jim says HERE YOU HAVE A
RELATIVELY PRISTINE
STREAM BEFORE IT GETS
INTO THE URBANIZED AREA.
THERE'S LOTS OF BRUSH
AROUND THE OUTSIDE, PLANTS.
YOU NOTICE THE STREAM
IS RELATIVELY WIDE,
AND I'LL TELL YOU THE
WATER IS A BIT SHALLOW HERE.
LOTS OF ROCKS
IN THIS AREA.
EVEN THOUGH THE GRADE
IS PRETTY HIGH HERE,
THE WATER IS NOT FLOWING
THROUGH IT FAIRLY QUICKLY.
THE WATER WILL BE
STOPPED AND SLOWED DOWN.
AND UNDERNEATH THAT WATER
THERE WILL BE A LARGE
NUMBER OF INSECT SPECIES,
AND WHILE NOT IN THIS AREA,
COULD POTENTIALLY
HOUSE SOME FISH AND EVEN
SOME FISH SPAWNING
THROUGH THE AREA AS WELL.

The clip shows some yellow wildflowers. Behind them a large concrete pipeline appears.

He says WE START TO SEE, AS WE
GET CLOSER TO THE
URBAN AREAS, THE MORE
EVIDENCE OF HUMANS.
YOU'VE GOT A CONCRETE
CULVERT IN THE BACK
THAT HAS A LITTLE BIT
OF GRAFFITI ON TOP.
THE STREAM WILL
BE CHANNELIZED,
MADE A LITTLE
DEEPER, BUT STILL,
THE STREAMS ARE MOVING
RELATIVELY SLOWLY.
A FEW INSECTS THERE
ON TOP OF THE WATER,
YOU CAN SEE ON THE
RIGHT HAND SIDE.
YOU CAN SEE DOWN
THROUGH THE WATER,
IT'S STILL FAIRLY CLEAR.
IT'S NOT TERRIBLY TURBID.
IT DOESN'T HAVE A LARGE
AMOUNT OF SEDIMENT IN IT,
RUNNING THROUGH
THIS AREA.
BUT NOW YOU'RE NOTICING
IT'S BECOMING A BIT STRAIGHTER.
WE TEND TO STRAIGHTEN
STREAMS AS THEY ENTER
OUR URBAN AREAS.
A CONCRETE BLOCK
ON THE LEFT.

The mouth of the concrete block has a railing to prevent blockages.

He continues AS IT GOES IN THIS
URBAN AREA, IN FACT,
IT'S GOING TO TRAVEL
UNDERGROUND THROUGH
MOST OF THIS TOWN.
IT'S GOING TO ENTER
THROUGH THAT GRATE,
BE SURROUNDED
BY CONCRETE.
IT'LL BE MADE
NARROWER, DEEPER,
THE WATER WILL
FLOW FASTER,
AND JUST ABOUT THE ONLY
EVIDENCE THAT IT'S THERE
ARE THESE SEWER GRATES,

The clip shows the sewer grates on the street near a shop.

He says AND THE WATER WILL FLOW
DIRECTLY DOWN THERE OFF
THE STREETS INTO THE STREAM.
WE'RE ACTUALLY WALKING ON
TOP OF WHERE THE STREAM IS.
IT'S UNDERNEATH
US RIGHT NOW,
ALMOST IN THIS
TOMB OF CONCRETE.
CONCRETE ON THE TOP,
AND THE TWO SIDES.
AND MOST PEOPLE, I THINK,
WALKING IN THIS AREA,
WOULD NEVER KNOW
THERE'S A STREAM HERE.

The clip moves along the street towards a parking lot.

He says NO TREES LEANING OVER TOP,
NO LEAVES FALLING IN,
NO VEGETATION IS
GOING TO BE IN THERE.
I WANT TO NOTE THE
PARKING LOT AROUND HERE.
WHENEVER IT RAINS, ALL OF
THE SEDIMENTS ARE GOING
TO COME OFF THAT
PARKING LOT,
RIGHT INTO THE STREAM
HERE WHERE YOU'D SEE IT.
THE BOTTOM OF THE STREAM
NOW IS DEEPER, NARROWER,
IT'S SEDIMENTIZED.
LOTS OF SEDIMENTATION
IN THERE.

The clip shows a grate in the stream’s route and running water is heard.

He continues THE SPECIES WILL
HAVE CHANGED QUITE
DRAMATICALLY BECAUSE
THE WATER IS FLOWING
AT A DIFFERENT RATE.
HERE, IT GOES BACK
UNDERGROUND AGAIN,
AND THE ONLY EVIDENCE
YOU'VE GOT IT'S A STREAM
IS ANOTHER SEWER
GRATE ON THE LEFT.
AND IT WILL END
HERE, VERY ABRUPTLY,
IN THE AQUATIC
ECOSYSTEM.

The clip shows a large channel of water where the stream reaches. David appears on the screen and walks out of view.

Jim teases DAVID, HOW DID YOU
MANAGE TO GET THERE?
YOU'RE STILL
THERE IN THE SIDE.
IT'S GOING TO END
VERY ABRUPTLY.
NO SORT OF MARSHY AREA
DIRECTLY OUT IN THE CHANNEL.
DOWN THERE IN THE BOTTOM,
INSTEAD OF HAVING THAT
WONDERFUL MUCK THAT BARB
PICKED UP WITH HER HAND,
YOU'RE GOING TO
HAVE GRAVEL, SAND,
AN AREA THAT FISH MIGHT
NORMALLY HAVE SPAWNED IN,
THEY JUST CAN'T
SPAWN IN ANYMORE.
SO THERE'S BEEN A PRETTY
DRAMATIC CHANGE THERE
FROM ABOVE THE TOWN
TO DOWN BELOW IT.

The image fades to black.

A clip shows a wetland in the background behind some piled gray rocks.

Jim continues to describe the landscape.

He says ONE OF THE THINGS WE'VE
TRIED TO DO TO STOP
SOME OF THESE PROBLEMS
I'VE JUST TALKED ABOUT,
THE SEDIMENTATION, AND
ALSO THERE'S A PRETTY
DRAMATIC INCREASE IN
FLOODING AFTER A RAIN
BECAUSE THE WATER COMES
OFF THE CONCRETE AREAS
REALLY FAST, IS
WHAT YOU SEE HERE.
THIS IS A STORM
RETENTION POND.
WATER, INSTEAD OF GOING
INTO THE LOCAL STREAMS
AND RIVERS, IS DIRECTED
TOWARDS A POND LIKE THIS,
IN A NEW DEVELOPMENT.
WATER COMES IN
HERE AFTER A RAIN,
SETTLES INTO THE AREA.
IS ALLOWED TO
EITHER EVAPORATE,
OR MORE IMPORTANTLY, EVEN
GO BACK INTO THE SOIL,
INCREASING THE
SOIL MOISTURE.
YOU NOTICE THE WATER
HERE IS REALLY MUDDY.
IT'S TURBID.
AND I THINK WE'RE
TAKING A TRIP UP HERE
TO SEE HOW IT ACTUALLY
GOT INTO THIS POND.

The clip shows large piles of rocks.

He continues LARGE ROCK YOU SEE HERE
IS TO PREVENT EROSION
IN CASE THERE'S A
FLOODING SITUATION.

Two large culverts appear in the background behind the rocks.

He says THE WATER IS COMING OUT
OF THOSE CULVERTS THAT
YOU SEE ABOVE YOU, DOWN
THROUGH RIGHT UNDERNEATH
OUR FEET INTO THAT
STORM RETENTION POND.
AND HELD THERE RATHER THAN
SO IT REDUCES
SEDIMENTATION,
AND IT WILL ALSO REDUCE
THE CHANCE OF FLOODING
RIGHT AFTER A
MAJOR RAINFALL.

David appears on screen and says VERY GOOD.
JIM, I THINK THAT'S
QUITE A CONTRAST.
I THINK YOU'VE DONE
A WONDERFUL JOB OF
ILLUSTRATING THE
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
A HUMAN CREATED WATER
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM,
AND THE NATURAL
WETLAND ENVIRONMENT
THAT BARB
ILLUSTRATED EARLIER.
ONE OF THE THINGS
I'D LIKE TO DO FIRST
IS INVITE QUESTIONS
OF OUR STUDENTS.
IF ANYBODY HAS ANY
QUESTIONS FOR JIM MADDER,
THEY'RE CERTAINLY WELCOME
TO CALL IN WITH THEM.
JIM, WHILE WE WAIT
FOR THOSE CALLS,
I ACTUALLY HAVE A
QUESTION FOR YOU MYSELF.
BARB NOTED SOME OF THE
CREATURES THAT INHABIT
A MOSTLY NATURAL
WETLAND ECOSYSTEM.
SHE NOTED TURTLES,
FOR AN EXAMPLE,
AND SOME OF THE
MIGRATORY BIRDS.
MY QUESTION FOR YOU IS
WHAT KIND OF CREATURES,
ARE THEY THE SAME,
ARE THEY DIFFERENT,
MIGHT INHABIT THE WATER
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
THAT YOU JUST DESCRIBED?

He answers THEY ARE GOING TO CHANGE
PRETTY DRAMATICALLY
FROM THE MORE PRISTINE
AREA ABOVE THE TOWN,
TO DOWN IN THE TOWN AREA.
YOU'RE GOING TO GET FEWER
SPECIES, CERTAINLY.
BUT OF THE SPECIES YOU
FIND IN THAT URBANIZED AREA
UNDERNEATH, WELL THAT
TOMB AREA, FOR EXAMPLE,
YOU'RE GOING TO FIND
TYPICALLY LARGE NUMBERS.
YOU'RE GOING TO FIND ONES
THAT SPECIALIZE IN A
HIGHLY SEDIMENTED AREA.
OFTEN AN AREA THAT
HAS WET PERIODS
AND THEN VERY DRY PERIODS.
SO THINGS WITH
SHORT LIFECYCLES.
THINGS LIKE CHIRONOMIDS
COME TO MIND.
THESE ARE THE
CRITTERS THAT,
YOU MIGHT SEE
A SWARM OF.
THEY DON'T BITE, BUT
THERE WILL BE HUGE
NUMBERS OF THEM AROUND.
AND ESPECIALLY
IN URBAN AREAS,
YOU'LL SEE THEM ATTRACTED
TO LIGHTS IN LARGE NUMBERS.
THEY HAVE SHORT
LIFECYCLES.
THEY CAN REPRODUCE
VERY, VERY QUICKLY.
AND IN THAT SITUATION,
YOU'VE GOT TO BE ABLE
TO WITHSTAND WET
AND DRY PERIODS.
YOU'VE GOT TO BE ABLE TO
WITHSTAND A HIGH DEGREE
OF SEDIMENTATION, AND
ALSO, POTENTIALLY,
MAJOR CHANGES IN OXYGEN.
AND CHIRONOMIDS ARE A
TYPICAL EXAMPLE OF THAT.
WHEREAS ABOVE THAT AREA,
YOU'D FIND A GREATER DIVERSITY
OF SPECIES, BUT
PROBABLY QUITE A FEW LESS
CHIRONOMIDS IN THAT AREA.

David nods and says VERY GOOD.
JIM, I CAN REMEMBER
CROSSING MAIN STREET
IN WATERLOO, I WAS GOING
PAST - IT WAS AN OLD
CONSUMER'S DISTRIBUTING.
AND WHAT I ASSUMED WAS
A RATHER LARGE RAT
CROSSED ACROSS MY TOES,
AND CROSSED THE ROAD,
AND WENT DOWN A SEWER
GRATE AND DISAPPEARED.
AND IT WAS ONLY
AT THAT POINT,
IT CAME TO MY ATTENTION,
THAT LAUREL CREEK,
THE MAJOR WATERWAY THAT
PASSES THROUGH WATERLOO
WAS EVEN PRESENT AND
I'M JUST WONDERING,
WAS THAT A RARE
HAPPENING?
OR COULD SOMETHING
LIKE THAT HAPPEN
MORE OFTEN THAN NOT?

He explains NO, THAT'S
QUITE TYPICAL.
MANY OF US ARE RAISED IN
URBAN AREAS AND DON'T
REALIZE STREAMS ARE
LITERALLY UNDERNEATH OUR FEET.
THEY'VE BEEN PUT
UNDERGROUND BECAUSE
IT'S CONVENIENT FOR US
NOT TO HAVE THEM THERE.
WE BUILD OVER
TOP OF THEM.
AND YOU MENTIONED RATS.
THEY QUITE COMMONLY WILL
DRINK AND BE AROUND
SOURCES OF WATER.
THEY DO NEED TO DRINK
WATER EVERY DAY.
SO THEY'LL BE SOMEWHERE
AROUND THAT AREA.
SO IT'S NOT
UNCOMMON FOR THAT.
IT WOULD BE AN
INTERESTING JOURNEY.
IF SOMEONE REALLY WANTS
TO TAKE A JOURNEY
DOWN AN URBANIZED CREEK.
I'M HERE IN PETERBOROUGH,
AND WE HAVE JACKSON CREEK
THAT RUNS THROUGH TOWN.
AND MANY PEOPLE
DON'T KNOW,
IT POPS UP IN
DIFFERENT LOCATIONS.
AND I'VE TAKEN A BIT OF
A TOUR DOWN THROUGH
SOME OF THOSE TUNNELS
IT GOES THROUGH,
AND IT'S QUITE REMARKABLE
THE LIFE THAT IS THERE.
HIGH NUMBERS, BUT
VERY FEW SPECIES.
IT'S AN INTERESTING
CHANGE OF BIODIVERSITY.

David looks at the screen and says JIM, GOT A CALL HERE.

Connie says HI.

David says HI, CONNIE.

She answers YES.

David says CONNIE, DO YOU HAVE A
QUESTION FOR DOCTOR MADDER?

She says YES, I DON'T
UNDERSTAND, EXCUSE ME,
HOW YOU PUT A
STREAM UNDERGROUND?
HOW IS THAT DONE?

David smiles and says YEAH, JIM.

He says PERHAPS I'M USING AN
INCORRECT TERM HERE.
BUT BASICALLY, IT'S
ENCLOSED IN CONCRETE.
IN SOME CASES THEY'LL
ACTUALLY DIVERT
THE STREAM AND PUT IN
CULVERTS SO IT IS
COMPLETELY SURROUNDED IN
CONCRETE - TOP, SIDES,
AND BOTTOM - AND THE WATER
SIMPLY WILL RUN THROUGH
THAT WHEN IT'S
DIVERTED BACK IN.
IN OTHER CASES, THEY'LL
BUILD A BOX ON THREE SIDES.
THE BOTTOM IS THE
ORIGINAL STREAM,
BUT THE SIDES AND
THE TOP ARE CONCRETE.
AND OFTEN, THE TOP
BECOMES A BUILDING SITE,
AS YOU SAW THERE, A
GARAGE OR A PLACE
TO PARK ON TOP OF.

David puts in SO IT SOUNDS LIKE IT'S
INTERESTING BECAUSE
THE USE OF THE WORD
CREEK OR STREAM,
AND WHAT ACTUALLY BECOMES
A STORM WATER SEWER.

Jim says RIGHT.

David asks CONNIE, WAS THAT THE
ANSWER YOU WERE AFTER?

She says YES, THANKS A LOT.

David says YOU'RE WELCOME.
WE'VE ACTUALLY GOT ANOTHER
QUESTION FOR YOU HERE, JIM.
ANOTHER QUESTION
FROM MICKEY.
HI, MICKEY.

She says HI.
WHEN YOU WERE TAKING
US ON A TOUR OVER
THAT STREAM, YOU CAME
INTO A PARKING LOT,
AND YOU SAID SEDIMENT
FROM THE PARKING LOT
WAS GOING INTO THE STREAM.
HOW ABOUT THE CARS THAT
ARE STANDING ON THE
PARKING LOT, ESPECIALLY
IN THE WINTER.
THEY'VE GOT SALT AND
WHATEVER IS PUT ON THE ROADS.
WHAT IS THE CONSEQUENCE
OF THAT WHEN THAT GOES
WITH THE OTHER SEDIMENT
INTO THE STREAM?
DOESN'T THAT
CHANGE THE HABITAT?

Jim says OH, IT CERTAINLY DOES.
I DIDN'T GET A CHANCE
TO GET INTO ALL OF THE
THINGS THAT GET WASHED
INTO THOSE STORM SEWERS.
YOU HAVE THE GRAVEL AND
THE SEDIMENTS THAT ARE THERE.
ON A CONCRETE AREA YOU'LL
CERTAINLY HAVE GRAVEL,
SAND, AND THE SALT
THAT'S DISTRIBUTED.
THE SALT CERTAINLY IS AN
ABIOTIC OR NON-LIVING
FACTOR THAT WILL
INFLUENCE THE SPECIES
THAT CAN WITHSTAND IT.
IN ONTARIO, WE'VE ACTUALLY
CHANGED SOME OF THE ECOSYSTEMS
AROUND OUR ROADS BECAUSE
OF THE AMOUNT OF SALT
WE'VE
USED ON OUR ROADS.
IN FACT, WE END UP WITH
SALTWATER SPECIES THAT
CAN ONLY LIVE IN
THAT ENVIRONMENT.
OF COURSE, WE ELIMINATE
THOSE THAT CAN'T
WITHSTAND THE SALT.
IN ADDITION TO THAT, YOU
HAVE THE POTENTIAL OILS
AND OTHER DRIPPINGS THAT
CAN COME FROM VEHICLES.
AND ONE THAT PEOPLE
DON'T THINK OF TOO MUCH,
AND IS A MAJOR ISSUE DOWN
IN TORONTO IS FECES.
FECES FROM DOGS AND CATS HAS
BECOME A SIGNIFICANT PROBLEM,
AND ACTUALLY A
PARTIAL CONTRIBUTOR TO
THE PROBLEM OF BACTERIA
IN OUR SWIMMING AREAS.

The drawing of Jim appears once more. David writes “Jim” on it.

Jim continues SO YES, THERE'S A WHOLE
VARIETY OF THINGS
THAT COME OFF THERE.
THAT'S WHY THE STORM
RETENTION POND
ISN'T A BAD IDEA.
IT HAS ITS
PROBLEMS AS WELL,
BUT IT'S A WAY OF DIVERTING
SOME OF THOSE PROBLEMS
INTO AN AREA THAT
CAN BE CONTROLLED.

She says OKAY.

David continues OKAY, MICKEY.
JIM, WE'VE GOT ANOTHER
QUESTION HERE.
THEY'RE STARTING
TO FLOW IN.
THIS ONE'S FROM MARILYN.
THIS IS THE LAST
QUESTION WE'LL TAKE.
HELLO, MARILYN.

Marilyn says HI, HOW ARE YOU?

He answers GOOD.
YOU'VE GOT A QUESTION
FOR DOCTOR MADDER?

She says YEAH, I DO, ACTUALLY.
I'M JUST GOING TAKE IT BACK
OVER TO THE MAN-MADE STREAMS.
YOU WERE SAYING WHEN THEY
GO INTO THE URBAN AREAS,
JUST BEFORE THEY
GET TO A CULVERT,
THEY'RE ACTUALLY
MADE STRAIGHT.
NOW, IS THAT JUST
TO MAKE IT NEATER,
OR IS THAT TO
REDUCE FLOODING?

Jim says YEAH, TYPICALLY,
OUR URBAN SYSTEMS,
WHEN WE BUILD OUR ROADS,
THEY'RE STRAIGHT,
AND WHEN WE BUILD
OUR SEWER LINES AND
EVERYTHING ELSE,
THEY'RE STRAIGHT.
AND WE JUST TEND TO
BUILD OUR INFRASTRUCTURE
PRETTY MUCH IN
STRAIGHT LINES.
I WISH THERE WAS SOME
OTHER MORE EXOTIC WAY
OF DEALING WITH THIS.
IN FACT, BY BUILDING
THEM STRAIGHT,
THEY CAN ACTUALLY
INCREASE FLOODING.
THIS IS ONE OF
THOSE CRAZY THINGS;
THE MORE
TORTUOUS A ROUTE,
THE LESS THE SPEED OF
THE WATER GOING THROUGH,
THE LESS EROSION.
SO THE STRAIGHTER
THEY ARE,
THE WATER TENDS
TO GO FASTER,
BUT THEY CAN BUILD UP
TO PRETTY HIGH LEVELS,
AND CAUSE SOME PRETTY
SIGNIFICANT EROSIONS.
SO AS WE CHANNELIZE
OUR STREAMS,
WHICH IS TO MAKE THEM
NARROWING, DEEPER,
AND STRAIGHTER, WE
TEND TO INCREASE
OUR FLOODING PROBLEMS.
SO MAKING THEM STRAIGHT IS
GENERALLY ASSOCIATED
WITH THE WAY WE
BUILD, TYPICALLY,
IN URBAN AREAS.

She says RIGHT.
OKAY, THANK YOU
VERY MUCH.

Jim says MY PLEASURE.

David says THANK YOU, MARILYN.
JIM, I WANT TO
THANK YOU.
I WANT TO THANK
YOU FOR JOINING US.
IT'S OBVIOUS, BY
THE INTERACTION,
THAT YOU TOUCHED A FEW
PEOPLE OUT THERE, AS WELL.
YOU OPENED THEIR EYES TO A
COUPLE OF DIFFERENT THINGS.
I THINK, ONCE AGAIN, WHAT
YOU'VE DONE AN EXCELLENT
JOB OF ILLUSTRATING IS
BARB SHOWED US A MOSTLY
NATURAL WETLAND
ECOSYSTEM,
AND YOU'VE SHOWN US
WHAT A CONTRAST
A HUMAN-MANAGED, OR
HUMAN-CREATED WATER
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IS.
THANKS A AGAIN, JIM.

Jim says MY PLEASURE.
THANK YOU.

David says BYE, NOW.

He answers BYE BYE.

David continues THE THING I WOULD LIKE
TO COMMENT ON NOW IS,
ONCE AGAIN, BARB
AND JIM AND MYSELF,
WE CAN SPEND THE WHOLE
MORNING TELLING YOU ABOUT
THESE WATER MANAGEMENT
OR WETLAND ECOSYSTEM,
OR WETLAND ECOSYSTEMS,
AND THE IMPORTANCE OF THEM.
BUT YOU HAVE TO DETERMINE
YOURSELF IF, INDEED,
THESE WETLAND ECOSYSTEMS
ARE OF GREAT VALUE.
SO IN ORDER TO DO THAT,
WE'VE PLANNED A LITTLE
EXPERIMENT FOR YOU.
I KNOW THAT THE
FACILITATORS HAVE PUT
TOGETHER MYSTERY BOXES
AT EACH OF THE SITES.
INSIDE THOSE MYSTERY
BOXES ARE SEVEN
DIFFERENT COMPONENTS.
THIS EXPERIMENT IS
ENTITLED WETLAND METAPHORS.
WHETHER YOU KNOW OR
UNDERSTAND WHAT A METAPHOR
ISN'T IMPORTANT
TO ME RIGHT NOW.
BUT UNDERSTAND THIS,
IN EACH OF THOSE BOXES
ARE SEVEN DIFFERENT
COMPONENTS.
EACH ONE OF THOSE
COMPONENTS REPRESENTS
SOMETHING DIFFERENT ABOUT
A WETLAND ECOSYSTEM.
SOMETHING GOOD.
SOMETHING BENEFICIAL.
SO WHAT I NEED
YOU TO DO IS,
WE'RE GOING TO TAKE
A TEN-MINUTE BREAK.
YOU'RE GOING TO DIG
THROUGH YOUR MYSTERY BOXES,
AND YOU'RE GOING
TO DETERMINE WHAT EACH
OF THOSE SEVEN COMPONENTS
REPRESENT IN REGARDS
TO A WETLAND ECOSYSTEM.
THE OTHER THING YOU'RE
GOING TO DO IS,
YOU'RE GOING TO PICK
A REPRESENTATIVE,
A STUDENT REPRESENTATIVE
FROM YOUR GROUP,
AND YOU'RE GOING TO ASK
THAT PERSON AT THE END
OF THE TEN MINUTES TO
CALL IN AND SHARE
YOUR FINDINGS WITH
ME, SUCH THAT
WE CAN SHARE THEM
WITH EVERYONE.
SO ONCE AGAIN, DIG
THROUGH YOUR BOXES,
DETERMINE WHAT YOUR
COMPONENTS REPRESENT.
YOU'VE GOT TEN MINUTES.
WE LOOK FORWARD TO
SEEING YOU BACK HERE,
OR YOUR STUDENT
REPRESENTATIVE ANYWAY.
IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS,
I'M GOING TO BE HERE,
AND YOU'RE
WELCOME TO CALL.
ALL THE BEST.

A sketch appears on screen; it depicts a stream running through a field with trees in the background and birds flying in the sky. It’s signed with the initials “D.C.”

David appears again and says WELCOME BACK TO THE
VIRTUAL CLASSROOM.
LET'S SET THE
GROUND RULES AGAIN.
WETLANDS SERVE US.
NO DOUBT ABOUT IT.
WETLANDS SERVE US.
THEY ARE OF GREAT
IMPORTANCE,
AND THEY'RE OF GREAT
VALUE TO US ALL.
EVERY COMPONENT IN
YOUR MYSTERY BOX
REPRESENTS HOW A
WETLAND MIGHT SERVE US.
SO WHAT I'D LIKE TO DO
IS TAKE A FEW CALLS
AND SEE IF, INDEED,
MY INSTRUCTIONS WERE
INTERPRETED CORRECTLY,
AND HOW PEOPLE
INTERPRETED WHAT EACH
COMPONENT TO MEAN.
HI, CONNIE.

A female voice answers ACTUALLY, IT'S
NOT CONNIE.
I'M SPENDING THE
DAY WITH CONNIE.
I'M FROM DURHAM
COLLEGE.

David asks OH, WHAT'S YOUR NAME?

She answers MY NAME'S ELSPETH.

He asks ELIZABETH?

She says ELSPETH.

David smiles and says ELSA, SORRY, ELSA.
OR DID I GET
IT WRONG AGAIN?

She says WE'LL TRY ONE
MORE TIME.
ELSPETH.
I'LL SPELL IT
FOR YOU.

He says YES, PLEASE.

She says E-L-S-P-E-T-H.

He writes it down and says ELSPETH.

She says YES.

David says VERY GOOD.
THANK YOU, ELSPETH.
THANK YOU FOR
YOUR PATIENCE.

She says I'M USED TO IT.

He asks I'M SURE.
WHAT DID YOUR GROUP PULL
OUT OF THE BOX FIRST?

A slate appears. It reads “Wetland.”

She says WE PULLED THE RICE
OUT OF THE BAG FIRST.

He says YOU PULLED THE RICE.
WHAT DID YOU DETERMINE
THE RICE REPRESENTS?

David puts a rice box on the slate.

She explains WE FELT THE RICE IS
A GRAIN THAT GROWS
IN A VERY WET
ENVIRONMENT.

He takes off the box and writes “Grain” on the slate.

He says YES.
HOW WOULD THAT
GRAIN SERVE US?

She answers IT COULD SERVE THE
ANIMALS, AS WELL AS US.
NUTRIENTS.

He says YES.

She puts in ENERGY.

He asks DO YOU KNOW OF ANY RICE
THAT MIGHT ACTUALLY
GROW IN A WETLAND ENVIRONMENT
THAT IS COMMERCIALLY VIABLE?

She says WILD RICE.

He answers WILD RICE.
ABSOLUTELY.

He writes “wild rice” below grain.

He continues CAN YOU THINK OF ANYTHING
ELSE THAT'S COMMERCIALLY
VIABLE IN A WETLAND?
ANY OTHER FOOD PRODUCTS?

She says BLUEBERRIES.

He says CERTAINLY.

He writes “Blueberries.”

She adds CRANBERRIES.

He writes “cranberries.”

He says THERE'S THE BIG ONE.
WHOA, HANG ON A SECOND.
CRANBERRIES.
SO THE RICE REPRESENTED
HOW WETLANDS
ARE OF AN ECONOMIC
IMPORTANCE.
WAS THERE ANYTHING ELSE
IN THAT BOX YOU DUG OUT?
ELSPETH?

She says YEAH, WE DUG
EVERYTHING OUT.

He holds a yellow sponge up and asks WHAT DID YOU THINK
THE SPONGE WAS FOR?

She says IT HOLDS THE WATER.

He says IT HOLDS THE WATER.

She continues KEEPING THE MOISTURE
IN THE GROUND,
ALLOWING THINGS
TO GROW.

He says RIGHT.
IT HOLDS WATER.
IT HOLDS WATER FOR PURPOSE
OF FLOOD CONTROL AS WELL.

She says YES.

He continues IT'S INTERESTING, IF
YOU THINK ABOUT IT,
SOMETHING LIKE PEAT MOSS,
WE MINE OUR WET AREAS
FOR PEAT MOSS BECAUSE IT
IS ECONOMICALLY VIABLE
AS WELL BECAUSE
WE CAN SELL IT.
AND PEAT MOSS HOLDS UP TO
20 TIMES ITS WEIGHT IN WATER.
SO LET'S RECOGNIZE THE
SPONGE AS REPRESENTING
THE WETLANDS'
HOLDING CAPACITY.

He writes down “Sponge, holding capacity.”

He pulls out a bar of soap and asks WHAT ABOUT THE SOAP?

She says THE SOAP, PURIFIES
THE WATER SYSTEM.

He says CLEANSES.
THAT'S PRETTY
STRAIGHTFORWARD, EH?

He picks out an egg beater from the blue box and asks WHAT ABOUT THE
EGG BEATER?

She says OXYGENATION
OF THE SYSTEM.

He says VERY GOOD.
THAT'S INTERESTING.
IT'S NOT SOMETHING
I THOUGHT OF.
THINK ABOUT IT,
OXYGENATION IS A BIG PART
OF WHAT I'M ABOUT
TO DESCRIBE.
BUT IF YOU THINK ABOUT
IT, WHEN YOU USE
THE EGG BEATER ON A
PRODUCT IN THE KITCHEN,
LIKE AN EGG FOR
EXAMPLE, IT HELPS
TO BREAK IT
DOWN, AS WELL.
SO I WANTED TO
EMPHASIZE HOW A WETLAND
ALSO HAS A ROLE
IN BREAKING DOWN
OTHER MATERIALS
IN THE WETLAND.
FAIR ENOUGH?

She says FAIR.

He says OKAY.
ELSPETH, WHAT I'M GOING TO
DO IS I'M GOING TO MOVE ON.
AND GET A HOLD OF ANOTHER
GROUP AND FIND OUT
EXACTLY WHAT THEY THOUGHT
THE COMPONENTS OF THE
MYSTERY BOX REPRESENTED.

She says GREAT.
THANK YOU.

David says THANKS, ELSPETH.
OKAY, THAT'S GREAT.
OKAY, MY OWN MYSTERY BOX.
DIGGING THROUGH HERE.
HELLO.
WHO DO WE HAVE HERE?

Laurie says LAURIE.

David asks LAURIE?

She says YEAH.

David says HI, LAURIE.

She answers HI.

He asks LAURIE, WHAT DO
YOU HAVE TO ADD?

She asks WHAT DO WE HAVE TO ADD?
WE FOUND THE FILTER.

He writes filter on the slate.

He says YES, THE COFFEE FILTER.

She says VERY MUCH LIKE THE
PLANTS, THEY'RE FILTERING
THROUGH PROVIDING OXYGEN.

He says YES.
FILTERING OUT, SOMETIMES
HEAVY METALS FIND
THEIR WAY INTO
WETLAND ECOSYSTEMS,
AND YOU REQUIRE THE
PLANTS TO ABSORB THEM.
IT'S ACTUALLY CALLED
PHYTOREMEDIATION.
SOMETHING YOU MIGHT
WANT TO BE AWARE OF.
THERE ARE MUNICIPALITIES
THAT USE WETLANDS
TO FILTER SEWAGE SYSTEMS.

He touches a “tums” container and asks WHAT ABOUT THE TUMS?

She says THE TUMS WE FOUND WERE
REPRESENTED PERHAPS,
CALCIUM IN THE
WATER, OR ACIDITY,
OR EVEN ROCKS, WE THOUGHT.

He asks WHAT DO TUMS DO
FOR YOUR STOMACH?

She answers ACIDITY.
THEY CALM THE STOMACH.

He says SO IF YOU THINK ABOUT
IT, JUST TAKE RAINFALL,
FOR EXAMPLE, WHICH
IS SLIGHTLY ACIDIC.
THIS REPRESENTS THAT
WETLANDS CAN CHANGE
THE PH OF THE WATER
THAT ENTERS IT.
SO THAT'S WHAT THE TUMS
ARE MEANT TO REPRESENT,
AS AN ANTACID.
THEY CAN TAKE SOMETHING
THAT'S ACIDIC,
AND MAKE IT
MORE ALKALINE.
WHAT ELSE WAS
IN THERE?

He pulls out a cushion and asks WHAT ABOUT THE
CUSHION?

She answers WE HAD THE HARDEST
TIME WITH THE CUSHION.

He smiles and asks DID YA?

She explains WE THOUGHT IT MIGHT
BE MORE OF A BUFFER.

He says THAT'S INTERESTING.
WHAT DO MIGRATORY BIRDS USE
WETLAND ECOSYSTEMS FOR?

She asks HOME?

He says HOME.
AND MAYBE NOT LONG
TERM HOMES, BUT?

She adds TEMPORARY.

He explains TEMPORARY.
SHORT TERM
RESTING SPOTS.
SO THE IDEA OF
THE CUSHION,

He shows the flowery patterned cushion and adds I BROUGHT IN A NICE
SUMMER CUSHION,
BUT CERTAINLY I KNOW
SOME OF THE BOXES
HAD PILLOWS IN THEM.
BUT THAT WAS MEANT TO
REPRESENT HOW MIGRATORY BIRDS
USE WETLAND ECOSYSTEMS AS
TEMPORARY STOPOVER POINTS
AND RESTING SPOTS WHERE
THEY CAN RECHARGE.
I THINK WE COVERED
EVERYTHING.
SO I THANK YOU
FOR YOUR INPUT.
I DIDN'T DO THE GREATEST
JOB OF DOCUMENTING IT
HERE ON MY
GRAPHIC'S SLATE,
BUT HOPEFULLY YOU GOT THE
IDEA THAT YES, INDEED,
WETLAND ECOSYSTEMS
ARE IMPORTANT.
AND THEY PLAY A VERY
IMPORTANT ROLE
IN OUR URBAN
ENVIRONMENT, AS WELL.
MOVING ALONG, WHAT WE'VE
DONE IS WE'VE LOOKED AT
A NATURAL WETLAND
ECOSYSTEM.
WE'VE LOOKED AT A
HUMAN-CREATED
WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.
WE'VE LOOKED AT WHY
WETLAND ECOSYSTEMS
ARE IMPORTANT.
WHAT I'D LIKE TO DO NOW IS
I'D LIKE TO LOOK AT WHAT
WAS ALONG OUR SHORELINES,
WHAT CURRENTLY IS,
AND WHAT COULD BE.
AND THE BEST WAY TO DO
THAT IS TO ASK FOR
A LITTLE HELP FROM OUR
GOOD FRIEND RUDYARD.
AND YOU'LL SEE WHAT I MEAN
ABOUT THAT IN JUST A MINUTE.

He pushes a button and he appears in a clip on a grassy bank next to a lake. He has short brown hair and wears khaki shorts and a shirt. He holds a large black and white hairy dog on a leash.

He says NOW, LET'S JUST THINK
ABOUT THIS FOR A SECOND.
RUDYARD AND I, WE BOUGHT
THIS LITTLE HOME,
COTTAGE SIX WEEKS AGO
HERE ON THE SHORES
OF STURGEON LAKE.

He points to a wooden cabin painted light yellow, with a dark roof.

He continues SOMETIMES WHAT I
LIKE TO DO IS THINK,
WHAT WAS HERE
100 YEARS AGO?
AND CERTAINLY, THERE WAS
PROBABLY A NICE ROCKY SHORELINE.
THERE MIGHT HAVE BEEN
A SANDY SHORELINE.
THERE WERE CEDARS,
FOR AN EXAMPLE.
THERE WERE ALL KINDS
OF CONIFEROUS TREES.
OR PERHAPS THERE WAS A
MAPLE BEECH WHITE PINE
CLIMAX FOREST.
BUT WHATEVER THERE WAS
HERE 100 YEARS AGO,
OR EVEN AS RECENTLY
AS 60 YEARS AGO,
NO LONGER IS THE CASE.
LET'S TAKE A LOOK AROUND
NOW AND WE'LL SEE
EXACTLY WHAT WE HAVE.

A clip shows short thick grass.

He says WE'VE GOT KENTUCKY
BLUEGRASS,
IMPORTED FROM AFRICA,
GROWING UP TO THE EDGE
OF A CHANNEL
THAT'S MAN-MADE.
THIS CHANNEL WAS DUG.
WHAT WE HAVE HERE IS WE
HAVE STURGEON LAKE
ABOUT 100, 150
FEET FROM HERE.
AND IN AN EFFORT TO GET
OUR BOAT TRAFFIC IN HERE,
WE'VE CUT OURSELVES
A CHANNEL.

The walls of the channel are made of planks of wood.

He continues NOW, INSTEAD OF HAVING A
GENTLE SLOPING EDGE SO
THE CREATURES IN THE WATER
COULD FIND THEIR WAY UP
ONTO THE SOIL, WE HAVE
THIS SERIOUS CHANGE IN GRADE,
REPRESENTED HERE IN
FRONT OF MY PROPERTY
BY A RETAINING WALL BUILT OUT
OF CREOSOTE-SOAKED TIMBER,
RAILWAY TIES, THAT ARE
TOXIC TO THE CREATURES
IN THE WATER, AS THOSE
TOXINS LEACH INTO THE WATER.
WE'VE DONE OUR BEST TO
MAKE SURE THERE'S
A MONOCULTURE HERE.
BY A MONOCULTURE,
I MEAN ONE PLANT,
RATHER THAN A
DIVERSITY OF PLANTS.
WE'VE PLANTED TREES
THAT ARE GENETICALLY
PROGRAMMED TO
KILL THEMSELVES.

He points to a tall tree in front of his cabin.

He continues THEY'RE EXOTICS THAT WE'VE
BROUGHT IN FROM OTHER COUNTRIES.
IN AN EFFORT TO GET OUR BOAT
TRAFFIC THROUGH HERE SMOOTHLY,
WE HAVE TO KILL
THE GROWTH THAT OCCURS
AT THE BOTTOM OF
THIS CHANNEL.
AND BY DOING SO WE
HAVE TWO ALTERNATIVES;
WE CAN SPRAY IT WITH A
CHEMICAL THAT WILL KILL
THE WEEDS THAT GROW,
AS WELL AS KILLING
EVERYTHING ELSE
THAT'S IN THAT WATER;
OR WE CAN PUT DOWN A
BLACK PIECE OF PLASTIC
THAT WON'T ALLOW THE WEEDS
TO GROW THROUGH IT,
BUT WON'T ALLOW ANYTHING
ELSE TO GROW, EITHER.
THESE ARE SOME OF THE
OPTIONS THAT WE HAVE.
THESE ARE SOME OF THE
THINGS WE'VE CHANGED.
AND THESE ARE SOME OF THE
THINGS THAT WE HAVE
TO CONSIDER THAT ARE
COMPLETELY DIFFERENT.
I MEAN, RUDYARD HERE
IS A PERFECT EXAMPLE.
NOWHERE IS THERE A NATURAL
ECOSYSTEM THAT HAS
A 150-POUND NEWFOUNDLAND
DOG RUNNING THROUGH IT.

He pats Rudyard and says THIS IS A HUMAN CREATION,
JUST AS MUCH AS
EVERYTHING ELSE HERE.
AND THIS HUMAN CREATION
LOVES NOTHING MORE,
WHEN I COME
HOME FROM WORK,
THAN TO SPEND THE REST OF HIS
DAY

He points to the channel and says IN THAT HUMAN CREATION.
WHICH ONCE AGAIN CREATES
CONSIDERABLE DISTURBANCE
TO ALL THE CREATURES
THAT INHABIT THAT SPACE.
SO THAT'S JUST A BRIEF
LOOK AT SOME OF
THE CHANGES THAT HUMANS
HAVE INDUCED ON THIS,
WHAT WAS ONCE AN
EXTREMELY NATURAL,
OR A BEAUTIFUL,
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT.
LET'S TAKE A CLOSER
LOOK AT THIS NATURAL
ENVIRONMENT THAT
WAS ONCE HERE.

He pulls on the leash and says LET'S GO, LET'S GO.

Back in the studio, David says THAT'S MY BUDDY.
150-POUND
NEWFOUNDLAND DOG.
ONE OTHER THING I WANTED
TO COMMENT ON IN REGARDS
TO MY PETS IS THAT I
ALSO HAVE THREE CATS.
AND MAKE NO SECRET
OF, I'M A CAT LOVER,
BUT CATS KILL 4.4
MILLION SONGBIRDS
PER DAY IN THE UNITED
STATES ALONE.
SO ABOUT 4.75 MILLION IN
NORTH AMERICA, PER DAY,
SONGBIRDS KILLED
BY DOMESTIC CATS.
SO NO DOUBT ABOUT IT,
THOSE FOUR BUDDIES
OF MINE HAVE QUITE AN
IMPACT ON THE NATURAL
ENVIRONMENT
AROUND MY HOME.
THERE WAS ONE THING
I SAID IN THERE
THAT WAS JUST A LITTLE
BIT CONTROVERSIAL.
NOT A REAL BIG
DEAL, I DON'T THINK.
I MADE A BLANKET STATEMENT
ABOUT PESTICIDES.
PESTICIDES ARE A VERY
CONTROVERSIAL ISSUE.
I'M ACTUALLY QUITE
COMFORTABLE WITH
ANY THOUGHTS ANYONE
MAY HAVE ON THEM.
BUT THE POINT I WANTED TO
MAKE WAS THAT I SUGGESTED
PESTICIDES KILLED WHAT
ELSE WAS IN THE BOTTOM
OF THE CHANNEL, AND
THAT'S NOT THE CASE.
WHAT THEY DO IS THEY KILL
SOME OF THE PLANTLIFE
THAT SOME OF THE
OTHER CREATURES,
IN THAT AQUATIC
ENVIRONMENT,
USE FOR FOOD OR HABITAT.
SO I JUST WANTED TO
CLARIFY THAT A LITTLE BIT.
OKAY, THAT'S WHAT IT IS.
I THINK NOW, IT'S TIME TO
TAKE A LOOK AT WHAT WAS,
AND TRY TO DETERMINE
WHERE INDEED
WE WANT TO GO FROM HERE.

He appears in a clip walking alongside Rudyard towards the water.

He stands at the lake shore and says SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT.
EVEN WHAT'S HERE ISN'T
EXACTLY WHAT WAS ONCE HERE.
BECAUSE ONCE UPON A TIME,
THE TREES THAT STOOD HERE

He holds out his hands and says WERE JUST MASSIVE.
BUT THIS MORE CLOSELY
RESEMBLES WHAT WAS ONCE HERE,
COMPARED TO WHAT
WE JUST LOOKED AT.
AND THIS ALSO RESEMBLES
WHAT COULD BE HERE
WITH JUST A LITTLE
BIT OF WORK.
SO THE QUESTION IS,
WHAT DO WE WANT,
RETAINING WALLS AND
BLUEGRASS,

He points around him and asks OR BEECH,
BIRCH, AND BASSWOOD?

He appears back on screen and says THERE YOU GO.
BIRCH, BEECH AND
BASSWOOD.
A LITTLE DRAMATIC,
PERHAPS.
BUT CAN WE BRING OUR
QUESTION UP, PLEASE?
GOT A QUESTION HERE I
WOULD LOVE TO SHARE WITH YOU.

A blue slate appears. A question is written on it in white letters. It reads “Question number 1; Which of the following represents the greatest threat to the ecological health of David’s yard?
1. Pets and exotic plants.
2. Creosote soaked railway ties.
3. The use of pesticides
4. The overall loss of bio-diversity?”

He says IT'S A CHANCE FOR YOU TO
USE THE VIRTUAL CLASSROOM
TO ITS FULLEST.
LET'S REPHRASE THAT.
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING
REPRESENTS THE GREATEST
LONG-TERM THREAT TO THE
ECOLOGICAL HEALTH OF MY YARD?
THERE'S ACTUALLY
NUMBER 5 THAT DIDN'T
FIND ITS WAY ONTO
THE SCREEN.
IT'S NONE OF THE ABOVE.

There’s a bar at the right hand of the screen that measures student’s answers. The percentage grows as the students submit their opinions.

He continues YOU'RE WELCOME TO RESPOND
NONE OF THE ABOVE.
LOOKS LIKE 12 PERCENT OF
OUR STUDENTS
HAVE ALREADY RESPONDED.
THEY DON'T HAVE
THAT CHOICE NOW.
24 PERCENT OF OUR
PEOPLE ANSWERED.
MAYBE SOME OF OUR
STUDENTS AREN'T AWARE,
HOW, INDEED, TO ANSWER.
JUST PICK UP THE RECEIVER,
PRESS THE BUTTON,
1 THROUGH 5, PUT YOUR
RECEIVER BACK DOWN.
WE'RE MOVING ALONG A
LITTLE BETTER NOW.

The counter rises to 59 percent.

He continues THERE IS A KEY POINT I'M
TRYING TO GET ACROSS HERE,
WITH THE ASSISTANCE
OF RUDYARD.
AND THAT IS THERE ARE
NUMEROUS ENVIRONMENTAL
RIGOURS IMPOSED ON THE
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT;
BE IT AQUATIC, BE
IT URBAN IN GENERAL,
BE IT MY FRONT YARD,
BE IT YOUR FRONT YARD.
I ENCOURAGE YOU TO LOOK
AT WHETHER YOU'VE GOT
A SIDEWALK THROUGH
YOUR FRONT YARD,
REFLECTED HEAT, AN
ALTERED MICROCLIMATE.
I'M TRYING TO IMPRESS
UPON YOU THE IMPORTANCE
OF LOOKING AROUND AND
SEEING WHAT KIND OF
ENVIRONMENTAL RIGOURS ARE
IMPOSED ON YOUR OWN
URBAN ENVIRONMENT.
AND BY DOING SO I
ILLUSTRATE MY OWN URBAN
ENVIRONMENT, MY OWN
HOME, MY OWN YARD,
AS SOME OF THE
THREATS THAT FACE IT.
HERE'S THE WAY PEOPLE
HAVE RESPONDED.

A second slate appears. It shows the question on the left side and a bar graph on the right representing the students’ answers.
He interprets the bar as he looks at the five bars. Answer 1 is labelled 20 percent. Numbers 2 and 3 are labelled 0 percent. Number 4 is labelled 7 percent and number 5 is labelled 1 percent.

He says 20 PERCENT OF
OUR STUDENTS
HAVE DETERMINED PETS
AND EXOTIC PLANTS
ARE THE GREATEST
THREAT.
I CAN SEE WHY
THEY MIGHT DO.
I CERTAINLY EMPHASIZED
THAT IN MY DIALOGUE.
SOME HAVE SAID
NONE OF THE ABOVE.
THE MAJORITY HAVE
SAID THE OVERALL
LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY.
CERTAINLY THE WAY I
PRESENTED THIS QUESTION
COULD HAVE BEEN A
LITTLE MISLEADING,
BUT THOSE WHO
ANSWERED NUMBER 4,
THE OVERALL LOSS
OF BIODIVERSITY,
THEY CERTAINLY
UNDERSTOOD
THE POINT I WAS
TRYING TO MAKE.
THE POINT BEING WHILE
ALL THESE ENVIRONMENTAL
RIGOURS WE'VE DISCUSSED
TODAY, WHETHER IT BE ME,
OR JIM OR BARB, ALL THESE
ENVIRONMENTAL RIGOURS
THAT WE'VE
DISCUSSED TODAY,
ALL COMPLICATE THINGS.
BUT NOTHING
COMPLICATES THEM MORE
THAN THE SUM
OF THE PARTS.
LET'S TAKE A CALL
HERE FROM DOROTHY.
SO THE ANSWER WAS,
INDEED, NUMBER 4.
HELLO, DOROTHY.

She says HELLO.

He says HOW ARE YOU?

She answers FINE.

He says GOOD.
WHAT CAN I DO
FOR YOU?
DID YOU NOT HAVE A
QUESTION, DOROTHY?

She says NO, I DID THE
ANSWERING THING.

He responds OH, ISN'T THAT
INTERESTING.
SO THE TECHNOLOGY IS SUCH
THAT WE CALLED THROUGH
TO YOU IS WHAT
YOU'RE SAYING.
OKAY, DOROTHY, I'VE GOT
ANOTHER CALL BACKED UP,
SO YOU CAN HANG UP.

She says THANKS.

He continues AND I'LL FIND OUT
WHAT'S GOING ON HERE.
HERE WE GO.
WE'VE GOT OUR GOOD FRIEND
MICKEY HERE AGAIN.
I'M SURE MICKEY
HAS CERTAINLY
PROVEN TO BE
ENVIRONMENTALLY AWARE.
ENVIRONMENTALLY
SENSITIVE MICKEY.
HELLO, MICKEY.

Mickey says HI.
SAME WITH ME, DAVID, IT
WAS AN ANSWER TO YOUR QUESTION.

He says YES.
OH, YOU WERE CALLING IN
WITH AN ANSWER AS WELL.

She says YEAH.

He chuckles and says OKAY, THANKS,
MICKEY.
WE'RE HAVING
FUN ANYHOW.
OKAY, LISTEN, THAT'S
PRETTY MUCH SET THINGS UP.
WHAT'S HAPPENING HERE IS
THE VIRTUAL CLASSROOM
IS COMING TO A CLOSE.
AND WHAT I'M GOING TO ASK
IS I'M GOING TO ASK BARB
ELLIOTT TO COME BACK AND
TRY AND TIE A FEW THINGS UP.
SHARE WITH YOU A FEW
OF OUR FINDINGS TODAY,
AND WHERE WE
CAN TAKE THESE,
AND THEN WE'RE GOING TO
COME BACK AND TIE A FEW
THINGS UP ON MY OWN.
SO TAKE IT AWAY, BARB.

Barb sits on a stone wall and says
WE'VE BEEN ON QUITE
AN ADVENTURE TODAY.
WE STARTED OUT IN A
NATURAL WETLAND
WITH ME STANDING THERE
AND TELLING YOU
A LITTLE BIT ABOUT IT.
THEN WE FOLLOWED THE
COURSE OF WATER AS IT
HAS TRAVELLED THROUGH
AN URBAN LANDSCAPE,
AND WHAT HAPPENS TO
IT IN THAT LANDSCAPE,
AND SOME OF THE THINGS
WE CAN DO TO CHANGE,
OR HAVE DONE TO CHANGE
THE COURSE OF WATER.
AND ALSO, SOME OF THE
THINGS WE CAN DO
TO HELP RESTORE WETLANDS.
YOU SPENT SOME TIME IN
DAVE'S BACKYARD LOOKING AT
WHAT WAS THERE BEFORE,
WHAT'S THERE NOW,
AND WHAT COULD BE
THERE IN THE FUTURE.
AND MAYBE SOME
THINGS DAVID CAN DO
TO TRY TO RESTORE SOME OF
THE IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS
AND PURPOSES OF WETLANDS
IN HIS OWN BACKYARD.
NOW, IT'S YOUR TURN
TO TRY TO APPLY
SOME OF THESE CONCEPTS
TO YOUR PLACE.
AND THINK ABOUT SOME OF
THE THINGS YOU CAN DO
TO HELP RESTORE WETLANDS
IN YOUR OWN BACKYARD.
A COUPLE OF THINGS TO
THINK ABOUT BEFORE
YOU DO THIS, THOUGH, IS
CONSIDER HOW BIG
YOUR PROJECT IS
GOING TO BE.
TRY NOT TO BITE OFF MORE THAN
YOU CAN CHEW AT ONE TIME.
START SMALL, AND
THEN GO BIGGER.
RECOGNIZE THE FACT
ECOSYSTEMS ARE ALWAYS
CHANGING, ESPECIALLY
AQUATIC ONES.
AND YOU HAVE TO THINK
ABOUT THAT FOR THE LONG TERM.
SO THOSE ARE A COUPLE OF
LITTLE CAUTIONS BEFORE
YOU GO TOO FAR ON
THIS JOURNEY.
BUT I WISH YOU
GOOD LUCK.
DAVID?

Back in the studio, David says WELL DONE, BARB.
I CAN'T SUM UP WHAT
WE'VE COVERED TODAY
ANY BETTER THAN BARB
ELLIOTT JUST DID.
BUT HAVING SAID THAT,
THERE ARE FOUR THINGS
THAT I WOULD INDEED
LIKE TO COVER.
ONE OF THEM IS WHAT WE'VE
DONE TODAY WE PLAN
ON DOING THIS FALL
FOR 14 WEEKS,
ECOLOGY IN THE ENVIRONMENT
VIA DAVID WARD,
VIA THE VIRTUAL
CLASSROOM.
SO I SEND THE
MESSAGE TO TEACHERS,
PLEASE KEEP AN EYE
FOR ANY INFORMATION,
ANY SCHEDULING INFORMATION
REGARDING THE VIRTUAL CLASSROOM.
AND I SEND A
MESSAGE TO STUDENTS.
IF INDEED YOU'VE ENJOYED
WHAT YOU'VE LEARNED
OVER THE LAST HOUR, PLEASE
MENTION IT TO YOUR TEACHERS.
WHAT WE'RE GOING TO DO IS
FOLLOWING THE COMPLETION
OF THIS HOUR, I'M
GOING TO REMAIN HERE,
WE'RE GOING TO REMAIN NEAR
THE PHONES FOR 15 MINUTES.
IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS, IF
YOU'RE A LITTLE BIT SHY
ABOUT CALLING IN
ON THE TELEVISION,
THEN YOU'RE CERTAINLY
WELCOME TO CALL US DURING
THAT 15 MINUTE PERIOD
FOLLOWING TODAY'S LESSON.
ONCE AGAIN, IN ORDER
TO DO SO YOU PICK UP
THE RECEIVER, YOU PRESS pound 9
AND THEN YOU HANG UP.
NOW, IF INDEED, YOU
WANT TO CALL IN BEYOND
TODAY'S LESSON, THEN
THERE'S MY NAME,
AND THERE'S MY
PHONE NUMBER,
AND THERE'S MY OFFICE
EXTENSION NUMBER.

A slate on screen reads “David Ward, 7053249133 extension 3393.”

He says YOU'RE CERTAINLY WELCOME
TO CALL ME AT
SIR SANFORD FLEMING SCHOOL
OF NATURAL RESOURCES.
THE SERVICE
DOESN'T END HERE.
ONCE AGAIN;
NOW, THERE IS ONE OTHER
THING I WANTED TO SHARE
WITH YOU, AND THAT IS A
PRACTICAL APPLICATION
OF ALL THE THINGS JIM,
BARB AND MYSELF HAVE ALL
SHARED WITH YOU, AND THAT
YOU'VE ACTUALLY SHARED
WITH EACH OTHER, AS WELL.
THAT IS A PRACTICAL
APPLICATION
FOR THE KNOWLEDGE
YOU'VE GAINED TODAY.
MY SUGGESTION IS THAT YOU
INDUCE CHANGE FOR THE BETTER.
BY THAT I MEAN, PERHAPS
YOUR FRIENDS DON'T REALIZE
WHAT WAS ONCE HERE.
HOW WE ONCE HAD
LARGE TREES,
HOW WE ONCE HAD DIFFERENT
WETLAND ECOSYSTEMS.
PERHAPS THEY
DON'T REALIZE,
I'M ALMOST 40 YEARS OLD,
AND I HAVE TROUBLE,
IMAGINING SOMETIMES
WHAT WAS ONCE HERE.
PERHAPS YOUR PARENTS
AREN'T AWARE, EITHER.
I ENCOURAGE YOU TO SHARE
THIS INFORMATION WITH THEM.
PERHAPS YOUR TEACHERS NEED
TO BE REMINDED THAT
WHAT WAS ONCE HERE IS
NO LONGER THE CASE,
BUT THERE'S NO REASON WE
CAN'T PUT BACK SOMETHING
THAT WAS HERE, OR AT
LEAST SOMETHING
VERY SIMILAR TO THAT.
SO I ENCOURAGE YOU TO
SHARE THAT INFORMATION
WITH YOUR PEERS AND
WITH YOUR PARENTS.
LOOK AROUND
YOUR COMMUNITY.
TAKE A LOOK AT
WHAT WAS THERE,
TAKE A LOOK AT WHAT
COULD BE THERE.
GO TO YOUR PARKS MANAGER.
TELL THEM PERHAPS YOUR
PARKS HAVEN'T BEEN MANAGED
IN THE WAY YOU THINK IS
IN THE BEST INTEREST
OF YOUR COMMUNITY
ECOLOGICALLY.
I ENCOURAGE YOU TO LOOK
AT ALL THESE THINGS,
AND I ENCOURAGE
YOU TO SHARE THEM.
IF YOU GET AN OPPORTUNITY
TO SHARE THEM WITH YOUR
MUNICIPAL COUNCILLORS,
WITH THE PEOPLE WHO RUN
YOUR LOCAL COMMUNITY, I
ENCOURAGE YOU TO DO SO.
THERE'S NO BETTER WAY TO
INDUCE CHANGE THAN TO KEEP
A MUNICIPAL POLITICIAN'S
FEET TO THE FIRE.
SO THAT'S WHAT I ENCOURAGE
YOU TO DO WITH THE INFORMATION
THAT WE'VE ALL SHARED
WITH YOU TODAY.
WHAT I WOULD LIKE TO
DO NOW IS TAKE A CALL.
IF WE HAVE A CALL.
'COS WE OBVIOUSLY
HAVE AN INQUIRY
FROM ONE OF
OUR LISTENERS.
HELLO, ASHIK,
IS THAT YOU?

He says ASHIK, YEAH.

David says WHAT'S UP, ASHIK?
WHAT WOULD YOU
LIKE TO KNOW?

Ashik says MY GRANDFATHER USED TO
TELL ME THAT THE SMALLER
THE FISH, THE BETTER.
LIKE IF THE WATER
IS CONTAMINATED.
IS THAT TRUE?
IT KIND OF MAKES SENSE
BECAUSE IT WOULD HAVE
LESS CONTAMINANTS
IN IT, RIGHT?

He points to his name and number and says I'M NOT A FISH AND
WILDLIFE EXPERT, ASHIK,
BUT WHAT I WOULD
SUGGEST YOU DO IS,
YOU TAKE THAT NUMBER DOWN,
AND YOU GIVE ME A CALL
ON THAT ONE, AND I'LL
FIND THE ANSWER FOR YOU.
I'LL GO TO MY RESOURCES,
I'LL GO TO SOME OF
MY PEERS, SOME OF THE FISH
AND WILDLIFE EXPERTS
THAT I WORK WITH, AND
I'LL FIND AN ANSWER
TO YOUR QUESTION EXACTLY.
OKAY?

Ashik says OKAY.
THANKS A LOT.

David answers THANKS, ASHIK.
DAVID, ARE WE SET UP THERE
TO TAKE ANOTHER CALL?
OKAY, LET'S DO
THAT THEN.
OKAY, THAT'S GOOD.

Jeremy says IT'S JEREMY FROM
PETERBOROUGH.

David asks HI, WHO AM I
TALKING TO?
SORRY, I
MISSED THAT.

He answers IT'S JEREMY IN
PETERBOROUGH.

David says GO AHEAD, JEREMY.

Jeremy says JUST TO BACKTRACK TO
THE RETAINING WALL
YOU HAD AT YOUR PLACE.

David puts in YES, THE CREOSOTE-SOAKED
RAILWAY TIE RETAINING WALL.

He says YES.
IN THE EVENT YOU BUY A
PROPERTY THAT'S GOT
A RETAINING WALL IN PLACE,
IS THERE A RECOMMENDED
SUBSTITUTE TO THE
CREOSOTE-SOAKED RAILWAY TIES?
GIVEN THERE IS A RETAINING
WALL IN PLACE THAT'S GOT
THE RAILWAY TIES IN IT,
IS THERE A SPECIFIC
ALTERNATIVE YOU COULD
RECOMMEND TO USE INSTEAD
OF THOSE CREOSOTE TIES?

He says GIVE ME A COUPLE
OF EXAMPLES.
OR ARE YOU ASKING ME IS
THERE A RECOMMENDATION?

He says YES.

David explains WELL, LET ME TELL YOU
WHAT I HAVE PLANNED.
I'VE BEEN IN
THERE SIX WEEKS,
AND ALL I'VE BEEN DOING IS
BRAINSTORMING SINCE THEN.
ACTUALLY, I'VE BEEN
PICKING BARB ELLIOTT'S BRAIN.
THOSE RAILWAY TIES ARE
COMING OUT, FIRST OF ALL.
SECOND OF ALL, WHERE
I'M ACTUALLY SITUATED,
I DON'T NEED QUITE THE
COVER THAT SAY I WOULD
IF I WAS RIGHT OUT AT THE
EDGE OF THE STURGEON LAKE.
MY SHORELINE ISN'T
SUBJECTED TO THE
SAME HIGH WINDS AND
BEATING OF WATER.
SO WHAT I'M GOING TO TRY
AND DO IS PUT VEGETATIVE
MATERIAL BACK IN THERE.
I'VE GOT NEIGHBOURS WHO
HAVE PUT STONEWORK,
AND IT CERTAINLY HAS WORKED
TO KEEP THE SHORELINE
IN PLACE, AND IT
CERTAINLY IS A MUCH
MORE ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY
APPROACH THAN USING
THE RAILWAY TIES, BUT
IT'S NOT USER FRIENDLY.
SO THE CREATURES
THAT ARE IN THE WANT,
STILL CAN'T FIND THEIR
WAY OVER THOSE STONES
AND UP INTO THE
FRONT YARD.
SO THERE'S A WAY THAT'S A
LITTLE MORE ENVIRONMENT
FRIENDLY, BUT STILL
LESS THAN IDEAL.
WHAT I PLAN ON DOING THERE
IS CHANGING THE GRADE,
JEREMY, AND PUTTING IN ALL
KINDS OF VEGETATIVE GROWTH,
INCREASING THE
BIODIVERSITY,
AND MAKING MY FRONT YARD A
PLACE WHERE THE CREATURES
THAT INHABIT THE
WATER FEEL WELCOME.
DOES THAT MAKE SENSE?

Jeremy says YES, IT DOES.
THANK YOU VERY MUCH.

David says NO PROBLEM.
ALL THE BEST.
GOT ANOTHER CALLER.
YOU'RE CERTAINLY WELCOME
TO CALL US IF ANYBODY
HAS ANY THOUGHTS.
AND ONCE AGAIN,
IF YOU PREFER,
YOU CAN CALL IN IN
OUR 15 MINUTES BREAK.
HELLO, RACHEL.

She says HI.

David says HOW ARE YOU?

She says NOT TOO BAD.
I HAVE A QUESTION
FOR YOU.
NOW A LITTLE LAKE IN
DUCKS UNLIMITED HAS
JUST POSTED UP SIGNS
THERE'S NO LONGER ABILITY
TO FEED THE WATERFOWL.

David says YOU'RE NOT SUPPOSED TO FEED
THE WATERFOWL ANYMORE.
THE FEAR OF THERE
BEING BOTULISM.
IS THAT WHAT
THEY SUGGESTED?
OR DID THEY NOT GIVE
YOU AN EXPLANATION?

She explains WELL, ON THE SIGNS
IT STATES THE BREAD
EXPANDS WHEN IT GOES
INTO THE WATER,
AND THEY'RE NOT LOOKING
FOR THEIR OWN FOOD,
AND THEY ARE STAYING DURING
THE WINTER AND STARVING.
BUT MY QUESTION IS, IS
THERE ALSO AN EFFECT
ON THE WATER WITH THE
CONTENTS OF THE BREAD?
IS THAT ANOTHER FEAR?

He answers NO, I THINK THAT'S
A LEGITIMATE FEAR.
FIRST OF ALL, I THINK IT'S
QUITE INTERESTING
THE DEBATE OVER WHETHER
THE DUCKS END UP STARVING,
OR WHETHER THEY STOP
LEARNING HOW TO LOOK FOR FOOD.
THAT'S ALWAYS A QUESTION
ABOUT BIRD FEEDERS, AS WELL.
IN REGARDS TO HOW DOES
THE FOOD BEING PUT OUT
FOR THE DUCKS AFFECT
THE WATER QUALITY?
I MEAN, IT'S QUITE AN
INTERESTING DEBATE BECAUSE
WE COULD GO AT THIS
TWO DIFFERENT WAYS.
ONE, THOSE AREAS WHERE
THE DUCKS CONGREGATE,
AND THE PEOPLE
GO AND FEED,
HAVE YOU SEEN THE WATER
QUALITY IN THOSE SPOTS?
THERE'S NOTHING TOO
IMPRESSIVE ABOUT
THE WATER QUALITY
TO BEGIN WITH.
BUT HAVING SAID
THAT, CERTAINLY,
MOST PEOPLE WILL
THROW BREAD CRUMBS,
FOR EXAMPLE.
AND IT'S MY UNDERSTANDING
THAT BREAD CRUMBS
CAN ACCUMULATE
IN THE WATER.
THAT DISEASE CAN FORM,
BOTULISM IS THE ONE
I ALWAYS HEAR ABOUT, AND
THAT IT CAN CAUSE
THE LOSS OF GREAT
QUANTITIES OF DUCKS
OVER THE COURSE OF A
SUMMER, FOR EXAMPLE.
SO EVERYTHING THAT
YOU'VE SHARED, I THINK,
IS OF LEGITIMATE
CONCERN.
AND I THINK THE SIGNAGE
SHOULD BE CONSIDERED.
FAIR ENOUGH?

She answers YEAH, THANKS.

He says OKAY.
THANK YOU.
OKAY, ONCE AGAIN, WE'RE GOING TO
BE HERE FOR MORE QUESTIONS.
AND YOU ARE CERTAINLY
WELCOME TO CALL IN.
IN FACT, I ENCOURAGE
YOUR CALLS.
WE'RE GOING TO BE HERE
FOR ANOTHER 15 MINUTES.
AND YOU HAVE MY OFFICE
NUMBER IN CASE YOU
HAVE FURTHER QUESTIONS
BEYOND THAT.
OTHERWISE, I JUST HAVE TO
SAY A QUICK THANK YOU.
THAT THANK YOU IS TO
OUR STUDENTS BECAUSE,
WHILE THERE ARE MANY
PEOPLE THAT NEED TO BE
THANKED IN REGARDS TO
TODAY'S VIRTUAL CLASSROOM
EFFORT, THERE IS NO
TIME TO THANK THEM.
BUT THERE IS ONE GROUP
THAT I'M NOT GOING TO
LEAVE WITHOUT THANKING,
AND THAT'S OUR STUDENTS.
THOSE WHO HAVE CALLED IN,
AND THOSE WHO HAVE MADE
TODAY MUCH MORE
FUN FOR ME,
AND A MUCH BETTER LEARNING
EXPERIENCE FOR ALL.
SO I THANK YOU.
I WISH YOU ALL
THE BEST.
AND I SAY SEE
YOU IN THE FALL.

A blue slate appears. It reads “Q and A” as a title and has a logo representing a man with a question mark in his brain. A caption below it reads “Call in anytime during the next 15 minutes.”

He appears again and says HEY, WE'RE BACK.
IT'S CONNIE.
CONNIE'S BEEN
VERY SUPPORTIVE
OF THE VIRTUAL
CLASSROOM AND OF ME.
SORRY, IT MAY
NOT BE CONNIE.

A male voice says NO, YOU'RE NOT.
YOU'RE TALKING
TO PETER.

David says SORRY, PETER.

He jokes THAT'S OKAY.
I ANSWER TO
MANY NAMES.

David says GO AHEAD, PETER.

He says I JUST WANTED TO SAY
I THOUGHT THIS WORKED
VERY WELL, AND
CONGRATULATIONS ON THE PILOT.
AND JUST A SMALL ITEM WAS
MAYBE SOME OF THE PEOPLE,
WHEN THEY WERE TRYING
TO ANSWER THE QUESTION,
WERE DOING POUND
PLUS THE NUMBER,
AND THAT MAY HAVE BEEN
SOME OF THE REASONS
YOU WERE GETTING
CALLS, WHEN IN FACT
THEY WERE TRYING
TO REGISTER.
SO MAYBE JUST TIME YOU CAN
PUT UP SOME INSTRUCTIONS
ON HOW TO SELECT
THE ANSWER.

He says MAKES GOOD SENSE.

Peter says EXCELLENT, EXCELLENT.
CONGRATULATIONS.
THANKS VERY MUCH.

David says THANKS FOR YOUR
SUPPORT, PETER.

He says BYE.

A blue slate appears. It reads “Please remember to log off! Pick up handset. Press pound 7. Hang up handset. See you next time!”

Watch: Eco-Systems for High School Students