Transcript: What the Pfizer Vaccine Means for Canada | Nov 12, 2020

Steve sits in the studio. He's slim, clean-shaven, in his fifties, with short curly brown hair. He's wearing a gray suit, checkered pink shirt, and purple tie.

A caption on screen reads "What the Pfizer vaccine means for Canada. @spaikin, @theagenda."

Steve says 'A LIGHT AT THE END OF THE TUNNEL,' IS HOW PRIME MINISTER TRUDEAU REFERRED TO NEWS THIS WEEK THAT AT LEAST ONE OF THE VACCINES IN THE WORKS TO FIGHT COVID-19 ACTUALLY SEEMS TO WORK. IT'S EARLY DAYS, THOUGH, SO LET'S FIND OUT JUST HOW BRIGHT THAT LIGHT IS AT THIS POINT. DR. ISAAC BOGOCH IS AN INFECTIOUS DISEASES PHYSICIAN AT THE UNIVERSITY HEALTH NETWORK AND A SCIENTIST BASED OUT OF TORONTO GENERAL HOSPITAL AND U of T, and he joins us now from his office at TGH.

Isaac is in his late thirties, clean-shaven, with short brown hair. He's wearing blue scrubs.

The caption changes to "Isaac Bogoch. University Health Network."
Then, it changes again to "Big news?"

Isaac says WE LIKE TO PORE OVER THE DATA AND MAKE OUR OWN OPINIONS HOW EFFECTIVE AND SAFE IT IS. BUT WITH THE SNIPPETS OF DATA THAT WERE AVAILABLE, IT LOOKS REALLY GOOD, AND AT LEAST IT LOOKS LIKE WE'RE ON THE RIGHT TRACK TO DEVELOPING A SUCCESSFUL VACCINE.

Steve says BUT TO BE CLEAR, YOU HAVE NOT BEEN ABLE TO DO THE DEEP DIVE THAT YOU WOULD LIKE TO DO ON WHAT'S COME OUT SO FAR?

The caption changes to "Isaac Bogoch. University of Toronto."

Isaac says NO. I MEAN, QUITE FRANKLY, I'VE GOT ACCESS TO THE SAME THINGS THAT EVERYONE ELSE DOES, WHICH IS... YOU KNOW, WE HAVE SOME DETAILS. WE KNOW THEY ENROLLED OVER 43,000 PEOPLE. WE KNOW HALF GOT THE VACCINE AND HALF GOT THE PLACEBO. WE KNOW THERE WERE 94 EVENTS. THEY REALLY WANT TO KEEP THIS GOING BEFORE THEY HAVE 164 EVENTS, EVENTS IS OF COURSE A CASE OF COVID-19. WE'RE TOLD THAT THE PEOPLE IN THE VACCINE GROUP HAD SIGNIFICANT PROTECTION AGAINST COVID-19 AND THAT OF ALL THOSE 94 CASES, ABOUT 90 percent OF THE PEOPLE THAT GOT COVID-19 WERE IN THE PLACEBO GROUP. SO AT FACE VALUE, THAT LOOKS VERY, VERY PROMISING. HOWEVER, THEY'VE GOT TO FINISH THE TRIAL. WE'VE GOT TO SEE THE DATA. WE HAVE TO LOOK AT THE EFFICACY OF THE VACCINE. WE'VE GOT TO LOOK AT THE SAFETY PROFILE OF THE VACCINE. AND THEN I THINK WE CAN HAVE MORE MEANINGFUL CONVERSATIONS. BUT STILL, AT THE END OF THE DAY, BASED ON WHAT WE HAVE AVAILABLE TO US, IT LOOKS REALLY GOOD TO ME AND QUITE FRANKLY I THINK THERE IS ROOM FOR CAUTIOUS OPTIMISM. THIS MIGHT BE ONE OF THE VACCINES THAT REALLY GOES THROUGH TO COMPLETION AND THIS MIGHT BE ONE OF THE VACCINES THAT IS ROLLED OUT ON A POPULATION LEVEL.

Steve says AN ODD CURIOUS QUESTION. WHAT HAPPENS TO THE 10 percent WHO DON'T CLEAR IT?

Isaac says YEAH. GREAT POINT. SO WE DON'T REALLY KNOW. AND I THINK THERE'S A TON OF UNANSWERED QUESTIONS. SO ONE OF THEM IS, YOU KNOW, OBVIOUSLY WHAT IS THE TRUE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF THE VACCINE, BUT ALSO, YOU KNOW, IF YOU GOT THE VACCINE AND GOT COVID-19, DOES IT MITIGATE HOW SICK YOU ARE? ARE YOU STILL ABLE TO TRANSMIT THE INFECTION AS READILY AS IF YOU DIDN'T GET THE VACCINE? LIKE, THERE'S A LOT OF QUESTIONS THAT REMAIN UNANSWERED, AND I THINK WE'LL HAVE MORE OF THOSE ANSWERS AS TIME GOES ON. BUT FOR THE SNIPPET OF INFORMATION THAT WE HAD AVAILABLE, LOOKS GOOD FOR NOW, BUT OF COURSE... IT JUST WHETS OUR APPETITE. IT'S LIKE THE TEASER FOR A MOVIE. IT'S NOT REALLY THE FULL THING, ALTHOUGH IT'S A GOOD TEASER.

Steve says LET'S KEEP TALKING ABOUT THE TRAILER FOR THIS MOVIE THEN. ONE OF THE THINGS THAT HAS COME UP AND ONE OF THE THINGS I GUESS I HAVE LEARNED THROUGH THE COURSE OF THIS IS THAT IT'S TRICKY TO STORE ALL THIS STUFF AND APPARENTLY IT NEEDS TO BE STORED AND TRANSPORTED AT -80 degrees? WHICH SOUNDS VERY, VERY, VERY, VERY COLD. IS THAT TYPICAL FOR A VACCINE?

The caption changes to "Isaac Bogoch, @BogochIsaac."

Isaac says NO, IT CERTAINLY ISN'T. AND THERE'S A COUPLE OF VACCINES, THE MR and A VACCINE THAT REALLY APPEAR TO REQUIRE SOME REALLY DEEP FREEZING TEMPERATURES AND DEEP FREEZERS TO DO THIS. IT ISN'T TYPICAL. AND OF COURSE THAT REQUIRES SIGNIFICANT INFRASTRUCTURE TO DO. IT'S NOT... NOT EVERYONE HAS A minus 80 degree FREEZER IN THEIR BASEMENT. HAVING SAID THAT, WHILE THERE ARE LOGISTICAL HURDLES, IF THIS VACCINE MAKES IT THROUGH AND IF THIS VACCINE IS APPROVED AND IF IT'S GOING TO BE ROLLED OUT NATION-WIDE, I THINK, QUITE FRANKLY, THE LIMITING STEPS IS PRODUCING A VACCINE FOR AN INFECTION WE DIDN'T EVEN KNOW EXISTED 11 MONTHS AGO, NOT KEEPING THE VACCINE COLD. WE DO HAVE -80 degrees FREEZERS. WE DO HAVE THE CAPACITY TO, YOU KNOW, GET THIS VACCINE INTO PEOPLE'S ARMS ALL OVER THE COUNTRY. BUT, YEAH, THERE CERTAINLY WILL BE HURDLES TO DOING SO. THE OTHER INTERESTING THING, IF YOU LOOK AT, FOR EXAMPLE, THE VACCINES FOR EBOLA VIRUS IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO. SOME OF THOSE VACCINES NEEDED TO BE STORED AT -80 degrees CELSIUS. THEY FOUND A WAY TO DO IT IN THE DRC, WHICH IS WHILE WORKING IN A VERY LIMITED RESOURCE SETTING, THEY'RE ABLE TO DO IT SUCCESSFULLY. I THINK WE'LL BE ABLE TO DO IT SUCCESSFULLY IN CANADA.

Steve says IF THIS IS THE REAL DEAL, HOW CLOSE TO MARKET, HOW CLOSE TO ROLLING OUT MIGHT THIS ACTUALLY BE?

Isaac says OKAY. PLEASE DON'T HOLD ME TO ANYTHING HERE. THIS IS PURE SPECULATION. BUT IT WOULDN'T BE INCONCEIVABLE TO HAVE VACCINE PROGRAMS ROLL OUT, YOU KNOW, SOMETIME IN EARLY 2021, MAYBE IN THE FIRST QUARTER OF 2021. LIKE, AT THE END OF THE DAY, THE NEXT STEPS ARE, THEY'RE GOING TO BASICALLY SHARE THEIR DATA WITH VARIOUS GOVERNMENT BODIES, FOR EXAMPLE, HEALTH CANADA HERE AT HOME, THE FDA IN THE UNITED STATES, AND OTHER BODIES AROUND THE WORLD, AND THOSE INDEPENDENT GOVERNMENT BODIES ARE REALLY GOING TO BE EVALUATING THE DATA. THEY'RE REALLY GOING TO LOOK AT THE SIDE EFFECT PROFILE, YOU KNOW, THE SAFETY PROFILE, THE EFFICACY, THEY'RE GOING TO PORE OVER ALL THAT DATA. THEY'RE GOING TO DETERMINE IF, YOU KNOW, THIS IS THE REAL DEAL AND IF THIS SHOULD BE APPROVED OR PERHAPS IT MIGHT NOT BE, AND IF IT IS APPROVED, I THINK WE CAN START TO SEE VACCINE ROLLOUT SHORTLY AFTER. WE ALREADY HAVE SEEN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TAKE STEPS TO IMPLEMENT VACCINE PROGRAMS NATION-WIDE. SO HOPEFULLY EVERYONE GETS WHAT THEY NEED TO GET IN ORDER BEFORE A VACCINE IS APPROVED SO WHEN THE TIME COMES AND A VACCINE IS APPROVED, WE CAN JUST ROLL OUT THESE PROGRAMS NATION-WIDE.

Steve says THIS IS ADMITTEDLY A BIT OF A BIZARRE QUESTION BUT HUMOUR ME FOR A SECOND HERE, OKAY? WE HAVE HEARD FROM VARIOUS CIRCLES IN THE UNITED STATES THAT SOME PEOPLE WHO ARE DONALD TRUMP SUPPORTERS THINK THAT THE NEWS OF THIS VACCINE AND ITS POTENTIAL WAS HELD BACK BY THE BIG PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES AND OTHERS INVOLVED IN AN ATTEMPT TO HARM THE TRUMP CAMPAIGN. NOW, I'M NOT ASKING YOU WHETHER YOU HAVE ANY KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THAT, THERE'S NO REASON WHY YOU WOULD HAVE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THAT, BUT YOU DO KNOW THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, AND I'M WONDERING IF YOU HAVE ANY EXAMPLES YOU CAN LOOK AT WHICH MIGHT SUGGEST THAT THERE WOULD BE A POLITICAL AGENDA TO ANYTHING THEY ROLL OUT OR DON'T ROLL OUT? NOT NECESSARILY SPECIFIC TO THIS ELECTION CAMPAIGN, BUT EVER?

The caption changes to "Watch us anytime: tvo.org, Twitter: @theagenda, Facebook Live, YouTube."

Isaac says I... SO NOTHING COMES TO MIND. BUT THERE ARE CERTAINLY SMARTER PEOPLE WHO CAN ANSWER THAT QUESTION BETTER. WHAT'S INTERESTING IS WE KNOW IN THE UNITED STATES THEY HAVE A PROGRAM CALLED "OPERATION WARP SPEED" WHERE BASICALLY THEY PROVIDE FUNDING AND SUPPORT AND RESOURCES TO VARIOUS COMPANIES THAT ARE DEVELOPING A VACCINE. PFIZER WAS NOT A PART OF THAT. SO PFIZER HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH "OPERATION WARP SPEED." THEY DID NOT TAKE ANY FUNDING. THEY WERE FUNCTIONING INDEPENDENTLY. SO THAT'S KIND OF INTERESTING BECAUSE THEY'RE ACTUALLY FUNCTIONING AT AN ARM'S LENGTH FROM THE GOVERNMENT WITH THIS. BUT IN ALL FAIRNESS, I HAVE NO IDEA WHAT MOTIVATED THEM TO RELEASE THE DATA WHEN THEY DID. PERHAPS THIS IS JUST WHEN THEY HAD THE DATA AVAILABLE AND THEY'RE FUNCTIONING INDEPENDENTLY BUT, YOU KNOW, I'M SURE WE COULD FIND SEVERAL DIFFERENT ANSWERS FOR THAT QUESTION DEPENDING WHO YOU ASK.

Steve says THANKS FOR HUMOURING ON THAT ONE ANYWAY. LET'S LOOK AT THIS. PEOPLE WHO DO WHAT YOU DO TALK ABOUT THE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE IN A COUNTRY OR IN A SOCIETY THAT NEED TO BE INOCULATED IN ORDER TO HAVE WHAT THEY CALL HERD IMMUNITY. IN THIS CASE, WHAT WOULD THAT NUMBER BE?

The caption changes to "Roll up those sleeves."

Isaac says INTERESTING. THERE HAVE BEEN A FEW DIFFERENT, YOU KNOW, BACK OF THE ENVELOPE CALCULATIONS TO DETERMINE THIS. THE NUMBERS USUALLY RANGE AROUND 50 TO 70 PERCENT. SOME OF THAT MIGHT CHANGE BASED ON HOW EFFECTIVE THE VACCINE ACTUALLY FUNCTIONS, AND OF COURSE WHAT'S THE APPETITE AMONG THE CANADIAN POPULATION TO TAKE THIS VACCINE. I THINK IT'S ALSO REALLY IMPORTANT TO NOTE HERE THAT OF COURSE IT DOES MATTER THAT THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE THAT DO ACCEPT THIS VACCINE HERE IN CANADA. THAT'S AN IMPORTANT NUMBER. BUT IT'S ALSO IMPORTANT TO RECOGNIZE THAT THIS IS A GLOBAL PROBLEM, AND WE HAVE OVER 7 BILLION PEOPLE THAT SHOULD HAVE ACCESS TO THIS VACCINE IN AN EQUITABLE MANNER. WE KNOW THIS IS SUCH A CONTAGIOUS INFECTION AND BEFORE COVID-19, PEOPLE ARE MOBILE. I MEAN, WE'VE SEEN FIRSTHAND HOW YOU CAN HAVE AN INFECTION FROM ONE CORNER OF THE PLANET LAND ON ANY OTHER CORNER IN THE PLANET IN LESS THAN 24 HOURS. WE REALLY NEED A GLOBAL PUSH FOR VACCINATION. WHY THERE'S A PROGRAM CALLED COVAX, WHICH IS A WONDERFUL PROGRAM THAT'S BASICALLY TRYING TO PROVIDE EQUITABLE ACCESS TO VACCINES. IT'S WITH BILL AND MELINDA GATES, THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, GAVI.

Steve says WE'RE IN IT TOO.

Isaac says WE CERTAINLY ARE. IN FACT, MANY, MANY COUNTRIES ARE INVOLVED WITH THIS. SO IT'S EXCELLENT. AND WHILE OF COURSE WE DEFINITELY WANT TO HAVE VACCINE UPTAKE IN CANADA AND, YEAH, WE WANT AROUND 60 percent OF THE PEOPLE VACCINATED, HOPEFULLY IT'S A LOT MORE, WE HAVE TO THINK ABOUT THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE VACCINATED WORLD WIDE.

Steve says AGAIN, TELL US WHETHER OR NOT EVERYBODY... I MEAN, AT SOME POINT WHEN THIS COMES OUT, I NEED TO KNOW WHO IS ELIGIBLE TO GET IT, INASMUCH AS WOULD THE OLDEST PEOPLE IN SOCIETY GET IT AND THE NEWEST BORN BABIES, WOULD THEY GET IT TOO?

Isaac says WELL, ULTIMATELY HOPEFULLY EVERYONE HAS ACCESS TO THIS BUT THERE CERTAINLY WILL BE A PRIORITY GROUP. THERE'S ALMOST A TRIAGE OF WHO IS GOING TO GET THIS FIRST. WE HAVE A VACCINE TASK FORCE, WE HAVE SOMETHING CALLED NACI, I DON'T ASK ME WHAT IT STANDS FOR, NATIONAL ADVISORY, I DON'T REMEMBER IT WHILE I'M ON CAMERA, BUT THEY REALLY CREATE GUIDANCE AS TO WHO SHOULD GET THE VACCINE FIRST. AND BASICALLY IT BOILS DOWN TO PEOPLE AT RISK OF HAVING SEVERE OUTCOMES AND PEOPLE AT RISK OF GETTING THIS INFECTION. SO WHEN WE LOOK AT THE NACI GUIDANCE, WE SEE, YOU KNOW, LONG-TERM CARE FACILITIES, INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS, PEOPLE IN CONGREGATE SETTINGS, FRONT LINE HEALTH CARE WORKERS. THAT'S THE FLAVOUR OF PEOPLE WHO WOULD LIKELY BE PRIORITIZED TO GET THIS VACCINE FIRST. IF PFIZER GOES THE DISTANCE AND IF PFIZER DELIVERS WHAT THEY SAID THEY'LL DELIVER TO CANADA, WHICH IS 20 MILLION DOSES, WHICH IS ENOUGH FOR 10 MILLION PEOPLE TO GET VACCINATED, THAT'S A LOT OF PEOPLE, AND CERTAINLY I THINK 10 MILLION PEOPLE BEING VACCINATED CAN CERTAINLY COVER A LOT OF PEOPLE WHO ARE AT RISK OF HAVING SEVERE ILLNESS, SO CONGREGATE SETTINGS, LONG-TERM CARE, THOSE OVER 65, FRONT LINE HEALTH CARE WORKERS. OF COURSE I THINK IT'S ALSO IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER THAT PFIZER IS ONE OF SEVERAL VACCINES THAT ARE AT THE FOREFRONT OF PERHAPS HAVING A SUCCESSFUL VACCINE MAKE IT THROUGH TO COMPLETION. BUT THERE ARE SEVERAL OTHERS THAT AREN'T TOO FAR BEHIND. WE HEARD OF ASTRAZENECA THAT ARE IN ADVANCED TRIALS, MODERNA, JOHNSON and JOHNSON, THERE ARE SEVERAL OTHER GROUPS THAT ARE NOT TOO FAR BEHIND. IT'S VERY EXCITING TIMES ON THE VACCINE FRONT.

Steve says JUST TO BE CLEAR, YOU SAY 10 MILLION PEOPLE COULD GET COVERED BY 20 MILLION DOSES BECAUSE YOU'VE GOT TO GET TWO SHOTS PER PERSON. THAT PRESUMABLY MEANS, GIVEN THE HIERARCHY YOU JUST LAID OUT, THAT PRESUMABLY MEANS WE'RE MANY, MANY, MANY MONTHS DOWN THE ROAD BEFORE THE AVERAGE CANADIAN WOULD BE ELIGIBLE FOR A SHOT; IS THAT FAIR TO SAY?

Isaac says I THINK THAT'S FAIR TO SAY. I THINK THAT'S VERY FAIR TO SAY. IT'S ALSO FAIR TO SAY THAT WHILE WE HAVE, BASED ON THE CONTRACTS THAT WE SEE AVAILABLE TO US, WE HAVE ACCESS TO 20 MILLION DOSES FOR 10 MILLION PEOPLE, THERE'S ALSO THE OPPORTUNITY TO PURCHASE MORE FROM PFIZER IF THIS IS APPROVED BY HEALTH CANADA. BUT IT'S CLEAR THAT WE'LL LIKELY HAVE SEVERAL VACCINES ROLL OUT THROUGH CANADA, AND IT PROBABLY WILL... THERE WILL PROBABLY BE MANY PRODUCTS. AND WE HAVE 38 MILLION PEOPLE AND HOPEFULLY THE VAST MAJORITY OF PEOPLE WILL TAKE THIS UP. BUT IT'S NOT QUITE CLEAR HOW MANY WILL. THERE'S BEEN VARIOUS SURVEYS AND POLLS SAYING, YOU KNOW, WE'LL HAVE X NUMBER OF PEOPLE ACCEPT IT AND Y NUMBER OF PEOPLE ACCEPT IT. AT THE END OF THE DAY I'M NOT REALLY SURE HOW MANY PEOPLE WILL ACCEPT THIS VACCINE. BUT THERE'S CERTAINLY ROOM FOR SEVERAL SUCCESSFUL VACCINE CANDIDATES TO ROLL OUT ACROSS CANADA.

Steve says WE'VE TALKED ON THIS PROGRAM BEFORE ABOUT HOW... WELL, I GETS IN THE STATES THEY CALL IT WARP SPEED. IT IS WARP SPEED WITH WHICH THIS THING IS BEING DEVELOPED. CERTAINLY IT CAN TAKE DECADES OR MANY, MANY, MANY YEARS FOR A VACCINE TO BE DEVELOPED. DO YOU THINK PEOPLE SHOULD HAVE ANY CAUSE FOR CONCERN THAT THIS IS COMING OUT SO QUICKLY?

Isaac says NO, I REALLY DON'T, BECAUSE, QUITE FRANKLY, IT DOESN'T APPEAR THAT ANY CORNERS WERE BEING CUT. THEY'VE REALLY HARNESSED PRE-EXISTING TECHNOLOGY THAT'S BEEN AROUND FOR THE LAST, WELL, SEVERAL DECADES TO CREATE VACCINES, AND ESSENTIALLY JUST TWEAKED THEM SO THEY COULD MAKE COVID-19 VACCINES. SO I DON'T THINK THAT ANY GROUP THAT'S IN AN ADVANCED STAGE OF VACCINE DEVELOPMENT HAS STARTED REALLY FROM SCRATCH. THEY HIT THE GROUND RUNNING WITH THE PRE-EXISTING VACCINE TECHNOLOGY THAT HAS BEEN USED FOR DECADES. AND IN ADDITION TO THAT, THEY'VE ALSO GONE THROUGH THE REQUISITE PHASE ONE, PHASE TWO, AND PHASE THREE CLINICAL TRIALS WITH THE DATA SAFETY MONITORING BOARDS THAT WE WOULD SEE AND, YOU KNOW, OUTSIDE OF COVID-19 VACCINE OR DRUG TRIALS. SO THE PROCESS IS SOUND. I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT ALSO THAT THERE'S NO POLITICAL PRESSURE OR EXTRANEOUS PRESSURE ON INDEPENDENT GOVERNMENT BODIES TO EVALUATE THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF THESE VACCINES WHEN THEY'RE MAKING THE DECISION TO ROLL THESE OUT NATION-WIDE BUT, YOU KNOW, THIS IS THE SAME PROCESS. THE OTHER IMPORTANT POINT TOO IS, STUDYING THESE VACCINES DOESN'T END AFTER THEY ROLL OUT THROUGHOUT A COMMUNITY, RIGHT? THERE'S STILL WHAT'S CALLED POST MARKETING SURVEILLANCE, SOMETIMES IT'S ALSO REFERRED TO AS A PHASE 4 CLINICAL TRIAL, BUT ESSENTIALLY TRACKING THE SAFETY AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THESE VACCINES STILL IS AN ONGOING PROCESS AFTER THESE ARE ROLLED OUT. YOU KNOW WHAT? IT HAS HAPPENED IN THE PAST WHERE A DRUG IS ROLLED OUT OR A VACCINE IS ROLLED OUT AND, YOU KNOW, AND IN THE PHASE 3 CLINICAL TRIALS YOU'RE ENROLLING 20,000, 30,000, 40,000 PEOPLE BUT OBVIOUSLY THAT'S A LOT DIFFERENT THAN GIVING A DRUG OR A VACCINE TO MILLIONS AND MILLIONS OF PEOPLE AND SOMETIMES IT TAKES DELIVERING A VACCINE OR DRUG TO MILLIONS AND MILLIONS OF PEOPLE TO SEE SOME VERY RARE SIDE EFFECTS. YOU KNOW, THERE HAVE BEEN CASES OF DRUGS OR VACCINES THAT HAVE BEEN PULLED LONG AFTER THEY'VE BEEN GIVEN TO A POPULATION.

Steve says JUST TO ANSWER THE ONE QUESTION YOU ASKED ME DURING THE COURSE OF THIS: NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON IMMUNIZATION, NACI. THERE YOU GO.

Isaac says IT'S EMBARRASSING THAT I DIDN'T KNOW THAT AND IT WASN'T ABLE TO ROLL OFF OF MY TONGUE. I USE THE NASTY ACRONYM ABOUT 5,000 TIMES A DAY BUT IT'S NOT EVERY SECOND OF THE DAY I HAVE TO THINK OF WHAT EACH LETTER STANDS FOR. SO, APOLOGIES ON MY SIDE.

The caption changes to "Producer: Cara Stern, @carastern."

Steve says NO NEED FOR APOLOGIES OR EMBARRASSMENT, THAT'S WHAT WE'RE HERE FOR. DR. BOGOCH, IT'S AWFULLY GOOD OF YOU TO SPEND SO MUCH TIME WITH US ON TVO, AS YOU SO OFTEN DO. THANK YOU VERY MUCH AND STAY SAFE.

The caption changes to "Subscribe to The Agenda Podcast: tvo.org/theagenda."

Isaac says MY PLEASURE. HAVE A GREAT EVENING.

Watch: What the Pfizer Vaccine Means for Canada