Transcript: Online Learning During COVID-19 | Nov 13, 2020

Nam stands in the studio. She's in her early forties, with shoulder length curly brown hair. She's wearing glasses and a black blazer over a gray blouse.

A wall screen behind her reads "The week in review."

Nam says THE AGENDA THIS WEEK EXAMINED THE COST OF THE PROVINCE'S RECORD-SPENDING BUDGET AND GOT DAVID FRUM'S TAKE ON THE U.S. PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION. THE AGENDA'S WEEK IN REVIEW BEGINS WITH A REPORT CARD FOR ONTARIO'S K TO 12 VIRTUAL SCHOOLS.

Music plays as an animated slate reads "The week in review."

In a clip, Steve appears on split screens with five guests.
He's slim, clean-shaven, in his fifties, with short curly brown hair.

A caption on screen reads "Grading Ontario's virtual schools. A year like no other."

Steve says WE ARE JUST FINISHED THE FIRST QUADMESTER, WHICH IS A NEW WORD TO ME. I'VE HEARD OF SEMESTERS BUT NOW WE HAVE QUADMESTERS AND THAT MEANS IT'S TIME FOR AN ONLINE REPORT CARD. LET'S GO AROUND OUR VIRTUAL HORN AND TELL ME HOW YOU WOULD GRADE THE PROGRAM SO FAR. ANNIE, IN YOUR VIEW, HOW'S IT GOING?

The caption changes to "Annie Kidder. People for Education."

Annie is in her sixties, with long blond hair. She's wearing glasses, a black blazer, red scarf and silver hoop earrings.

She says WELL, I'M NOT IN A SCHOOL SO I'M NOT SURE I'M THE BEST PERSON TO ASK. I THINK THAT SOME OF IT APPEARS TO BE GOING OKAY. A REPORT CAME OUT FROM OTTAWA YESTERDAY THAT RAISED A LOT OF CONCERNS ABOUT KIDS' WELL-BEING AND MENTAL HEALTH, AND I THINK MAYBE THE BIGGEST CONCERN IS ABOUT EQUITY, FOR KIDS WHO ARE ALREADY STRUGGLING, FAMILIES WHO ARE DEALING WITH A LOT OF CHALLENGES, IT SEEMS TO BE THAT IT IS MORE CHALLENGING TO SUPPORT LEARNING ONLINE, AND WE HAVE TO BE THINKING ABOUT THAT. RELYING ON FAMILIES FOREVER AND EVER IS NOT REALLY SUSTAINABLE AND DEFINITELY NOT EQUITABLE.

Steve says EMILY, WHAT ARE YOU SEEING IN SUDBURY?

The caption changes to "Emily Caruso Parnell. Rainbow District School Board."

Emily is in her forties, with blond hair in a short bob. She's wearing a gray blazer, a printed blouse and a silver pendant necklace.

She says I THINK THAT OVERALL I'D GIVE US A PASSING GRADE. I THINK THAT WE'VE DONE A GOOD JOB OF MEETING THESE CHALLENGES AND TRYING TO MEET THE NEEDS OF FAMILIES WHO ARE, AS ANNIE SAID, COMING FROM A VARIETY OF STARTING POINTS, AS THEY BEGIN DOING THIS ONLINE LEARNING. SO I THINK I'LL GIVE US A PASSING GRADE. WE'VE WORKED REALLY HARD ON OUR BOARD TO MAKE THIS AS SMOOTH A TRANSITION AS POSSIBLE AND IT'S BEEN A REAL TEAM EFFORT INVOLVING REALLY EVERYONE ON THE BOARD. SO I THINK WE'RE DOING PRETTY WELL, ALL THINGS CONSIDERED.

Steve says PRETTY WELL. PASSING GRADE. OKAY. GOOD. TESFAI, JUST BEFORE YOU TELL US WHAT YOU'RE DOING, SUCCESS BEYOND LIMITS, GIVE US THE 20-SECOND SPEECH ON WHAT YOU GUYS DO.

The caption changes to "Tesfai Mengesha. Success Beyond Limits."

Tesfai is in his thirties, with short-cropped black hair and a full beard. He's wearing a checkered shirt.

He says SURE. WE'RE AN EDUCATION ORGANIZATION THAT'S BASED IN THE NORTHWEST PART OF TORONTO, AND WE PROVIDE ALL SORTS OF ACADEMIC AND SOCIAL SUPPORTS. WE'RE BASED IN THE LOCAL HIGH SCHOOL WESTVIEW CENTENNIAL WHICH IS WHERE WE OPERATE OUR YOUTH SPACE DURING THE SCHOOL DAY AND IT'S OPEN TO STUDENTS FROM 8 A.M. TO 6 P.M. AND WE HAVE A SUMMER PROGRAM WHICH IS LOCATED AT YORK UNIVERSITY WHICH STUDENTS GET AN ADVANCED HIGH SCHOOL CREDIT BEFORE THEY GET TO HIGH SCHOOL.

Steve says HOW MUCH OF WHAT YOU DO IS IN PERSON AND HOW MUCH OF IT IS VIRTUAL?

The caption changes to "The Week in Review. @theagenda. Tvo.org."

Tesfai says SO WE HAVE BOTH. SO WE DO HAVE THE IN-PERSON PORTION. WE'VE WORKED VERY CLOSELY WITH THE ADMINISTRATIVE TEAM AT OUR LOCAL SCHOOL TO ENSURE THAT WE ARE ALIGNED WITH THE PUBLIC HEALTH GUIDELINES THAT ARE IN PLACE BUT ALSO THE PROTOCOLS AND PROCEDURES THAT THEY'VE PUT IN PLACE AND LOOKING AT WAYS THAT WE CAN CONTINUE TO SUPPORT STUDENTS. BUT WE ALSO KNOW THAT WE CAN ONLY HAVE A MINIMUM AMOUNT OF STUDENTS IN OUR SPACE SO WE HAVE OUR VIRTUAL SPACE THAT'S OPEN TO STUDENTS TO ACCESS AT ANY POINT IN THE SCHOOL DAY. THEY CAN STILL GET SUPPORTS AS WELL.

Steve says HOW IS THE VIRTUAL GOING?

Tesfai says I MEAN, VIRTUAL HAS BEEN A CHALLENGE. I THINK FOR OUR COMMUNITY AND FOR OTHER COMMUNITIES AS WELL. WE KNOW THAT ACCESS TO TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN A BARRIER FOR MANY STUDENTS AND THAT'S BEEN THE CASE SINCE THE LOCKDOWN. THAT ALSO CONTINUES FOR SOME STUDENTS NOW INTO THE NEW SCHOOL YEAR. WE KNOW SOME STUDENTS HAVEN'T RECEIVED PIECES OF TECHNOLOGY UNTIL THE END OF THIS QUAD AND WE KNOW THAT THAT'S STILL AN ONGOING CHALLENGE ON TOP OF BEING ABLE TO NAVIGATE THE ONLINE CLASSROOM. THERE ARE A LOT OF CHALLENGES THAT YOUNG PEOPLE AND FAMILIES ARE STILL FACING.

Steve says ANDREA, HOW ARE YOU MANAGING IN PEEL WITH VIRTUAL LEARNING?

The caption changes to "Andrea Gruscyk. High School Teacher."

Andrea is in her thirties, with long straight brown hair. She's wearing a green sweater and a pendant necklace.

She says WELL, I'VE HAD THE PRIVILEGE OF TEACHING IN THE ONLINE SCHOOL IN PEEL, AND IT'S IMPORTANT TO NOTE IT'S IN THE SECONDARY PANEL, SO I THINK THAT'S GOING TO BE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT THAN MY FRIENDS IN ELEMENTARY. BUT I KNOW IT WAS CERTAINLY A ROCKY START IN PEEL AND I THINK FOR MANY BOARDS, BUT AT THE END OF THE DAY, I'D PROBABLY PUT US AT A "B." I THINK WE'VE ADAPTED WELL. MANY OF THE EDUCATORS HAVE. THE STUDENTS HAVE DESCRIBED THAT THEY ARE CERTAINLY LEARNING AND ENJOYING THE ENVIRONMENT, AND I'D RATE US A "B," A LEVEL 3 FOR SURE.

Steve says OKAY. YOU SAID A ROCKY START. WHAT MADE IT ROCKY?

Andrea says WELL, I THINK WE HAD TO PIVOT QUICKLY, YOU KNOW, AND AS NUMBERS GREW IN TERMS OF THOSE THAT ARE WANTING TO LEARN ONLINE, WE HAD TO REIMAGINE THE EDUCATION SYSTEM AND IT'S NO LONGER BRICK AND MORTAR BUT THEY HAD TO IN PEEL GO FROM MANY STUDENTS IN THE CLASSROOM TO MANY STUDENTS ONLINE, AND STARTING AN ENTIRE ONLINE SCHOOL. SO RATHER THAN TIMETABLING FOR, YOU KNOW, 1200 STUDENTS, 1500 STUDENTS, 80, 100 STAFF, YOU'RE IN THE NUMBERS FOR THE PEEL ONLINE SCHOOL AT 13,000, 15,000, YOU KNOW, INITIALLY STARTED AT 7,000. SO, YOU KNOW, THERE WAS SIGNIFICANT CHANGE IN A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME AND, YOU KNOW, THIS... YEAH, THIS IS NEW LEARNING FOR EVERYONE.

Steve says MM-HMM. RON, HOW ABOUT YOU? HOW'S IT GOING?

The caption changes to "Ron Felsen. Toronto District School Board."

Ron is in his forties, with short gray hair and a trimmed beard. He's wearing a gray suit, white short and black tie.

He says WELL, I AGREE. I THINK WE'VE... THREE MONTHS AGO, NOBODY WOULD HAVE THOUGHT THAT WE WOULD HAVE A VIRTUAL SCHOOL IN THE SECONDARY PANEL, AND NOW WE DO. AND WE SET UP THAT VIRTUAL SCHOOL IN A REALLY SHORT RECORD TIME. IF WE WERE TO BUILD A BRAND NEW SCHOOL, WE'D HAVE LOTS OF LEAD TIME FOR THAT, WE'D HAVE MONTHS AND MONTHS OF PLANNING AND BOARD STAFF INVOLVED. WE CONDENSED THAT WHOLE PIECE INTO ABOUT THREE AND A HALF WEEKS TO GET THE SCHOOL UP AND RUNNING...

The caption changes to "For more on this story visit: tvo.org/theagenda."

Ron continues IN THE TORONTO DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD WE HAVE 18,000 SECONDARY STUDENTS IN OUR VIRTUAL SCHOOL, AND I WOULD SAY IT'S MORE THAN A PASSING GRADE AND IT'S MORE THAN A LEVEL 3 GRADE. I WOULD SAY WE'RE DOING PRETTY WELL.

Now music plays as an animated slate reads "The week in review."

Steve appears on split screens with a guest.
A caption on screen reads "Can Ontario afford its economic promises? Spending in the right places?"
Then, it changes to "Building back better."

Steve says GIVE US SOME OF THE BULLET POINT HIGHLIGHTS OF WHAT YOU THINK A SMART ONTARIO GOVERNMENT GOING FORWARD WOULD DO TO REIGNITE THE ECONOMY IN THE MIDST OF THIS PANDEMIC.

The caption changes to "Drew Fagan. University of Toronto."

Drew is in his late forties, clean-shaven, with short gray hair. He's wearing a white shirt and a purple sweater vest.

He says YEAH. AND TO THINK ABOUT THE FUTURE, LET'S JUST SITUATE OURSELVES HERE. I THINK IT SURPRISES ONTARIANS THAT, AGAIN, IF WE COMPARE THE SIZE OF OUR ECONOMY TO STATES THAT WE LOOK TO... MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, OHIO, PENNSYLVANIA... WE'VE BEEN HEARING THOSE STATES OVER THE LAST WEEK, YOU KNOW, INCESSANTLY. WE'RE A SMALLER ECONOMY. WE WERE THE AVERAGE SIZE OF THE SEVEN STATES SURROUNDING US 30, 40 YEARS AGO, WE ARE NOW THE POOREST, AS AVERAGE GDP PER CAPITA. I'M NOT SAYING AT THE LOW END AND CERTAINLY THE EXTREMES OF AMERICAN SOCIETY MAY NOT BE SOMETHING WE WANT TO REPLICATE. AND THAT COMES OUT OF WEAK BUSINESS INVESTMENT, WEAK R and D INVESTMENT. YOU KNOW, WEAK PRODUCTIVITY. AND THOSE NUMBERS HAVE TRACKED FOR QUITE A WHILE. WHAT DO WE DO TO GOOSE GROWTH SOMEWHAT BACK TO WHAT WE HAD 20, 25 YEARS AGO? EVERYBODY'S FACING THAT, BUT WE'VE BEEN ON A SLOWER DECLINE, SLOW, STEADY DECLINE TO A GREATER EXTENT. AND WE NEED TO THINK ABOUT INCLUSIVE GROWTH. AND THE PEOPLE AT QUEEN'S PARK... YOU ASKED ME ABOUT THE PUBLIC SERVICE. THEY'RE THINKING ABOUT THIS QUITE A BIT AND THAT'S REALLY WHAT THEY WERE FOCUSED ON, WITH REGARD TO REGULATIONS, WITH REGARD TO INCREASED CHILD CARE, WITH REGARD TO INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT, WE NEED TO EMPHASIZE. WE TALKED ABOUT BROADBAND MOMENTS AGO. HUGE AMOUNTS GOING INTO TRANSIT. HIGHWAYS TO A LESSER EXTENT. AND OTHER SECTORS AS WELL. BUT WE HAVE TO ASK OURSELVES WHETHER WE'RE MAKING THE RIGHT INVESTMENTS AND DOING IT EFFECTIVELY. THERE'S ANOTHER THING THAT SURPRISED ME WHEN WE WERE LOOKING AT THIS. 60 OF THE STATES AND PROVINCES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA HAVE ACTUALLY DONE GROWTH PLANS, FIVE-YEAR GROWTH PLANS. SOME OF US USED TO THINK OF THOSE AS ALMOST SOVIET. BUT IT'S REMARKABLE THAT VIRTUALLY HALF THE STATES IN THE UNITED STATES... RED STATES AS WELL AS BLUE STATES... HAVE DONE GROWTH PLANS TO EMPHASIZE THE SECTORS AND TO FOCUS ON THE SECTORS AND SUB SECTORS THAT WE SHOULD BE THINKING ABOUT MORE. AND THAT MIGHT BE SOMETHING... SASKATCHEWAN'S DONE IT. WE LOOKED AT ILLINOIS INTENSIVELY.

The caption changes to "Drew Fagan. Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy."

Drew continues IT MIGHT BE SOMETHING THAT ONTARIO WANTS TO LOOK AT. PART OF THE CHALLENGE WITH ONTARIO IS THAT, EVEN AS WE LOOK OUT IN TORONTO AND SEE, YOU KNOW, THE CRANES AND THE STEADY GROWTH AND THE TECH INVESTMENT AND THINGS LIKE THAT, ALMOST ALL THE JOB GROWTH OVER THE LAST DECADE IN ONTARIO HAS BEEN IN TORONTO AND OTTAWA. OUTSIDE THOSE TWO CENTRES, THERE'S BEEN ALMOST NO JOB GROWTH. WE REALLY NEED TO THINK ABOUT INCLUSIVE GROWTH GOING FORWARD AND THAT'S REALLY WHAT THE PAPER WAS ALL ABOUT.

Steve says INCLUSIVE GROWTH. OKAY. SHEILA, BASED ON WHAT YOU'RE LOOKING AT, DO YOU SEE POLICIES BEING PUT IN PLACE THAT WILL BRING US INCLUSIVE GROWTH GOING FORWARD?

The caption changes to "Sheila Block. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. @SheilaBlockTO."

Sheila is in her fifties, with short white hair. She's wearing glasses and a striped gray blouse.

She says UNFORTUNATELY, I DON'T SEE IT. AND I THINK WHEN WE LOOK AT, AGAIN, THE BIG PICTURE FROM THIS PANDEMIC, IT'S RACIAL INEQUALITY, IT'S INCOME INEQUALITY, AND IT'S REALLY WHAT A FRAYED PUBLIC SERVICE AND PUBLIC SECTOR WE HAVE AT THE MOMENT. AND I THINK AT THIS POINT WITH INFECTION RATES WHERE THEY'RE AT, THAT WE REALLY NEED TO SWITCH STRATEGY. THE GOVERNMENT AT THIS POINT IS JUST HOPING TO HAVE A PRIVATE SECTOR-LED BOTH RECOVERY AND PERIOD TO GET US THROUGH THE PANDEMIC. WE ARE NOWHERE CLOSE TO THE END OF THIS PANDEMIC, UNFORTUNATELY. WE NEED GOVERNMENT TO LEAD AND WE NEED GOVERNMENT TO LEAD IN TERMS OF BOTH ECONOMIC GROWTH AND IN TERMS OF ADDRESSING THESE HUGE INEQUALITIES, BOTH IN HEALTH OUTCOMES AND IN ECONOMIC OUTCOMES.

The caption changes to "For more on this story visit: tvo.org/theagenda."

Steve says CRAIG, LAST MINUTE TO YOU ON WHETHER OR NOT WE ARE GETTING THE POLICIES WE NEED FOR INCLUSIVE GROWTH?

The caption changes to "Craig Alexander. Deloitte."

Craig is in his fifties, clean-shaven and bald. He's wearing glasses, a gray suit and shirt, a burgundy plaid tie and a red poppy pin.

He says WE'RE MOVING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION. I MEAN, WHEN WE LOOK AT WHERE THE JOB LOSSES HAVE BEEN, IT'S BEEN DISPROPORTIONATELY LOW PAID WORKERS, AND WHEN WE LOOK AT WHO... YOU KNOW, WHAT COMPRISES THE POPULATION THAT WORKS WITHIN LOW PAID JOBS, WHAT YOU CAN SEE IS THERE'S MORE WOMEN, THERE'S MORE YOUTH, THERE'S MORE VISIBLE MINORITIES, THERE'S MORE NEWCOMERS THAT ARE IN THOSE JOBS. AND SO THERE'S NO QUESTION THAT THIS RECESSION HAS HAD A VERY STRONG INEQUALITY DIMENSION TO IT. I THINK PART OF THE GOVERNMENT RESPONSE IN TERMS OF THE CANADIAN, YOU KNOW, THE CANADIAN EMERGENCY INCOME BENEFITS WHERE YOU'RE GETTING 500 dollars A WEEK, YOU KNOW, BASICALLY WHAT YOU'RE DOING IS YOU'RE MAINTAINING THE INCOME THAT... YOU'RE REPLACING THE INCOME THAT THOSE LOW INCOME WORKERS WERE MAKING. SO I THINK WE ARE SEEING PROGRAMS AND POLICIES THAT ARE DESIGNED TO ADDRESS SOME OF THAT INEQUALITY.

Now music plays as an animated slate reads "The week in review."

Steve appears on split screens with a guest.
A caption on screen reads "America fractured again. @spaikin, @theagenda. No longer a fluke."
Then, it changes to "Future democrats versus future republicans."

Steve says I WONDER HOW MUCH WARFARE YOU SEE COMING BETWEEN THE BIDEN WING OF THE PARTY, WHICH IS VICTORIOUS AND MODERATE AND THE BERNIE SANDERS WING THAT WE EXPECT WILL GET CHIPPIER IN ITS DEMANDS OVER THE ENSUING MONTHS. WHAT DO YOU SEE?

The caption changes to "David Frum. Author, 'Trumpocalypse.' The Atlantic."

David is in his fifties, with short gray hair and a stubble. He's wearing a gray suit, white shirt, gray tie, and a red poppy pin.

He says THE GREATEST RESOURCE THEY HAVE IS THE NEED OF CABLE TELEVISION FOR CONFLICT. YOU KNOW, THE MAIN STORY OF THE BIDEN ADMINISTRATION IS GOING TO BE PRETTY RESPONSIBLE PEOPLE GOING TO WORK EVERY DAY DEALING WITH VERY, VERY DIFFICULT PROBLEMS AND SUCCEEDING SOME OF THE TIME AND FAILING OTHER TIMES. AND THAT'S JUST NOT A MADE-FOR-CNN STORY. CNN DOESN'T WANT TO HEAR. WE'RE STRUGGLING TO PUT TOGETHER A CLIMATE CHANGE AGREEMENT WITHOUT A CONGRESSIONAL MAJORITY. THEY WANT FIGHTING. THE MODEL IS ESPN. SO THE INCENTIVE FOR EVERY CABLE BOOKER IS TO MAKE AOC A MEDIA STAR AND CREATE A FIGHT BETWEEN AOC AND BIDEN. IT DIDN'T CORRESPOND TO WHERE DEMOCRATIC VOTERS ARE, AND ALSO MISUNDERSTANDS WHAT IT MEANS TO BE ON THE LEFT WING OF THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY, THAT PEOPLE WHO LIVE IN NEW YORK, PEOPLE WHO BOOK TV WANT THE LEFT WING TO LOOK LIKE THE LEFT WING THEY KNOW: SOPHISTICATED, URBAN, HIGHLY URBAN, PROGRESSIVE, YOUNGER. AND NOT UNDERSTANDING THAT THE THING DRIVING THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY, FOR EXAMPLE, TOWARD A BIGGER DEFINITION OF HEALTH CARE IS THE PEOPLE WHO ELECTED BIDEN, WHICH IS MORE RURAL, BLACKER, LESS WELL-EDUCATED, AND NOT AS CULTURALLY MODERN, NOT AS CULTURALLY PROGRESSIVE BUT VERY CONCERNED ABOUT BASICS LIKE COLLEGE EDUCATION AND HEALTH CARE. BUT THOSE TENSIONS WILL BE THERE. IN A WAY, THE ELECTION RESULT DOES BIDE ONE FAVOUR, WHICH IS BY PRESERVING POWER IN THE HANDS OF MITCHELL McCONNELL AND REPUBLICANS, IT GIVES BIDEN AN INTELLIGIBLE EXPLANATION TO THE PROGRESSIVE WING WHY HE CAN'T DO WHAT THEY WANT. THEY WANT TO ACCOMPLISH POLICE FORCES. BIDEN'S OWN ANSWER IS THAT'S A STUPID AND B OBNOXIOUS AND LIKELY TO LOSE ME THE ELECTION AND NOBODY WANTS IT. ALL OF THOSE THINGS ARE TRUE. BUT IT'S EASIER TO SAY, HEY, YOU KNOW, YOU MAKE SOME POINTS HERE, BUT McCONNELL, I HAVE TO HAVE McCONNELL. I'M AS HEARTBROKEN AS YOU. McCONNELL. SO McCONNELL CAN BE FOR BIDEN A TOOL OF PARTY DISCIPLINE. BUT I THINK WHEN YOU THINK... IF YOU IDENTIFY THE DEMOCRATIC LEFT WITH ALEXANDRIA OCASIO-CORTEZ AND URBAN PROGRESSIVES RATHER THAN JAMES CLYBURN AND BLACK REPRESENTATIVES IN THE SOUTHERN STATES, YOU'RE DOING IT WRONG.

The caption changes to "Subscribe to The Agenda Podcast: tvo.org/theagenda."

Steve says I HAVE HAD SOME PRETTY GOOD DEBATES WITH PEOPLE OVER THE LAST WEEK WITH SOME PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE BERNIE SANDERS WOULD HAVE DONE BETTER RUNNING AGAINST DONALD TRUMP THAN JOE BIDEN DID. WHAT DO YOU THINK OF THOSE PROGNOSTICATIONS?

The caption changes to "The Week in Review. @theagenda. Tvo.org."

David says WELL, PEOPLE... THOSE HYPOTHETICAL MATCHUPS, YOU KNOW, IN THE END THEY'RE UNANSWERABLE. I WOULD JUST SAY, THE QUESTION IS... HERE'S WHAT JOE BIDEN DID TO WIN THE PRESIDENCY IN THE WAY HE DID: HE SIMULTANEOUSLY PRODUCED A MOBILIZATION IN BLACK AMERICA AS BIG AS THAT PRODUCED BY BARACK OBAMA. AND AT THE SAME TIME, AT THE SAME TIME, WON CONSERVATIVE-LEANING EDUCATED SUBURBAN VOTERS IN PLACES LIKE THE SUBURBS OF PHOENIX AND THE SUBURBS OF HOUSTON AND DALLAS AND MOST IMPORTANTLY THE SUBURBS OF PHILADELPHIA. AND THOSE ARE THE TWO GROUPS THAT DIDN'T LIKE BERNIE SANDERS.

The caption changes to "For more on this story visit: tvo.org/theagenda."

David continues YOU SAY, WELL, BERNIE SANDERS, BECAUSE HE DID NOT STRONGLY APPEAL TO BLACK VOTERS AND BECAUSE HE DID NOT STRONGLY APPEAL TO MORE AFFLUENT, MORE CONSERVATIVE-LEANING SUBURBANITES, HE WOULD HAVE HAD TO FIND SOME OTHER MAGIC POOL OF VOTERS. WHEN SOMEONE SAYS "I HAVE A PLAN TO WIN POWER BY PRODUCING WORLD RECORD TURNOUT AMONG GROUPS OF PEOPLE WHO VOTE VERY LIGHTLY," I THINK THE BETTER PLAN IS TO PRODUCE SLIGHT IMPROVEMENTS IN TURNOUT FROM PEOPLE WHO DO VOTE REGULARLY.

Now music plays as an animated slate reads "The week in review."

A guest speaks.
A caption on screen reads "The age of fake realities is upon us. Making fictions seem real."

Then, it changes to "Nina Schick. Author, 'Deepfakes.'"

Nina is in her thirties, with long wavy chestnut hair. She's wearing a red sweater and a white blouse.

She says AS SOON AS IT TURNED OUT THAT PEOPLE COULD USE A.I. TO GENERATE FAKE MEDIA, THE FIRST CASE WAS A NON-CONSENSUAL PORNOGRAPHY. THAT'S ACTUALLY WHERE THE WORD DEEP FAKE COMES FROM BECAUSE THE FIRST DEEP FAKES THAT REALLY HIT THE PUBLIC IMAGINATION THREE AND A HALF YEARS AGO WERE IN NON-CONSENSUAL PORN ON REDDIT AND THE GUY WHO MADE THEM COINED THE TERM DEEP FAKE. IT NOW HAS ITS INTERNET ECOSYSTEM. IT'S NOT ONLY FEMALE CELEBRITIES THAT ARE TARGETED. NORMAL WOMEN ARE TARGETED TOO BECAUSE THE A.I. CAN BE TRAINED TO GENERATE FAKE PORNOGRAPHY OF YOU BASED ON JUST A FEW DIGITAL IMAGES THAT CAN BE TAKEN FROM YOUR SOCIAL MEDIA, FOR EXAMPLE, AND NOW WE'RE ALSO STARTING TO SEE VERY DISTURBING DEEP-FAKE PORN OF MINORS. BUT I DON'T SEE THESE TWO THINGS AS MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE. ALTHOUGH PORNOGRAPHY LEADS THE WAY, IT IS INEVITABLE THAT DEEP-FAKES WILL ALSO BE USED IN POLITICS AND FRAUD AND ALL KINDS OF OTHER AVENUES WHERE THEY CAN BE USED AS DISINFORMATION AGAINST INDIVIDUALS IN A WAY THAT HASN'T BEEN POSSIBLE BEFORE.

The caption changes to "Watch us anytime: tvo.org, Twitter: @theagenda, Facebook Live, YouTube."

Steve says AND WE SEEM TO BE, AS A SPECIES, HARD-WIRED TO BELIEVE WHAT WE SEE ON A VIDEO, AND THEREFORE, TALK TO US ABOUT THE IMPLICATIONS OF BELIEVING WHAT WE SEE WHEN WHAT WE SEE IS PHONEY.

The caption changes to "The Week in Review. @theagenda. Tvo.org."

Nina says WELL, IT'S SOMETHING THAT PSYCHOLOGISTS CALL PROCESSING FLUENCY. SO WHEN WE SEE VISUAL INFORMATION THAT LOOKS RIGHT, THAT LOOKS REAL, WE'RE HARD-WIRED TO WANT TO BELIEVE IT. AND THIS IS HAPPENING AT A TIME WHEN VIDEO IS IN FACT BECOMING THE MOST IMPORTANT MEDIUM OF COMMUNICATION. I THINK 82 percent OF INTERNET TRAFFIC NEXT YEAR IS GOING TO BE DRIVEN BY THE UPLOAD AND DOWNLOAD OF VIDEOS. SO THE FACT THAT VIDEO AS A MEDIUM OF COMMUNICATION, A MEDIUM WHICH WE PLACE SO MUCH RIGOUR ON, TO WHICH WE ASSUME TO BE AN EXTENSION OF OUR OWN PERCEPTION, CAN BE UNDERMINED AT A TIME WHEN IT'S BECOMING THE MOST IMPORTANT MEDIUM OF COMMUNICATION IS REALLY ALARMING. BUT THERE'S A COUNTER-EFFECT TO THIS TOO. AND THIS IS THAT AS KNOWLEDGE OF DEEP-FAKES START TO GROW, SOMETHING CALLED THE LIAR'S DIVIDEND STARTS TO ENHANCE. SO AS PEOPLE BECOME AWARE THAT WE'RE ENTERING AN EPOCH WHERE SEEING IS NO LONGER BELIEVING. YOU CAN SEE SOMETHING WITH YOUR EYES THAT LOOKS GENUINE AND AUTHENTIC, AND IT COULD BE FAKE, THEN YOU START TO DENY THE VERACITY OF ALL AUTHENTIC MEDIA AS WELL, AND THAT IS OF COURSE SOMETHING THAT'S GREAT FOR BAD ACTORS.

The caption changes to "For more on this story visit: tvo.org/theagenda."

Nina continues IN A WORLD WHERE ANYTHING CAN BE FAKED, INCLUDING SOMETHING THAT UNTIL NOW WE ASSUME IS EVIDENCE, EVERYTHING CAN ALSO BE DENIED.

The clips end and Nam stands in the studio alone.

She says THAT'S JUST SOME OF WHAT WE COVERED THIS WEEK ON THE AGENDA. FOR MORE, INCLUDING THE FULL CONVERSATIONS, YOU CAN VISIT OUR WEBSITE, tvo.org, OUR YouTube CHANNEL AT youtube.com/theagenda OR OUR TWITTER FEED: twitter.com/TheAgenda.

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