Transcript: Super Battle with a Superbug | Jul 25, 2019

Nam sits in the studio. She's in her early forties, with shoulder length curly brown hair. She's wearing glasses and a black blazer over a red shirt.

A caption on screen reads "Super battle with a super bug. Nam Kiwanuka, @namshine, @theagenda."

Nam says IT STARTED AS A MUCH-ANTICIPATED
VACATION IN EGYPT.
IT RESULTED IN
A LIFE AND DEATH STRUGGLE
AGAINST AN ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT
INFECTION.
THE MEDICAL THRILLER
IS DETAILED IN...

A picture of a book appears briefly on screen. The cover features an image of a red virus against a blue background. The title reads "The perfect predator. A scientist's race to save her husband from a deadly superbug."

Nam continues ITS CO-AUTHORS
ARE STEFFANIE STRATHDEE,
ASSOCIATE DEAN OF
GLOBAL HEALTH SCIENCES
AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
SAN DIEGO SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
WHO NOW DIRECTS THAT SCHOOL'S
CENTER FOR INNOVATIVE PHAGE
APPLICATIONS AND THERAPEUTICS...

Steffanie is in her fifties, with long straight blond hair in a bun. She's wearing a gray cardigan over a dark gray blouse, and a pendant necklace.

Nam continues AND THE PATIENT,
DR. THOMAS PATTERSON,
DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR OF
PSYCHIATRY AT UC SAN DIEGO...

Thomas is in his seventies, with short white hair and a trimmed goatee. He's wearing a black suit and a blue shirt.

Nam continues WELCOME TO YOU BOTH.

Steffanie says THANK YOU VERY MUCH
FOR HAVING US.

THOMAS SAYS THANKS.

Nam says AFTER READING THIS BOOK,
IT'S SO NICE TO SEE YOU, TOM.

THOMAS SAYS IT'S GOOD TO BE
HERE [LAUGHS].

NAM SAYS RIGHT.
I MEAN,
THIS BOOK IS ABOUT SOMETHING
THAT WAS REALLY TRAUMATIC
THAT HAPPENED TO YOU BOTH.
NOW YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT IT,
WHICH I'M THINKING BRINGS UP
A LOT OF BAD MEMORIES.
STEFFANIE, WHY WRITE THIS BOOK?

The caption changes to "Steffanie Strathdee. Co-Author, 'The perfect predator.'"
Then, it changes again to "Getting sick."

Steffanie says WELL, WE REALIZED,
AS CRAZY AS IT SOUNDS,
THAT WE WERE PRIVILEGED.
WE HAD THE RESOURCES
AND THE CONNECTIONS TO FIND
A HUNDRED-YEAR-OLD FORGOTTEN
CURE AND TO BRING IT BACK,
AND TO SAVE HIM
IN THE NICK OF TIME.
AND WE WANT
TO PAY IT FORWARD.
THERE'S 1.5 MILLION
PEOPLE
DYING OF SUPERBUGS
EVERY YEAR RIGHT NOW,
AND THAT PROBLEM'S
GETTING WORSE.
AND WE WANT TO MAKE SURE
THEY HAVE EASIER ACCESS
TO THIS LIFESAVING
THERAPY THAN WE DID.

Nam says SO LET'S TALK ABOUT HOW
IT ALL STARTED.
TOM, HOW DID YOU FIRST GET SICK?

The caption changes to "Thomas Patterson. Co-Author, 'The perfect predator.'"

Thomas says WE WERE ON A VACATION IN EGYPT.
LAST NIGHT OF THE TRIP... WE WERE IN LUXOR, RIGHT ACROSS
FROM THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS.
BEAUTIFUL EVENING, STARLIT,
ON THE TOP DECK OF THE SHIP.
WE WERE THE ONLY ONES THERE.
WE HAD A WONDERFUL MEAL,
WENT TO BAD, RIGHT AS RAIN.
I WAS AS HEALTHY
AS YOU CAN IMAGINE.
BIT OVERWEIGHT.

[NAM CHUCKLES]

Thomas says BUT... AND THIS ISN'T A... AN AD
FOR DIET, LET ME TELL YOU THAT.
BUT WE WENT TO BED, AND THEN I
WOKE UP AND WAS THROWING UP
AND JUST KEPT GETTING WORSE
AND WORSE AND WORSE,
ALL NIGHT LONG.
AND THEN STEF CALLED A DOCTOR... A
LOCAL DOCTOR
WHO CAME TO THE SHIP AND GAVE ME
FLUIDS AND ANTIBIOTICS,
AND SAID, "OH,
IT'S JUST FOOD POISONING;
HE'LL BE WELL IN NO TIME."
AND SO I KEPT GETTING SICKER.
I STARTED...

NAM SAYS AND YOU WERE... YOU WERE
ACTUALLY ADAMANT ABOUT... YOU TOLD
STEF THAT:
"DON'T CALL THE HOSPITAL;
DON'T CALL A DOCTOR; I'M FINE."

Thomas says THAT'S RIGHT.

Nam says BUT, STEF, EVENTUALLY YOU DID.
WHEN DID YOU REALIZE THAT TOM
WAS REALLY, REALLY SICK?

The caption changes to "Steffanie Strathdee. Center for Innovative Phage Applications and Therapeutics."

Steffanie says WELL, I HAVE A PHD IN INFECTIOUS
DISEASE EPIDEMIOLOGY,
AND SO I THOUGHT
THIS WAS FOOD POISONING,
AND I WAS... IN MY MIND, I WAS
CALCULATING INCUBATION PERIODS... OF WHAT BUG COULD HAVE,
YOU KNOW, CAUSED THIS.
BUT, YOU KNOW, I KNOW JUST
ENOUGH ABOUT MEDICINE
TO GET ME INTO TROUBLE, RIGHT?

NAM SAYS YEAH.

Steffanie says SO WHEN HE STARTED COMPLAINING
ABOUT BACK PAIN,
IT WAS KIND OF LIKE,
"WELL, WAIT A SECOND,
THIS DOESN'T SOUND LIKE
ANY KIND OF FOOD POISONING."
AND SO I CONTACTED CHIP
SCHOOLEY,
THE HEAD OF INFECTIOUS
DISEASES BACK HOME
AT OUR UNIVERSITY IN SAN DIEGO,
AND I ASKED HIM,
I SAID, YOU KNOW,
"I GOOGLED THESE SYMPTOMS,
AND IT'S COMING UP
PANCREATITIS,"
BUT, YOU KNOW, YOU CAN'T
REALLY BE A DR. GOOGLE.
LIKE, "WHAT DO YOU THINK?"
AND HE SAID, "WELL,
IT COULD BE PANCREATITIS,
BUT IT COULD BE A TWISTED BOWEL
OR SOMETHING WORSE." "SO JUST GET HIM, LIKE,
TO A DOCTOR AND... OR A HOSPITAL
AS SOON AS YOU CAN."

NAM SAYS AND YOU EVENTUALLY... YOU HAD
INSURANCE,
AND YOU WERE ABLE TO MEDEVAC
TOM TO GERMANY.
TOM,
WHAT WAS THE FINAL DIAGNOSIS?

The caption changes to "Thomas Patterson. University of California, San Diego."
Then, it changes again to "A deadly diagnosis."

Steffanie says WELL, I HAD A... I HAD
PANCREATITIS THAT WAS CAUSED
BY A GALLSTONE THAT HAD GOTTEN
INTO MY PANCREATIC DUCT
AND BLOCKED IT
AND FORMED A HUGE PSEUDOCYST.
INITIALLY,
THEY THOUGHT... YOU KNOW,
THEY LOOKED AT THE FLUID FROM
IT IN GERMANY AND SAID,
"THIS IS MURKY, LOOKS BAD,
THIS CAN'T HAVE JUST FORMED,"
SO THEY CULTURED IT.
AND THE GUY CAME BACK
ALL DRESSED IN A GOWN
AND COVERED... YOU KNOW,
PROTECTIVE GEAR,
AND SAID THIS IS THE WORST
BACTERIA ON THE PLANET.
THAT WAS... I'M NOT EVEN GOING
TO TRY TO PRONOUNCE THIS THING;
IT'S JUST CRAZY.

[EVERYONE CHUCKLES]

NAM SAYS IT'S CALLED... I GUESS... I AM
GOING TO CALL IT AN IRAQIBACTER,
BUT WHAT'S THE... OH, THAT'S...

STEFFANIE SAYS THAT'S THE NICKNAME.
THE SCIENTIFIC NAME
IS ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII,
AND IT...

NAM SAYS HUH.
SAY THAT FIVE TIMES FAST.

Steffanie says YEAH.

[EVERYONE LAUGHS]

STEFFANIE SAYS I CAN, BUT I'D
PROBABLY FLUB IT UP.
BUT IT'S CALLED
IRAQIBACTER FOR SHORT,
AND SO MANY VETERANS
COME BACK FROM THE MIDDLE EAST
WITH THIS TYPE OF BACTERIA.
AND IT ACTUALLY HAS KIND OF
INFILTRATED REGIONAL HOSPITALS
ALL OVER WESTERN EUROPE
AND NORTH AMERICA.
SO THE MOST COMMON PLACE
THAT YOU ACQUIRE IT THESE DAYS
IS IN A HOSPITAL OR CLINIC.
AND HE COULD HAVE ACQUIRED IT
THERE IN EGYPT... WE KNOW
IT WAS AN EGYPTIAN STRAIN... BUT WE WILL NEVER REALLY KNOW
FOR SURE.

NAM SAYS THIS WASN'T
THE FIRST TIME
THAT YOU WERE DEALING
WITH A SUPERBUG.
YOU BOTH ACTUALLY HAD MRSA?

STEFFANIE SAYS YEAH
[CHUCKLES]

Nam says WHICH IS, I MEAN,
THE LIVES THAT YOU LEAD,
BUT YOU START THE STORY IN THE
MIDDLE... IN THE MIDDLE
WHEN TOM HAS BEEN SICK
FOR ALMOST THREE MONTHS,
AND YOU'RE ON A CONFERENCE CALL
WITH YOUR COLLEAGUES, STEFFANIE.
WHAT HAPPENS DURING THAT CALL?

The caption changes to "Steffanie Strathdee, @chngin_the_wrld."

Steffanie says WELL, I MEAN, TOM WAS IN THE
HOSPITAL FOR A LONG TIME,
AND THIS ONE PARTICULAR
DAY,
I WAS SUPPOSED TO BE ON A
RETREAT IN SAN FRANCISCO,
AND I THOUGHT, "WELL,
I CAN'T BE THERE IN PERSON;
I'LL JUST CALL IN
FOR A LITTLE BIT."
AND DURING A BREAK,
MY COLLEAGUES,
ONE OF WHOM WAS A CHANCELLOR
AT A UNIVERSITY IN CALIFORNIA,
FORMER SURGEON, HE SAYS,
"HOW'S TOM DOING?"
AND I, YOU KNOW,
TELL HIM WHAT'S GOING ON.
AND THEN I SAID,
"OH, I SEE THE DOCTOR IS COMING;
I GOTTA HANG UP,"
AND HE THINKS THAT I'VE HUNG UP
THE PHONE,
AND I'M STILL ON, AND HE SAYS TO MY OTHER COLLEAGUE,
"HAS ANYBODY TOLD STEF THAT HER
HUSBAND IS GONNA DIE?"
AND I THOUGHT TO MYSELF... AND I'M
HOLDING THE PHONE,
CRADLING IT IN MY HANDS
LIKE A BABY,
AND I THOUGHT,
"NO, YOU KNOW, NOBODY HAS."
AND HE DIDN'T MEAN TO SAY
THAT AND HAVE ME HEAR IT,
BUT IT ALSO KICKED ME INTO GEAR
TO LIKE, YOU KNOW, SAY,
"I GOTTA DO SOMETHING HERE."

Nam says IT MUST HAVE BEEN... 'CAUSE I'VE
NOTICED SINCE YOU'VE SAT DOWN,
YOU'RE HOLDING HANDS.
YOU'RE VERY MUCH IN LOVE.

[TOM CHUCKLES]

STEFFANIE SAYS YEAH.

Nam says THAT MUST HAVE BEEN... IN THAT
MOMENT, WHAT DID THAT FEEL LIKE?

Steffanie says WELL, IT KIND OF
WAS THE REALITY.
I THOUGHT TO MYSELF, YOU KNOW,
"MY COLLEAGUES HERE
AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
SAN DIEGO ARE TREATING TOM,
AND THEY PROBABLY DON'T WANT
TO TELL ME THAT HE'S DYING,
BUT I CAN SEE."
LITTLE BY LITTLE,
EACH DAY, I MEAN,
THE CHEEKBONES
WERE STICKING OUT.
I COULD PUT MY KNUCKLES BEHIND
THE ORBITS IN HIS EYES.
DAY BY DAY,
HE WAS SLIPPING AWAY.

A picture appears on screen of Thomas lying asleep in a hospital bed, with his mouth open, as a nurse sees to him. Thomas looks extremely thin and frail.

STEFFANIE SAYS AND WHEN I REALIZED
HE WAS DYING,
I REALIZED I HAD BETTER,
YOU KNOW, DO SOMETHING
BECAUSE MODERN MEDICINE
HAS RUN OUT OF ANTIBIOTICS.
IT WAS RESISTANT TO EVERYTHING.

NAM SAYS TOM, HOW CLOSE DID YOU COME
TO DYING?

Thomas says WELL I... THE DOCTOR SAID
I WAS AS CLOSE AS ANYBODY
COULD POSSIBLY BE.
I SPENT A TOTAL OF NINE MONTHS
IN THE HOSPITAL,
HAD SEVEN CASES OF SEPTIC SHOCK.
I WAS AS NEAR DEATH
AS YOU CAN POSSIBLY GET.

NAM SAYS WE OFTEN HEAR ABOUT PEOPLE
WHO HAVE NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES.
LYING THERE, IN THE... YOU HAD
A FEW MOMENTS
WHEN YOU WERE CONSCIOUS.
IN THOSE MOMENTS,
DID YOU MAKE PEACE
WITH THE POSSIBILITY
OF YOU DYING?

The caption changes to "Connect with us: Twitter: @theagenda; Facebook, agendaconnect@tvo.org, Instagram."

Thomas says WELL, I WOULD SAY THAT I HAD
A LOT OF PRACTICE DYING... AND THAT I'M BETTER PREPARED
TODAY THAN I WAS BEFORE,
BUT I'M STILL NOT READY.
I STILL HAVE A LOT OF LIFE
IN ME.
BUT I STILL THINK A LOT ABOUT
WHAT LIFE IS ABOUT
AND WHY I'M HERE.
AND SO MY TIME
IN THE HOSPITAL,
I SPENT AT LEAST THREE MONTHS,
YOU KNOW, HALLUCINATING.
AND THOSE HALLUCINATIONS THAT
WE'RE DESCRIBING IN THE BOOKS
REALLY ARE PARTS OF THE FEARS
THAT I HAVE,
PART OF WHAT WAS GOING ON
IN THE REAL WORLD.
AND I'VE BEEN
ANALYZING THOSE,
TRYING TO FIGURE OUT EXACTLY
WHAT THEY MEAN.

Nam says YOU HAD FAMILY AND FRIENDS,
STEFFANIE.
THEY WERE THERE
IN THE HOSPITAL WITH YOU,
ONCE YOU WERE MOVED BACK
TO THE STATES.
DID YOU... WERE YOU AWARE OF THEM?
DID YOU HEAR WHAT THEY WERE
SAYING TO YOU?

Steffanie says WELL, THAT'S A GOOD POINT.
I MEAN,
THERE'S TWO PARTS TO THIS.
FIRST, YES.
WHILE I WAS IN A COMA,
WHILE I WAS UNCONSCIOUS,
I WAS CONSCIOUS AT SOME LEVEL.
I COULD HEAR PEOPLE TALKING
TO ME,
AND THAT WASN'T LIKE A
CONVERSATION
LIKE YOU AND I ARE HAVING
HERE NOW,
BUT, YOU KNOW,
YOU HEAR IT IN THE DISTANCE.
AND SO YOU... IT HELPS YOU
TO SUSTAIN YOURSELF
DURING THAT PERIOD.
AND THAT'S THE SECOND PART
OF THE POINT,
WHICH IS I WAS VERY FORTUNATE
THAT FAMILY, FRIENDS,
WERE BY MY BEDSIDE,
LITERALLY, 24-7.
THEY ARRANGED A SCHEDULE SO THAT
SOMEBODY WAS THERE ALL THE TIME
TALKING TO ME.
SO ONE OF MY DAUGHTERS
SANG SONGS
AND TALKED TO ME ABOUT
WHAT WAS GOING ON.
THE OTHER DAUGHTER READ BIRD
BOOKS BECAUSE I'M A BIRDWATCHER.

[NAM CHUCKLES]

Thomas says AND THOSE THINGS SUSTAINED ME.
IN FACT, I BELIEVE THAT THEY
KEPT ME FROM GETTING
COGNITIVELY IMPAIRED,
BECAUSE THE ODDS OF BECOMING
COGNITIVELY IMPAIRED
HAVING BEEN IN A COMA
ARE VERY GREAT,
AND I'M VERY FORTUNATE.

Nam says AND THERE WERE MOMENTS TOO WHEN
STEFFANIE WOULD TAKE YOUR HAND
AND YOU HAD TO ASK HIM,
"THIS IS YOUR LIFE."

Steffanie says YEAH.

NAM SAYS "DO YOU WANT ME TO
CONTINUE FIGHTING THIS?"
DO YOU REMEMBER THAT OR...

THOMAS SAYS WELL, AT THE MOMENT
THAT SHE ASKED ME
WHETHER I WANTED TO LIVE,
SHE SAID,
"YOU'RE... IT'S... YOU'VE BEEN
FIGHTING A LONG TIME.
DO YOU WANT TO LIVE OR NOT?
IT'S UP TO YOU.
AND, YOU KNOW, I'LL DO
EVERYTHING I CAN TO SAVE YOU
IF YOU SAY YES."
AT THAT MOMENT,
I WAS HALLUCINATING
THAT I WAS A SNAKE,
AND WHEN THAT... WHEN
I SAY I WAS HALLUCINATING
THAT I WAS A SNAKE,
I MEAN I WAS A SNAKE... WHICH PROBABLY CAME
FROM THE FACT... I MEAN,
THESE HALLUCINATIONS ARE
REALLY A COMBINATION
OF THE TOXIC PART OF THE
INFECTION THAT I HAD,
SOME OF THE ANTIBIOTICS
ARE TOXIC... LOSING SLEEP,
BEING IN ICU IS IN ITSELF
GOING TO CREATE THIS KIND OF
HALLUCINATIONS AND WHATNOT.

NAM SAYS AND YOU HAD SO MANY TUBES
ATTACHED TO YOUR BODY...

Steffanie says OH MY GOD, I WAS JUST AS... YOU
KNOW, IT WAS A MESS.

NAM SAYS YEAH.
AND WE SHOULD... THE IRAQIBACTER,
IT'S... WE SHOULD PROBABLY MAKE
A DISTINCTION.
IS IT A BACTERIA OR VIRUS?
IT'S A VIRUS?

STEFFANIE SAYS IT'S A BACTERIA.

NAM SAYS IT'S A BACTERIA.

Steffanie says THE CURE WAS THE VIRUS.

NAM SAYS WAS THE VIRUS,
WHICH IS THE PHAGES?

Steffanie says THAT'S RIGHT.

The caption changes to "A post-antibiotic world."

NAM SAYS WHICH WE'LL GET INTO
A FEW MINUTES.

Steffanie says YEAH.

Nam says WHY IS THE IRAQIBACTER
SUCH A DEADLY BACTERIA?

A picture shows bean-shaped bacteria. Another picture shows the same type of bacteria in hues of purple on a flat surface.

Steffanie says WELL, YOU KNOW, THIS WAS AN
ORGANISM THAT I USED TO PLATE
ON MY PETRI DISHES, BACK WHEN I
WAS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
IN THE 1980S.
IN MY MICROBIOLOGY CLASSES, WE
WERE DEALING WITH THIS ORGANISM,
JUST LIKE OTHERS,
AND IT WAS CONSIDERED
A PRETTY
WIMPY ORGANISM.
BUT OVER THE YEARS,
IT'S BECOME SOMETHING OF
A BACTERIA KLEPTOMANIAC.
IT'S REALLY GREAT AT STEALING... ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE GENES
FROM OTHER BACTERIA.
AND SO WHEN WE'RE THROWING
ANTIBIOTICS AT AN INFECTION,
YOU'RE KILLING ALL
OF THE FRIENDLY BACTERIA
AND THE MICROBIOME.
AND THIS PARTICULAR SUPERBUG
CAN MOVE IN FOR THE KILL.
SO BASICALLY, TOM HAD THIS GIANT
ABSCESS IN HIS ABDOMEN
WHICH BECAME A NICE LITTLE CONDO
FOR THIS SUPERBUG
TO MOVE RIGHT INTO, AND,
"OH YES, THANK YOU VERY MUCH.
YOU'VE KILLED
ALL OF MY COMPETITION."
AND THAT'S WHAT ENDED UP TAKING
HIM DOWN.

Nam says HOW MANY ANTIBIOTICS WERE USED
IN TOM'S TREATMENT?

Steffanie says YOU KNOW, I LOST COUNT... BUT RIGHT FROM THE BEGINNING,
WHEN HE... YOU KNOW,
'CAUSE HE WAS FIRST MEDEVACED
TO GERMANY,
IT WAS RESISTANT TO 15
ANTIBIOTICS RIGHT OFF THE TOP.
BUT BY THE TIME HE WAS MEDEVACED
TO SAN DIEGO A FEW WEEKS LATER,
IT WAS RESISTANT TO EVERYTHING.

NAM SAYS WELL, I WANT TO TALK MORE
ABOUT ANTIBIOTICS,
AND THIS IS SOMETHING
THAT YOU WRITE IN THE BOOK.
AND I'LL READ IT.

A quote appears on screen, under the title "Full stop." The quote reads "More than 150 antibiotics have been developed since the discovery of penicillin, and for the majority of antibiotics available, resistance has emerged and gone global. At the rate that scientists now know that bacteria develop resistance, researchers would need to create about thirty-five new classes of antibiotics each century to stay ahead of bacterial pathogens. Instead, no new antibiotic drug class has entered the market since 1980, and no new class of antibiotics has been discovered to treat Gram-negative bacteria like A. baumannii since 1962, before I was born."
Quoted from Steffanie Strathdee and Thomas Patterson, "The perfect predator." 2019.

Nam says HOW DID SO MANY ANTIBIOTICS
COME TO LOSE THEIR EFFICIENCY?

Steffanie says WELL, I THINK THAT, YOU KNOW,
WE, AS A SOCIETY,
KIND OF GREW COMPLACENT,
THINKING THAT,
"WELL, THIS FIRST ANTIBIOTIC,
PENICILLIN,
IS A BROAD-SPECTRUM
ANTIBIOTIC.
IT KILLS A LOT OF DIFFERENT
BACTERIA, AND THAT'S GREAT,
SO NOW THAT WE HAVE OTHERS,
THAT WE'LL JUST KEEP AHEAD
OF THE BACTERIA."
BUT WE DIDN'T REALIZE TO THE
EXTENT THAT THEY'RE MULTIPLYING.
LIKE, TOM'S BACTERIA WAS
MULTIPLYING EVERY 20 MINUTES.
LIKE JUST BOOM, BOOM, BOOM.
BUT ALSO THE GLOBALIZATION
OF OUR WORLD THESE DAYS
MEANS THAT IF THERE'S
AN ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE GENE
THAT IS, YOU KNOW,
IDENTIFIED IN CHINA,
LIKE ONE WAS
IN NOVEMBER 2015,
THE YEAR... THE MONTH THAT
TOM GOT SICK;
BY THE TIME
THAT PAPER CAME OUT
REPORTING THIS
ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE GENE
WHICH WAS TO COLISTIN... THAT'S
THE LAST-RESORT ANTIBIOTIC
THAT WAS DEVELOPED
IN WORLD WAR II,
NOT EXACTLY
A WONDER DRUG,
BUT IT WAS... IT'S
OUR... YOU KNOW,
OUR LAST HOPE FOR
A LOT OF THESE CONDITIONS.
THAT ONE ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE
GENE SPREAD TO 30 COUNTRIES,
LIKE, JUST LIKE THAT.
SO, WE HAVEN'T BEEN
ON TOP OF THIS.
WE HAVEN'T HAD VERY GOOD
SURVEILLANCE.
SO, WE HAVE THESE NOW
SUPERBUGS THAT ARE UNDETECTED,
UNDIAGNOSED,
AND NOW THEY'RE UNTREATABLE.

NAM SAYS WHY IS THAT?
WHY AREN'T WE SEEING
NEW ANTIBIOTICS
IN THE WAKE OF ALL
THESE SUPER DEADLY SUPERBUGS?

Steffanie says WELL, IT'S COMPLEX,
BUT BASICALLY, PHARMACEUTICAL
COMPANIES HAVE DECIDED
THAT IT'S NOT COST EFFECTIVE FOR
THEM TO DEVELOP NEW ANTIBIOTICS,
ESPECIALLY NOW
THAT ORGANIZATIONS
LIKE THE WORLD HEALTH
ORGANIZATION ARE SAYING,
"WELL, ANY NEW ANTIBIOTIC THAT
COMES ON THE SCENE,
WE'VE GOT TO SAVE IT
FOR A LAST RESORT."
SO ONE OF THE EXPERTS IN THE
FIELD SAYS, LIKE,
IT'S KIND OF LIKE TELLING
PEOPLE YOU SHOULD BUY
A FIRE EXTINGUISHER.
"IT COSTS A LOT OF MONEY,
BUT YOU MIGHT NEVER NEED IT."
SO THEY'RE KIND OF SAYING,
"WELL, WE'RE GOING TO MOVE
OUT OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL
ANTIBIOTIC PIPELINE." AND MOVE OUR DIRECTION
INTO SOMETHING ELSE."
SO A LOT OF PHARMAS... THERE'S
ONLY, I THINK,
THREE OR FOUR PHARMACEUTICAL
COMPANIES THAT ARE BIG PHARMAS
THAT ARE STILL WORKING
IN THIS AREA.

Nam says AND FOR TOM'S TREATMENT,
THE DOCTORS, FOR A WHILE,
WERE TRYING TO CONTAIN THE
IRAQIBACTER IN A PSEUDOCYST?

Steffanie says WELL, A PSEUDOCYST,
JUST THINK OF IT
AS A GIANT ABSCESS
IN HIS ABDOMEN.

NAM SAYS OK, IN HIS STOMACH.
BUT WHAT HAPPENED, TOM?
OR MAYBE I SHOULD ASK STEFFANIE
BECAUSE YOU WERE...

[EVERYONE LAUGHS]

The caption changes to "Watch us anytime: tvo.org, Twitter: @theagenda, Facebook Live, YouTube."

Steffanie says EXACTLY.
I WAS GOING TO SAY,
"UH..."
HE DOESN'T REMEMBER,
BUT YOU CAN ASK HIM,
BUT I'LL... I END UP
CORRECTING HIM ANYWAY.
SO WHAT HAPPENED WAS,
BECAUSE HE WAS SO WEAK... BY THE TIME HE GOT MEDEVACED
BACK TO SAN DIEGO... THE DOCTOR SAID, "LIKE,
IF WE OPERATE TO TRY TO TAKE
THIS ABSCESS OUT... HE'S PROBABLY GOING TO DIE,
AND IT'S RESISTANT TO
EVERYTHING, THIS SUPERBUG,
SO IF IT GETS IN HIS BLOOD
STREAM AND HE HAS SEPTIC SHOCK,
HE'S PROBABLY GOING TO
DIE FROM THAT."
SO THEY SAID, "LOOK, THE BEST
RESORT IS FOR US TO POKE HOLES
IN HIS ABDOMEN
AND PUT THESE CATHETERS,
OR DRAINS, IN THERE,
TO TRY TO SYPHON IT OFF."

NAM SAYS OH.

Steffanie says AND HE HAD LIKE FIVE DRAINS
IN HIS ABDOMEN.
AND BY THE TIME, YOU KNOW... HE
ACTUALLY STARTED TO GET
A LITTLE BIT BETTER,
BUT ONE OF THOSE INTERNAL DRAINS
SLIPPED ONE DAY.
RIGHT IN FRONT OF ME,
HE WENT INTO SEPTIC SHOCK
BECAUSE THIS DRAIN DUMPED
ALL OF THAT INFECTED FLUID
FROM THE ABSCESS INTO HIS
ABDOMEN, INTO HIS BLOOD,
AND HE JUST STARTED DYING,
LIKE, RIGHT THERE.
AND WE HAD TO GET HIM RIGHT BACK
TO THE ICU.
AND THAT WAS THE BEGINNING
OF WHAT WAS ALMOST THE END.

The caption changes to "A forgotten cure."

Nam says WELL, I WANT TO GET MORE
INTO DETAIL,
BUT WE'RE RUNNING
OUT OF TIME,
AND I WANT TO TALK ABOUT... YOU
KNOW, YOU DID FIND A SOLUTION.
YOU GOT AN IDEA FROM THE PAST.
WHAT ARE PHAGES?

Steffanie says WELL, PHAGES
ARE BACTERIA PHAGES,
ARE VIRUSES THAT HAVE NATURALLY
EVOLVED TO ATTACK BACTERIA.

A computer-generated image of a virus appears on screen. It resembles a watchtower standing on six legs.

STEFFANIE SAYS SO THERE'S,
YOU KNOW, THOUGHT TO BE
TEN MILLION, TRILLION, TRILLION
PHAGES ON THE PLANET.
THEY'RE EVERYWHERE.
THEY'RE...

NAM SAYS WHERE DO THEY COME FROM?

Another image shows several virus on a bubbly surface.

STEFFANIE SAYS WELL, THEY'RE IN
SOIL; THEY'RE IN WATER;
THEY'RE WHEREVER
YOU FIND BACTERIA.
SO IF YOU ARE GOING ON A PHAGE
HUNT TO TRY TO FIND PHAGES
THAT MATCH A SPECIFIC KIND
OF BACTERIA,
BECAUSE THEY ARE VERY SPECIFIC
IN THEIR, YOU KNOW,
HOST-PARASITE RELATIONSHIP,
THEN YOU CAN GO TO SEWAGE.
THAT'S ONE
OF THE BEST PLACES,
BECAUSE THERE'S A LOT
OF BACTERIA THERE,
SO THERE'S A LOT OF THE PERFECT
PREDATOR TO PRAY
ON THESE BACTERIA.
SO THAT... SOME OF THE... YOU KNOW,
THE PHAGES THAT WE USED
TO TREAT TOM WERE DIRECTLY
SOURCED FROM SEWAGE.
SO, YOU KNOW, I LIKE TO TELL HIM
THAT HE'S FULL OF...

THOMAS SAYS COME ON, NO.

[EVERYONE LAUGHS]

Steffanie says I'LL LET YOUR READERS... YOU KNOW,
WATCHERS USE THEIR IMAGINATION.
YEAH.

NAM SAYS BUT WHY AREN'T PHAGES
IN GREATER USE TODAY?

Steffanie says WELL, YOU KNOW, PHAGES WERE
ACTUALLY DISCOVERED
BY A FRENCH-CANADIAN... FÉLIX D'HÉRELLE, IN 1917.

A black and white portrait picture of a bearded man with short dark hair appears on screen.

Steffanie continues AND HE USED THEM TO TREAT PEOPLE
WITH BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
IN FACT, SO DID MANY OTHER
DOCTORS FOR QUITE A WHILE.
THEY HAD SOMETHING OF A HEYDAY
IN THE 1920S AND '30S.
HE WAS THE INSPIRATION
FOR THE BOOK
ARROWSMITH,
THE MAIN PROTAGONIST
IN THAT BOOK.
BUT PENICILLIN
CAME ON THE SCENE,
AND ALSO THIS WAS
AROUND THE TIME OF WORLD WAR II,
AND BECAUSE PENICILLIN
WASN'T WIDELY AVAILABLE
IN EASTERN EUROPE
AND RUSSIA... PHAGE THERAPY TOOK OFF THERE,
AND IT WAS EMBRACED.
SO, IT WAS SEEN AS SOMETHING
OF A COMMIE,
YOU KNOW, SCIENCE
AND COMMIE MEDICINE.
AND THAT DIDN'T GO OVER REALLY
WELL IN THE WEST.
SO THERE WAS THIS GEOPOLITICAL
BIAS THAT REALLY HUNG OVER
PHAGE THERAPY FOR DECADES.

Nam says AND SO IT WAS DIFFICULT
TO FIND THEM
AND TO GET YOUR
HANDS ON THEM.
HOW DID YOU EVENTUALLY GET
YOUR HANDS ON SOME OF THEM?

Steffanie says WELL, WHEN I WENT TO THE
LITERATURE ON THE INTERNET,
I LOOKED FOR RESEARCHERS
THAT WERE STUDYING HIS SUPERBUG
AND THE PHAGES
THAT ATTACK THEM,
AND I MADE A LIST OF THOSE
THAT WERE IN THE U.S.
BECAUSE I THOUGHT
THEY HAD TO BE CLOSE BY
BECAUSE WE'RE RUNNING OUT
OF TIME TO SAVE TOM.
AND IT WAS A DARN SHORT LIST,
AND I WROTE THEM ALL,
AND ONE FROM TEXAS A and M
UNIVERSITY WROTE ME BACK
AND SAID,
"I'LL HELP YOU."

NAM SAYS AND THEY DID.
AND SO MANY THINGS... WE WERE
TALKING ABOUT THIS
BEFORE WE STARTED TAPING,
THERE ARE SO MANY THINGS
THAT LINED UP TO MAKE IT
POSSIBLE FOR TOM
TO BE SITTING HERE.
YOU HAD STRANGERS HELPING YOU.

Steffanie says ABSOLUTELY.

NAM SAYS HOW DID THAT FEEL TO HAVE
PEOPLE WANT TO HELP
YOUR HUSBAND?

The caption changes to "Recovery."

Steffanie says WELL, IT WAS ABSOLUTELY
FANTASTIC.
IT PUTS THE "KIND."
IN "HUMANKIND."
YOU KNOW, TO THINK THAT A GLOBAL
VILLAGE OF TOTAL STRANGERS,
PHAGE RESEARCHERS
FROM ALL OVER THE THE WORLD,
THE FDA, THE U.S. NAVY...

NAM SAYS NAVY...

Steffanie says ALL STEPPED UP TO THE PLATE,
INCLUDING THE PHYSICIANS
AND THE NURSING STAFF
AT UC SAN DIEGO.
WITHOUT THEM, I MEAN,
HE WOULD HAVE BEEN A GONER.
BUT, YOU KNOW,
THE FDA OFFICIAL SAID,
"LOOK, YOU KNOW, WE WERE
LOOKING FOR SOMEBODY LIKE THIS
TO BE ABLE TO GATHER
THE DATA WE NEED
TO SHOW THAT PHAGE
THERAPY IS PROMISING,
AS A THERAPY FOR
SUPERBUG INFECTIONS.
WHAT WE NEEDED
WAS A DYING PATIENT;
A FAMILY MEMBER WHO WAS WILLING
TO TAKE THE RISK;
A DOCTOR WHO WAS WILLING
TO TAKE IT ON;
A PHAGE RESEARCH COMMUNITY
THAT WAS WILLING TO FIND THE
PHAGES IN TIME;
AND AN INSTITUTION
THAT WAS GOING TO,
YOU KNOW, LIKE GO THROUGH
WITH THE POSSIBILITY
THAT THE PATIENT MIGHT DIE
AND SOMEBODY MIGHT SUE THEM."
AND THEY GOT
THEIR PERFECT PATIENT
IN TOM PATTERSON
[CHUCKLES].

NAM SAYS AND EVENTUALLY
YOU WAKE UP,
TO THE GREAT RELIEF
OF SO MANY PEOPLE.
BUT THEN THERE
WERE SO MANY THINGS,
SO MANY CHALLENGES
AHEAD FOR YOU.
YOU HAD TO RELEARN
HOW TO SWALLOW,
HOW TO TALK,
HOW TO WALK.
WHAT WAS THAT LIKE,
TO RELEARN ALL THOSE THINGS?

Thomas says WELL, AFTER NINE MONTHS
IN THE HOSPITAL,
I HAD LOST 100 POUNDS,
AND AS YOU SAY,
I HAD TO BASICALLY
LEARN EVERYTHING
AS IF I WAS A BABY AGAIN, WHICH
IS AN INTERESTING EXPERIENCE.
IT'S AS MUCH PSYCHOLOGICAL
AS IT IS PHYSICAL,
WHICH PEOPLE DON'T
REALLY APPRECIATE,
I THINK, IS THE AMOUNT OF
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS
THAT COMES INTO, AS A PATIENT,
BUT ALSO FOR FAMILY.
MY... YOU KNOW, STEF AND I,
MY DAUGHTERS,
ALL HAD PTSD
AS A RESULT OF THIS, SO...

NAM SAYS POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS
DISORDER.

STEFFANIE SAYS MM HMM.

The caption changes to "Connect with us: Twitter: @theagenda; Facebook, agendaconnect@tvo.org, Instagram."

Thomas says CORRECT.
SO IT TAKES FIVE TIMES AS LONG
TO RECOVER FROM AN ILLNESS
LIKE MINE AS IT DOES
TO ACTUALLY HAVE IT.
SO, ABOUT FOUR YEARS
OF RECOVERY TIME.

NAM SAYS SO NINE MONTHS TIMES FIVE,
RIGHT?

STEFFANIE SAYS YEAH.
YOU GOT IT.

THOMAS SAYS SO FOR ME, IT'S... I'M ABOUT
THREE YEARS INTO MY RECOVERY.
MOSTLY I'M DOING FANTASTIC.
BUT SOMETIMES I... YOU KNOW,
I NEED A NAP.
MY FRIENDS SAY,
"WE ALL NEED NAPS.
WHAT'S WRONG WITH YOU?"

[EVERYONE LAUGHS]

Nam says WHAT HAVE YOU ENJOYED,
WHAT DID YOU ENJOY MOST
AFTER YOU WOKE UP?

Thomas says THINGS MAYBE THAT YOU MAY HAVE
TAKEN FOR GRANTED BEFORE.
WELL, I MEAN,
I COULD SAY FAMILY AND FRIENDS,
AND THAT'S SO OBVIOUS.
I MEAN,
HOW COULD I NOT MEAN THAT.
BUT THE FIRST THING
THAT MIGHT SURPRISE YOU,
AND STILL I HAVE AN
AMAZING RESPONSE TO,
IS A GLASS OF ICE WATER.

STEFFANIE SAYS I KNEW HE WAS GOING
TO SAY THAT [LAUGHS].

Thomas says YEAH, IT'S JUST SO PRECIOUS,
TO FEEL THAT IN YOUR MOUTH
AND HAVE IT TRICKLE DOWN YOUR
THROAT INTO YOUR STOMACH.
AND MAKES YOU FEEL SO ALIVE.
A GLASS OF ICE WATER IS THE LAST
THING I WOULD HAVE IMAGINED
THAT I WOULD... I WOULD HAVE
THOUGHT, "OH, A STEAK,"
OR SOMETHING LIKE THAT.

NAM SAYS OR SURFING.

Thomas says OR SURFING.
THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN NICE.

[EVERYONE CHUCKLES]

Nam says STEFFANIE, HOW IMPORTANT
IS TOM'S CASE
IN GETTING PHAGE TREATMENT
SOME RESPECT?

STEFFANIE SAYS WELL, IT'S ACTUALLY
BEEN INCREDIBLE.
HIS STORY WENT VIRAL
WHEN IT WAS PRESENTED
AT THE HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY OF
THE DISCOVERY OF BACTERIOPHAGE
IN 2017 IN PARIS.
AND AS A RESULT
OF THAT,
IMMEDIATELY,
PEOPLE STARTED CONTACTING ME
AND HIS DOCTORS ASKING FOR PHAGE
THERAPY FOR THEIR LOVED ONES.
AND THEN THEIR DOCTORS STARTED
CALLING US.
LUCKILY OUR CHANCELLOR
AT UC SAN DIEGO
GAVE US SOME SEED MONEY
TO OPEN UP
THE FIRST PHAGE THERAPY CENTRE
IN NORTH AMERICA CALLED IPATH.
WE'RE THE CENTER FOR INNOVATIVE
PHAGE APPLICATIONS
AND THERAPEUTICS.
AND OUR GOAL, REALLY,
IS TO TAKE PHAGE THERAPY
INTO CLINICAL TRIALS SO THAT IT
CAN BE PROVEN EFFICACIOUS,
AND IF IT IS, THEN IT COULD BE
LICENSED ALONGSIDE ANTIBIOTICS.
WE DON'T EVER THINK IT'S GOING
TO REPLACE ANTIBIOTICS,
BUT IN TOM'S CASE,
AND SEVERAL OTHERS,
THERE'S ACTUALLY
BEEN SYNERGISM
BETWEEN THE PHAGE
AND THE ANTIBIOTICS
THAT MAKES THE ANTIBIOTIC...

NAM SAYS THEY WORK WELL TOGETHER?

Steffanie says YEAH, AND IT MAKES
THE ANTIBIOTICS WORK BETTER,
OR WORK WHEN THEY WERE FAILING.
SO, THAT'S ALSO MAKING THE
BIOTECH AND PHARMA INDUSTRY
TAKE A SECOND LOOK.
BUT WE'VE NOW MET PEOPLE
THAT THEIR LIVES
HAVE ACTUALLY BEEN SAVED
AS A RESULT OF TOM'S CASE.
AND, YOU KNOW,
IT'S PRETTY MIND-BLOWING.

NAM SAYS WELL, I WANT TO READ
SOMETHING FROM YOUR BOOK,
ONE MORE PASSAGE.
YOU WRITE...

Another quote from the book appears on screen, under the title "A global solution?" The quote reads "One month after Tom was discharged from the hospital, a 2016 U.N. General Assembly report called for multi-sectorial and cross-sectorial efforts and engagement of all relevant sectors of society -human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, finance, environment, industry, and consumers- to tackle the global superbug crisis."

Nam says WHAT HAVE GOVERNMENTS DONE
TO TACKLE THE CRISIS SINCE 2016?

Steffanie says WELL, YOU KNOW,
A SCORECARD CAME OUT
FAIRLY RECENTLY
BY THE SAME ORGANIZATION
THAT REALLY GENERATED
THAT REPORT IN 2016,
AND THEY SAID,
YOU KNOW,
"PROGRESS HAS BEEN REALLY SLOW."
THE UNITED KINGDOM HAS ACTUALLY
BEEN ONE OF THE LEADERS
IN THIS AREA.
CANADA HAS MADE SOME PROGRESS.
THEY MADE IT, YOU KNOW,
ILLEGAL TO PRESCRIBE ANTIBIOTICS
THAT ARE MEDICALLY IMPORTANT TO
LIVESTOCK WHICH WILL HOPEFULLY,
YOU KNOW, MINIMIZE
THE MISUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS.
BUT WE HAVE A LONG WAY TO GO.
AND IT'S ESTIMATED
THAT BY THE YEAR 2050,
ONE PERSON WILL BE
DYING EVERY THREE SECONDS
OF SUPERBUG INFECTIONS,
AND THAT IT'S A MORE IMMEDIATE
THREAT IN OUR LIFETIMES
THAN CLIMATE CHANGE.
AND THE AVERAGE PERSON
DOESN'T KNOW THAT.

NAM SAYS THAT'S TERRIFYING.

Steffanie says YEAH.

NAM SAYS IT MUST MEAN... WHAT DOES
THAT MEAN?
YOU SAID BEFORE THAT, YOU KNOW,
NOW BECAUSE OF TOM'S RECOVERY,
THERE IS I GUESS
A PROTOTYPE
[LAUGHS]...

Thomas says A LARGE ANIMAL MODEL.

[EVERYONE LAUGHS]

Nam says BUT A SCIENTIST, YOU KNOW, NOW
YOU ARE ABLE TO... LONG AFTER
YOU'RE BOTH GONE,
YOU'VE LEFT THIS KIND OF LEGACY.
IT WAS REALLY TRAUMATIC
FOR YOUR FAMILY,
BUT WHAT DOES IT MEAN FOR YOU
TO BE ABLE TO CONTRIBUTE
TO THE WORLD OF SCIENCE
IN THIS WAY?

Steffanie says WELL, I THINK THAT THAT'S
A REALLY PROFOUND QUESTION.
YOU KNOW, FOR US, WE REALIZED
THAT WE WERE PRIVILEGED,
AND THE AVERAGE PERSON
WHO IS DYING
OF A SUPERBUG INFECTION THESE
DAYS IS IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY
THAT DOESN'T HAVE ANY RESOURCES.
BUT THERE'S A LOT OF SEWAGE
IN PLACES LIKE, YOU KNOW,
INDIA AND CHINA,
AND OTHER PLACES.
AND IF WE COULD HARNESS
THE POWERS OF THAT SEWAGE
TO HUNT FOR PHAGES,
AND TO HAVE A PHAGE BANK,
REALLY, THAT MAKES PHAGE THERAPY
MORE ACCESSIBLE TO PEOPLE... YOU KNOW, WE COULD REALLY GET
A HANDLE ON THIS.
AND THAT MAKES US
FEEL LIKE OUR LIVES,
AND REALLY THE TERROR THAT WE
LIVED THROUGH FOR NINE MONTHS,
AND OUR FAMILIES DID,
MAKES IT REALLY WORTHWHILE.

Nam says YOU MENTIONED THE PRIVILEGE
THAT YOU HAD
BECAUSE OF YOUR POSITIONS.
FOR PEOPLE WATCHING TODAY,
HOW CAN THEY ACCESS THIS
KIND OF TREATMENT?

Steffanie says WELL, RIGHT NOW, PHAGE THERAPY
IS STILL EXPERIMENTAL
IN THE U.S.
AND IN CANADA,
AND MANY PARTS
OF WESTERN EUROPE... BUT IF YOU'RE
IN NORTH AMERICA,
YOU CAN CONTACT US
AT IPATH@UCSD.EDU... OR HAVE YOUR INFECTIOUS
DISEASE PHYSICIAN CONTACT US,
AND WE CAN SEE
IF WE CAN HELP.

Nam says AND WHY DID YOU NOT GIVE UP,
STEFFANIE?
I MEAN, IN THE BOOK YOU
WRITE ABOUT A TIME
WHEN YOU WERE A SMALL CHILD.
SOMEBODY SET FIRE
TO YOUR JACKET,
AND YOU KIND OF JUST BRUSHED
IT OFF AND KEPT GOING.
WHY DID YOU NOT GIVE UP?
WHY DID YOU KEEP GOING?

Steffanie says WELL, FIRST, YOU KNOW,
I LOVE THIS GUY [CHUCKLES].

[NAM CHUCKLES]

Steffanie says AND IT REALLY STARTED AS,
YOU KNOW,
I WANTED TO SAVE
MY HUSBAND'S LIFE.
BUT AFTER THAT, I REALIZED THAT
WE HAVE THE POTENTIAL
TO SAVE MANY MORE LIVES.
AND I KNEW THAT TOM
WAS A SCIENTIST
AND THAT EVEN
IF HE DIED,
HE WOULD WANT HIS
DEATH TO MEAN SOMETHING.
AND SO THERE I WAS,
IN THE HOSPITAL,
SAYING,
"GET THE BASELINE SAMPLE,"
AND SOME OF THE DOCTORS
ARE LOOKING AT ME LIKE,
"THIS WOMAN
IS KIND OF NUTS.
HER HUSBAND IS DYING, AND SHE
SHOULD BE HOLDING HIS HAND."
I WAS HOLDING HIS HAND,
BUT I WAS ALSO THE SCIENTIST.

Nam says WHAT KIND OF IMPACT HAS THIS
HAD ON YOUR RELATIONSHIP, TOM?

Thomas says WE WERE CLOSE BEFORE,
BUT HOW COULD YOU GET ANY CLOSER
THAN WE ARE NOW?

NAM SAYS RIGHT.

Thomas says I MEAN, THIS IS THE MOST SPECIAL
RELATIONSHIP YOU CAN IMAGINE.

NAM SAYS AND IF YOU EVER GET INTO
A FIGHT,
STEFFANIE HAS A TRUMP CARD,
RIGHT?

They all laugh.

Steffanie says HE TAKES OUT THE GARBAGE EVERY
WEEK, WITHOUT ME ASKING.

[TOM CHUCKLES]

NAM SAYS IT'S BEEN SUCH A PLEASURE
TO HAVE YOU BOTH HERE,
AND WE'RE SO HAPPY
TO SEE YOU HEALTHY.

Thomas says THANK YOU.

The caption changes to "Producer: Sandra Gionas, @sandragionas."

NAM SAYS AND I HOPE THIS WILL BE
MADE INTO A MOVIE, BECAUSE, WOW,
THE HAPPY ENDING IS GREAT.
THANK YOU.

STEFFANIE AND TOM say THANKS.

NAM SAYS THANKS.

Watch: Super Battle with a Superbug