Transcript: Ground Control to Dr. Dave | Jul 01, 2019

Nam sits in the studio. She's in her early forties, with shoulder length curly brown hair. She's wearing glasses, a blue blazer over a black shirt, and a silver pendant necklace.

A caption on screen reads "Ground control to Doctor Dave. Nam Kiwanuka, @namshine, @theagenda."

Nam says VERY FEW PEOPLE
CAN OFFER THE PERSPECTIVE
OF OUR NEXT GUEST.
YES, THAT'S BECAUSE FEW HAVE
TRAVELLED TO SPACE
AND LIVED AT THE BOTTOM
OF THE OCEAN.
IT'S ALSO BECAUSE HIS ROUTE TO
OUTER SPACE, AND THE BEYOND,
WAS ANYTHING
BUT A STRAIGHT LINE.
THE FORMER EMERGENCY ROOM
PHYSICIAN, DR. DAVE WILLIAMS,
DETAILS HIS JOURNEY
IN HIS NEW BOOK...

A picture of the book appears briefly on screen. The cover features a picture of Earth as seen from space, and an astronaut floating above it. The title reads "Defying limits: Lessons from the edge of the universe."

Nam continues AND WE'RE PLEASED IT BRINGS HIM
TO OUR STUDIO TONIGHT.

Dave is in his fifties, clean-shaven, with short gray hair. He's wearing a black suit and a white shirt.

Nam continues IT'S SUCH A PLEASURE TO MEET YOU.

Dave says OH, IT'S A REAL PLEASURE
BEING HERE.

Nam says I SAW YOU IN THE GREENROOM,
AND I SAID THAT AFTER
I READ THE BOOK, I WAS IN TEARS.
BUT NOT LIKE IN A BAD WAY,
IT WAS JUST SUCH AN UPLIFTING
PIECE OF WRITING.
SO, THANK YOU FOR WRITING IT.

Dave says OH, IT WAS A REALLY AMAZING
EXPERIENCE.
IT'S QUITE A JOURNEY
WRITING A BOOK
BECAUSE YOU CAN IMAGINE WHAT
GOES IN AND WHAT STAYS OUT,
BUT I'M THRILLED
THAT YOU LIKED IT.

NAM SAYS IT WAS FANTASTIC.
BUT BEFORE WE TALK
ABOUT THE BOOK,
I WANT TO TAKE YOU
BACK TO 2007...

DAVE WILLIAMS SAYS YEAH...

Nam says AND THIS WAS THE SUMMER OF
YOUR SECOND SHUTTLE MISSION.
LET'S TAKE A LOOK.

A clip plays on screen.
In the clip, footage shows a rocket firing up and taking off, as a camera in the cockpit shows the four astronauts inside.

DAVE SAYS HERE'S A LITTLE INSET
PHOTO OF WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE
FROM INSIDE THE COCKPIT.
THE JOSTLING YOU
GET IS WHEN
THE SOLAR ROCKET
BOOSTERS IGNITE.
THEY'RE ABOUT 2.5 MINUTES
FOR THEIR PHASE OF FLIGHT.
AND WHEN THEY IGNITE,
THERE'S NO DOUBT IN YOUR MIND
YOU'RE GOING SOMEWHERE,
AND YOU'RE GOING
SOMEWHERE IN A HURRY.

Nam says I MEAN, NOT MANY PEOPLE CAN EVEN
SAY THEY'VE BEEN TO SPACE,
BUT YOU'VE BEEN TO SPACE TWICE.

DAVE SAYS YES.

Nam says AND YOU'VE DONE THREE
SPACEWALKS?

DAVE SAYS YES.

Nam says SO TAKE ME BACK TO THE FIRST
TIME, YOU'RE SITTING THERE,
AND YOU'RE... EVERYTHING
IS HAPPENING.
BECAUSE SOMETIMES
I WANT TO DO SOMETHING,
AND I'M REALLY EXCITED ABOUT
DOING IT, AND THEN LAST MINUTE,
I'M LIKE,
"WHY DID I WANT TO DO THIS?
I WANT TO GET OFF THE SHIP."

[LAUGHS]

Nam says DID YOU... WHAT WAS THAT FEELING
FOR YOU LIKE, THAT FIRST TIME?

The caption changes to "Dave Williams. Former NASA Mission Specialist."

Dave says SO YOU CAN IMAGINE,
THEY TRAIN US FOR EVERYTHING,
EXCEPT THE LAST TWO
MINUTES PRIOR TO LIFTOFF.
YOU CLOSE YOUR VISOR,
YOU TURN YOUR OXYGEN ON,
AND THEN YOU WAIT
FOR TWO MINUTES.
THERE'S NOTHING TO DO UNTIL
THE MAIN ENGINES IGNITE
AT T-MINUS 6.6 SECONDS.
SO, I'M LOOKING OUT THE OVERHEAD
WINDOWS THINKING,
"OH, WHAT A BEAUTIFUL
DAY FOR A LAUNCH."
"T-MINUS 30 SECONDS."
YOU HEAR IT OVER THE LOOP.
AND I'M GOING,
"OK, 30 SECONDS TO GO."
AT T-MINUS 15 SECONDS,
I HAD THIS HUGE REALITY CHECK.
"IN 15 SECONDS, I'M GOING TO BE
SITTING ON TOP OF A ROCKET
THAT'S GOING TO TAKE ME FROM
BEING STATIONARY
TO TRAVELLING 25 TIMES THE SPEED
OF SOUND IN 8.5 MINUTES.
AND THAT WAS PRETTY SCARY,
ACTUALLY.
I REMEMBER THINKING,
"OH MY GOODNESS,
HOW IS THIS GOING TO WORK OUT?"
YOU NEVER REALLY KNOW.
AND THEN BY THE TIME
MY BRAIN PROCESSED THAT,
IT WAS T-MINUS 6.6 SECONDS.
MAIN ENGINES IGNITED
AND WE'RE OFF FOR A RIDE.

Nam says AND AT NO POINT DID YOU SAY,
"SOMEONE TAKE ME OUTTA HERE?"

[BOTH LAUGH]

Dave says I THINK IT'S A LITTLE LATE
FOR THAT, YOU KNOW?

NAM SAYS YEAH.

Dave says NO MATTER WHAT I WAS THINKING,
LIKE,
"CAN I GET OFF OR ANYTHING?"
IT'S... YOU'RE THERE,
AND YOU'RE GOING FOR THE RIDE.

Nam says AND ONCE YOU'RE... ONCE YOU'RE
IN SPACE, HOW DOES THAT FEEL?

Dave says IT'S A TOTALLY DIFFERENT
SENSATION.
THE LIFTOFF AND THE RIDE TO
SPACE IS A RIDE OF A LIFETIME.
YOU'RE SHAKING BACK AND FORTH,
MASSIVE ACCELERATION.
YOU FEEL THREE TIMES
THE FORCE OF GRAVITY,
LIKE AN ELEPHANT SITTING
ON YOUR CHEST.
AND THEN YOU GET TO SPACE,
AND ALL OF A SUDDEN
IT'S INSTANTLY DIFFERENT.
YOU UNDO YOUR HARNESS;
YOU FLOAT GRACEFULLY
OUT OF YOUR SEAT.
HOPEFULLY GRACEFULLY.
AND THEN YOU TURN AROUND;
YOU LOOK OUT THE OVERHEAD WINDOW
AT THIS MAJESTIC VIEW
OF THE EARTH BENEATH YOU.
IT'S UNBELIEVABLE.

Nam says AND A MOMENT OF PEACE,
I'M ASSUMING.

DAVE SAYS OH, IT'S QUITE PEACEFUL.
BUT AGAIN, YOU DON'T HAVE TIME
TO ENJOY THE VIEW
BECAUSE YOU'VE GOT TO
GET BACK TO WORK.
YOU'RE ON A VERY STRICT
TIMELINE,
AND YOU DON'T WANT
TO GET BEHIND.
WE LIKE TO SAY,
"GET AHEAD, STAY AHEAD."

NAM SAYS AND ALSO, SOMETHING YOUR
WIFE SAID IN THE BOOK,
OR YOU WROTE IN THE BOOK... FLY
LIKE YOU TRAIN... OR,
"TRAIN LIKE YOU FLY, AND
FLY AS YOU TRAIN"?

DAVE SAYS THAT'S RIGHT, YES.

NAM SAYS YEAH.

The caption changes to "Dave Williams. Author, 'Defying limits.'"

Dave says WE SPEND THOUSANDS OF HOURS IN
SIMULATORS TO TRAIN LIKE WE FLY.
AND THEN ULTIMATELY
WHEN WE'RE IN SPACE,
WE WANT TO FLY LIKE
WE'VE TRAINED.

Nam says SO LET'S GET INTO THE BOOK.
YOU TELL THIS GREAT STORY WHEN
YOU WERE YOUNGER
WITH YOU AND YOUR SISTER,
AND YOU'RE PLAYING WITH A PIECE
OF CARDBOARD.
HOW DID YOUR PARENTS ATTITUDE'S
TOWARD PLAY HELP SHAPE YOU?

The caption changes to "Dave Williams, @AstroDaveMD."
Then, it changes again to "In the beginning..."

Dave says I THINK THE THING THAT WAS NEAT
ABOUT OUR PARENTS
IS THEY FOSTERED THIS CURIOSITY.
AND EVERYTHING... A CARDBOARD BOX
BECAME AN OPPORTUNITY TO PLAY
AND MAKE A MAKE-BELIEVE
COMPUTER.
AND, OF COURSE, IT WAS FOR OUR
WASHING MACHINE AND DRYER.
SO THEY WERE PRETTY BIG.
SO, WE MADE ACTUALLY
TWO OF THEM.
WE CUT A HOLE TOGETHER,
JOINED THE TWO TOGETHER,
MADE THIS HUGE,
GIGANTIC COMPUTER.
AND WE WERE INSIDE,
BUT I REMEMBER
WE HAD
THIS LITTLE THING
WHERE THE DOG PULLED A STRING
AND A TREAT WOULD COME OUT
THE SIDE OF THIS... YOU KNOW,
"COMPUTER,"
AND THE DOG WAS PRETTY
EXCITED ABOUT THAT.
SO, IT DIDN'T FIGURE IT OUT
FOR A WHILE.

Nam says AND HOW OLD WERE YOU,
WHEN YOU DID THAT?

Dave says PROBABLY... OH, SIX, SEVEN.
AROUND THERE.

NAM SAYS AND YOU'RE A FATHER.
DID YOU TRY TO, I GUESS,
TRANSFER THAT KNOWLEDGE
FROM YOUR PARENTS TO YOUR
CHILDREN, AS A PARENT?

Dave says SO I'VE TRIED TO EMULATE HOW OUR
PARENTS WERE WITH ME,
AND CATHY'S BEEN THE
SAME WAY WITH OUR KIDS.

NAM SAYS CATHY YOUR WIFE?

Dave says CATHY MY WIFE, YEAH.
SO WITH OUR KIDS,
WHAT WE WANTED TO DO WAS
BASICALLY FOSTER THEIR CURIOSITY
AND ENCOURAGE THEIR PASSION,
WHEREVER IT TAKES THEM.
SO, WE DON'T HAVE ANY
PREORDAINED DESIRE FOR OUR KIDS
TO DO ONE THING OR ANOTHER,
BUT WE'RE JUST TRYING TO FUEL
THEIR DREAMS AND PASSIONS.

Nam says AND YOUR PARENTS,
THEY INDIVIDUALLY GAVE
SOMETHING TO YOU.
WHAT DID YOUR DAD GIVE YOU,
AND WHAT DID YOUR MOM GIVE YOU,
TO FOSTER THIS CURIOSITY
FOR EXPLORATION?

Dave says SO MY FATHER WAS A BANKER DURING
THE DAYTIME,
BUT HE WAS IN REALITY
A MOUNTAIN CLIMBER.
HE WAS AN EXPLORER.
AND I REMEMBER IN THE '60S,
HE WAS AS GALVANIZED TO THE TV
AND THE SPACE PROGRAM
THE UNDERWATER WORLD OF
JACQUES COUSTEAU
AS I WAS.
MY MOTHER WAS
AN OPERATING ROOM NURSE
BEFORE SHE HAD THE CHILDREN,
AND BASICALLY,
SHE I THINK WANTED
TO BE A SURGEON.
SO, HER PASSION FOR MEDICINE
AND SCIENCE,
SHE WAS ABLE TO SHARE
THAT WITH ME AND MY SISTER.

Nam says AND NOW IT'S KIND OF LIKE YOU'VE
MELDED BOTH OF THEIR WORLDS
INTO WHAT YOU'VE
DONE IN YOUR LIFE.

DAVE SAYS YES.

Nam says LOOKING BACK, DOES THAT... DOES
THAT MAKE SENSE TO YOU?

DAVE SAYS IT DOES NOW.

NAM SAYS YEAH.

Dave says AT THE TIME, I DIDN'T EVEN
REALIZE IT WAS HAPPENING, YOU KNOW?
AT THE TIME, I WAS JUST HAVING
FUN AS A CURIOUS KID,
PLAYING WITH MY CHEMISTRY SET,
LEARNING ABOUT ELECTRONICS
FROM THIS ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
SET THAT I HAD,
AND THEN PLAYING WITH CARDBOARD
BOXES AND GOING OUTSIDE.
WE LIVED OUTSIDE DURING
THE SUMMERTIME.

NAM SAYS AND WHEN DID THIS IDEA,
THIS DREAM OF YOURS,
START TO BECOME AN ASTRONAUT?

Dave says SO I DREAMT ABOUT
BEING AN ASTRONAUT
WHEN I WAS SEVEN YEARS OLD.
AND IT WAS MAY 5TH IN 1961
THAT ALAN SHEPARD
LIFTED OFF TO GO INTO SPACE.
I WAS WATCHING IT ON A SMALL
BLACK-AND-WHITE TELEVISION,
WITH A GRAINY IMAGE AND THE
LITTLE RABBIT-EAR ANTENNAS
THAT YOU HAD TO ADJUST
AND THINGS.
AND IT WAS AMAZING
WATCHING THAT.
AND I SAID,
"THAT'S WHAT I WANT TO DO."
BUT I WAS TOLD,
"THAT'S IMPOSSIBLE."
I SAID, "WELL, WHY IS THAT
IMPOSSIBLE FOR ME?"
"BECAUSE YOU'RE GROWING UP
IN CANADA."
AND IN THOSE DAYS, CANADA DID
NOT HAVE AN ASTRONAUT PROGRAM.
WE'RE THE THIRD COUNTRY
IN THE WORLD
TO SEND SATELLITES TO SPACE,
BUT NO ASTRONAUTS IN THOSE DAYS.
SO, I FIGURED
IF I CAN'T GO TO SPACE,
I WANTED TO LIVE AND
WORK UNDERWATER.
AND DR. JOE MACINNIS,
CANADA'S FAMOUS DIVING DOCTOR,
BECAME ONE OF MY HEROES,
WITH JACQUES COUSTEAU.

Nam says AND YOU BECAME A SCUBA DIVER,
LIKE, AT AGE 12?
YOU STARTED...

DAVE SAYS I DID.
I STARTED DIVING
WHEN I WAS AGE 12.
AND IRONICALLY,
I BECAME AN ASTRONAUT
AND WENT TO SPACE BEFORE I LIVED
AND WORKED UNDERWATER
AS AN AQUANAUT.

NAM SAYS OH, WE'RE GONNA TALK MORE
ABOUT THAT IN A SECOND.
BUT BEFORE BECOMING
AN ASTRONAUT,
YOUR... YOU KIND OF ENDED UP
IN MEDICAL SCHOOL.
HOW DID THAT HAPPEN?

Dave says SO WHEN I STARTED DIVING
AT A VERY YOUNG AGE,
I BECAME REALLY PASSIONATE
ABOUT PHYSIOLOGY,
HOW THE HEART AND THE LUNGS
WORKED, DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS,
AND THE PHYSIOLOGY
OF EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS,
WHETHER IT'S
EXPLORING AT HIGH ALTITUDES
OR LIVING AND WORKING
UNDERWATER,
LIVING AND WORKING IN SPACE.
SO I WENT TO MCGILL UNIVERSITY
AND STUDIED PHYSIOLOGY
AND NEUROBIOLOGY
AS AN UNDERGRADUATE,
DID A GRADUATE DEGREE
IN NEUROSCIENCE,
AND THEN ENDED UP APPLYING
TO MEDICAL SCHOOL
BECAUSE I THOUGHT THAT WAS A WAY
TO BRING IT ALL TOGETHER.
AND MAYBE ONE DAY I'D BECOME A
DOCTOR AND BE ABLE TO EXPLORE
THOSE FINAL FRONTIERS
AS A DOCTOR IN SPACE
OR A DOCTOR UNDERWATER.

Nam says BUT AT MCGILL,
YOU HAD SOME CHALLENGES.
WELL... AND IN THE BOOK TOO,
YOU DO TALK ABOUT... YOU SAY THAT
SUCCESS FEELS REALLY GOOD,
BUT YOU'VE ALWAYS FOUND
FAILURE TO BE MORE INSTRUCTIVE.
WHAT DID YOU MEAN BY THAT?

The caption changes to "Learning from failure."

Dave says SO I THINK FAILURE... IF WE'RE
WILLING TO LEARN FROM FAILURE,
FAILURE IS A GREAT OPPORTUNITY
TO LEARN HOW TO CHANGE,
HOW TO IMPROVE.
THE FIRST FEW YEARS
I WAS AT MCGILL,
I DIDN'T HAVE ENOUGH MONEY
FOR TUITION,
SO I HAD TO HAVE PART-TIME JOBS
TO BE ABLE TO PAY MY TUITION,
AND MY MARKS SUFFERED
AS A RESULT
BECAUSE I WASN'T ABLE TO STUDY
AS MUCH AS I SHOULD OF.
IT TOOK ME A FEW YEARS
TO FIGURE THIS OUT.
IT'S ACTUALLY
NOT ROCKET SCIENCE.
BUT IF YOU STOP WORKING
AND FOCUS ON YOUR STUDYING,
THEN YOU CAN APPLY
FOR SCHOLARSHIPS
AND GET
SCHOLARSHIPS
THAT WILL HELP PAY FOR YOUR
TUITION INSTEAD.
I DIDN'T FIGURE THAT OUT UNTIL
THE SECOND LAST YEAR
I WAS AT MCGILL AS AN
UNDERGRADUATE AND THINGS.
BUT I WAS ABLE TO GET
INTO GRADUATE SCHOOL,
HAD SOME CHALLENGES THERE.
DIDN'T GET INTO MEDICAL SCHOOL
THE FIRST TIME AROUND.
APPLIED ON MY SECOND ATTEMPT
AND GOT IN
AND WAS VERY FORTUNATE TO
GRADUATE AT THE TOP OF MY CLASS.

Nam says AND IT'S GREAT
HOW YOU SAY IT,
BUT IT WASN'T THAT SIMPLE, RIGHT?

DAVE SAYS OH, NO, NOT...

Nam says BECAUSE IT WAS CHALLENGING.

DAVE SAYS YEAH.

Nam says WHAT KEPT YOU GOING THROUGH THAT
DIFFICULT TIME IN YOUR LIFE?

The caption changes to "Watch us anytime: tvo.org, Twitter: @theagenda, Facebook Live."

Dave says I THINK WHAT SEPARATES ME
FROM A LOT OF MY PEERS
IS A PASSION,
ALMOST THIS BURNING DESIRE
TO BE ABLE TO DO
THE KINDS OF THINGS
THAT I WAS COMMITTED TO DOING.
SO, IF I DECIDE
THAT I WANT TO DO SOMETHING,
THE FIRST THING I DO IS THROW
MYSELF INTO IT.
GO OUT
AND BUY A WHOLE BUNCH OF BOOKS,
SIT DOWN AND READ ABOUT IT,
AND THEN TRY AND GO FROM THERE.
AND WITH MEDICINE,
IT WAS... IT'S NOT AN EASY PATH
TO GET INTO MEDICAL SCHOOL.
IT'S NOT AN EASY PATH
BECOMING A PHYSICIAN
OR WORKING AS A PHYSICIAN.
BUT IT'S THAT PASSION TO BE ABLE
TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE THAT,
TO ME, LED TO ME DOING THE
THINGS THAT I WANTED TO.

Nam says I'M GOING TO SHOW SOME MORE
VIDEO, AND THIS TIME,
THIS VIDEO IS ONE
OF THE SPACEWALKS.
YOU DID THREE.

DAVE SAYS YES.

Nam says AND THIS ONE, YOU'RE REPLACING
A CONTROL MOTION GYROSCOPE?

Dave says YES.

NAM SAYS OR CMG FOR SHORT.

Dave says YEAH.

Nam says SHELDON, PLEASE ROLL.

Another clip plays on screen. It shows two astronauts working on equipment outside a spaceship in space.

DAVE SAYS I CLIMBED ON TO THE END OF
THE ROBOTIC ARM,
AND SCORCH DID
AN OUTSTANDING JOB
DRIVING ME OVER TO THE PAYLOAD
BAY TO GET THE NEW CMG.
THIS ONE WEIGHS
ABOUT 1,200 POUNDS,
AND I SPENT A LOT
OF TIME IN THE GYM
GETTING READY TO
BE ABLE TO LIFT THIS THING...

[DAVE AND CROWD LAUGH]

Dave continues OUT OF THE PAYLOAD BAY.
BUT SURPRISINGLY ENOUGH, IT WAS
A LOT EASIER THAN I ANTICIPATED.
AND SCORCH MOVED US
OUT OF THE PAYLOAD BAY.
WE HAD ABOUT
TWO INCHES CLEARANCE
FROM SOMETHING CALLED THE
NITROGEN TANK ASSEMBLY
THAT WAS RIGHT BESIDE
US ON THE STOWAGE PLATFORM.
THAT'S A PRETTY
SPECTACULAR VIEW.
YOU KNOW, I'M GLAD SOMEBODY
RECORDED THIS
BECAUSE ALL I SAW WAS
THIS BIG CMG
THAT I WAS
HOLDING IN MY FACE.
I DIDN'T GET TO SEE THE VIEW.
THAT'S KIND OF WHAT
I WAS SEEING,
EXCEPT I SAW MORE OF THE
GYROSCOPE ITSELF.

The clip ends.

Nam says THAT IS... I MEAN,
THAT IS BREATHTAKING.
AND THAT'S YOU.

DAVE SAYS YES.

Nam says ISN'T THAT WILD TO YOU?
OR IS IT JUST LIKE,
"OH, THAT'S JUST SOMETHING... THAT
WAS FRIDAY"?

The caption changes to "Under water, out in space."

Dave says IT'S ALMOST SURREAL.
I MEAN, EVEN NOW I LOOK
AT THE VIDEO FOOTAGE,
AND IT TAKES YOU BACK
TO THE MOMENT WHERE
AS A CANADIAN... AND I GOT THE
CANADIAN FLAG ON MY SHOULDER;
I'M RIDING
THE CANADARM;
HOLDING ONTO THIS
HUGE GYROSCOPE;
BRINGING IT DOWN AND SNEAKING
GLIMPSES OF THE EARTH BEHIND.
IT WAS AMAZING.

NAM SAYS AND IT'S SCARY BECAUSE ANY
WRONG MOVE CAN LEAD TO DISASTER.

DAVE SAYS YES.
IN THE ASTRONAUT PROGRAM,
WE LIKE TO SAY,
"IT GETS YOUR ATTENTION."

[NAM CHUCKLES]

Dave says THAT TRANSLATES, MEANING,
"IT'S PRETTY SCARY DOING IT."
SO WHEN YOU'RE RIDING
THE ROBOTIC ARM,
YOUR FEET ARE
IN THE FOOT RESTRAINT,
AND YOU HAVE
TO TURN YOUR HEELS OUT TO STAY
LOCKED INTO THE FOOT RESTRAINT.
IF YOU TWIST...

NAM SAYS YOU KEPT SAYING, "HEELS
OUT, HEELS OUT," YEAH.

Dave says HEELS OUT, HEELS OUT.
IF YOU TWIST, YOU RUN THE RISK
THAT YOU'RE GOING TO COME OUT
OF THE FOOT RESTRAINT.
AND IF BOTH HANDS ARE FILLED
WITH THIS GYROSCOPE
THAT YOU'RE HOLDING ONTO, IF I
CAME OUT OF THE FOOT RESTRAINT,
I'D BE HOLDING ON TO A
1,200-POUND GYROSCOPE,
FLOATING AROUND IN SPACE, STILL
TETHERED TO THE ROBOTIC ARM,
BUT NOW I HAVE TO FIGURE OUT HOW
TO HOLD THE GYROSCOPE,
GET BACK INTO THE
FOOT RESTRAINT.
FORTUNATELY,
THAT DIDN'T HAPPEN.
ALL THE TRAINING PAID OFF.

Nam says AND PART OF YOUR TRAINING, YOU
DID A LOT OF UNDERWATER WORK.
WHAT ARE THE BIG
DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN WORKING
IN A LIQUID ENVIRONMENT
AND WORKING
IN A WEIGHTLESS VACUUM?

Dave says THERE'S ONE ABSOLUTELY
CRITICAL DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN TRAINING UNDERWATER
AND BEING ABLE TO
DO A SPACEWALK IN SPACE.
AND THE FACT IS THAT THE WATER
STABILIZES YOU,
AND IT MAKES IT VERY HARD TO GET
GOING AND VERY EASY TO STOP.

NAM SAYS SO IT'S KIND OF LIKE YOU'RE
IN QUICK... LIKE IN SAND OR...

Dave says IT'S... BASICALLY,
IT PROVIDES A CUSHION
AND KEEPS YOU IN THE POSITION
THAT YOU'RE IN.

NAM SAYS UH HUH.

Dave says WHEN YOU'RE IN SPACE, THERE'S
NOTHING TO STABILIZE YOU AT ALL.
YOU'RE WORKING IN A VACUUM.
SO IT'S REALLY EASY TO GET GOING
AND REALLY HARD TO STOP.
AND IF YOU FORGET THAT,
YOU'RE GOING TO FIND OUT
REALLY QUICKLY, THE FIRST FEW
MOMENTS OF YOUR SPACEWALK,
YOU NEED TO STAY IN CONTROL.
SO, IF YOU WERE WATCHING ME
SPACEWALKING,
IT'S LIKE WATCHING GRASS GROW
BECAUSE WE MOVE SO SLOWLY.
WE WANT TO STAY IN CONTROL
THE WHOLE TIME.

NAM SAYS BUT FOR YOU IN THAT MOMENT,
IT'S NOT SLOW, RIGHT?

DAVE SAYS NO.

Nam says IT'S... EVERYTHING'S MOVING FAST
FOR YOU.

Dave says YES.
WELL, CERTAINLY YOUR BRAIN
IS MOVING FAST.
YOU'VE GOT TO, AGAIN,
GET AHEAD, STAY AHEAD.
SO, YOU'RE ALWAYS ANTICIPATING
THE NEXT TASK THAT YOU'RE DOING.
AND THEN THE BIZARRE THING
IS YOU LOOK AT THE EARTH,
AND YOU KNOW THAT RELATIVE
TO THE EARTH,
YOU'RE TRAVELLING
EIGHT KILOMETRES A SECOND,
FIVE MILES A SECOND.
SNAP YOUR FINGERS, SPACE
SHUTTLE'S GONE EIGHT KILOMETRES,
SPACE STATION'S GONE EIGHT
KILOMETRES,
I'VE GONE EIGHT KILOMETRES.
THAT'S EIGHT TIMES FASTER
THAN A RIFLE BULLET.
BUT THEN RELATIVE
TO THE SPACE STATION,
I'M MOVING VERY, VERY SLOWLY.
IT'S KIND OF THIS BIZARRE
DIFFERENCE.

NAM SAYS IN THE CLIP
WE JUST SHOWED,
YOU SAID THAT YOU COULDN'T
SEE... YOU COULDN'T GET
A VIEW OF THE PLANET.
DID YOU EVENTUALLY
END UP SEEING IT?

Dave says I DID.
SO I HAD TWO FANTASTIC
OPPORTUNITIES.
ONE WAS GOING DOWN
TO THE PAYLOAD BAY
TO GET THE GYROSCOPE.
I HAD NOTHING IN MY HANDS.
SO, I HAD THIS SPECTACULAR VIEW
OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE
AND THE EARTH IN THE BACKGROUND.
AND, YOU KNOW, THERE'S NO LINES
SEPARATING COUNTRIES
THAT YOU CAN SEE FROM SPACE.
YOU REALIZE THAT WE'RE IN FACT
ALL IN THIS TOGETHER,
THIS AMAZINGLY BEAUTIFUL PLANET
THAT WE ORBIT EVERY 90 MINUTES.
AND THEN AT THE END OF THE
SPACEWALK WAS THE SAME THING.
SCORCH, OUR PILOT,
CHARLIE HOBAUGH,
HAD TO ADJUST THE ROBOTIC ARM.
I'M POINTING STRAIGHT
OUT INTO SPACE,
POISED ON THE END
OF THE CANADARM.
HE SAYS, "DAVE, THIS IS GOING TO
TAKE A FEW MINUTES;
ENJOY THE VIEW."

[NAM LAUGHS]

Dave says THIS IS FANTASTIC, YOU KNOW?

[CHUCKLES]

Nam says YEAH, YEAH, GOOD... THAT WAS GOOD
ADVICE, LOOKING BACK, I'M SURE.

DAVE SAYS IT WAS, YEAH.

Nam says SO YOU COME BACK HOME AND YOU'RE
DOING YOUR EVERYDAY THINGS;
YOU'VE LIVED AT THE BOTTOM
OF THE OCEAN;
YOU'VE TRAVELLED TO SPACE.
WHAT'S DAILY LIFE LIKE?
IS IT DULL?
HOW DO YOU... YOU KNOW,
HOW DOES EVERYTHING COMPARE
TO WHAT YOU'VE JUST EXPERIENCED?

Dave says SO I WOULDN'T SAY
IT'S DULL AT ALL.
I MEAN, OUR LIVES ARE BASED ON
WHAT WE PUT INTO OUR LIVES
AND THINGS.
SO, RIGHT NOW,
I'M VERY ENERGIZED,
DOING ALL SORTS
OF EXCITING PROJECTS.
I'VE GOT FOUR CHILDREN'S BOOKS
THAT I'VE HAD A CHANCE TO WRITE.
I'VE GOT THE ADULT BOOK
THAT JUST CAME OUT.
WE'RE WORKING
ON A KID'S TV SHOW.
ALL OF THAT IS EXCITING IN
AND OF ITSELF.
BUT NOW I'M BACK FLYING AGAIN.
I STEPPED DOWN FROM BEING A CEO
OF A MAJOR HOSPITAL IN ONTARIO.
THAT WAS AN INCREDIBLE
EXPERIENCE.
AND I'LL HAVE TO SAY THE MOST
AMAZING THING
I'VE EVER DONE IN MY LIFE
IS FLY IN SPACE,
BUT THE MOST MEANINGFUL THING
I'VE EVER DONE IN MY LIFE
IS WORK AS A
HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONAL,
AND BE ABLE TO BE THERE FOR
PEOPLE WHEN THEY NEED HELP.

Nam says WHY WOULD YOU... 'CAUSE I THINK A
LOT OF PEOPLE WOULD BE LIKE,
"OH." I MEAN, NOT MANY OF US CAN
GO INTO SPACE,
BUT WE DO HAVE A
LOT OF PHYSICIANS.

Dave says YEAH.

Nam says WHY WAS THAT IMPORTANT FOR YOU?
WHY IS THAT MORE IMPORTANT
TO YOU?

Dave says TO ME, WHEN I WAS GROWING UP,
AND I HAD ALL THESE
DREAMS... DREAMS ARE SOMETHING
THAT IGNITES OUR PASSION
AND KEEPS US GOING.
BUT WHEN I WAS GROWING UP,
I WANTED TO FUNDAMENTALLY
LIVE A LIFE THAT WOULD
MAKE A DIFFERENCE.
AND I WASN'T SURE WHAT I WOULD
END UP DOING.
I WAS HOPING I'D BE A DOCTOR
AND HOPING I'D BE AN ASTRONAUT... BUT I JUST SIMPLY WANTED TO BE
ABLE TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE.
AND THAT'S ONE OF THE AMAZING
THINGS IN HEALTH CARE,
WHEN YOU WORK WITH PATIENTS
AND THEIR FAMILIES,
IN TIMES OF NEED, AND
YOU'RE ABLE TO HELP THEM
AND SOLVE THEIR
CLINICAL PROBLEMS,
THAT'S PRETTY INCREDIBLE
TO BE ABLE TO DO.
IN SPACE,
IT'S AN AMAZING EXPERIENCE.
I NEVER SAVE LIVES IN SPACE.
HOWEVER, WORKING
AS AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN,
I'VE SAVED MANY LIVES.

Nam says AND WHILE YOU WERE
IN SPACE TOO,
YOU WERE DOING VERY
IMPORTANT WORK.
YOU WERE TO CONDUCT VARIOUS
MEDICAL EXPERIMENTS.
WHAT DID YOU LEARN?

The caption changes to "Out of this world learning."

Dave says SO MY FIRST SPACEFLIGHT,
NEUROLAB,
LOOKED AT THE HOW THE BRAIN
AND NERVOUS SYSTEM
ADAPTED TO BEING IN SPACE.
INTERESTINGLY, WHEN I TRAINED
AS A NEUROSCIENTIST,
WE WERE TAUGHT THAT THE BRAIN IS
IN MANY WAYS LIKE A MOTHERBOARD
OF A COMPUTER... THE RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN ALL THOSE NERVE CELLS
IN OUR
BRAIN IS STATIC.
IT TURNS OUT THAT'S NOT
THE CASE AT ALL.
AND NEUROLAB,
WHEN WE WERE OUT IN SPACE,
WE FOUND OUT THAT THE
CONNECTIONS BETWEEN NERVE CELLS
AND THE BRAIN ACTUALLY CHANGE.
IT'S NOW
CALLED NEUROPLASTICITY.
AND WHAT'S EXCITING IS,
IF WE CAN HARNESS THAT KNOWLEDGE
AND... OF NEUROPLASTICITY
AND BRING THAT TO HELP PATIENTS
WITH STROKE RECOVER FASTER,
THAT WILL BE SOMETHING
THAT WOULD BE
REALLY QUITE INCREDIBLE.

Nam says I WAS GOING TO FOLLOW-UP
AND ASK YOU HOW THAT KNOWLEDGE
THAT YOU LEARNED THERE,
HOW IT HAS BEEN
USED HERE ON PLANET EARTH?

Dave says THERE'S SO MANY WAYS.
YOU KNOW, SENATOR GLENN FLEW IN
SPACE ON HIS SECOND SPACEFLIGHT
AT AGE 77.
THIS IS FANTASTIC.
BUT WHAT'S REALLY INTERESTING
IS WHEN YOU'RE 77,
YOU FLY IN SPACE, AND YOU LOOK
AT HOW YOUR BODY CHANGES.
WE KNOW YOU LOSE BONE DENSITY
IN SPACE,
AND YET,
WHEN YOU COME BACK TO EARTH,
YOU WILL RECOVER
THAT BONE DENSITY.
BUT WHY IS IT WHEN WE ALL AGE,
WE LOSE BONE DENSITY
AND IT'S HARD TO RECOVER?
WE CAN TRY
AND PREVENT THE BONE LOSS,
BUT IT SEEMS TO BE
A ONE-WAY STREET.
SO, WE NEED TO LEARN
FROM SPACE TO TRY
AND UNDERSTAND THESE
PHYSIOLOGICAL CHALLENGES
ON EARTH.

Nam says AND WHEN YOU WERE
IN SPACE,
YOU CONDUCTED A NUMBER
OF ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS.
TELL US ABOUT HOW RATS ADAPTED
TO MOVING AROUND
IN THAT ENVIRONMENT.

Dave says SO WE BROUGHT BABY RATS WITH US,
AND THESE BABY RATS
WERE GOING TO LEARN TO WALK IN
THE ABSENCE OF GRAVITY... AND GO THROUGH THAT WINDOW
OF DEVELOPMENT
WHERE THEY WOULD ACTUALLY LEARN
THEIR WALKING PATTERN.
AND THEN COME BACK TO EARTH.
AND THE QUESTION IS:
WOULD THEY BE ABLE TO WALK
NORMALLY ON EARTH?
SO THEY'RE IN SPACE,
AND THEY ADAPTED REALLY QUICKLY.
THEY FIGURED OUT
THAT THE BEST WAY...

NAM SAYS BEFORE YOU DID.

Dave says WELL, I THINK THEY PROBABLY DID.
YEAH
[LAUGHS]
MIGHT BE A LITTLE
EMBARRASSING, BUT YEAH.

NAM SAYS YEAH.

Dave says SO, THEY LEARNED TO PUSH OFF
WITH THEIR HIND PAWS
AND GRAB ON TO IT
WITH THEIR FOREPAWS.
AND I REMEMBER ONE OF THEM... WE
HAVE THEM INSIDE
THIS SPECIAL WORKING AREA
SO THEY DON'T FLOAT AWAY,
BUT ONE OF THEM'S INSIDE,
GRABS MY LEFT WRIST,
RUNS UP MY LEFT ARM, PUSHES OFF,
FLOATS OVER TO MY RIGHT ARM,
RUNS DOWN TO MY HAND,
PUSHES OFF,
FLOATS OVER TO MY LEFT HAND.
THEY WERE HAVING FUN.
IT WAS INCREDIBLE
TO WATCH THEM GET AROUND.

NAM SAYS WHAT DID YOU LEARN
FROM OBSERVING THEM?

Dave says SO INTERESTINGLY,
THEIR RATE OF ADAPTATION
WAS VERY SIMILAR TO OURS.
AND THEN WHEN WE BROUGHT THEM
BACK TO EARTH,
THEY DID LEARN
TO WALK ON EARTH,
BUT THEY HAD A PERMANENTLY
IMPAIRED RIGHTING REFLEX.
A RAT,
IF YOU PUT IT ON ITS BACK,
IT FLIPS OVER ON TO ITS STOMACH.
THAT'S CALLED
THE RIGHTING REFLEX.
SO, IT WAS PERMANENTLY
IMPAIRED IN THESE RATS.
AND I THINK WHAT
THAT SHOWS US
IS THERE IS A DEGREE
OF NEUROPLASTICITY,
BUT THERE ARE ALSO PHASES
OF NEURODEVELOPMENT
WHERE THE BRAIN IS,
IN FACT, HARDWIRED.
AND THAT ONCE THOSE
PATTERNS ARE LEARNED,
THEY CAN'T
CHANGE OVER TIME.

Nam says AFTER YOUR FIRST MISSION... LET'S
GO BACK A BIT MORE,
AFTER YOUR FIRST MISSION,
SUCCESSFUL...
A COUPLE YEARS,
I THINK IT WAS SEVEN YEARS
IN BETWEEN YOUR NEXT ONE.

DAVE SAYS MM HMM, YEAH.

NAM SAYS WAS IT NINE?
1998 AND 2007?

Dave says YES, 2007,
SO NINE YEARS, YEAH.

[NAM CHUCKLES]

NAM SAYS SO WHILE YOU'RE TRAINING
TO... FOR YOUR SECOND
SHUTTLE MISSION,
THE COLUMBIA DISASTER
HAPPENED...

DAVE SAYS YEAH.

Nam says IN FEBRUARY OF 2003.
HOW DID THAT EVENT PLAY OUT
FOR YOU,
BOTH AS AN ASTRONAUT
AND AS A FAMILY MAN?

The caption changes to "Disaster."

Dave says IT WAS A REALLY,
REALLY TOUGH TIME.
IN FACT, I WAS WATCHING COLUMBIA
ON TELEVISION,
YOU KNOW,
DURING THE RE-ENTRY PHASE.
WE HAD GUESTS WHO WERE STAYING
AT OUR HOUSE IN HOUSTON,
WATCHING IT AS WELL.
AND THEN WE ALL WATCHED,
AS MANY DID,
THE VEHICLE CATASTROPHICALLY
BREAK UP DURING RE-ENTRY.
FOUR HOURS LATER, I WAS ON MY
WAY TO NORTHEASTERN TEXAS
AND SPENT
THE NEXT FEW DAYS
PARTICIPATING IN THE
RECOVERY EFFORTS.
IT WAS A TRAGEDY BEYOND WORDS.
I CAN'T REALLY EXPLAIN
THE MAGNITUDE OF THAT LOSS.
I HAD SEVEN FRIENDS
ON BOARD,
THREE OF MY CLASSMATES
WERE ON BOARD AND THINGS.
BUT WE HAD TO LEARN FROM WHAT
HAPPENED WITH COLUMBIA
TO BE ABLE TO RETURN TO FLIGHT.
AND I THINK IF WE HAD
THE OPPORTUNITY
TO SPEAK TO ANY OF THOSE
ASTRONAUTS TODAY,
THEY WOULD WANT US TO
CONTINUE TO EXPLORE.
THAT'S REALLY
THE EXPLORER'S WAY,
TO BE ABLE TO HONOUR
THEIR LEGACY
BY CONTINUING THE JOURNEY
TO GO INTO SPACE.
IT WOULD BE THE SAME
FOR THE CHALLENGER CREW
OR THE CREW OF APOLLO 1.
WHAT WE DO IS DANGEROUS,
BUT WE TRY AND MITIGATE THE RISK
TO AS LOW A LEVEL AS WE CAN
TO GO FORWARD.
AND NOWADAYS, WE'RE LOOKING TO
SEND HUMANS BACK TO THE MOON,
AND ULTIMATELY
ONTO MARS,
BECAUSE IT'S PART OF THE HUMAN
NATURE TO EXPLORE.

NAM SAYS DID THEY FIND OUT WHAT
HAPPENED WITH... WHAT WENT WRONG?

DAVE SAYS THAT WAS THE MOST
IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF COLUMBIA,
IS TO UNDERSTAND
WHAT HAPPENED.
AND IT TURNS OUT
THAT IT WAS FOAM
THAT CAME OFF
THE EXTERNAL TANK
THAT DAMAGED THE LEADING
EDGE OF THE PORT WING
OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE.
SO DURING RE-ENTRY, THE WING
CATASTROPHICALLY FAILED.
BUT TO LEARN HOW WE CAN INSPECT
THE UNDERSURFACE OF THE ORBITER
TO MAKE SURE
THAT WE CAN DETECT DAMAGE,
HOW TO REPAIR DAMAGE
IF IT DOES OCCUR.
SO AS A SPACEWALKER,
I WAS TRAINED ON HOW TO
REPAIR DAMAGE TO THE TILE.

NAM SAYS AND THE CANADARM
PLAYED A ROLE IN THAT, RIGHT?

Dave says AND THE CANADARM, WE COULD NOT
HAVE RETURNED TO FLIGHT
IF IT WAS NOT FOR THE CANADARM,
BECAUSE WE HAD TO BE ABLE TO
INSPECT THOSE TILES,
AND THEN ALSO USE THE CANADARM
TO POSITION US BENEATH
THE ORBITER
IF WE HAD
TO REPAIR THE TILE.

NAM SAYS AND ON A PERSONAL NOTE,
BECAUSE YOU EVENTUALLY
DID GO ON ANOTHER MISSION,
WERE YOU MORE HESITANT
TO GO?
I KNOW YOU SAID
"IT'S THE EXPLORER'S WAY,"
BUT IN THE BACK
OF YOUR MIND,
WAS IT SOMETHING
THAT YOU WERE THINKING ABOUT,
OR HAD MADE PEACE
WITH IF IT DID HAPPEN?

Dave says SO, YOU KNOW, THERE'S A NUMBER
OF DIFFERENT ASPECTS TO THAT.
FIRST OF ALL, A LOT OF
CONVERSATIONS WITH MY WIFE
AND THE CREW
AND THINGS.
BUT BARB MORGAN
WAS ON OUR CREW,
AND SHE WAS A BACKUP
FOR CHRISTA MCAULIFFE IN 1986,
SO BARB HAD BEEN THROUGH
THIS BEFORE.
AND SHE WAS TOTALLY COMMITTED
TO FLYING AFTER CHALLENGER.
AND, OF COURSE,
WE SHARED HER COMMITMENT
TO BE ABLE TO FLY
AFTER THE LOSS OF COLUMBIA.
BUT IT IS DIFFICULT.
WE DO KNOW THOUGH THAT THE SPACE
PROGRAM IMPLEMENTED
ALL THE CHANGES IN THE COLUMBIA
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION BOARD
TO MAKE IT SAFER TO FLY.
SO ARGUABLY MY SECOND
SPACE FLIGHT, IN SOME WAYS,
WAS SAFER THAN THE FIRST ONE.

NAM SAYS NOW THAT THE SHUTTLE
PROGRAM HAS WRAPPED UP,
WHAT DO YOU SEE AS
THE BEST APPROACH
TO CONTINUING OUR EXPLORATION
OF THE FINAL FRONTIER?

The caption changes to "The state of the space program."

Dave says I THINK IT'S A REALLY EXCITING
TIME IN SPACE EXPLORATION.
CANADA IS A MAJOR
SPACEFARING NATION.
WE COULD NOT HAVE DONE
THE SPACE STATION
IF IT WERE NOT FOR THE CANADIAN
INVOLVEMENT,
PROVIDING THE ROBOTIC ARM,
ET CETERA.
SO NOW, WE'RE LOOKING AT GOING
BEYOND EARTH ORBIT.
IT WILL BE BACK TO THE MOON,
WILL BE THE FIRST STEP INTO THE
JOURNEY INTO DEEPER SPACE.
AND WE'LL LEARN ABOUT LIVING
ON THE SURFACE OF THE MOON,
DEVELOPING LUNAR HABITATS,
LUNAR ROVERS.
UNDOUBTEDLY, WE MIGHT THINK
ABOUT PUTTING A SPACE STATION
IN THE ORBIT AROUND
THE MOON
TO BE ABLE TO GO
FROM THE STATION DOWN
TO THE SURFACE
OF THE MOON.
ALL OF THAT WILL HELP US LEARN
LESSONS TO GO TO MARS... WHICH WILL BE ABSOLUTELY
INCREDIBLE.
AND MAYBE THAT CANADIAN THAT'S
GOING TO WALK ON THE SURFACE
OF MARS IS NOT YET AN ASTRONAUT.
MAYBE THEY'RE IN SCHOOL
RIGHT NOW,
SHARING THE DREAM
THAT I ONCE HAD.
AND IF THAT'S THE CASE, I SAY,
"GO FOR IT.
YOU NEVER KNOW
HOW IT'S GOING TO WORK OUT."

NAM SAYS THE SKY'S THE LIMIT.

Dave says OH, BEYOND THE SKY

[LAUGHS]

Nam says NO LONGER THE LIMIT.

[LAUGHS]

NAM SAYS NO LONGER THE LIMIT.
WELL, ELON MUSK HAS BEEN
IN THE NEWS A LOT...

DAVE SAYS YEAH...

Nam says AND HE'S PLANNING TO TAKE
JAPANESE FASHION ENTREPRENEUR
YUSAKU MAEZAWA
ON A TRIP TOWARD THE MOON.
DO YOU THINK THAT'S A STEP
IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION
FOR HUMAN PRESENCE IN SPACE?

Dave says I THINK IT'S REALLY EXCITING
LOOKING AT THE COMMERCIAL
UTILIZATION OF SPACE.
YEARS AGO, IF YOU'D ASKED ME
THIS QUESTION,
I WOULD HAVE SAID,
"COMMERCIALLY, WE'RE GOING
TO FOCUS ON LOWER-EARTH ORBIT,
AND IT WILL BE THE GOVERNMENT
SPACE AGENCIES
GOING BEYOND EARTH ORBIT."
NOW WHAT WE'RE SEEING IS BOTH
THE PRIVATE SECTOR
AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES LOOKING
TO PUT PEOPLE
INTO LOWER-EARTH ORBIT,
AND THEN GO BEYOND, YOU KNOW,
ON THESE MISSIONS TO THE MOON.
YOU WILL SEE OVER THE NEXT
100 YEARS A RAPID EXPANSION
IN THE UTILIZATION
OF SPACE,
JUST LIKE OVER
THE PAST 100 YEARS
WE SAW THE FIRST FLEDGLING
COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT...
GROWING INTO THE TYPES OF
AIRPLANES WE USE TODAY.

Nam says BUT WHAT ABOUT POLLUTION,
BECAUSE, I MEAN,
I THINK AIRCRAFTS HAVE
CONTRIBUTED TO POLLUTION?
WOULDN'T THAT ALSO HAPPEN
IN SPACE,
IF WE HAVE EVERYBODY RUNNING
AROUND THERE?

Dave says SO WE NEED TO FIGURE
OUT THIS CHALLENGE OF POLLUTION.
IN THE 1960S, MARSHALL MCLUHAN
REFERRED TO THE EARTH
AS A GLOBAL VILLAGE
AND LOOKED AT THE IMPACT
OF TELECOMMUNICATION.
MORE IMPORTANTLY, WE CAN USE
THE PHRASE "THE GLOBAL VILLAGE."
TO TALK ABOUT POLLUTION.
HOPEFULLY, AS A SPECIES,
WE'LL HAVE LEARNED ENOUGH
FROM WHAT WE'VE DONE
TO OUR OWN PLANET
THAT WE'RE NOT GOING
TO GO TO OTHER PLANETS
AND POLLUTE THOSE PLANETS.
CLOSED-LOOP HABITABILITY
SYSTEMS, WHERE WE RECYCLE WATER,
WHERE WE BASICALLY COMPOST
AND CRUSH TRASH
AND THAT SORT OF THING,
TRASH MANAGEMENT,
THESE ARE ALL TECHNOLOGIES
THAT WE NEED
TO BE ABLE TO
EXPLORE SPACE,
BUT THEY'LL ALSO HELP
US HERE ON EARTH.

Nam says HOW DO YOU FEEL THAT CANADA
SHOULD BE CONTRIBUTING
TO HUMANKIND'S FUTURE IN SPACE?

The caption changes to "Connect with us: Twitter: @theagenda; Facebook, agendaconnect@tvo.org, Instagram."

Dave says I THINK WE SHOULD MAINTAIN
AND GROW OUR PRESENCE.
RIGHT NOW, WE'RE A MAJOR
SPACEFARING NATION,
SO THAT MEANS WE NEED
TO CONTINUE
TO BE A MAJOR
SPACEFARING NATION,
CONTINUE TO ENSURE THAT CANADA'S
PART OF THOSE MISSIONS
BEYOND EARTH ORBIT.
I THINK WE SHOULD GROW OUR
COMMITMENT AS WELL,
PARTICULARLY IN THE
COMMERCIAL SPACE ARENA
RIGHT NOW WHERE THE
CURRENT GLOBAL ECONOMY
AROUND THE SPACE PROGRAM
IS ABOUT A 350 BILLION DOLLARS
A YEAR ECONOMY.
AND CANADA'S PORTION
OF THAT IS 5.6 BILLION DOLLARS.
IT'S GOING TO GROW
TO 1.1 TRILLION DOLLARS BY 2030,
THIS INCREDIBLE EXPANSION
IN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
AROUND SPACEFLIGHT.
AND I HOPE OUR CANADIAN
COMPONENT GROWS SIMILARLY,
SO THEN WE HAVE A
MULTIBILLION-DOLLAR SPACE SECTOR
IN CANADA.
THAT WOULD BE REALLY EXCITING.

NAM SAYS I KNOW YOU'RE AN EXPLORER
AT HEART.
WOULD YOU BE JEALOUS
OF THE FIRST CANADIAN
WHO LAND ON MARS?

[LAUGHS]

Dave says NO.
YOU KNOW WHAT,
I'D LOVE TO GO TO MARS.
YOU NEVER KNOW.
I'M NEVER GOING TO SAY NO.

NAM SAYS YEAH.

Dave says BUT I'M REALLY EXCITED
ABOUT THAT.
THAT'S THE EXPLORER'S CREED.
WE WANT OTHERS TO BE ABLE TO GO
AND DO THINGS IN OUR FOOTSTEPS.
SO I LOOK AT THIS AS A LONG PATH
OF FOOTSTEPS TO MARS.
I MAY HAVE PUT ONE OR TWO
FOOTSTEPS IN THAT PATH,
BUT THERE ARE GOING TO BE
OTHER CANADIANS,
WHO ARE A LOT YOUNGER
THAN I AM,
WHO ARE GOING TO PUT MAYBE EVEN
MORE FOOTSTEPS ON THAT PATH,
AND I SAY,
"GO FOR IT."
IT'S EXCITING.

Nam says WE HAVE... WE'VE RAN OUT OF TIME,
BUT I WANT TO ASK YOU ONE
MORE QUESTION.
YOU'VE BEEN AN AQUANAUT,
AN ASTRONAUT, A DOCTOR, A PILOT.
LOOKING BACK ON YOUR LIFE,
AND HAVING READ
THIS INCREDIBLE BOOK,
WHAT WOULD YOU SAY HAS
BEEN THE MOST IMPORTANT THING
THAT YOU'VE DONE WITH YOUR LIFE?

The caption changes to "tvo.org/theagenda; agendaconnect@tvo.org."

Dave says I THINK PROBABLY OVERALL WHAT
BROUGHT IT TOGETHER
IS BEING A DOCTOR IN SPACE,
AND BEING ABLE TO LEARN
FROM THE COMBINATION
OF THOSE TWO EXPERIENCES.
HOW TO ENHANCE HEALTH CARE
DELIVERY HERE ON EARTH.
HOW TO GROW AS AN INDIVIDUAL,
EXPERIENCING ALL THESE THINGS.
AND THEN
AS AN AUTHOR,
HOW TO BE ABLE TO SHARE THESE
EXPERIENCES WITH OTHERS.

The caption changes to "Producer: Gregg Thurlbeck, @GreggThurlbeck."

NAM SAYS DR. WILLIAMS,
IT'S BEEN A PLEASURE.

Dave says THANK YOU.

NAM SAYS THANK YOU SO MUCH.
AND THANKS FOR WRITING
THIS GREAT READ.

Dave says WELL, THANK YOU.
I'M GLAD YOU ENJOYED IT.

NAM SAYS CONGRATULATIONS.

Dave says THANKS.

Watch: Ground Control to Dr. Dave