Transcript: An Indigenous View of Canada | Sep 27, 2018

Steve sits in the studio. He's slim, clean-shaven, in his fifties, with short curly brown hair. He's wearing a gray suit, pale blue shirt, and spotted purple tie.

A caption on screen reads "An indigenous view of Canada"

Steve says FOR GENERATIONS,
KNOWLEDGE ABOUT INDIGENOUS
HISTORY AND CULTURE WAS
OVERLOOKED, DISMISSED AND EVEN
INTENTIONALLY ERASED, AS THE
RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS EXPERIENCE
AMPLY DEMONSTRATED.
TIMES HAVE CHANGED, AND AN
AMBITIOUS NEW PROJECT IS PUTTING
SOME OF THAT BACK ON THE MAP.
LITERALLY.
IT'S CALLED "THE INDIGENOUS
PEOPLES ATLAS OF CANADA," AND
THE FOUR-VOLUME COLLECTION
ADDRESSES THE REAL LACK OF
RESOURCES ABOUT INDIGENOUS HISTORY.

A picture of one of the books appears briefly on screen. The cover features a picture of an indigenous art piece consisting of a face carved in wood with closed eyes painted red, white hair and yellow cheeks.

Steve continues HERE TO TELL US MORE:
CHARLENE BEARHEAD, EDUCATIONAL
ADVISOR FOR THE ATLAS AND THE
FIRST EDUCATION LEAD WITH THE
TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION
COMMISSION OF CANADA...

Charlene is in her fifties, with long straight brown hair and bangs. She's wearing a black tank top and pendant earrings.

Steve continues AND JULIAN BRAVE NOISECAT, A
WRITER, COMMUNITY ORGANIZER, AND
CONTRIBUTOR TO THE ATLAS.

Julian is in his twenties, clean-shaven, with straight black hair tied back. He's wearing a round-necked striped white shirt.

Steve continues WE ARE DELIGHTED TO WELCOME BOTH
OF YOU TO TALK ABOUT WHAT IS
TRULY A GORGEOUS AND
EXTRAORDINARY ACHIEVEMENT.
WELL DONE.
THIS IS ABSOLUTELY SPECTACULAR.
WHERE DID THE IDEA COME FROM,
CHARLENE?

The caption changes to "Charlene Bearhead. Education Advisor, 'The Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada.'"
Then, it changes again to "Reconciling a lack of awareness."

Charlene says THE IDEA
FOR THE ATLAS ACTUALLY CAME FROM
CANADIAN GEOGRAPHIC IN RESPONSE
TO THE CANADA 150 INITIATIVE.
SO WHEN CANADIAN GEOGRAPHIC
APPROACHED ME ABOUT DOING MY
SMALL PART IN THIS HUGE PROCESS,
IT WAS IN FACT THE ONLY CANADA
150 EDUCATION PROCESS THAT I
AGREED TO BE CONNECTED TO
BECAUSE I WAS THRILLED THAT
CANADIAN GEOGRAPHIC CHOSE TO
LOOK AT CANADA 150 PLUS 10,000
PLUS 15,000 PLUS 20,000 AND
RECOGNIZE WHAT WAS REALLY
IMPORTANT TO CELEBRATE WAS THE
KNOWLEDGE, THE HISTORY, THE
CULTURE, THE PRACTICES, THE
SKILL OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE FROM
THEIR OWN VOICE IN THIS COUNTRY.

Steve says WE WILL DIVE IN AND
OF COURSE SHOW EVERYBODY THE
ATLASES, WHICH ARE SPECTACULAR
TO LOOK AT, AND YOU'VE GOT OTHER
THINGS AS WELL.
BUT A LITTLE MORE BACKGROUND
BEFORE WE START.
YOU'RE PART OF THE TRC, TRUTH
AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION.
HOW DID THAT PLAY INTO ALL OF THIS?

Charlene says SO I COORDINATED THE
EDUCATION DAYS FOR THE TRUTH AND
RECONCILIATION COMMISSION AND
THEN SERVED AS THE FIRST
EDUCATION LEAD FOR THE NATIONAL
CENTRE FOR TRUTH AND
RECONCILIATION.
WE REALLY ARE SEEING MOVEMENT
ACROSS THE COUNTRY.
YOU KNOW, WE'RE NOW TWO AND A
HALF, ALMOST THREE YEARS
POST-TRC FINAL REPORT.
HUMAN BEINGS ARE INTERESTING.
THEY DON'T SORT OF STEP FORWARD
AND SAY, WE NEED TO DO THIS
BECAUSE IT'S THE RIGHT THING AND
THIS IS 150, 250, 300 YEARS
OVERDUE.
THEY NEED A COMMISSION OF
INQUIRY, A REPORT, A DATE,
SOMETHING.
SO THE TRC AND THE 94 CALLS TO
ACTION FROM THE COMMISSIONERS,
THAT PROCESS HAS BEEN REALLY,
REALLY SIGNIFICANT IN THE
MOVEMENT, I CAN CERTAINLY SAY IN
EDUCATION ACROSS THE COUNTRY,
AND CERTAINLY WAS AN IMPORTANT
IMPETUS FOR THIS.

Steve says SO WITHOUT THAT,
THIS PROBABLY DOESN'T HAPPEN?

Charlene says WELL, I MEAN, WE CAN'T SAY IT
WOULDN'T HAVE HAPPENED, BUT I'M
GOING TO SAY THE CHANCES ARE
PROBABLY NOT.

Steve says NOW, JULIAN, I WANT
YOU TO HELP US UNDERSTAND,
BECAUSE THIS IS NOT AN ATLAS IN
THE TRADITIONAL SENSE.
THIS IS NOT THE RAND McNALLEY
THAT I GREW UP WITH IN GRADE
SCHOOL MANY, MANY MOONS AGO.
HOW IS THIS DIFFERENT?

The caption changes to "Julian Brave NoiseCat. Contributing Editor, 'The Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada."

Julian says FIRST IT'S INDIGENOUS.
WHEN YOU GREW UP IN GRADE
SCHOOL, THERE WASN'T AN
INDIGENOUS ATLAS.
THAT'S ONE THING.
THERE ARE A LOT OF VOICES IN
THIS ATLAS.
THIS ISN'T A THIRD PERSON VOICE
OF GOD ATLAS THAT HAS MAPS.
IT'S AN ATLAS THAT ATTEMPTS TO
SPEAK AND DOES SPEAK FROM THE
PERSPECTIVE AND VOICES OF FIRST
PEOPLES WHO CONTRIBUTED TO IT,
AND THERE'S OVER I THINK 200,
200 FOLKS WHOSE VOICES ARE
INCLUDED.

Steve says WHY SO IMPORTANT TO
GET THOSE VOICES ON THE RECORD
IN THIS FORM?

Julian says WELL, I MEAN, FIRSTLY, IT'S
NOT A PERSPECTIVE THAT CANADA
HAS HEARD FROM QUITE ENOUGH.
I THINK THAT'S THE FIRST POINT
THAT'S REALLY IMPORTANT.
IT'S ALSO, I THINK, IMPORTANT
TO, YOU KNOW, RECOGNIZE THE
DIVERSITY OF FIRST PEOPLES
ACROSS CANADA.
YOU KNOW, THERE'S THREE SEGMENTS
TO THE ATLAS REPRESENTING FIRST
NATIONS, METIS, AND INUIT.
OUR PERSPECTIVES ON MANY OF
THESE ISSUES ARE DIFFERENT.
THE HISTORIES AND CULTURES WE
SPEAK FROM ARE VERY DIFFERENT.
SO I THINK HAVING THE SPACE FOR
MANY VOICES TO SPEAK IS REALLY
IMPORTANT.

Steve says CHARLENE, HOW MANY
YEARS IN THE MAKING?

Charlene says TWO YEARS.
TWO YEARS AND 2 MILLION Dollars.

Steve says TWO YEARS AND
2 MILLION Dollars.
AND WHERE DID THE MONEY COME
FROM?

Charlene says SO, THE MONEY CAME FROM THE
CANADA 150 INITIATIVE.
SOME PEOPLE... IF YOU KNOW WHAT
IT TAKES TO PUT SOMETHING LIKE
THIS TOGETHER, YOU KNOW THAT
2 MILLION DOLLARS IS NOT A LOT OF
MONEY.
SOME PEOPLE WOULD SAY "THAT'S
A LOT OF MONEY."
AND WHEN YOU PUT IT INTO THE
CONTEXT OF THAT IS .4 OF 1 percent OF
WHAT WAS SPENT ON THE PARTY ON
THE HILL, BASICALLY, AND THE
WHOLE INITIATIVE, I WOULD SAY
THIS IS MONEY VERY WELL SPENT.

Steve says AND HOW MANY PEOPLE
DO YOU THINK AT THE END OF THE
DAY CONTRIBUTED TO MAKING THIS
HAPPEN?

Charlene says SO WE WERE TRYING TO PUT
TOGETHER ALL OF THE NUMBERS WITH
THE WHOLE TEAM, AND WE KNOW THAT
THERE WERE OVER 100 CONTRIBUTING
VOICES TO THE ATLASES AND OVER
100 CONTRIBUTING VOICES TO THE
EDUCATION PIECE.
SO WELL OVER 200.

Steve says I WANT TO READ
SOMETHING HERE BECAUSE IN THE
FORWARD TO THE ATLAS, ADAM
GOUDRY, A METIS PROFESSOR FROM
THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA THAT A
SETTLER WOULD FIND PROVOCATIVE.
I WANT YOU TO COMMENT ON IT.

A quote appears on screen, under the title "Remapping an existence." The quote reads "CARTOGRAPHY HAS LONG BEEN AN imperial ENTERPRISE USED TO CLAIM TERRITORY AND IMAGINE THE GEOGRAPHIC REACH OF EMPIRES. IN ITS IMPERIAL USAGE, MAP-MAKING IS AN INSTRUMENT OF INDIGENOUS ERASURE."

Quoted from Adam Gaudry, "The Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada", 2018.

A says WHAT DO YOU THINK OF THAT, JULIAN?

The caption changes to "From knowledge keepers to the page."

Julian says I
THINK ADAM GOUDRY IS AN EXPERT
ON THIS ISSUE, I THINK WE SHOULD
LISTEN TO HIS INFORMED
PERSPECTIVE.
I THINK IT'S ALSO VERY TRUE.
THE ABILITY OF EUROPEANS TO COME
TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD
AND PROJECT THEIR VIEWS ONTO IT
AND THEN CLAIM IT JUST BY OFTEN
THE RIGHTS OF DISCOVERY, IF WE
THINK ABOUT IT NOW, JUST BECAUSE
YOU CAME AND YOU SAW THIS LAND,
HOW COME THAT THEN BECOMES YOUR
CLAIM, RIGHT?
I THINK THERE'S A LOT OF TRUTH
THERE.
SO I THINK TRUTH IS ALSO HARD,
RIGHT?
I THINK WE LEARNED THAT THROUGH
THE TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION
PROCESS AND ARE LEARNING THAT.
YOU KNOW, I THINK THAT IT MIGHT
BE HARD TO FOLKS TO READ THAT,
BUT IT'S AN IMPORTANT REALITY
THAT WE NEED TO COME TO GRIPS
WITH.

Steve says CHARLENE, HOW DO YOU
THINK THE ATLAS COUNTERMANS THAT
ATTEMPT AT ERASURE THAT THE
PROFESSOR SAYS HAS BEEN GOING ON
FOR FAR TOO MANY CENTURIES?

The caption changes to "Charlene Bearhead, @Bearhead_C."

Charlene says WELL,
WHAT I REALLY APPRECIATE ABOUT
THIS IS WHEN YOU LISTEN TO
ADAM'S WORDS, TO ME IT
REPRESENTS THAT CLOSING OF THE
DOORS AND SORT OF LOCKING DOWN,
AND THE ATLAS AND THE GIANT MAP
AND THE APPS AND ALL THE
INDIGENOUS VOICE THAT IS
ATTRIBUTED TO THIS, I FEEL LIKE
IT'S THE OPENING UP OF THOSE
DOORS AGAIN AND THAT WINDOW TO
SEE TRUTH, REALLY, AND FOR
PEOPLE TO UNDERSTAND.
PEOPLE THINK THEY KNOW WHERE
THEY LIVE, NON-INDIGENOUS PEOPLE
THINK THEY KNOW WHERE THEY LIVE
BASED ON THOSE LINES AND THAT
ERASURE, AND REALLY THIS IS AN
OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN, OH, THIS
IS ACTUALLY WHERE I LIVE.
THIS IS ACTUALLY THE LAND.
THESE ARE THE ACTUAL
CONNECTIONS.
THIS IS WHAT IS NATURAL.
THIS IS WHAT IS REAL.
THIS IS NOT WHAT IS IMPOSED.

A satellite-view map of Canada pops up with the title "The Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada." On the map, all of Canada and some parts of the U.S. are painted and marked in different colours.

Steve says NOW, WE'RE LOOKING
AT A LITTLE SLIDE RIGHT NOW OF
ONE OF THE MANY PAGES IN THE
ATLAS, AND THAT'S NOT A TYPICAL,
YOU KNOW, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC OR
CANADIAN GEOGRAPHIC ATLAS.
THAT'S NOT WHAT THEY TYPICALLY
LOOK LIKE IN GRADE SCHOOLS
ACROSS THE PROVINCE.
HOW DID YOU CONVINCE CANADIAN
GEOGRAPHIC TO DO SOMETHING THAT
WOULD PRESUMABLY BE OUTSIDE
THEIR TRADITIONAL REALM OF
EXPERTISE OR COMFORT ZONE?

Charlene says SO WHEN
WE FIRST CAME TOGETHER AS THE
EDUCATION TEAM WITH INDIGENOUS
EDUCATORS AND SOME ALLIED
EDUCATORS FROM ACROSS THE
COUNTRY, THERE WERE TWO THINGS
WE WERE REALLY CLEAR ABOUT.
ONE WE ASKED NOT TO SEE
POLITICAL BOUNDARIES.
WE ASKED NOT TO HAVE THAT.
SO THERE ARE TERRITORY LINES AND
BOUNDARIES.
BUT IT WAS REALLY IMPORTANT TO
MAKE SURE THAT IT WAS THE
LINGUISTIC GROUPS.
IT SHOWED LANGUAGE GROUPS.
IT SHOWED CONNECTION TO LAND.
IT SHOWED, YOU KNOW, WHERE
RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS WERE.
IT SHOWED UNSETTLED LAND CLAIMS.
IT SHOWED TERRITORY BOUNDARIES.
BUT WE ALSO ASKED, WHEN YOU TAKE
A LOOK AT THE TIMELINE AROUND
THE GIANT FORMAT, THERE ARE
IMAGES ALL THE WAY AROUND IT
THAT COME FROM THE FIRST NATION,
INUIT, OR METIS CONTRIBUTORS,
BUT IT STILL KIND OF INDICATES,
JUST BY REPRESENTATION AND
RATIO, THAT MOST OF THE HISTORY
IN THIS COUNTRY IS STILL
POST-CONTACT.
SO THERE'S ACTUALLY DOTS AND
LINES AROUND THE GIANT MAP, THAT
RATIO, TO SHOW THAT REALLY THE
150 IS A TINY, TINY TAIL END OF
THE 20,000-PLUS YEARS.

Steve flips through the pages of the book, showing various maps.

The caption changes to "For more information: indigenouspeoplesatlasofcanada.ca"

Steve says APROPOS OF WHAT YOU
JUST SAID, HERE IS A MAP OF PART
OF CANADA, AND OF COURSE WHAT I
FIND FASCINATING ABOUT THIS IS
YOU DON'T SEE MANITOBA OR
SASKATCHEWAN OR BRITISH COLUMBIA
OR ALBERTA, YOU SEE CANADA
DIVIDED INTO THE DIFFERENT
TREATIES AND THE YEARS IN WHICH
THOSE TREATIES WERE MADE.
I'VE NEVER SEEN A MAP LIKE THIS
EVER BEFORE IN MY LIFE.
CANADIAN GEOGRAPHIC HAD NO
ISSUES ABOUT TRYING TO DO
SOMETHING LIKE THAT?

Charlene says THE
FANTASTIC THING... MY
EXPERIENCE, AND JULIAN CAN SPEAK
FOR HIMSELF ABOUT HIS
EXPERIENCE, BUT OUR EXPERIENCE
IN EDUCATION WAS THAT, AS PEOPLE
COME FORWARD, THEY'RE ACCUSTOMED
TO BEING ASKED FOR THEIR
PERSPECTIVE OR KNOWLEDGE, AND
THEN THE ORGANIZATION... THIS IS
THE ROYAL CANADIAN GEOGRAPHIC
SOCIETY... COME BACK
WITH, "THAT'S REALLY
INTERESTING, BUT WE DO IT THIS
WAY."
THERE WERE NO "BUTS."
CANADIAN GEOGRAPHIC LISTENED.
THEY INTERPRETED.
THEY CAME BACK AND ASKED IF THEY
GOT IT RIGHT.
IT WAS INCREDIBLE.
AND I BELIEVE THAT THAT WAS THE
MOST SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTING
FACTOR TO THE SUCCESS OF THIS
PROJECT.
NO BUTS.
JUST LISTENING, HONOURING,
RECOGNIZING, RESPECTING.

Steve says JULIAN WHAT DO YOU
THINK

Julian says I
COMPLETELY AGREE I THINK THAT
THAT GETTING THIS PROCESS RIGHT
AND THEN GETTING TO A PRODUCT
LIKE THIS IS.. THERE'S SO MANY THINGS THAT COULD GO WRONG
OR NOT BE HANDLED PROPERLY AND AS WE KNOW LIVING IN RIGHT
RELATION WITH THE FIRST PEOPLES
OF THIS LAND IS VERY COMPLICATED
GIVING THE DEEP AND TROUBLING HISTORIES THAT WE SHARE AND
THAT WE ARE JUST COMING TO GRIPS WITH. AND I THINK THAT TO THE
CREDIT OF THE CANADIAN
GEOGRAPHIC TEAM THEY DIDN'T
DEMAND EDITORIAL CONTROL I THINK THEY SEEDED A LOT OF THAT TO
THE CONTRIBUTORS, LIKE CHARELENE AND THE MANY WRITERS WHO
CONTRIBUTED TO THE ATLAS AND THE
TEXT. THAT WAS REALLY IMPORTANT
YOU KNOW A MODEL FOR HOW PUBLICATIONS CAN HANDLE THIS
KIND OF THING MOVING FORWARD.

Steve says SO WE SHOULD JUST
POINT OUT HERE THAT THIS VOLUME
THAT I'M LOOKING AT NOW...
SMELLS GREAT.
THE NEW SMELL IS JUST, MM,
FABULOUS.
THIS IS ONE OF FOUR VOLUMES THAT
PEOPLE CAN GET IN THE INDIGENOUS
PEOPLES ATLAS OF CANADA, AND
THERE ARE A COUPLE OF OTHER
THINGS AS WELL.
DO YOU WANT ME TO DO THIS TABLET
THING NOW?
OKAY.
WEBSITE FIRST AND THEN WE'LL DO
THE TABLET.
LET'S SHOW THE WEBSITE, "THE
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES ATLAS OF CANADA."

A website appears on screen featuring pictures of all the volumes of the atlas.

Steve continues THAT'S PRETTY OBVIOUS.
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES ATLAS OF
CANADA DOT C-A.
I MEAN, IT'S ALL THERE.
AND THEN YOU'VE GOT THIS APP,
AND I'M GOING TO SHOW MY
TECHNICAL PROWESS HERE... MAYBE
NOT.

[LAUGHTER]

Steve handles a tablet with an app containing information from the atlas.

He says LET'S SHOW THIS HERE.
THIS IS REALLY VERY HANDY-DANDY
AND, YOU KNOW, AM I GETTING THIS
ON CAMERA OKAY, GUYS?
AND THEN YOU GO UP AND HERE
ACROSS THE BOTTOM, AS JULIEN
MENTIONED EARLIER, METIS, INUIT,
FIRST NATIONS, TRUTH AND
RECONCILIATION.
ISN'T THAT BEAUTIFUL?
LOOK AT HOW THAT COMES UP?
AND THEN THERE'S JUST MORE
INFORMATION AS YOU GO FURTHER
DOWN.
THERE'S JUST SO MUCH TO DIVE
INTO HERE.
IT'S REALLY QUITE FABULOUS.
LOOKS GORGEOUS TOO.
LOOKS GORGEOUS.
IT'S REALLY BEAUTIFUL.
WHAT ARE YOUR HOPES FOR THIS THING?

Charlene says SO FROM
AN EDUCATION PERSPECTIVE, MY
HOPES ARE THAT THIS ATLAS IS IN
EVERY CLASSROOM ACROSS THE
COUNTRY, AT LEAST ONE COPY; THAT
EVERY TEACHER... WE'RE HEARING A
LOT OF TEACHERS SAYING I NEED
ONE OF THESE FOR MYSELF AS WELL.
WE HAVE TO REMEMBER THE TEACHERS
WERE NEVER... YOU KNOW, THEY
NEVER HAD THE BENEFIT OF THIS
EDUCATION AS WELL.
BUT ANYBODY WHO HAS BEEN IN
SCHOOL PRE-TRC ALSO HAS NOT HAD
ANY OF THE BENEFIT OF ANY OF
THIS EDUCATION.
SO I WOULD SAY, YOU KNOW,
EDUCATION, IT DOESN'T JUST
HAPPEN IN SCHOOL.
SO IN EVERY HOUSEHOLD AND EVERY
BUSINESS AND EVERY ORGANIZATION,
YOU KNOW, IT REALLY NEEDS TO BE
THERE, AND HOPE ALSO THAT EVERY
SCHOOL DISTRICT IN THIS COUNTRY
GETS A COPY OF THE GIANT FLOOR
MAP AND THE ACTIVITIES AND THE
LESSON PLANS THAT GO WITH IT.

Steve says THERE'S PUT THE
FLOOR MAP UP.
SHELDON, WE'VE GOT A SHOT OF
THIS, DON'T WE?
LET'S BRING THE FLOOR MAP UP.
IT'S HUGE.
IT'S CALLED A FLOOR MAP FOR A REASON.

In a picture several barefooted people stand on a gigantic map of Canada.

Charlene says IT'S THE
SIZE OF A GYMNASIUM.

Steve says DESCRIBE A LITTLE
BIT OF WHAT WE'RE SEEING HERE.

Charlene says YOU'LL
SEE THE TIME LINE AROUND THE
OUTSIDE WITH A LITTLE CIRCLE OF
INFORMATION.
YOU'LL SEE PEOPLE STANDING ON IT
BECAUSE THAT'S WHAT IT'S FOR.
AND IT'S REALLY INTRIGUING TO
WATCH PEOPLE ENGAGE WITH THE
FLOOR MAP, BECAUSE IT IS HUGE.
AND SO MOSTLY YOU SEE PEOPLE
HEAD FOR WHERE THEY LIVE AND
THEY'RE TRYING TO FIND
THEMSELVES ON THE MAP.
SO OFTEN YOU'LL SEE
NON-INDIGENOUS PEOPLE GET ON
THERE, AND THEY HAVE NO POINT OF
REFERENCE THAT MAKES SENSE TO
THEM OR THAT THEY'VE EXPERIENCED
OR ARE ACCUSTOMED TO BECAUSE
THERE ARE NO PROVINCIAL OR
TERRITORIAL BOUNDARIES, NOT
CAPITAL CITIES.
SO, YOU KNOW, PEOPLE ARE
STARTING TO HAVE TO LOOK FOR
BODIES OF WATER AND THE LAND OR
FIRST NATION COMMUNITIES OR
METIS COMMUNITIES THEY MAY BE
FAMILIAR WITH.
BUT INDIGENOUS PEOPLE WALKING ON
THE MAP, IT'S ALSO REALLY
POWERFUL, BECAUSE YOU SEE PEOPLE
LOOKING AT IT, AND IT'S LIKE, I
SEE THINGS THAT MAKE SENSE TO
ME.
THIS MAKES SENSE TO ME.
I RECOGNIZE THIS.
AND THERE'S A LOT OF DIALOGUE,
WHEN PEOPLE GET ON THE LAND, ON
THE MAP, BETWEEN INDIGENOUS
PEOPLE FROM VARIOUS NATIONS AND
COMMUNITIES, BECAUSE, OF COURSE,
THERE'S NOT THAT SORT OF HARD
AND FAST, THIS IS THE LINE AND
WE'RE HERE.
THERE'S AN OVERLAP.
THERE'S A SHARING.
THERE'S GATHERING PLACES.
THERE'S PLACES THAT ARE MEANT
FOR DIFFERENT PURPOSES AND HAVE
BEEN SIGNIFICANT FOR DIFFERENT REASONS.

Steve says I GUESS, JULIAN,
THERE'S AN OPPORTUNITY FOR
NON-INDIGENOUS PEOPLE TO REALLY
EMPATHIZE HERE.
BECAUSE AS CHARLENE DESCRIBES
IT, YOU KNOW, IF YOU'RE A YOUNG
SCHOOL KID, YOU HAVE BEEN
LOOKING AT A MAP THE SAME WAY
AND YOU HAVE A FRAME OF
REFERENCE, AS WE HAVE FOR
HUNDREDS OF YEARS HERE, AND
INDIGENOUS PEOPLE HAVE NOT HAD
THAT FRAME OF REFERENCE.
AND NOW, LOOKING AT THESE MAPS,
IT'S THE NON-INDIGENOUS PEOPLE
WHO ARE SOMEWHAT DISCONCERTED,
RIGHT, AND DON'T HAVE THE FRAME
OF REFERENCE THAT WE'VE ENJOYED
FOR THE LAST SEVERAL HUNDRED
YEARS.
THAT'S INTERESTING.

Julian says YEAH.
NO, I MEAN, WATCHING NON-NATIVE
PEOPLE, YOU KNOW, REORIENT
THEMSELVES ON A MAP, HAVE TO
SORT OF SEE THEIR HOME, YOU
KNOW, THEIR COUNTRY IN A NEW WAY
IS REALLY POWERFUL.
AND THEN, WHEN I FIRST
ENCOUNTERED THE GIANT FLOOR MAP,
I WALKED RIGHT UP TO WHERE MY
COMMUNITY IS.

Steve says WHICH IS WHERE?

The caption changes to "Julian Brave Noisecat, @jnoisecat."

Julian says IN
BRITISH COLUMBIA, NEAR 100-MILE
HOUSE.
WALKED RIGHT UP TO IT AND
POINTED AT IT AND TOOK A LITTLE
SELFIE OF MY FEET RIGHT ABOVE
IT.
THAT KIND OF A THING.
TO CHARLENE'S POINT, I THINK
THAT THAT'S REALLY... IT SEEMS
MINOR, RIGHT, TO SEE THE LAND IN
A DIFFERENT WAY.
BUT I THINK ACTUALLY IMAGINING
WHAT THAT WILL DO FOR KIDS IN
10, 20 YEARS DOWN THE LINE, THAT
WILL BE QUITE POWERFUL.

Steve says I DON'T WANT TO
IMAGINE.
I WANT TO KNOW RIGHT NOW.
WHEN YOU SEE INDIGENOUS KIDS
STAND ON THAT MAP AND SEE THE
LAND, TURTLE ISLAND, IF YOU
LIKE, IN A DIFFERENT WAY FROM
WHAT THEY'VE SEEN IT BEFORE,
WHAT DO YOU SEE?

Charlene says SO I WAS
ABLE TO WITNESS A COLLEAGUE THAT
TEACHES IN GATINEAU AND THE
SCHOOL THAT SHE TEACHES AT, A
LOT OF CHILDREN COME FROM THE
JAMES BAY AREA, SO CREE
CHILDREN, AND THEY WERE SO
EXCITED.
YOU KNOW, KIDS WILL JUST GET
RIGHT DOWN THERE AND CRAWL ON
THE MAP AND LOOK FOR THINGS, AND
THEY SAW THEIR OWN COMMUNITIES
FOR THE FIRST TIME.
AND IT'S SO EXCITING.
THEY SEE THEIR LANGUAGES AND
THEY'RE PROUD BECAUSE THEY SEE
OTHER KIDS THAT HAVE NO IDEA AND
LOOK TO THEM FOR THAT
EXPLANATION OF WHAT IS THAT AND
THE KNOWLEDGE, AND THEY SEE HOW
EXCITED THEIR TEACHERS AND THEIR
FELLOW STUDENTS THAT ARE
NON-INDIGENOUS ARE ABOUT THIS
LEARNING BECAUSE IT'S NOT BEEN
AVAILABLE.

Steve says I'VE SPENT A LITTLE
TIME AT MANITOULIN ISLAND DURING
THE SUMMER.
YOU KNOW, 40 YEARS AGO, WHEN I
FIRST WENT THERE, THERE WAS A
PLACE ON THE NORTH CHANNEL
CALLED WEST BAY, AND TODAY IT'S
CALLED CHIGEENG.
HOW MUCH OF THAT IS HAPPENING
ACROSS CANADA RIGHT NOW WHERE
THE ORIGINAL NAMES ARE STARTING
TO BE RE-EMPLOYED?

Charlene says I'VE
SEEN IT A LOT, ESPECIALLY IN THE
NORTH, IN BRITISH COLUMBIA,
CLOSE TO WHERE I LIVE, FOR
EXAMPLE, IT USED TO BE CALLED
HOBEEMMA.

A map of Canada appears and homes in on Maskwacis, Alberta.

Steve says WHY WAS IT CALLED
HOBEEMA?
I THINK, IF I REMEMBER THIS
RIGHT, THE SETTLER WHO NAMED THE
PLACE IN ALBERTA MANY MOONS AGO
DECIDED THAT HE LIKED THE DUTCH
ARTIST NAMED HOBEEMA SO HE NAMED
IT AFTER THIS DUTCH ARTIST WHICH
WAS A NICE WAY TO PAY TRIBUTE TO
THE ARTIST BUT IT SURE AS HECK
DIDN'T HAVE A LOT TO DO WITH THE
INDIGENOUS HISTORY OF THE AREA
SO NOW IT'S CALLED...

Charlene says MUSKOCHEEF.
I DON'T KNOW WHY IT WAS CALLED
HOBEEMA.

Steve says LEAVE IT TO THE
WHITE GUY.
ARE YOU SEEING THIS ACROSS THE
COUNTRY, THAT INDIGENOUS PLACES
ARE CLAIMING THEIR PLACE?

Julian says INCREASINGLY IN INDIGENOUS
COMMUNITIES IT'S HAPPENING A
LOT.
RIGHT HERE IN TORONTO, RIGHT?
PEOPLE ARE CLAIMING THE NAME OF
THE PLACE.
FIRSTLY, THAT'S REALLY COOL.
BUT TO REORIENT YOURSELF ON THE
LAND THAT WAY, TO SEE PEOPLE TRY
TO STRUGGLE WITH THE
PRONUNCIATIONS OF A LOT OF THESE
THINGS, YOU KNOW, IT'S COMING TO
KNOW WHERE YOU ARE AND WHERE
YOU'RE FROM IN A DIFFERENT WAY
THAT CAN I THINK CHANGE
PERSPECTIVE.

Steve says CAN YOU SPEAK YOUR
INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE?

Julian says MY... I WAS VERY FORTUNATE TO...
OUR LANGUAGE IS CALLED SECWEPMC
AND MY GRANDMOTHER IS ONE OF THE
LAST FLUENT TEACHERS ON OUR
RESERVE, SHE TEACHES IN THE
ELIZA SCHOOL.

Steve says THIS IS IN B.C.?

Julian says THIS IS IN B.C.
I WAS FORTUNATE TO STUDY WITH
HER FOR A FEW SUMMERS.
I'M NOT FLUENT BY ANY MEANS BUT
I'VE HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO SIT
WITH HER AND WORK THROUGH THE
COMPLICATED WORDS AND
PHONOLOGIES AND WE CAN HAVE A
LITTLE BACK AND FORTH IN OUR
LANGUAGE.
AND GIVEN WHAT HAPPENED TO HER
AND WHAT HAPPENED TO OUR PEOPLE,
THE FACT THAT THAT LANGUAGE WAS
QUITE LITERALLY BEATEN OUT OF
HER AND MANY OF OUR ANCESTORS
AND THAT I CAN SPEAK SOME OF
THAT AND THAT I CAN MAYBE SOME
DAY SHARE THAT WITH MY CHILDREN,
THAT MEANS THE WORLD TO ME.

Steve says WE SHOULD PROBABLY
HEAR WHAT THAT SOUNDS LIKE SINCE
I SUSPECT 99 percent OF THE PEOPLE
WATCHING THIS RIGHT NOW WILL
HAVE NEVER HEARD IT BEFORE.
SAY SOMETHING.

Julian says SO,
I MEAN, WE'RE SPEAKING IN THE
MORNING.
SO THE MORNING GREETING IN
OUR... THE TRADITIONAL MORNING
GREETING IN OUR LANGUAGE IS

He speaks SECWEPMEC.

He continues IT DOESN'T ACTUALLY TRANSLATE TO
"GOOD MORNING," IT MEANS YOU
SURVIVED THE NIGHT.
AND I THINK, YOU KNOW,
REFLECTING ON WHAT OUR PEOPLE
SURVIVED, THE MANY NIGHTS THAT
OUR PEOPLE DIDN'T MAKE IT
THROUGH THE NIGHT AND WHAT...
HOW PROFOUND IT MUST HAVE BEEN
AND HOW DEEP AND DARK IT MUST
HAVE BEEN TO SAY THAT TO SOMEONE
WHEN WE WERE IN THE MIDST OF
THAT DEVASTATION, YOU KNOW, I
THINK THAT'S PART OF WHAT YOU
CAN GET FROM LEARNING THE
LANGUAGES, IS THAT TEXTURE, THAT
HUMAN EXPERIENCE, THAT KNOWLEDGE
OF WHAT OUR ANCESTORS ARE GOING
THROUGH AND WHAT IT MEANS TO
KNOW THAT TODAY.

Steve says YOU DON'T SAY GOOD
MORNING, YOU SAY "I SURVIVED THE NIGHT."

Julian says OR
YOU SURVIVED THE NIGHT.

Steve says YOU SURVIVED THE NIGHT.
THAT IS PROFOUND.
CHARLENE, TELL US HOW INDIGENOUS
LANGUAGES HAVE BEEN USED IN THIS
PROJECT ON THESE ATLASES, ON
THESE MAPS.

Charlene says SO,
AGAIN, I'LL SPEAK MORE TO THE
EDUCATION SIDE OF THINGS.
SO ON THE GIANT FLOOR MAP AND ON
SOME OF THE MAPS, LANGUAGE HAS
BEEN REALLY IMPORTANT.

A map of Canada pops up with the title "Indigenous languages map."

It has dots and circles in pink, blue, yellow, green and other colours.

Charlene continues SO WHEN YOU SEE THE COLOURS, YOU
SEE THE NATIONS, BUT IT'S ALSO
BY LINGUISTIC GROUP.
AND SO SOME OF THE THINGS, YOU
KNOW, THAT JULIAN REFERS TO
ABOUT THE DIFFERENCES.
SO IN SOME PLACES ON THE MAP,
YOU'LL SEE CREE, SPELLED
C-R-E-E.
IN SOME PLACES IT WAS BE C-R-I,
DEPENDING UPON HOW THE NATION
ITSELF SPELLS.
WE HAVE TO REMEMBER THAT FIRST
NATION LANGUAGES, INUIT
LANGUAGES, WERE NOT WRITTEN
LANGUAGES ORIGINALLY.
SO...

Steve says NOT WRITTEN, ONLY
SPOKEN.

Charlene says ONLY
SPOKEN.
SO THERE ARE LINGUISTIC GROUPS
BUT THERE ARE ALSO MANY
DIFFERENT DIALECTS, YOU KNOW?

Steve says I DON'T KNOW IF YOU
CAN SEE THIS.
WE WANT TO ZOOM IN ON THIS.
AGAIN, I THINK A LOT OF PEOPLE
HAVE NOT SEEN WHAT THESE
LANGUAGES LOOK LIKE.
JAMES BAY AND NORTHERN QUEBEC
AGREEMENT IN ENGLISH AND
THEN...

He holds up a map of Canada and points at the captions.

Charlene says IN SYLLABICS.

Steve says IS THAT OJIBWAY CREE
ON TOP OF THAT?

Charlene says YOU'RE
IN JAMES BAY.
THE CREE SPEAKERS THERE, THAT
WOULD BE ONE OF THE WRITTEN
FORMS OF THEIR LANGUAGE, AND SO
THEY USE SYLLABICS IN THAT AREA.

Steve says GOTCHA.
HMM.
WOULDN'T THAT BE NEAT TO TEACH
THAT LANGUAGE IN SCHOOLS?

Charlene says YOU
KNOW, THERE ARE PLACES IN
NUNAVUT WHERE THE CHILDREN ARE
ACTUALLY EDUCATED IN INUKTITUT
UP UNTIL GRADE 3.
THAT'S SUCH A GIFT THAT MANY
COMMUNITIES, MANY SCHOOLS ACROSS
THE COUNTRY ARE REALLY ASPIRING
TO AND THAT RESURGENCE OF LANGUAGE.

Steve says WELL ACTUALLY I WAS
JUST LOOKING FOR SOO SAINT MARIE
ON THIS MAP. CUZ I THINK IN THE SCHOOL SYSTEM IN SOO SAINT MARIE
I THINK YOU CAN TAKE OJIBWE ASAN ELECTIVE AND LEARN ANOTHER
LANGUAGE.

Charlene says YOU CAN DO
THAT IN SCHOOLS IN MANY PLACES
ACROSS THE COUNTRY... THE LIST GOES ON.

Steve says TO LEARN AN INDIGENOUS
LANGUAGE AS WELL WOULD BE
KINDA NEET.

Steve says LET'S... LET LET'S
FINISH UP BY QUOTING YOU BACK TO YOU.
THIS IS YOU IN THE "THE
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES ATLAS OF CANADA"...

A quote appears on screen, under the title "An Indigenous renaissance." The quote reads "It would be an egregious mischaracterization, however, to paint the Indigenous experience on this land as solely tragedy. There is triumph here too, especially in recent generations. After decades and even centuries of struggle, self-determination, not assimilation, is the zeitgeist of contemporary Indigenous renaissance."
Quoted from Julian Brave NoiseCat, "The Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada", 2018.

Steve says JULIAN, LET'S FINISH
UP ON THAT HOPEFUL NOTE.
HOW IS THAT RENAISSANCE PLAYING
ITSELF OUT TODAY AS YOU SEE IT?

Julian says IT'S
PLAYING OUT IN SO MANY DIFFERENT WAYS.
YOU KNOW, HERE IN TORONTO YOU
CAN GO TO MANY OF THE ART
GALLERIES AND YOU'LL SEE SOME OF
THE BEAUTIFUL WORKS OF
INCREDIBLE, YOU KNOW, NATIVE
ARTISTS... I THINK THAT'S ONE
AVENUE.
IN MANY COMMUNITIES NOW, YOU
KNOW, YOU'LL SEE KIDS WHO ARE
GROWING UP WITH THEIR CULTURE.
YOU KNOW, I WAS JUST IN BELLA
COOLA ACTUALLY FOR CANADIAN
GEOGRAPHIC AND THERE'S KIDS
THERE PARTICIPATING IN THEIR
POTLATCH, DOING THEIR SACRED
DANCES.
THAT WASN'T HAPPENING 50 YEARS
AGO.
SO THAT'S REALLY... THAT'S A BIG
DEAL.
THOSE KIDS WILL HAVE KIDS AND
THOSE KIDS WILL DANCE TOO.
WE HAVE FOLKS LIKE ME WHO HAVE
THE OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN THEIR
LANGUAGES FROM GRANDMOTHERS WHO
WENT THROUGH SOME OF THE DARKEST
THINGS THAT HAVE HAPPENED ON
THIS CONTINENT, TO MAINTAIN
THOSE LANGUAGES.
YOU HAVE WRITERS WHO HAVE THE
OPPORTUNITY TO CONTRIBUTE TO
THINGS LIKE AN INDIGENOUS ATLAS
AND WHO ARE WRITING FANTASTIC
BOOKS, SOME OF WHICH GET MADE
INTO MOVIES NOWADAYS.
AND OF COURSE THERE'S ALSO A
GROWING POLITICAL ELEMENT TO
THIS, RIGHT?
THERE'S INCREASING PRESENCE AND,
YOU KNOW, CHANGE IN THE
POLITICAL REALM THAT'S BEING
DRIVEN BY INDIGENOUS PEOPLES,
AND I THINK ALL OF THAT IS FOR
THE BETTER, NOT JUST FOR US AS
FIRST PEOPLES BUT FOR ALL
CANADIANS AND MAYBE BEYOND.

The caption changes to "Producer: Sandra Gionas, @sandragionas."

Steve says I HAVE NO HESITATION
IN SAYING TO ANY TEACHERS OR
PRINCIPALS OR SCHOOL BOARD
TRUSTEES OR LIBRARIANS, SCHOOL
LIBRARIANS OUT THERE, 75, IT
WOULD HAVE BEEN A BARGAIN AT
TWICE THE PRICE.
ONE IN EVERY SCHOOL LIBRARY
THINGS LIKE A REASONABLE THING
TO DO.
THANK YOU FOR DOING THIS AND
THANK YOU FOR COMING IN TO TVO
TONIGHT AND SHARING YOUR VIEWS ON IT.
THE CANADIAN GEOGRAPHIC
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES ATLAS OF CANADA.
JULIAN AND CHARLENE, THANKS SO MUCH.

Charlene says THANKS FOR HAVING US.

Watch: An Indigenous View of Canada