Transcript: The Difficult Search for Multi-ethnic Donors | Mar 14, 2018

Nam sits in the studio. She's in her early forties, with shoulder length curly brown hair. She's wearing glasses and a black blazer over a blue shirt.

A caption on screen reads "The difficult search for multi-ethnic donors. Nam Kiwanuka, @namshine, @theagenda."

Nam says FINDING A COMPATIBLE
BONE MARROW ACCORD TYPE DONOR
CAN BE DIFFICULT AND TERRIFYING.
WHEN YOU OR SOMEONE YOU LOVE
FACES A LIFE THREATENING
BLOODIES EAST.
THAT CAN TURN A LONG SHOT INTO A
SMALL MIRACLE.
UP THAT'S WHAT'S HAPPENING FOR A
GROWING NUMBER OF PEOPLE WITH
MIXED ETHNICITY AS THEY TRY TO
FIND DONORS WITH SIMILAR
BACKGROUNDS.
JOINING US TO EXPLAIN IS LAS
VEGAS, NEVADA VIA SKYPE, RAINIER
SPENCER, VICE PROVOST OF
ACADEMIC PROGRAMS AND
AFRO-AMERICAN PROFESSOR.

Rainier is in his late forties, bald, with a trimmed beard. He's wearing rounded glasses, a light gray suit and shirt, and a printed gray tie.

Nam continues IN BURNABY VIA SKYPE.
JEFF CHIBA STEARNS, DIRECTOR OF
THE DOCUMENTARY "MIXED MATCH."
WHICH EXAMINES THE ISSUE OF
MULTIETHNIC DONORS.

Jeff is in his thirties, clean-shaven, with short dark hair. He's wearing a gray coat and a blue gingham shirt.

Nam continues AND HERE IN OUR STUDIO,
Doctor Heidi Elmoazzen,
DIRECTOR OF CANADIAN BLOOD SERVICES CORD BANK...

Heidi is in her mid-forties, with long wavy chestnut hair. She's wearing a black blazer over a white blouse.

Nam continues AND JENNY DINH, A PARENT OF A CHILD IN NEED OF STEM CELL TRANSPLANT.

Jenny is in her thirties, with long curly chestnut hair. She's wearing a light gray cardigan over a black shirt.

Nam continues THANK YOU ALL FOR BEING HERE.
I COME FROM A MULTIETHNIC
BACKGROUND.
MY CHILDREN ARE MULTIETHNIC.
BUT HAVE I NEVER HEARD OF THIS
ISSUE.
JEFF, HOW DID THIS ISSUE OF
MULTIETHNIC PATIENTS WITH DRUG
ISSUES COME ON TO YOUR RADAR?

The caption changes to "Jeff Chiba Stearns. Executive Producer, 'Mixed Match.'"
Then, it changes again to "Finding the right match."

Jeff says A FEW YEARS AGO I WAS
CONTACTED BY A GROUP CALLED
MIXED MARROW DOWN IN THE U.S.
SHE ACTIVELY GOES OUT AND TRIES
TO RECRUIT PEOPLE WHO HAVE
IDENTIFIED AS MULTIETHNIC OR
MULTIRACIAL TO THE NATIONAL BONE
MARROW AGENCY.
BECAUSE THERE IS A HUGE UNDER
REPRESENTATION OF PEOPLE WHO ARE
MULTIETHNIC OR IDENTIFY AS
MULTIETHNIC ON THE NATIONAL
REGISTRIES IN BOTH CANADA AND
THE U.S. AND AROUND THE WORLD.
AS WELL WEAN BEFORE THAT
SOMEBODY ASKED ME TO JOIN THE
REGISTRY HERE IN VANCOUVER.

A map pops up briefly, showing the location of Burnaby, BC.

Jeff continues THERE WAS A YOUNG GENTLEMAN UP
AT SFU WHO WAS PART CHINESE,
PART CAUCASIAN.
AND HE HAD LEUKEMIA.
AND THEY WERE LOOKING FOR A
MATCH FOR HIM.
AND A FRIEND OF MINE WHO WAS A
CANCER SURVIVOR SAID, HEY, JEFF,
YOU MIGHT BE A MATCH FOR THIS
GUY.
YOU SHOULD GO JOIN THE REGISTRY.
AT THE TIME I WAS PRETTY BUSY.
I DIDN'T REALLY KNOW WHAT THAT
MEANT.
WHY DID IT MATTER THAT I WAS
PART ASIAN?
HOW WIDE DID THAT, YOU KNOW,
SORT OF FACTOR INTO BEING A
MATCH FOR HIM?
SO I FEEL IT WAS 2007.
I NEVER ACTUALLY ENDED UP
JOINING THE REGISTRY,
UNFORTUNATELY.
SO IT WASN'T UNTIL 2010 WHEN
ATHENA CONTACTED ME THAT I SORT
OF REVISITED THAT TOPIC AGAIN
AND REALIZED IT WAS A VERY
IMPORTANT ISSUE THAT WE SHOULD
EXPLORE IN A DOCUMENTARY.

Nam says SO IT TOOK YOU
THREE-YEARS TO JOIN THE REGISTRY
OR YOU DIDN'T... WHY WAS THAT?

The caption changes to "Jeff Chiba Stearns, @MixedMatchMovie."

Jeff says WELL, ACTUALLY, I
DIDN'T KNOW HOW.
IN 2007, MAYBE IT WASN'T AS
READILY AVAILABLE.
SOMETIMES THEY HOLD BONE MARROW
DRIVES AT CAMPUSES, CHURCHES OR
PUBLIC EVENTS.
NOT SOMETHING I REALLY KNEW MUCH
ABOUT.
AND LUCKILY IN MY LIFE I HAVEN'T
HAD ANYONE CLOSE TO ME HAVE A
BLOODIES EAST OR EXPERIENCE OF
DEALING WITH BLOOD CANCERS.
SO, YEAH, I DIDN'T SIGN UP UNTIL
2011 WHEN WE FILMED THE
DOCUMENTARY "A BONE MARROW
DRIVE."
THAT WAS THE FIRST TIME I HAD
ACTUALLY SIGNED UP.

Nam says RAINIER, YOU STUDY RACE.
HOW HOTLY DEBATED IS THIS ISSUE
AMONG SCHOLARS WHO STUDY RACE?

The caption changes to "Rainier Spencer. University of Nevada, Las Vegas."

A map pops up briefly showing the location of Las Vegas, in mid-western U.S.A.

Rainier says WELL, I MEAN WHEN
YOU TALK ABOUT RACE, MIXED RACE,
THE BASIC DIVISION IS THOSE WHO
THINK THAT RACE IS A REAL
BIOLOGICAL REALITY AND THOSE WHO
WOULD SAY THAT MULTIRACIAL
IDENTITY IS A REAL THING, OR
MULTIRACIAL EXISTENCE IS A REAL
THING.
AND THOSE WHO SAY IT ISN'T.
SO IT'S ONE OF A NUMBER OF
TOPICS THAT'S DEBATED.
BUT IN MY TIME LOOKING AT IT,
THE ISSUE OF BONE MARROW HASN'T
REALLY BEEN A CENTRAL TOPIC.
I THINK BECAUSE THE FIELD IS SO
RELATIVELY NEW.
FOLKS ARE STILL TRYING TO
DEVELOP THEIR POSITIONS IN
GENERAL.
AND SO THIS TOPIC,
UNFORTUNATELY, HAS NOT IN MY
VIEW BEEN A CENTRAL TOPIC.

Nam says HEIDI, WHY WOULD SOMEONE
NEED A BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT OR
STEM CELL TRANSPLANT IN THE
FIRST PLACE?

The caption changes to "Heidi Elmoazzen. Canadian Blood Services."

Heidi says MOST OF THE TIME IT IS
BECAUSE SOMEBODY HAS A BLOODIES
ORDER OR BLOOD CANCER.
USUALLY WE CAN TREAT 80
DISEASESDISTEASES OR DISORDERS.
BUT THE MOST COMMON WOULD BE
LEUKEMIA, LYMPHOMA, APLASTIC
LEUKEMIA OR SINGLE SELL DISEASE.
AND USUALLY IT'S A PROBLEM WITH
BONE MARROW.

Nam says WE WERE JUST TALKING
ABOUT RACE.
THE QUESTION I WANT TO ASK IS
PEOPLE OF MIXED RACE MORE PRONE
TO GETTING THESE DISEASES?

Heidi says I WOULDN'T SAY THEY
ARE MORE PRONE, BUT THEY DO HAVE
A HARDER TIME FINDING A MATCH IF
THEY DO NEED A STEM SELL
TRANSPLANT.

Nam says AND CAN YOU TELL US
ABOUT YOUR SON?

A picture shows a dark-haired boy around the age of 12.

Jenny says HE HAS APLASTIC ANEMIA
WHICH IS A BONE MARROW DISEASE.
BACK IN 2015.

Nam says THIS IS A PICTURE OF
HIM.
IT WAS LIFE CHANGING FOR US.
WE DIDN'T KNOW WHAT IT WAS.
AND THE DOCTORS KIND OF SAID,
YOU KNOW, BEST CHANCE OF A CURE
FOR HIM IS THROUGH A STEM CELL
TRANSPLANT.
BECAUSE SO AN ONLY CHILD IT IS A
25 percent CHANCE.
HE HAD ZERO WITHIN THE FAMILY.
WE HAD TO REACH OUT TO THE
REGISTRY THROUGH ONE MATCH.
AND HE HAS TO MATCH ON THE
REGISTRY.

Nam says WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF HE
WAS TO FIND A MATCH?

Jenny says THEN WE WOULD GO
FORWARD WITH A TRANSPLANT.

Nam says WOULD THAT MEAN THAT
HE'S CURED?

The caption changes to "Jenny Dinh. Parent."

Jenny says THE SUCCESS RATE IS
NOT 100 percent.
BUT IT'S HIS BEST CHANCE OF
BEING CURED OF THE ILLNESS.
HE IS CURRENTLY IN REMISSION.
THROUGH A DRUG THERAPY.
IT'S BASICALLY IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT
DRUGS, CHEMO THAT PUTS HIS
SYSTEM INTO REMISSION.
IT'S NOT A MATTER OF IF HE NEEDS
ONE IT'S WHEN HE'LL NEED ONE.
AND, YOU KNOW, IT'S HARD.
IT'S HARD AS A MOTHER...

Nam says HOW DID YOU TAKE THE
NEWS WHEN YOU FOUND OUT THAT IT
WOULD BE MORE DIFFICULT FOR HIM
TO FIND A MATCH BECAUSE HE WAS
MIXED RACE?

Jenny says I THINK IT WAS VERY
SHOCKING.
YOU KNOW, WHEN WE LEARNED ABOUT
ONE MATCH AND WE LEARNED ABOUT
IF YOU WERE OF THIS RACE, YOUR
CHANCES OF FINDING A MATCH ON
THE REGISTRY... CAUCASIAN,
PREDOMINANTLY.
IT'S A 70 TO 90 percent CHANCE THAT YOU
FIND A MATCH.
AND BECAUSE HE'S MIXED, I'M
VIETNAMESE, HIS FATHER IS
AFGHAN.
THAT BASICALLY BRINGS IT DOWN TO
A SLIVER OF THE PIE.
AND SO WE NEED TO DO SOMETHING
TO OPEN UP AND MAKE IT MORE
READILY AVAILABLE FOR PATIENTS.

Nam says AND JUST TO TAKE A LOOK
AT HOW DIFFICULT IT IS FOR
PEOPLE TO FIND MATCHES, LET'S
TAKE A LOOK AT A CLIP FROM
"MIXED MATCH."

A clip plays on screen with the caption "Mixed Match. Tonight 9 PM and streaming on TVO.org/documentaries."
In the clip, a young, dark-haired woman sits on a couch and talks.

She says NO DOUBT, MY MIXED RACE
HERITAGE IS THE REASON WHY IT'S
SO HARD TO FIND A MATCH.
IT'S NOT THAT OH, IF FUR' ASIAN
IT'S HARDER TO GET A MATCH.
NO, IT'S JUST THAT THERE ARE
LESS ASIANS ON THE REGISTRY.

A pie chart pops up showing that in 2011 the U.S. registry had 74 percent of white people and only 7 percent of Asian people.

The woman continues THEN YOU TAKE MIXED RACE PEOPLE
AND THERE'S LIKE NO ONE ON THE
REGISTRY.
SO YOU GO FROM A POOL OF 11
MILLION PEOPLE TO TRY AND
MATCH... ESSENTIALLY YOUR DNA.
AND YOU TAKE THAT DOWN TO MAYBE
I DON'T KNOW, MAYBE 20,000
PEOPLE.
YOU'RE ESSENTIALLY TRYING TO
FIND YOUR DNA TWIN OUT OF 20,000
PEOPLE.
IT'S IMPOSSIBLE.

The clip ends.

The caption changes to "A needle in a haystack."

Nam says AFTER THIS CONVERSATION
WE'RE ACTUALLY GOING TO SEE THE
FULL DOCUMENTARY ON TVO.
AND THOSE WERE AMERICAN FIGURE
THAT IS WE SAW.
HERE'S WHAT THE FIGURES LOOK
LIKE IN CANADA.
FOR PEOPLE LISTENING TO OUR POD
CAST, SOMETHING TO NOTE IS THE
NUMBER OF NON-CAUCASIAN PEOPLE
BREAKS INTO SINGLE DIGIT
CATEGORIES FOR EVERY SINGLE GROUP.

A slate appears on screen, with the title "Stem cell patients. Ethnicity of Canadian Patients."

A pie chart shows that more than half are caucasian.

Nam reads data from the slate and says
THE FIRST GRAPH WE'RE LOOKING AT
IS THE ETHNICITY OF CANADIAN PATIENTS.
AS YOU CAN SEE, 62 percent OF THAT
COMPOSITION ARE CAUCASIAN.
AND 38 percent ARE NON-CAUCASIAN.
AND THE NEXT GRAPH WE'RE TALKING
A LOOK AT IS THE ETHNICITY OF
THE ONE MATCH ADULT REGISTRY.

A new pie chart shows that 70 percent of registrants are caucasian.

Nam says AGAIN, 70 percent OF CAUCASIANS
OVERWHELMINGLY COMPOSE THE GRAPH
THERE WITH 30 percent BEING
NON-CAUCASIAN.
SO HEIDI, WHEN WE LOOK AT
THESE... WHEN WE LOOK AT THOSE
NUMBERS, WHY DO SO FEW
MULTIRACIAL OR NON-WHITE DONORS
APPEAR ON THE REGISTRY?

Heidi says YEAH, I THINK IT'S
JUST THAT WE HAVE TO RECRUIT
MORE PEOPLE OF ETHNICALLY
DIVERSE BARACK GROUNDS.
THERE ARE ABOUT 1,300 PATIENTS
AT ANY GIVEN TIME IN CANADA WHO
ARE LOOKING FOR STEM CELL
TRANSPLANT.
AS I MENTIONED IN THE FIRST
PLACE THEY'LL LOOK AT SOMEBODY'S
OWN FAMILY.
25 percent OF PEOPLE WILL FIND THE
MATCH WITHIN THEIR OWN FAMILY
BUT IF THEY DON'T FIND THE MATCH
WITHIN THEIR OWN FAMILY THEY'RE
RELIANT ON THESE ADULT
REGISTRIES.
AS YOU JUST SAID, THE REGISTRY
IS PRIMARILY CAUCASIAN.
SO IT'S REALLY IMPORTANT TO
BUILD A REGISTRY OR A CORD-BLOOD
BANK THAT'S REFLECTIVE OF THE
UNIQUE DIVERSITY IN CANADA.
ABOUT HALF OUR PATIENTS CAN'T
FIND MATCHES.
AND THE NUMBER IS ALWAYS
STAGGERING TO ME CONSIDERING WE
HAVE ACCESS TO OVER 35 MILLION
DONORS AROUND THE WORLD.
SO WHEN SOMEBODY NEED AS STEM
CELL TRANSPLANT IN CANADA WE'RE
NOT JUST LOOKING AT OUR OWN
CANADIAN REGISTRY BUT WE'RE ALSO
LOOKING AT INTERNATIONAL REGISTRIES.

Nam says BUT EVEN WITH ACCESS TO
35 DONORS AROUND THE WORLD WE
STILL CAN'T FIND MATCHES FOR OUR
PATIENTS BECAUSE DONORS OF THOSE
ETHNICITIES DON'T EXIST ON THE REGISTRY.

Nam says DO YOU THINK IT'S JUST A
MATTER OF EDUCATION THAT MAYBE
PEOPLE DON'T KNOW THEY SHOULD
DONATE OR CAN DONATE?

Heidi says ABSOLUTELY.
I THINK THERE'S ABSOLUTELY A
PUBLIC AWARENESS PIECE FOR
SOMEBODY TO BE PUT ON THE
REGISTRY.
WE RECRUIT YOUNG, ETHNICALLY
DIVERSE MALES PRIMARILY BETWEEN
THE AGES OF 17 AND 35.

Nam says WHY THAT AGE GROUP?

Heidi says YOU TEND TO GET BETTER
TRANSPLANT OUTCOME FC YOU HAPPEN
TO USE A MALE DONOR.
AND 17 TO 35 YOU GET BETTER
CHANCE ON OUTCOMES BECAUSE
THEY'RE YOUNGER DONORS.

Nam says THAT MAKES IT EVEN MORE
SELECTIVE.

Heidi says MM-HMM.

Nam says JEFF, IF SOMEBODY WANTED
TO MAKE A DONATION, WHAT WOULD
BE THE PROCESS BE?

The caption changes to "Mixed Match. Tonight 9 PM. Also streaming on tvo.org/documentaries."

Jeff says I THINK ONLINE YOU CAN
GO TO CANADIAN BLOOD SERVICES OR
ONE MATCH.
AND ACTUALLY REQUEST A KIT.
AGAIN, HEIDI MENTIONED THAT YOU
NEED TO BE BETWEEN THOSE AGES OF
17 AND 35 TO JOIN.
I THINK YOU'RE KEPT ON THE
REGISTRY UNTIL YOU'RE 55 OR 60.
THE U.S. IS DIFFERENT THAN
CANADA.
AND SO THAT'S KIND OF WOULD BE
THE WAY PEOPLE COULD DO IT
REMOTELY.
THERE'S A LOT OF DRIVES AT
UNIVERSITIES BECAUSE THEY ARE
TRYING TO RECRUIT YOUNGER
DEMOGRAPHICS AS WELL.
SO THAT'S ALSO ANOTHER PLACE
THAT PEOPLE COULD SIGN UP.
BUT, YEAH, IT'S GENERALLY IF YOU
WANT TO LEARN MORE, THIS IS WHY
WE MADE THE FILM, RIGHT?
TO HELP EDUCATE, HELP AND
INSPIRE.
BUT ALSO FOR PEOPLE TO
UNDERSTAND THAT THERE IS THIS
NEED.
AND SO, YOU KNOW, IT IS TRICKY.
YOU KNOW, IF YOU DO KNOW THAT
YOU HAVE MAYBE A MORE DIVERSE
BACKGROUND IT MIGHT BE MORE
ADVANTAGEOUS FOR YOU TO JOIN
OBVIOUSLY BECAUSE THEY ARE
LOOKING FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE MORE
DIVERSE.
BUT AT THE SAME TIME, YOU KNOW,
I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT THAT WE
HAVE A LARGE POOL OF PEOPLE
JOINING THE REGISTRY.
OBVIOUSLY THERE ARE CERTAIN
ISSUES THAT INVOLVE HOW YOU CAN
JOIN.
I THINK, YOU KNOW, IF YOU LOOK
AT THE FORM, IT DOES SPECIFY,
YOU KNOW, IT'S BONE MARROW SO
IT'S A BLOOD COLLECTION
ESSENTIALLY.
THEY ARE LOOKING AT KIND OF WHAT
QUALIFIES YOU TO BE ABLE TO
JOIN.
SO THERE ARE... I WOULD JUST
READ TO YOU THE... INFORMATION.

Nam says IN THE DOCUMENTARY YOU
DO SEE A YOUNG WOMAN MAKING A
DONATION.
AND IT'S LIKE INTENSIVE SURGERY
IN A WAY.
HOW DID YOU... LIKE, ESPECIALLY
WITH THAT YOUNG WOMAN, CAN YOU
TOLL US MORE ABOUT HER?

Jeff says WE WERE VERY LUCKY THAT
WE FOUND A YONGE WOMAN, HER NAME
WAS ALEXANDRIA TAYLOR AND SHE
IDENTIFIED AS MULTIRACIAL IN THE
SENSE THAT SHE WAS AFRICAN
AMERICAN, AND CAUCASIAN, I
BELIEVE.
YEAH, FIRST NATIONS.
AND SO ESSENTIALLY THROUGH THE
PROCESS...

Nam says SHE HAD FOUR DIFFERENT
BACKGROUNDS, RIGHT?

Jeff says YEAH, SHE WAS QUITE
MIXED.
SO SHE WENT THROUGH THE PROCESS
OF DONATING.
BUT IT'S SOMETIMES DEPENDENT ON
FOR HER SHE WAS DONATING TO A
YOUNG WOMAN WHO WAS AROUND 14, I
BELIEVE.
SO USUALLY THEY WANT TO DO WHAT
THEY WOULD DO.
I GUESS TO THE BONE MARROW
THROUGH YOUR HIP.
THAT'S A BIT MORE OF A DONATION.
80 percent OF THE TIME, THOUGH, IT'S
FOR BLOOD COLLECTION.
SO IT'S ACTUALLY JUST LIKE
GIVING BLOOD FOR ABOUT TWO
HOURS.
AND THEN YOU TAKE A DRUG REGIMEN
SORT OF BEFOREHAND TO BRING THE
STEM CELLS INTO THE BLOODSTREAM.
AND THEY CAN HARVEST THOSE.
SO MOST TIMES YOU'RE NOT
ACTUALLY PUT OUT.
YOU'RE ACTUALLY JUST SORT OF PUT
NEXT TO A MACHINE COLLECTING
BLOOD.
THAT'S ONE MISPERCEPTION PEOPLE
HAVE IS THIS THAT OF THEY THINK
THEY HAVE TO HAVE AN OPERATION.
80 percent OF THE TIME YOU DON'T HAVE
TO HAVE A AN OPERATION BECAUSE
IT'S NOT NEEDED IN THAT CASE.
IN THE U.S. AND CANADA IT'S A
LITTLE DIFFERENT BUT I BELIEVE
THE PERCENTAGE IS AROUND 20 percent.
80 percent THE ACTUAL STEM CELL
COLLECTION THAT'S DONE JUST
THROUGH A MACHINE.
SO QUITE UNINVASIVE ESSENTIALLY.

Nam says WHY DOES IT HAVE TO BE
SOMEONE OF THE SAME RACE OR ETHNICITY?

Rainier says I LIKE WHAT YOU
FOLKS ARE DOING IN CANADA IN THE
SENSE OF YOU'RE LOOKING FOR
TRYING TO DIVERSIFY THE POOL AND
TRYING TO GET MORE PEOPLE INTO
THE POOL.
SO I AM A RACIAL SCEPTIC.
WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT HOW DO YOU
KNOW THAT SOMEONE ON THAT LIST
IS THIS OR THAT OR HAS THESE
MIXTURES.
BECAUSE THEY TELL YOU SO.
BUT DO THEY KNOW WHAT MIXTURES
THEY ARE?
AFRICAN AMERICANS IN THE UNITED
STATES ARE THE MOST GENETICALLY
DIVERSE FOLKS IN THE UNITED
STATES FOLLOWED BY LATINOS,
HISPANICS.
SO THE WHOLE CONCEPT OF RACE IS
PROBLEMATIC IN THIS REGARD.
BUT I LIKE THE FACT THAT WHAT
YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT IS ADDING
MORE PEOPLE TO THE REGISTRY AND
DIVERSIFYING THE REGISTRY.
THAT'S THE MOST IMPORTANT THING.
NOT ASKING FOR PEOPLE OF
SPECIFIC RACES.
IN THE UNITED STATES, THE ISSUE
IS A LITTLE BIT BACKWARDS.
IT'S THE CART BEFORE THE HORSE.
MOST OF THE ARGUMENTS, MOST
OF THE DISCUSSION IN THE UNITED
STATES IS AROUND... WELL, WE
NEED TO HAVE A MULTIRACIAL
CATEGORY IN THE FEDERAL CENSUS
SO THAT WE CAN IDENTIFY
OURSELVES AS MIXED RACE.
AND, THEREFORE, WE'LL BE ABLE TO
FIND MATCHES.
WELL, THAT'S RIDICULOUS.
IT'S A SCIENCE THAT FINDS THE
MATCHES REGARDLESS OF WHAT YOU
CALL YOURSELF.
SO I WOULD HAVE TO SAY THAT I
SUPPORT THE IDEA OF MAXIMIZING
THE NUMBER OF DONORS.
I SUPPORT THE IDEA OF
DIVERSIFYING THE NUMBER OF
DONORS.
BUT I DON'T THINK... I THINK WE
GET INTO A WHOLE LOT OF
INACCURACY WHEN WE START TALKING
ABOUT WHAT SPECIFIC MIXTURES
PEOPLE ARE.

Nam says ARE YOU SAY THAT GO RACE
IS NOT A USEFUL TOOL WHEN IT
COMES TO CATEGORIZING PEOPLE
ESPECIALLY FOR SOMETHING LIKE THIS.

Rainier says NO, I MEAN I DON'T
THINK SO.

Nam says HOW ELSE WOULD YOU DO IT?

Rainier says WELL, I MEAN SURELY
WE DON'T... SURELY WE DON'T
IDENTIFY MATCHES BASED ON WHAT
PEOPLE HAVE MARKED ON THEIR FORM.
THEY IDENTIFY MATCHES, I WOULD
THINK BY FINDING THE HLA COUNT
SCIENTIFICALLY, ISN'T THAT RIGHT?

The caption changes to "Heidi Elmoazzen, @helmoazzen."

Heidi says YES, THAT'S CORRECT.
SO WHEN SOMEBODY NEED AS STEM
CELL TRANSPLANT THEY MATCH THE
DONOR TO THE RECIPIENT AND THEY
MATCH ON HLA MARKERS.
SO THESE ARE PROTEIN MARKERS
FOUND ON YOUR CELL.
AND SO TO THE POINT THAT WAS
MADE, I CAN IDENTIFY AS ONE
RACE.
BUT MY HLA... I MIGHT
SELF-IDENTIFY AS ONE RACE BUT MY
HLA MIGHT SHOW TO BE COMMON OF A
DIFFERENT RACE.
AND SO...

THE CAPTION CHANGES TO "CONNECT WITH US: @THEAGENDA, TVO.ORG, FACEBOOK, YOUTUBE, PERISCOPE, INSTAGRAM."

Nam says IS THIS WHERE MAYBE A
DNA TEST WOULD BE USEFUL IN
FINDING OUT WHAT THE PERSON IS?

Heidi says ESSENTIALLY HLA IS
LIKE A DNA MARKER FOR WHAT YOUR
RACE S I THINK THE POINT IS JUST
TO BUILD A REGISTRY THAT'S
REFLECTIVE OF THE POPULATION WE
DO HAVE HERE IN CANADA.

Nam says WHAT WOULD MAP AS A
MIXED RACE PERSON RECEIVED A
DONOR FROM A MONO-RACIAL INDIVIDUAL?

Heidi says AND THEY CAN.
IF THEY ARE MATCHED TO THEIR
HLA, IT'S FINDING THEM THE BEST
MATCH FOR THAT PATIENT.
YOUR BEST MATCH MIGHT BE FROM
SOMEBODY WHO IS OF CAUCASIAN
BACKGROUND OR WHO IS OF
INDIGENOUS BACKGROUND.
SO IT REALLY IS JUST BASED ON
YOUR HLA MARKERS.

Nam says SO THIS IS PROBABLY
GOING TO BE BEYOND YOUR
COMMUNITY, TOO, RIGHT?
BECAUSE THE PEOPLE ARE GETTING
FORMS AND THEY SEE THEIR
SECTION.
IF IT'S NOT THERE THEY'RE NOT
MARKING IT, RIGHT?
LIKE RAINIER WAS SAYING, THEY
MIGHT NOT BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY
THAT THEY CAN DONATE, RIGHT?

The caption changes to "Jenny Dinh, @Match4Aary."
A caption appears on screen. It reads "Raising awareness."

Heidi says I THINK WE DON'T
DISCRIMINATE WHO CAN DONATE TO
THE REGISTRY OR A CORD-BLOOD
BANK.
WE TAKE ANYBODY WHO WANTS TO
JOIN.
BUT YOUR POINT IS YOU MIGHT
SELF-IDENTIFY AS ONE RACE BUT
YOUR HLA MIGHT SHOW THAT YOU ARE
OF A DIFFERENT BACKGROUND.

Nam says OKAY.
WHAT WAS YOUR... WHEN YOU DID
THE CAMPAIGN FOR ARI, MATCH FOR
ARI, WHAT WAS THE RESPONSE LIKE, JENNY?

Jenny says OVERWHELMING.
FOR MATCH WITH ARI WE FORMED IT
WHEN HE WAS IN THE HOSPITAL IN
DECEMBER 2015.
AND ONCE WE FOUND OUT THAT ARI
DIDN'T HAVE A MATCH ON THE
REGISTRY WE SIMPLY HAD TO DO
SOMETHING.
WE STARTED TO LEARN MORE.
THAT IT'S HIS CHANCES.
AND SO WE HAD TO INCREASE IT.
SO FAMILY FRIENDS CAME TOGETHER,
LAUNCHED MACHU PICCHU.
CANADA WIDE WE ACTUALLY WENT
THROUGH INTO THE STATES AS WELL
AS WHAT WOULD BE THE MATCH WITH
MIXED MARROW.
HELD SWAB DRIVES.
IT'S ABOUT ADVOCATING AND
SPREADING AWARENESS TO LET
PEOPLE KNOW THAT YOU CAN SAVE A
LIFE BY A SIMPLE SWAP.
PUTTING YOURSELF ON A REGISTRY
CAN MEAN A LIFETIME FOR FAMILIES
LIKE OURS.
YOU KNOW, WE'VE REGISTERED
NEARLY... I THINK ABOUT 5,000
DONORS.
WORLDWIDE.
WE HAD SOME REGISTRY AND YOUTH.
IN EUROPE, ASIA.
IT'S JUST NETWORKING AND LETTING
EVERYBODY KNOW.
IT CAN HAPPEN TO ANYBODY.
AND JUST LIKE OUR FAMILY.
AND WE'VE GOT TO DO SOMETHING
ABOUT IT NOW FOR THE FUTURE.

Nam says HOW IS ARI DOING RIGHT NOW?

Jenny says ARI IS DOING WELL.
HE'S IN REMISSION.
HE'S BACK TO BEING A
12-YEAR-OLD.
BUT A VERY SELF-CONSCIOUS
12-YEAR-OLD.
HE STILL CAN'T DO HIS... PLAY
HIS BASEBALL OR ANYTHING HARD
CONTACT.
AND, YOU KNOW, IT'S HARD.
HIS SYSTEM IS STILL COMPROMISED.
BUT IT'S HARD.
IT'S HARD FOR A 12-YEAR-OLD OR A
10-YEAR-OLD BACK THEN TO REALIZE
WHAT'S GOING ON.
BUT HE SELF-ADVOCATES FOR ONE
MATCH AS WELL.
BECAUSE I NEED A STEM CELL MATCH
AND LET'S DO SOMETHING ABOUT THIS.

Nam says AND WHAT'S IT LIKE FOR
YOU KNOWING THAT AT THIS POINT
YOU'VE DONE EVERYTHING YOU CAN
TO HELP YOUR CHILD?

Jenny says I FEEL AS IF I HAVEN'T
DONE EVERYTHING I CAN BECAUSE HE
STILL DOES NOT HAVE THAT MATCH.
YOU KNOW, EVERYBODY WE MEET NEW
FRIENDS WE MEET, THE FIRST THING
WE SAY IS ARE YOU ON A REGISTRY?
AND, YOU KNOW, THIS IS THE
REASON WHY: OUR SON IS IN NEED
OF ONE.
AND YOU COULD POTENTIALLY BE A
MATCH TO SOMEBODY.
I FIRMLY BELIEVE THAT EVERYBODY
HAS THAT GENETIC TWIN OUT THERE
AND YOU JUST NEED TO GET THEM ON
THE REGISTRY.
JUST LIKE I DO A THING HOW I
KNOW A STEM CELL RECIPIENT, HE
IS ACTUALLY OF ASIAN-CHINESE
BACKGROUND BUT HIS DONOR IS
ACTUALLY GERMAN.
BUT IT'S NOT WHAT YOU PHYSICALLY
LOOK LIKE ON THE OUTSIDE.
IT'S WHAT'S REALLY YOU'RE
COMPRISED OF.

Nam says AND WE TALK ABOUT
EDUCATION AND GETTING PEOPLE,
RAISING AWARENESS, IT'S VERY
IMPORTANT COMPONENT IN THIS.
SO WHAT IS THE CANADIAN BLOOD
SERVICES DOING TO INCREASE THE
NUMBER OF DONORS ON ITS
REGISTRY, HEIDI?

Heidi says YES, SO CANADIAN BLOOD
SERVICES RUNS THE ADULT REGISTRY
IN CANADA.
SO WE OBVIOUS LIE LIKE TO TRY TO
JUST ENCOURAGE PEOPLE BETWEEN
THE AGES OF 17 AND 35,
ESPECIALLY IF YOU ARE YOUNG,
ETHNICALLY DIVERSE, WE REALLY
ENCOURAGE YOU TO JOIN THE
REGISTRY.
WE'VE ALSO SET UP A PUBLIC
CORD-BLOOD BANK IN KRAFT
CORD-BLOOD IS ANOTHER SET OF
STEM CELLS.
JEFF WAS TALKING ABOUT HOW
YOU RECEIVE STEM CELLS FROM AN
ADULT DONOR EITHER THROUGH
MACHINE VERY MUCH LIKE A BLOOD
COLLECTION OR THROUGH A BONE
MARROW ASPIRATION.
THE OTHER WAY YOU CAN GET STEM
CELLS IS FROM CORD BLOOD.
AFTER A BABY IS BORN WE COLLECT
THE BLOOD IN THE UMBILICAL CORD
IN THE PLACENTA THAT IS USUALLY
DISCARDED AS MEDICAL WASTE.
IF A MOM IS DELIVERING AT ONE OF
THE DESIGNATED HOSPITALS IN
EDMONTON, VANCOUVER, OTTAWA OR
BRAMPTON, ANOTHER WAY THAT
PEOPLE CAN HELP IS TO DONATE
YOUR BABY'S CORE-BLOOD, SIGN UP
TO THE REGISTRY AND ALL OF THESE
PATIENTS WHO UNDERGO STEM CELL
TRANSPLANTS ARE ALWAYS IN NEED
OF BLOOD PRODUCTS SO WE ALWAYS
ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO DONATE AS WELL.

Nam says HOW HIGH IS THE DEMAND?

Heidi says LIKE I SAID RIGHT NOW
WE'RE SEARCHING ON BEHALF OF
1300 PATIENTS OR OVER 1,300
PATIENTS IN CANADA RIGHT NOW
LOOKING FOR A STEM CELL
TRANSPLANT.

Nam says I WANT TO SHOW YOU
ANOTHER CLIP OF "MIXED MATCH,"
THE DOCUMENTARY AIRING AFTER OUR
CONVERSATION.
THIS IS A CLIP OF DOROTHY
ROBERTS, A PROFESSOR AND AUTHOR
ON MATCHING DONORS BY RACE.

Another clip from the film plays, in which several people sit in a panel at a conference. A black-haired woman in her thirties speaks.

She says I DON'T SEE WHY SCIENTISTS
WHO ARE WORKING IN THIS AREA
JUST RESEARCH IN GENERAL CAN'T
COME UP WITH A BETTER WAY OF
IDENTIFYING PEOPLE.
YOU KNOW, WHY RELY ON
CLASSIFICATIONS THAT CAME OUT OF
THE 18TH CENTURY?
THOSE ARE THE SAME THINGS BEING
USED TODAY.
I OFTEN GET THE OBJECTION THAT
WE DON'T HAVE ANY ALTERNATIVE.

The clip ends.

Nam says JEFF I'LL GO TO YOU FIRST
IS THERE A BETTER WAY TO MATCH
PEOPLE OTHER THAN RACE?

The caption changes to "A problematic prognosis?"

Jeff says IF YOU ARE LOOKING AT
YOUR ANCESTORS YOU ARE TRYING TO
FIND A GENETIC TWIN.
THAT'S TRANSPLANTING AN IMMUNE
SYSTEM.
TO DO THAT WITHOUT REJECTIONS TO
FIND SOMEONE WHO IS BASICALLY
IDENTICAL TO YOU.
SO THAT USUALLY DEPENDS ON YOUR
ANCESTRY OF THE WAY WE LOOK AT
ANCESTRY IS HOW DO WE USE THE
LANGUAGE OF, I GUESS, RACE IN
THIS CONTEXT?
AND A LOT OF TIMES, YOU KNOW,
YOU CAN LOOK AT REGIONS,
GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS BUT A LOT
OF TIMES IT WILL BE LIKE I DON'T
KNOW IF I'M NORTH ASIAN OR EAST
ASIAN OR SOUTH ASIAN BECAUSE I
KNOW I'M JAPANESE.
MY ETHNICITY, YOU KNOW, MY
ANCESTRY COMES FROM JAPAN.
IT ALSO COMES FROM PARTS OF
EUROPE.
SO KNOWING THAT, YOU KNOW T.
HELPS PEOPLE TO IDENTIFY WHERE
TO LOOK.
ALSO IF YOU ARE SOMEONE
SEARCHING FOR A MATCH AND I KNOW
THAT SOMEONE IDENTICALLY MIGHT
BE SIMILAR TO ME IN DNA AS PART
ASIAN OR PART
JAPANESE-CAUCASIAN, THAT HELPS
ME TO MAYBE IDENTIFY SOMEONE OR
SOMEONE SEARCHING.
ALSO WHEN THEY SEARCH, IF YOU
ARE FOR MYSELF ARE PART JAPANESE
THEY ARE ALSO GOING TO KNOW THAT
IF MY ANCESTRY IS JAPANESE THEY
ARE GOING TO LOOK IN THE
JAPANESE REGISTRY AS WELL.
THEY DID A SEARCH FOR ME AND IT
TURNS OUT HAVE I ONE POTENTIAL
MATCH FROM KOREA.
AND OUT OF 20 OR 30 MILLION
PEOPLE THAT'S KIND OF NUTS THAT
I ONLY HAVE ONE PERSON WHO COULD
POTENTIALLY BE A MATCH.
REALLY WHAT YOU'RE DOING IS
TRYING TO FIND THAT GENETIC
TWIN.
AND HOWEVER WE USE THE LANGUAGE
OF RACE IN THIS CONTEXT IS THE
EASIEST WAY FOR PEOPLE TO
IDENTIFY.
YOU'RE TRITE: NOT EVERYONE
KNOWS WHAT THEIR BACKGROUND IS
PAST THEIR GREAT GRANDPARENTS
AND SO ON.
BUT I THINK WITH THESE TESTS
WE'RE GETTING PEOPLE ARE FINDING
OUT.
THEY ARE REALIZING I AM A LITTLE
BIT OF THIS, A LITTLE BIT OF
THAT SO THEY CAN SELF-IDENTIFY
EASIER.
BUT REALLY IT'S STATS TO SEE
THAT IS REFLECTIVE OF THE
CANADIAN LANDSCAPE OF DIVERSITY
BUT AT THE SAME TIME ALSO
HELPING THEM LOOK IF THEY KNOW
THAT YOUR BACKGROUND IS
SOMEWHERE IN THE WORLD, WHAT
REGISTRY THEY CAN TARGET TO HELP
LOOK IF THEY CAN'T FIND SOMEONE
IN THE CANADIAN OR U.S.
REGISTRIES.

Nam says IT REALLY FEELS THUNDER
STRIKE YOU'RE LOOKING FOR A
NEEDLE IN THE HAYSTACK, RIGHT?
RAINIER, I THINK WE TALKED A
LITTLE BIT ABOUT IT BEFORE BUT
IS THERE A BETTER WAY TO DO THIS
OTHER THAN RACE?

Rainier says WELL, I DON'T THINK
RACE IS A VERY GOOD WAY TO DO IT.
I MEAN SCIENCE... BANKS AND
SCIENCE AND COMPUTERS ARE THE
WAY TO DO IT.
TO JUST GIVE AN EXAMPLE H SO
LETS SAY I AM MIXED RACE.
I WOULD SAY A FEW PEOPLE ARE
MIXED RACE.
BUT ONE OF THESE... LET ME SAY
ALSO I COME FROM THE
AFRO-AMERICAN CONTEST THAT'S
WHAT I STUDY AND THE
AFRO-AMERICAN GROUP IS THE MOST
DIVERSE GROUP IN THE UNITED
STATES.
THE IDEA THAT THERE IS SOMEONE
CALLED A BLACK PERSON WITH A
BLACK DNA IS INSANE.
LET'S SAY WE HAVE TWO MIXED RACE
AFRO-AMERICANS.
ONE OF THESE AFRO-AMERICANS HAS
SEVEN BLACK GREAT GRANDPARENTS
AND ONE WHITE GREAT GRANDPARENT.
THE OTHER HAS SEVEN WHITE AND
ONE BLACK.
BOTH WOULD BE CONSIDERED AS
BLACK IN THE UNITED STATES.
BOTH WOULD IDENTIFY AS MIXED
RACE.
BUT YOU ARE TALKING ABOUT SUCH
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THESE TWO
PEOPLE, I'M JUST TRYING TO
EXPLAIN HOW IT IS THAT DESPITE
WHAT WE'VE SEEN WITH OUR EYES,
THE PHENOTYPE, WE SEE NOTHING
ABOUT THE GENOTYPE.
THE FACT THAT YOUR GUEST SAID
THAT THE MATCH THAT THEY DID
FIND CAME FROM GERMANY AS
OPPOSED TO WHERE THEY WERE
LOOKING, IT SHOWS THAT IT IS
MISGUIDED, I THINK.
SO I THINK THE IDEA IS GET AS
MANY PEOPLE IN AS POSSIBLE.
AS DIVERSE AS POSSIBLE.
LOOK, I CAN BE KIND OF
DRACONIAN.
I THINK IT OUGHT TO BE MANDATORY
THAT PEOPLE, YOU KNOW, THAT PUT
THEIR BLOOD IN FOR THIS SORT OF
THING.
IT WOULD NEVER HAPPEN ANYWHERE I
KNOW.
BUT THAT'S THE KEY.
THE KEY IS DIVERSITY.
AND MAXIMIZING THE CONTENT OF
THE POOL.

Nam says HEIDI I KNOW YOU WANT TO
GET IN.

Heidi says WE DON'T MATCH BASED
ON ETHNICITY WE MATCH BASED ON
HLA MATCHING.

Nam says ETHNICITY HELPS US WITH
FORMS, THOUGH.

Heidi says IT HELPS WITH
RECRUITMENT, ARE WE PUTTING THE
RIGHT PEOPLE BROAD STROKES...

Nam says DO YOU THINK IT'S
LIMITING OR... THE MESSAGE IS
BEING LOST WITHIN THOSE TWO
THINGS.

Heidi says I THINK, THOUGH, OUR
MESSAGE IS WE ALWAYS TRY TO
RECRUIT EVERYONE.

Nam says OKAY.

Heidi says SO WE'RE TRYING TO
BUILD LIKE A REGISTRY OR A
CORD-BLOOD BANK THAT'S
REFLECTIVE OF THE DIVERSITY WE
SEE HERE IN CANADA.
WE DON'T LIMIT PEOPLE FROM
JOINING.
BUT IT HELPS US BROADLY IF WE
NEED TO TARGET CERTAIN GROUPS
BECAUSE WE NEED MORE AFRICAN
AMERICAN PEOPLE ON OUR REGISTRY,
MORE BLACK PEOPLE, MORE CHINESE
PEOPLE.
SO THAT JUST HELPS US BROAD
STROKES.
BUT WHEN YOU ACTUALLY MATCH A
DONOR TO A RECIPIENT IT'S ALL
BASED ON SCIENTIFIC HLA
MATCHING.

Nam says HERE'S NATIONAL NEWS
REPORTER DOUG SHINA-BASKARAMUCHI
WRITING IN THE "GLOBE and MAIL"...

A quote appears on screen, under the title "A booming population." The quote reads "Navigating the many complications that come with a mixed identity, which range from political to sociological to health-related, is becoming more common across the country as an increasing swath of residents are reporting multiple ethnicities, according to data from the 2016 census. In the last 20 years in Canada, the multi-ethnic population has grown by almost 4 million people –almost double the overall population growth rate- to make up 41 percent of the country's total population."
Quoted from Dakshana Bascaramurty, The Globe and Mail. January 12, 2018.

Nam says GIVEN THE POPULATION IS
ON THE RISE, DOES THAT MAKE YOU
OPTIMISTIC THAT THERE WILL BE
MORE DONORS FOR THE REGISTRY?

Heidi says OPTIMISTIC BUT ALSO
CHALLENGING.
BECAUSE I THINK IT'S GOING TO
BECOME A LITTLE HARD TORE FIND
STEM CELL MATCHES FOR PEOPLE
UNLESS REBUILD A REGISTRY THAT'S
REFLECTIVE OF THE CHANGING
LANDSCAPE THAT WE SEE HERE IN
KRAFT I THINK LIKE I SAID THAT'S
WHY IT'S IMPORTANT THAT PEOPLE
GET OUT AND JOIN THE REGISTRY,
JOIN THE CORD-BLOOD BANK TO HELP
BUILD THE DIVERSITY.
I THINK THIS WILL BE AN ONGOING
PROBLEM.
WE KNOW WE HAVE TROUBLE FINDING
MATCHES FOR ETHNICALLY MIXED
PATIENTS.
SO YOUR POINT WITH THIS GROWING
I THINK IT MIGHT BECOME MORE OF
A CHALLENGE IN THE FUTURE.

Nam says AND RAINIER WHAT DO YOU THINK?

The caption changes to "Hopes for finding a match."

Rainier says WELL, IN TERMS OF...
SO HERE'S WHAT I WOULD SAY...
AGAIN, ALWAYS THE SCEPTIC.
AT LEAST WE HAVE THE SAME
ARGUMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES.
SO, YES, GETTING MORE PEOPLE IN
IS THE IMPORTANT THING.
BUT WE HAVE THE SAME SORT OF
CLAIMS MADE IN THE UNITED STATES
THAT THE MIXED RACE POPULATION
IS GROWING.
HERE'S AN EXAMPLE: IF
AFRO-AMERICANS ARE THE MOST
GENETICALLY DIVERSE PEOPLE IN
THE UNITED STATES.
AND IF I'M AN AFRO-AMERICAN.
AND IF I HAVE A CHILD WITH A
WHITE PERSON, HOW IS THAT CHILD
ANY MORE MIXED RACE THAN I AM IF
I AM ALREADY MIXED RACE?
AFRICAN AMERICAN PEOPLE ARE
ALREADY MIXED RACE.
SO THEY CAN'T GET ANY MORE
MIXED.
SO I JUST THINK THE
CONVERSATION, WHEN IT TALKS
ABOUT RACIAL GROUPS AND
MONO-RACE AND MIXED RACE IS A
CONFUSED CONVERSATION.
I THINK THE SIMPLEST THING TO DO
IS YOU GET AS MANY PEOPLE AS CAN
YOU INTO THE REGISTRY.

Nam says JEFF ARE YOU OPTIMISTIC
ABOUT THE NUMBERS GROWING
CONSIDERING THE MIXED RACE
POPULATION IS... OR PEOPLE WITH
MULTIPLE ETHNICITIES ARE ON THE RISE?

The caption changes to "For more information: mixedmatchproject.com"

Jeff says YEAH, I THINK THAT'S
HAPPENING.
I THINK THE CORD-BLOOD IS ALSO A
GREAT STEP FORWARD.
THE CORD-BLOOD IS A LITTLE MORE
FORGIVING.
YOU DON'T NEED TO HAVE A PERFECT
MATCH.
THEY'VE SHOWN THAT HAVING A SORT
OF A MISMATCH IS ACTUALLY
BETTER.
SO YOU CAN HAVE SOMEONE WHO IN
OUR FILM, THE LONGER FORM OF THE
FILM, WE HAVE A GENTLEMAN WHO
IDENTIFIES AS CHINESE.
BUT HIS MATCH IS ACTUALLY
SOMEONE WHO HAS A LATINO
BACKGROUND.
SO HE BECOMES THIS KIND OF THIS
MIX AT THE END.
AND SO THAT CAN HAPPEN.
OF COURSE, USUALLY YOU'RE
LOOKING FOR SOMEONE WHO IS
AFRICAN AMERICAN OR A WHITE
PERSON.
BUT THAT'S A SIX OUT OF EIGHT
MATCH.
NOT A PERFECT MATCH.
AND OUR FILM HAS SHOWN THAT
ALEXANDER TAYLOR WHO DID DONATE,
SHE MET HER RECIPIENT AND HER
RECIPIENT WAS ALMOST IDENTICALLY
IDENTIFIED AS A WHITE PARENT AND
AN AFRICAN-AMERICAN PARENT.
SO THIS HAPPENINGS.
AND I THINK TO SAY THAT WE
INTERVIEWED DR. PAUL TARASAKI
WHO CREATED THE HLA TYPING.
HE SAID IF SOMEONE IN AMERICA
IDENTIFIES AS AFRICAN AMERICAN
WILL PROBABLY NEVER, EVER BE A
MATCH FOR SOMEONE IN AFRICA.
BECAUSE IN AFRICA THERE IS STILL
THIS SORT OF, QUOTE-UNQUOTE,
"PURITY."
SO SOMEONE FROM A PARTICULAR
TRIBE WILL FIND THEIR MATCH
WITHIN THAT TRIBE.
COMING TO AMERICA OBVIOUSLY
THERE IS A LOT OF MIXTURE,
CENTURIES OF MIXING.
AS RAINIER SAID.
AND SO THAT'S PART OF THE
CHALLENGE THERE, STEW.
YOU KNOW, AND I THINK AFRICAN
AMERICANS IN THE U.S. THERE IS A
GREAT CHALLENGE TO FIND, YOU
KNOW, DONORS FOR THEM ON A
REGISTRY.
BECAUSE THEY ARE ALSO UNDER
REPRESENTED.
AND THEY ALSO HAVE VERY COMPLEX
GENETIC TYPING.
SO I THINK AS WE SEE THIS RISE,
MAYBE, QUOTE-UNQUOTE,
MULTIRACIAL PEOPLE, YOU KNOW, WE
WILL, I GUESS PRESENT CERTAIN
CHALLENGES.
OBVIOUSLY BECAUSE, YOU KNOW, OUR
DNA IS GETTING MORE COMPLEX.
AND SO LIKE I SAID I HAVE RARE
GENETICS.
HAVE I A DAUGHTER WHO NOW
ALSO... MY WIFE IS ALSO PART
JAPANESE AND CAUCASIAN.
OUR DAUGHTER IS NOW, YOU KNOW,
THE SAME MIX AS US ESSENTIALLY.
AND SO I DON'T KNOW.
YOU KNOW, COULD THAT PRESENT
MORE OF A CHALLENGE BECAUSE
WE'RE GETTING MORE AND MORE
BLENDED?
POSSIBLY.
BUT I THINK THE OVERALL
CONSENSUS IS WE JUST NEED
EVERYONE THAT CAN JOIN THE
REGISTRY TO JOIN THE REGISTRY TO
HELP INCREASE THOSE ODDS.

Nam says AND JENNY THIS IS
SOMETHING THAT YOU LIVE WITH
DAY-TO-DAY.
WE WITH KIND OF ON THE OUTSIDE
LOOKING IN.
WHAT'S IT LIKE FOR YOU.
ARE YOU OPTIMISTIC THAT WITH THE
INCREASE OF THE POPULATION
PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE ETHNICITIES
THAT YOU WILL FIND A MATCH FOR
YOUR SON?

Jenny says YES, PROVIDING
EVERYBODY GETS ONTO THE
REGISTRY.
YOU KNOW, I THINK AT THE END OF
THE DAY IS TO GET THAT CHART
MORE AND MORE DIVERSE.
TO REPRESENT OUR COUNTRY .
YOU KNOW, IT'S BITTER SWEET, I
GUESS IN THAT SENSE OF THE MORE
DIVERSE OUR FUTURE GENERATIONS
BECOME AND IF WE DON'T SPREAD
THE AWARENESS NOW, WHAT ARE THEY
GOING TO FACE?
JEFF JUST MENTIONED HIS DAUGHTER
IS, YOU KNOW, A BLEND OF HIM AND
HIS WIFE, WHICH IS THEY'RE
BLENDED.
SO IT JUST GETS MORE DIVERSE.
AND JUST HOPING TO GET EVERYBODY
ON THE REGISTRY TO MAKE SURE
THAT EVERYBODY HAS THAT CHANCE.

Nam says WELL, THANK YOU SO MUCH
FOR BEING HERE.
AND OUR LOVE TO YOUR SON ARI.

Jenny says THANK YOU.

The caption changes to "Producer: Colin Ellis, @ColinEllis81."

Nam says AND HEIDI, THANKS YOU,
JEFF AND RAINIER.
THANK YOU ALL FOR BEING A PART
OF THIS DISCUSSION.
I DO BELIEVE THAT EDUCATION IS
ONE OF THE STEPS TO GETTING
PEOPLE TO KNOW ABOUT THIS.
NOW, I KNOW ABOUT IT.
AND I'M GOING TO BE LOOKING FOR
MY KIDS AS WELL.
STAY TUNED.
AFTER THE PROGRAM, WE DO HAVE
THE PREMIER OF "MIXED MATCH."
RIGHT HERE ON TVO.

Watch: The Difficult Search for Multi-ethnic Donors