Transcript: Combatting Dementia: Feed Your Brain | Jan 15, 2018

Steve sits in the studio. He's slim, clean-shaven, in his fifties, with short curly brown hair. He's wearing a gray suit, white shirt, and checked blue tie.

A caption on screen reads "Combatting dementia: Feed your brain. @spaikin, @theagenda."

Steve says CAN PAYING BETTER
ATTENTION TO WHAT WE EAT HELP
PROTECT OUR BRAINS FROM
DEGENERATIVE DISEASES SUCH AS
ALZHEIMER'S AND DEMENTIA?
IT'S AN APPEALING PROPOSITION,
ONE THAT CROPS UP IN THE NEW
BOOK, "THE HEALTHY BRAIN:
OPTIMIZE BRAIN POWER AT ANY AGE."

A picture of the book appears briefly on screen. The cover features a cartoonish drawing of a brain resembling a cloud with a thunder bolt coming out of it.

Steve continues HOW BIG A ROLE CAN NUTRITION PLAY?
LET'S FIND OUT FROM:
THE AUTHOR OF THAT BOOK, AILEEN
BURFORD-MASON, A CELL BIOLOGIST
AT DRS CONSULTING IN TORONTO,
SPECIALIZING IN NUTRITION FOR
DISEASE PREVENTION...

Aileen is in her seventies, with short, wavy blond hair. She's wearing rounded glasses, a gray blazer, a black turtleneck and a silver pendant necklace.

Steve continues DR. SAMIR SINHA, DIRECTOR OF
GERIATRICS, MOUNT SINAI
HOSPITAL, AND INSTITUTE OF
HEALTH POLICY, MANAGEMENT AND
EVALUATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF
TORONTO...

Samir is in his forties, clean-shaven, with short black hair. He's wearing a gray suit, lilac shirt, and pink tie.

Steve continues AND NALINI SEN, DIRECTOR OF THE
ALZHEIMER SOCIETY RESEARCH PROGRAM.

Nalini is in her thirties, with long straight black hair. She's wearing a black shirt.

Steve continues LET'S START BY JUST READING AN
EXCERPT FROM YOUR BOOK THAT WILL
SET UP THE DISCUSSION TO COME.
MR. DIRECTOR, IF YOU WOULD?

A quote appears on screen, under the title "So needy." The quote reads "As the most metabolically active organ of the body, the brain has nutritional needs that are ten times higher than those of any other organ. So it may be the first organ to falter when nutrients are undersupplied.
It is now accepted that far from being an inevitable part of the aging process, dementia is a lifestyle disease, with poor nutrition being a major risk factor. Every day, new evidence is published that underscores the idea that poor nutrition at any stage of life can compromise brain health. It is the cumulative effect over years of failing to meet the nutritional demands of the brain –to sustain its functioning and repair damage- that leads to its final collapse."
Quoted from Aileen Burford-Mason, "The healthy brain." 2017.

Steve says GET US STARTED, AILEEN.
HAS DIET TRADITIONALLY BEEN PART
OF THE THINKING AS TO WHY
DEMENTIA, ALZHEIMER'S, THESE
KINDS OF THINGS, PRESENT?

The caption changes to "Aileen Burford-Mason. Author, 'The healthy brain.'"

Aileen says UNFORTUNATELY, STEVE, I WOULD
LIKE TO SAY DIET HAS BEEN
CENTRAL TO HEALTH CARE AND
MEDICINE FROM THE GO-GET.

Steve says BUT YOU CAN'T SAY THAT.

Aileen says BUT THAT'S NOT THE CASE.

Steve says NOT THE CASE.

The caption changes to "A lifestyle disease."

Aileen says SO I THINK ONE OF THE
FUNCTIONS, REALLY, OF DISCUSSING
DEMENTIA IS THAT IT'S REALLY
CONCENTRATED OUR MINDS ON WHAT
IT IS IN DIET THAT WE MUST GET
INTO IT EVERY DAY, ESSENTIAL
NUTRIENTS, AND WHY THE BRAIN,
WHICH IS MORE MET BOLLCALLY
ACTIVE THAN MORE TISSUES, MORE
THAN SKELETAL MUSCLE, FOR
EXAMPLE.
METABOLIC PROCESSES, YES, THEY
USE OXYGEN AND GLUCOSE, BUT THEY
USE ALL THE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS,
VITAMINS, MINERALS, AMINO ACIDS,
ESSENTIAL FATS.
WHEN THEY'RE SHORT IN OUR DIET,
AND WE ONLY HAVE TO LOOK AT
HEALTH CANADA'S WEBSITE TO SEE
THAT, IN LARGE SWATHS OF THE
POPULATION, MANY OF THESE
CRITICAL NUTRIENTS ARE SEVERELY
UNDERSUPPLIED.
WE KNOW IT'S GOT AN EFFECT.

Steve says IF IT HAS NOT BEEN
THE CASE SINCE TIME IMMORAL
WE'VE CONSIDERED DIET IN THESE
ISSUES, HOW LONG HAS IT BEEN THE
CASE?

Aileen says VERY RECENTLY, UNFORTUNATELY.
IT'S STILL NOT TAUGHT IN MEDICAL
SCHOOLS.
NUTRITION IS REALLY NOT A PART.
THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF HOURS THAT
A DOCTOR WILL RECEIVE OF
NUTRITIONAL EDUCATION IS ABOUT
19, ON AVERAGE, IN NORTH
AMERICA.

Steve says WELL, LET ME GO TO
DR. SINHA ON THIS.
YOU DIDN'T JUST GRADUATE FROM
MED SCHOOL YESTERDAY, DESPITE
YOUR YOUTHFUL GOOD LOOKS.

Samir says TWO DAYS AGO.

Steve says IS SHE RIGHT ABOUT
WHAT SHE SAYS?

The caption changes to "Samir Sinha. Mount Sinai Hospital."

Samir says PEOPLE THOUGHT ABOUT
NUTRITION AND OUR BODIES MORE
SO, BUT AS WE MEDICALIZED HEALTH
CARE AND WE THINK ABOUT DISEASES
AND MEDICATIONS AND THAT,
SOMETIMES PEOPLE WANT A PILL FOR
EVERY ILL.
WE'RE NOW GETTING BACK TO BASICS
AND TALKING ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE
AND FUNCTION OF MOVEMENT, OF
DIET, OF SLEEP.
A LOT OF THE MOTHERHOOD
STATEMENTS: EAT YOUR VEGETABLES.
THERE WAS SOMETHING REALLY
BEHIND THAT.
AS AILEEN WAS SAYING, I DON'T
THINK WE'VE CAUGHT UP IN MAKING
SURE OUR CURRICULUMS REFLECT ALL
OF THE NEW KNOWLEDGE WE HAVE
TODAY, WHICH NEEDS A MORE
HOLISTIC APPROACH.

Steve says LET ME GO TO THE
ALZHEIMER'S SOCIETY.
HOW LONG HAS NUTRITION BEEN A
PART OF THE THINKING BEHIND THE
RESEARCH THAT YOU FOLKS ARE DOING?

The caption changes to "Nalini Sen. Alzheimer Society Research Program."

Nalini says IT'S BEEN SOME TIME.
BASED ON EXPERTS WE'VE
INTERACTED WITH OVER THE PAST
WHILE, IT'S ONLY BEEN IN MOST
RECENT YEARS, OVER THE PAST 20
YEARS, REALLY, THAT WE KNOW THAT
EXERCISE AND DIET HAVE A DIRECT
IMPACT ON REDUCING RISK AND
INSTANCES OF DEMENTIA.
SO THERE IS A GREAT FOCUS THAT
WE PLACE WITHIN THE ALZHEIMER'S
SOCIETY RESEARCH PROGRAM ON DIET
ITSELF, WITHIN OUR QUALITY OF
LIFE RESEARCH, WHICH WE SUPPORT.
BUT IN ADDITION TO THAT, WE ALSO
BELIEVE, AND FURTHER TO THE
QUOTE THAT YOU REFER TO, THAT IT
IS IN FACT A LIFESTYLE DISEASE.
SO DEMENTIA ITSELF.
WE REALLY REFER PEOPLE TO
FOCUSING ON PURSUING AND HAVING
A HEALTHY DIET.
THINK ABOUT THE COLOURS OF A
RAINBOW WHEN YOU'RE SELECTING
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES TO EAT.
THINGS THAT ARE DARK BLUE IN
COLOUR FOR ANTIOXIDANTS LIKE
BLUEBERRIES, BROCCOLI FOR BONES
AND TEETH.

Steve says IT ALL CONTRIBUTES.
YOU USED TWO WORDS.
I SAW THEM IN YOUR BOOK AND YOU
USED THEM AGAIN, THE NOTION OF
DEMENTIA AS A LIFESTYLE DISEASE.
YOU'RE THE MEDICALLY TRAINED
DOCTOR HERE.
DO YOU AGREE WITH THAT?

Samir says I THINK
LIFESTYLE PLAYS A LARGE FACTOR
AND I THINK WE'RE LEARNING.
BUT I BRISTLE A LITTLE BIT ABOUT
JUST CLASSIFYING DEMENTIA AS A
LIFESTYLE DISEASE.
THE IDEA THAT YOU DO THESE
THINGS AND YOU WON'T GET
DEMENTIA.
THERE'S VIRTUALLY A HUNDRED
DIFFERENT TYPES OF DEMENTIA,
ALZHEIMER'S BEING THE MOST
COMMON TYPE.
SOME ARE GENETICALLY BASED.
SOME ARE RELATED TO THINGS
BEYOND OUR CONTROL.
BUT SOME THINGS... BUT MUCH OF
DEMENTIA, FOR EXAMPLE, IF WE'RE
NOT SMOKING, IF WE'RE
EXERCISING, IF WE'RE ACTUALLY
HAVING A BETTER DIET... THERE'S
A LOT OF INFLUENCING THINGS THAT
WE CAN DO, INCLUDING GETTING A
GOOD EDUCATION, THOSE SORTS OF
THINGS.
SO LIFESTYLE HAS A ROLE TO PLAY.
BUT I WOULDN'T NECESSARILY JUST
PAINT THE ENTIRE DISEASE AS ONE
BEING ONE THAT'S A LIFESTYLE
DISEASE.

Steve says AILEEN, I WANT TO
KNOW IF YOU WANT TO WALK THAT
BACK A BIT, THAT DEMENTIA IS,
QUOTE, UNQUOTE, A LIFESTYLE
DISEASE?

The caption changes to "Aileen Burford-Mason. DRS Consulting."

Aileen says RIGHT.
ONE OF THE INTERESTING THINGS
WE'RE SEEING NOW, WHEN WE STUDY
POPULATIONS THAT HAVE BEEN
NUTRITIONALLY DEPRIVED,
HISTORICALLY IT WAS SORT OF
AREAS OF NATURAL FAMINE.
FOR EXAMPLE, IN THE U.K.,
THERE'S THE 1958 BIRTH COHORT.
THAT WAS WHEN RATIONING FINISHED
AFTER THE END OF THE SECOND
WORLD WAR.
SO THERE WAS CONCERN THAT BABIES
BORN DURING THAT PERIOD WOULD
NOT HAVE RECEIVED SUFFICIENT
NUTRITION FOR OPTIMAL BRAIN
DEVELOPMENT.
JUST BECAUSE A BABY IS BORN, YOU
KNOW, WITH TWO EARS, TWO EYES, A
NOSE, A MOUTH, YOU KNOW, THE
RIGHT NUMBER OF LIMBS, IT
DOESN'T NECESSARILY MAKE IT AN
OPTIMAL BABY.
NOW, IF WE FOLLOW THOSE PEOPLE
THROUGH, WHAT WE'RE SHOWING IS
MANY OF WHAT WE CALL LIFESTYLE
DISEASES, LIKE METABOLIC
SYNDROME, WHICH LEADS ON.
IT'S A RISK FACTOR FOR DIABETES,
HEART DISEASE, AND ALSO
ALZHEIMER'S.
THESE ARE OCCURRING MORE IN
PEOPLE WHO WERE BORN OF LOW...
BABIES OF LOW WEIGHT, SHORT FOR
SIZE OR PREMATURELY.
SO THAT'S A NUTRITIONAL ASPECT.

Steve says IN WHICH CASE, LET
ME ASK THE DOCTOR IF HE WANTS TO
EXPAND HIS POTENTIAL
UNDERSTANDING OF ALZHEIMER'S AND
DEMENTIA AS A LIFESTYLE DISEASE?

The caption changes to "Samir Sinha, @DrSamirSinha."

Samir says WELL,
AGAIN, I THINK IT'S THE IDEA
THAT, WHEN YOU GO BACK... AS
WE'RE LEARNING MORE ABOUT, YOU
KNOW, DEMENTIAS, OR IF YOU TAKE
ALZHEIMER'S, FOR EXAMPLE,
THERE'S THESE CONCEPTS OF
PROTEINS.
THERE'S A GENETIC ASPECT TO IT.
AS AILEEN WAS SAYING, IF YOU
THINK ABOUT DEMENTIA, AND
THERE'S BEEN A GREAT SERIES OF
LITERATURE THAT'S COME OUT
RECENTLY TALKING ABOUT THE
PREVENTATIVE THINGS THAT WE CAN
DO THROUGHOUT THE LIFE SPAN,
THAT THOSE WHO GREW UP AND
PURSUED A LONGER COURSE OF
EDUCATION, WHY WE'RE SEEING
RATES OF DEMENTIA ACTUALLY
DECREASE IN OUR SOCIETY IS WE'RE
GENERALLY... MORE OF US ARE
LIKELY TO HAVE FINISHED HIGH
SCHOOL.
IF WE'RE ACTUALLY DEALING WITH
HEARING LOSS AT A YOUNGER AGE,
FOR EXAMPLE, WE KNOW BY TREATING
THAT AND DEALING WITH THAT,
WE'RE PREVENTING DEMENTIAS FROM
OCCURRING.
I THINK RIGHT FROM THE
BEGINNING, A GOOD, HEALTHY
LIFESTYLE, AS MUCH AS ONE CAN
PURSUE, WILL ACTUALLY HAVE
BENEFITS TO THE BRAIN AND THE
REST OF THE BODY.
BUT I JUST CAUTION THAT WITH
SOME OF MY PATIENTS, I WANT THEM
TO MAKE SURE THAT THEY DON'T
FEEL LIKE, IF MOM DIDN'T GIVE ME
MY VEGETABLES, THIS IS ALL OTHER FAULT.
NOT NECESSARILY.

The caption changes to "Connect with us: @theagenda, TVO.org, Facebook, YouTube, Periscope, Instagram."

Steve says A LOT OF THIS... IN
FACT, LET ME TAKE THAT AND PUT
THIS TO YOU.
WE'LL WRAP IT UP HERE.
YOU'LL ACKNOWLEDGE THERE'S A
LOTTERY INVOLVED HERE TOO, RIGHT?

Nalini says CERTAINLY A
GENETIC COMPONENT.
WHAT'S GOOD FOR YOUR HEART IS
GOOD FOR YOUR BRAIN.
FROM A LIFESTYLE PERSPECTIVE,
THAT'S WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO
SUPPORT, PURSUE HEALTHY OPTIONS
AND TRY TO REDUCE YOUR RISKS.
BUT CERTAINLY THERE ARE OTHER
COMPONENTS THAT WE DON'T HAVE
ANY CONTROL OVER AND WE'RE NOT
AWARE OF WHAT'S ACTUALLY CAUSING
THE DISEASE TO COME ON.

Steve says AILEEN, GETTING YOU
BACK INTO THE MIX HERE.
BETA AMYLOID.
THIS ONE WE NEED TO KNOW ABOUT.
WHAT DOES IT HAVE TO DO WITH
DEMENTIA?

Aileen says IT
HAS A NORMAL FUNCTION IN THE
BRAIN WHICH WE'RE NOT ALTOGETHER
CLEAR ABOUT.

Steve says WHAT IS IT?

The caption changes to "Beta testing."

Aileen says IT IS A PROTEIN.
LIKE MANY PROTEINS IN THE BODY,
CAN BE DAMAGED, CAN COLLAPSE,
CAN MAKE DIFFERENT FORMS AND
ACCUMULATE.
YOU CAN GET, YOU KNOW, LARGE
AMOUNTS OF THIS BUILDING UP.
NOW, THAT'S A PROBLEM FOR THE
BRAIN BECAUSE IT INTERFERES WITH
YOUR NORMAL FUNCTIONING.
SO YOU CAN GET CLUMPS OF AMYLOID
BUILDING UP ON THE BRAIN.
WE MAY HAVE OVERSIMPLIFIED OUR
APPROACH SAYING AN EXCESS CAN
INCREASE DEMENTIA BECAUSE THERE
ARE POST MORTEM STUDIES SHOWING
THAT PEOPLE WITH LARGE AMOUNTS
IN THEIR BRAIN HAD PERFECTLY
NORMAL COGNITIVE FUNCTION WHEN
THEY WERE ALIVE.
SO WE DON'T REALLY... WE CAN'T
BLAME ANY ONE OF THESE THINGS,
BUT IT IS QUITE CLEAR THAT WHEN
THESE MAY GET DAMAGED, THESE
PROTEINS, THROUGH THE NATURAL
ACTIVITY OF THE BRAIN.
WHEN WE'RE WORKING OUR BRAIN
HARD DURING THE DAY, WE'RE
FIRING OFF A LOT OF DAMAGING
FREE RADICALS ALL THE TIME.
THEY HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO
DAMAGE THE BRAIN.
AND THIS IS WHERE OUR SPINACH
WOULD COME IN AND OUR COLOURFUL
VEGETABLES, BECAUSE THEY PROVIDE
ANTIOXIDANTS THAT WILL DAMPEN
DOWN THESE DAMAGING FREE
RADICALS.
I MEAN, WE REALLY HAVEN'T FULLY
WORKED IT OUT, AND THE REASON WE
KNOW THAT IS THAT ANY OF THE
DRUGS THAT HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED
THAT HAVE TARGETED THOSE
PROTEINS HAVE BEEN MISERABLE
FAILURES.

Steve says IN WHICH CASE I WANT
TO FOLLOW UP WITH YOU, NALINI.
I WANT YOU TO TELL US ABOUT SOME
OF THE RESEARCH GOING ON IN
BRITISH COLUMBIA RIGHT NOW THAT
I THINK YOUR SOCIETY IS HELPING
TO FUND, THAT COULD SHED SOME
LIGHT ON HOW CONTROLLING BETA
AMYLOIDS OUTSIDE THE BRAIN COULD
HAVE AN IMPACT ON THE BUILDUP OF
THEM INSIDE THE BRAIN.

Nalini says RECENTLY SOME
FINDINGS WERE RELEASED FROM AN
INVESTIGATION THAT WAS CARRIED
OUT BY DR. FUNG AND HIS
COLLEAGUES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA, WHERE THEY
LOOKED AT MICE MODELS, MOUSE
MODELS, AND THEY CREATED A GENE
THAT TOOK ON BETA AMYLOID.
NORMALLY IT'S NOT DEVELOPED
WITHIN MICE.
MICE DON'T DEVELOP ALZHEIMER'S
DISEASE.
THEY PLACED IT IN A MODEL AND
THEY CONJOINED IT WITH A HEALTHY
MOUSE.
AND IN DOING SO, WHAT THEY FOUND
WAS THAT THE BETA AMYLOID
PROTEIN TRANSFERRED INTO THE
BLOOD OF THE HEALTHY MOUSE AND
THAT MOUSE THEN DEVELOPED
AMYLOID PLAQUE AS WELL.

Steve says I KNOW THIS IS ONE
STUDY AND WE SHOULDN'T GET TOO
FAR OVER OUR SKIS, AS THE
EXPRESSION GOES, BUT HOW
DISTRESSING DO YOU FIND THAT NEWS?

Samir says IT'S THE CONTEXT.
I SEE PATIENTS EVERY DAY AND
MANY OF MY PATIENTS ARE
STRUGGLING WITH DEMENTIA,
VARIOUS FORMS OF DEMENTIA.
AND I TRY TO BREAK THIS DOWN TO
A VERY PRACTICAL LEVEL, RIGHT?
THERE'S A TON OF RESEARCH GOING ON.
AS AILEEN WAS SAYING, SOME OF
THE WORK THAT'S BEEN DONE AROUND
TESTING MEDICATIONS AND THINGS,
WE DON'T HAVE ANY MEDICATION,
THERE'S NO CURE FOR DEMENTIAS.
THERE IS NO MEDICATION OUT THERE
RIGHT NOW THAT'S A KNOWN WHAT WE
CALL DISEASE MODIFYING AGENT.
SO THERE'S NO MEDICATION THAT
WILL SLOW DOWN THE DEMENTIA,
EVEN THOUGH WE HEAR ABOUT THESE
THINGS.
THEN WHEN YOU START GETTING INTO
THE WORLD OF NUTRITION, PEOPLE
OFTEN SAY, IF I TAKE THIS OR I
TAKE THAT, WILL THAT STOP OR
SLOW OR PREVENT OR WHATEVER?
WE DON'T REALLY HAVE THE GREAT
DEFINITIVE EVIDENCE THAT WE
NEED.
WHAT WE DO KNOW AND WHAT I
REMIND MY PATIENTS IS THAT
EXERCISING REGULARLY, HAVING A
GOOD DIET... THESE ARE THINGS
THAT YOU CAN DO AND MAKING SURE
YOUR BLOOD PRESSURE IS UNDER
CONTROL.
HEALTHY HEART, HEALTHY BRAIN.
THIS CAN HELP DEMENTIA OR SLOW
ITS PROGRESSION.
DO WE HAVE ALL THE ANSWERS OR
SOLUTIONS?
NO.
ARE THERE GOING TO BE CONTRARY
STUDIES?
ABSOLUTELY.
WILL WE EVENTUALLY FIND A CURE?
I'M VERY HOPEFUL IT WILL BE
COMING ALONG.

Steve says TELL ME WHEN.

Samir says THE BEST PREDICTIONS RIGHT
NOW, I HEARD A GOOD PODCAST THE
OTHER DAY, SOMEONE I REALLY
TRUST AND BELIEVE WAS SAYING
MAYBE IN TEN TO TWENTY YEARS.
UNTIL THEN IT IS FOCUSING ON
THINGS WE CAN MODIFY WITH OUR
LIFESTYLE.

Steve says IN WHICH CASE,
AILEEN, ARE THERE NUTRITIONAL
WAYS THAT YOU HAVE DISCOVERED TO
CONTROL BETA AMYLOIDS.

The caption changes to "Aileen Burford-Mason, @AburfordMason."

Aileen says IN MY CASE, THERE IS NO WAY I
CAN KNOW.
YOU'RE TRYING TO CREATE OPTIMAL
CONDITIONS OF NUTRITION.
AND ONE OF THE CONFUSED AREAS IN
TERMS OF LOOKING AT NUTRIENTS
AND THE BRAIN, AND I'M TALKING
ABOUT THE MICRO NUTRIENTS NOW,
SO VITAMIN D, VITAMIN E, VITAMIN
C, ETC., IS THAT WE'RE STUDYING
THEM SINGLY OR IN TINY GROUPS.
THAT IS NOT THE WAY THEY WORK.
THEY ALL WORK TOGETHER.
AND, YOU KNOW, JUST AS WITH YOUR
CAR, IT DOESN'T MATTER WHETHER
THERE'S NO GAS IN THE TANK,
THERE'S NO SPARK PLUGS OR A
WHEEL MISSING, IT'S STILL NOT
GOING.
THIS IS TRUE OF THE BRAIN.
AND SO JUST TO SAY, OH, WELL, WE
STUDIED VITAMIN D AND WE GAVE IT
WHAT WE THOUGHT WAS HIGH LEVELS,
WHICH IS DEBATABLE AS WELL, AND
WE DIDN'T GET THE EFFECT WE
NEEDED, YOU SAY, WELL, VITAMIN D
DOESN'T WORK WITHOUT MAGNESIUM.
WE'RE STUDYING MAGNESIUM.
WE KNOW PROBABLY 95 percent OF NORTH
AMERICANS DO HAVE THE RDA.

Steve says RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE.

Aileen says RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE.
IT'S A COMPLEX ISSUE.
RESEARCH HAS VERY MUCH GOT
EMBEDDED IN REDUCING EVERYTHING
TO SINGLE VARIABLES TO STUDY.
NOW WE HAVE TO GO BACKWARDS AND
FIND WAYS OF STUDYING COMPLEXITY AGAIN.

Steve says YOU I THINK AT THE
VERY BEGINNING OF THIS BOOK IN
THE INTRODUCTION WRITE THAT
THERE ARE MANY PATIENTS NOWADAYS
WHO KNOW MORE THAN THEIR DOCTORS
ABOUT NUTRITION.
IT GETS BACK TO WHAT YOU TALKED
ABOUT EARLIER, ABOUT DOCTORS
GETTING SO LITTLE NUTRITIONAL
TRAINING DURING THEIR EDUCATION.
THIS IS OBVIOUSLY BECAUSE OF THE
INTERNET, AND EVERYBODY THINKS
THAT THEY'RE GOING TO BE THEIR
OWN DOCTOR NOW BECAUSE THEY CAN
LOOK UP THEIR OWN DIAGNOSIS ON
THE INTERNET AND COME IN ALL
SMART.
OKAY.
THERE'S TONS OF MISINFORMATION
ON THE INTERNET AS WELL, RIGHT?

The caption changes to "Knowledge from the net."

Aileen says JUST CAN WE BACKTRACK A
LITTLE BIT THERE.
ACTUALLY I SHOULD SAY DOCTORS DO
GET NUTRITIONAL EDUCATION.
THEY DON'T RECOGNIZE IT AS BEING
CLINICALLY RELEVANT.
THEY ALL HAVE TO STUDY
BIOCHEMISTRY, AND THAT'S EXACTLY
WHAT WE'RE TALKING ABOUT.
WHEN I TEACH, I TEACH CONTINUING
MEDICAL EDUCATION COURSES.
IT'S A JOY TO TEACH DOCTORS
BECAUSE YOU CAN JUST WATCH THE
LIGHT BULBS GO ON IN THE ROOM AS
THEY'RE EXPOSED TO THE RESEARCH.
AND THEY'RE GOING OUT SAYING, WE
SHOULD HAVE KNOWN THIS STUFF.
YOU DON'T BLAME THEM FOR NOT
PURSUING THE NUTRITIONAL
RESEARCH BECAUSE THEY HAVE
ENOUGH... YOU KNOW, IT'S A HARD
ENOUGH JOB TO KEEP UP WITH YOUR
OWN SUBJECT AREA WITHOUT
BRANCHING OUT INTO STUDYING
NUTRITION.
YOU NEED TO BE DIRECTED INTO IT.
SO THEY DO ACTUALLY STUDY
NUTRITION.

Steve says OKAY.
HAVING SAID THAT, I SAW YOUR
HEAD NODDING WHEN I WAS DOING
THE LEAD UP TO THAT LAST
QUESTION, WHICH MAKES ME BELIEVE
THAT YOU HAVE THE ODD PATIENT
WHO COMES IN CLAIMING TO KNOW
BETTER THAN YOU WHAT'S WRONG
WITH HIM OR HER BECAUSE THEY
CHECKED IT OUT ON THE INTERNET.

Samir says I
ENCOURAGE... I THINK THE ONE
THING IS, WE WANT TO HAVE
PATIENTS ENGAGED IN THEIR HEALTH
CARE, RIGHT?
I'D RATHER HAVE A PATIENT AND A
FAMILY ENGAGED IN THEIR HEALTH
CARE THAN NOT ENGAGED.
THAT'S HANDS DOWN, I THINK MOST
DOCTORS WILL SAY THAT.
BECAUSE, AGAIN, WITH A LOT OF
THINGS BEING LIFESTYLE-ORIENTED,
IF SOMEONE IS ENGAGED AND
INTERESTED, THEN THEY'RE
ACTUALLY GOING TO DO THINGS.
WHAT I GET VERY PROTECTIVE WITH
MY PATIENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES
AROUND IS WHEN THERE'S A LOT OF
MISINFORMATION.
BECAUSE PEOPLE WILL COME IN AND
THEY'LL SAY, WITH HE WILL, WHAT
ABOUT COCONUT OIL?
THAT'S THE LATEST THING.

Steve says THROUGH GWYNETH PALTROW.

Samir says I'VE READ THIS OR I DO THAT
OR WHATEVER.
AND I THINK THE KEY IS FOR VERY
COMPLEX ISSUES LIKE DEMENTIA,
WHICH THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT
TYPES OF DEMENTIAS, THERE ARE
MANY DIFFERENT FACTORS.
SOMETIMES WE'RE JUST LOOKING FOR
A SIMPLE SOLUTION.
JUST GIVE ME THE PILL OR TELL ME
THE ONE THING OR ONE VITAMIN I
HAVE TO TAKE.
AS AILEEN SAYS, THERE ARE LOTS
OF DIFFERENT THINGS WORKING
TOGETHER.
AGAIN, IF YOU'RE EATING A
RELATIVELY HEALTHY DIET, YOU
DON'T NEED TO SUPPLEMENT WITH A
WHOLE BUNCH OF SUPPLEMENTS.
THERE ARE CERTAIN VITAMIN AND
MINERAL DEFICIENCIES THAT CAN
LEAD TO PROBLEMS WITH YOUR
BRAIN.
THAT'S I THINK ALL DOCTORS NEED
TO KNOW THAT INFORMATION SO THEY
CAN LOOK APPROPRIATELY AND MAKE
SURE THAT ANY DEFICIENCIES ARE
BEING TREATED.
AGAIN, YOU KNOW, WE HAVE TO BE
REALLY CAREFUL... I HAVE
SOMETIMES PATIENTS COMING IN
WITH A BOAT LOAD OF VITAMINS AND
MINERALS BECAUSE THEY HAVE NO
ROOM TO EAT ANY FOOD BECAUSE
THEY THINK SUPPLEMENTS ARE
BETTER THAN REAL FOOD.
YOU WANT PEOPLE ENGAGED BUT YOU
WANT THEM TO HAVE ACCESS TO THE
RIGHT KNOWLEDGE.

Steve says I WOULD BE
INTERESTED IN KNOWING HOW YOU
ADVISE YOUR CLIENTS AND-OR
PATIENTS THROUGH THE ALZHEIMER'S
SOCIETY AS TO, OKAY, THIS IS
GOOD.
DO THIS.
THIS IS SNAKE OIL.
AVOID THIS.

The caption changes to "Nalini Sen, @NaliniSen1."

Nalini says THERE'S A
WEALTH OF INFORMATION AVAILABLE
ONLINE.
CERTAINLY WHAT WE REFER PEOPLE
TO DO, WHEN WE LOOK AT THE
SOURCE OF THE INFORMATION, IS IT
BASED ON A JOURNAL ARTICLE AND
WHAT DOES THE EVIDENCE ACTUALLY
SAY?
IF THEY'RE NOT SURE, VISIT THE
ALZHEIMER'S SOCIETY WEBSITE,
WWW.ALZHEIMER'S.CA.
WE HAVE EVIDENCE-BASED
INFORMATION THAT'S AVAILABLE TO
THE PUBLIC.
IT'S REVIEWED ON AN ONGOING
BASIS, ON AN ANNUAL BASIS.
WE HAVE INFORMATION ON
DIAGNOSIS.
WE CAN ALSO ASSIST PHYSICIANS
WHO MAY HAVE QUESTIONS.
WE CAN'T EXPECT THEM TO KNOW
EVERY SINGLE THING.
WE'RE THERE TO SUPPORT
INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE SEEKING
DIAGNOSIS FOR THEMSELVES,
CAREGIVERS WHO WANT TO SUPPORT
THEIR LOVED ONES AND THE HEALTH
CARE PROFESSIONALS THEMSELVES.

Steve says YOU HAVE A BRAIN
HEALTH FOOD GUIDE.
WHAT IS THAT?

A picture of a leaflet pops up on screen with the title "Which foods help the brain? Brain health."

Nalini says IT'S ACTUALLY SOMETHING THAT
WAS DEVELOPED BY THE CANADIAN
CONSORTIUM FOR NEURODEGENERATION
IN AGING.
IT'S COMPOSED OF 400
INVESTIGATORS ACROSS CANADA FROM
VARIOUS DISCIPLINES, WITHIN
WHICH...

Steve says DO YOU WANT ME TO
HOLD IT UP?

Nalini says SURE.
WE'RE PLEASED TO BE A PARTNER OF
THIS INITIATIVE.
BUT THERE'S A TEAM THAT FOCUSES
ON NUTRITION.
THIS TEAM, WHAT THEY DID WAS
THEY LOOKED AT INDIVIDUALS OVER
THE AGE OF 50 AND SAW HOW THEY
WERE ABLE TO BENEFIT FROM
HEALTHY BRAIN DIET.
AND WHAT THIS DIET IS, IT REALLY
LOOKS AT, AGAIN, RESORTING TO
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES THAT ARE
VERY COLOURFUL IN NATURE.
THEY RECOMMEND PEOPLE EAT MORE
FISH, NUTS, AND LESS RED MEAT,
LESS PROCESSED MEAT.

Steve holds up the brochure and says HOW ABOUT SODA POP AND CHOCOLATE CAKE?

The caption changes to "Eat your vegetables."

Nalini says REDUCED WHEAT.
NOT ELIMINATE.
IN MODERATION.
I WASN'T INVOLVED IN THIS.
BUT IT'S A REALLY UNIQUE GUIDE
THAT ACTUALLY... IT WAS BASED ON
VARIOUS STUDIES THAT TOOK PLACE.
AND WHAT IT SHOWED WAS THAT
AFTER FOUR MONTHS OF HAVING
HEALTHIER DIET OR PURSUING THIS
DIET, THAT PEOPLE ACTUALLY
EXPERIENCED... THEY PRODUCED OR
THEY CARRIED OUT CERTAIN TESTS,
READING AND WRITING SPEEDS, AND
CONNECTED THEMSELVES AS THEY
WERE ACTUALLY NINE YEARS
YOUNGER.
FOR PEOPLE WHO HAD A HEALTHY
DIET FOR FOUR YEARS, THEY
ACTUALLY DIDN'T EXPERIENCE ANY
MEMORY LOSS BASED ON THE
INVESTIGATIONS THAT WERE TAKING
PLACE.
36 percent OF THOSE INDIVIDUALS
ACTUALLY HAD A DECREASED RISK OF
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE AND 27 percent HAD
A DECREASED RISK OF MILD
COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT BASED ON
THE STUDY.

Steve says THAT'S PRETTY
SIGNIFICANT.
APROPOS OF DR. SINHA'S
GRANDMOTHER TELLING US TO EAT
OUR VEGETABLES, LET'S FIND OUT.
HOW MANY TIMES A DAY, HOW MANY
SERVINGS OF VEGETABLES SHOULD WE
HAVE EVERY DAY IN ORDER TO HELP
DEAL WITH THESE ISSUES?

Aileen says YOU
KNOW, THERE'S A DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN ADEQUATE AND OPTIMAL.
OPTIMAL IS BECOMING QUITE CLEAR
NOW.
THE FIVE-A-DAY RULE WAS I THINK
A MISTAKE FROM THE GO-GET.
IT'S SUITABLE FOR CHILDREN.
IT'S NOT SUITABLE FOR ADULTS.
AND THE LATEST... THESE ARE
COMING FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES,
NOT JUST ONE COUNTRY.
THEY'RE LOOKING AT TEN A DAY.
SO AT FIVE A DAY, USUALLY YOU
HAVE TO, YOU KNOW, LOOK AT THE
NUMBER OF SERVINGS AGAINST SOME
DISEASE, AND THEY USUALLY USE
ALL CAUSED MORTALITY, WHICH IS
REALLY SHORTHAND FOR GETTING ANY
CHRONIC ILLNESS.
AND AT FIVE A DAY, THERE WAS
ACTUALLY NO BENEFIT.
BUT AS YOU GO TO SIX AND SEVEN,
TO EIGHT TO NINE, AT TEN THE
CURVE STARTS TO FLATTEN OFF.

Steve says CAN YOU TELL US WHAT
THAT LOOKS LIKE, TEN A DAY?

Aileen says TEN A DAY IS ACTUALLY NOT AS
MUCH AS YOU WOULD THINK.
A SERVING SIZE IS HALF A CUP OF
FRUIT OR VEGETABLES,
BASEBALL-SIZED PIECE OF FRUIT,
WE OFTEN SAY.
RAW VEGETABLES OBVIOUSLY TAKE UP
MORE SPACE, SO IT WOULD BE A
WHOLE CUP OF SAY SPINACH OR
KALE.
AND AS LONG AS YOU SORT OF MAKE
VEGETABLES AND FRUIT THE CORE OF
YOUR EATING, YOU DON'T EXPECT
DINNER TO MAKE UP YOUR TEN A
DAY.
IT'S NOT THAT DIFFICULT,
ACTUALLY.
ALL MY CLIENTS DO IT ALL THE
TIME.
THEY WORK TOWARDS IT, AND AT
FIRST THEY GO, "SERIOUSLY?"
BUT AFTER A WHILE, THEY GET USED
TO IT.
AND WHAT REALLY HAPPENS IN THE
END IS THEY START TO CRAVE THEM
AND THEY LOVE... PEOPLE WILL SAY
TO ME, OH, I LOVE THE WAY I EAT
NOW.
IT'S NOT, "OH, MY GOODNESS, DO I
HAVE TO EAT THAT?"
AND IT'S NOT ALL KALE AND
SPINACH.
THERE'S SO MANY VARIETIES OF
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.

Steve says LET ME ASK SAMIR SINHA.
YOUR SPECIALTY IS GERIATRIC PATIENTS.
LET'S SAY WE'RE TALKING ABOUT
PEOPLE IN THEIR 80s OR 90s,
FOR EIGHT OR NINE DECADES OF
THEIR LIVES, HAVE NOT HAD THEIR
TEN A DAY.
HOW CHALLENGING IS IT AT THIS
STAGE OF THE GAME TO GET THEM TO
CHANGE THEIR DIETS?

Samir says YES, HABIT.
IF YOU'RE 90 YEARS OLD... I WAS
JUST TALKING TO A PATIENT OF
MINE THE OTHER DAY OF WHAT IS IN
HIS DIET.
HE SAID STEAK, EGGS, ALL THE
USUAL THINGS.
ANYWAYS, WE'RE FOCUSING ON
REDUCING HIS DRINKING INSTEAD, RIGHT?

Steve says HOW ARE YOU GOING TO
TELL A GUY WHO IS 95 YEARS OLD,
YOU'VE GOT TO HAVE TEN A DAY?

Samir says PART OF IT IS MAKING THINGS FUN.
WE TALK ABOUT LIFESTYLE BEING
WITH A FOCUS TODAY AROUND
NUTRITION, I ALSO EMPHASIZE
EXERCISE.
I SAID WHAT TYPE OF EXERCISE
WHAT YOU EVEN CONSIDER DOING?
IF YOU'RE GOING TO DO THAT
EXERCISE, IT'S THE BEST EXERCISE
FOR YOU.
SIMILARLY, RIGHT, I DON'T REALLY
LIKE KALE.
I'M GOING TO OPENLY ADMIT THAT,
RIGHT?
THAT DOESN'T MEAN THAT I CAN'T
ACTUALLY FIND OTHER THINGS.
AND I THINK PART OF IT IS ALSO
EXPLORING.
GO THROUGH THE FRUIT AND
VEGETABLE SECTION.
THINK ABOUT SOME THINGS YOU
MIGHT WANT TO EAT.
MAYBE IT'S FRUIT HEAVY TOWARDS
VEGETABLE HEAVY.
I THINK THE KEY IS BY
INCORPORATING OR THINKING ABOUT
DIFFERENT WAYS AND UNDERSTANDING
THE DIFFERENT WAYS YOU CAN
INCORPORATE FRUITS AND
VEGETABLES INTO YOUR DIET... YOU
KNOW, PEOPLE DO MAKE
TRANSITIONS, BUT IT CAN'T BE
DONE SOMETHING OVERNIGHT.

Steve says WHAT'S THE VERDICT
ON CHOCOLATE?
AND DO YOU WANT TO MAKE A
DISTINCTION BETWEEN DARK AND LIGHT?

The caption changes to "What about chocolate?"

Aileen says I DO INDEED.
CHOCOLATE IS PROBABLY THE ONLY
THING THAT MOST OF US LOVE THAT
WE COULD ALMOST CALL A HEALTH
FOOD.
THE REASONS ARE MANY.
AND ONE OF THE THINGS I FIND
VERY SORT OF DISMAYING ABOUT
RESEARCH SOMETIMES IS
RESEARCHERS RESEARCH WHATEVER
TECHNIQUES THEY HAVE IN THEIR
LAB AND WHATEVER THEIR INTEREST
IS IN THE LAB.
CHOCOLATE IS ONE OF THE RICHEST
SOURCES OF MAGNESIUM FROM DIET.

Steve says DARK OR LIGHT?

Aileen says BOTH.

Steve says BOTH.

Aileen says BUT THE PROBLEM WITH THE
LIGHT, THE MILK CHOCOLATE IS, IS
THAT THERE'S TOO MUCH SUGAR IN IT.
IT WILL SPIKE BLOOD SUGAR, AND
THEREFORE INSULIN.
AND INSULIN WILL DEPLETE
MAGNESIUM.
SO IT'S COUNTERPRODUCTIVE.
IF YOU HAVE DARK CHOCOLATE AND
IT'S OVER 70 percent COCOA BUTTER, IT
WILL NOT SPIKE INSULIN.
PEOPLE SAY IT'S FILLING, DARK
CHOCOLATE.
IT'S NOT THAT IT'S FILLING, IT
HASN'T MADE YOUR BLOOD SUGAR GO
UP TOO HIGH AND THEREFORE YOU'RE
SATISFIED WITH A SMALLER AMOUNT.
BUT WITH MILK CHOCOLATE, YOUR
BLOOD SUGAR GOES SKY HIGH, YOU
COME CRASHING DOWN, AND YOUR
BRAIN THAT CAN'T WORK WITHOUT
GLUCOSE, SAYS I NEED MORE.

Steve says WHEN WE LOOK AT A PACKAGE...

Aileen says IT HAS ANTIOXIDANTS AS WELL.
SO ONE RESEARCHER WILL LOOK AT
FLAVINOIDS AND SAY THERE'S A TON
OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN IT AND
THEY'LL FORGET THAT THERE'S
MAGNESIUM, WITHOUT WHICH THE
BRAIN CAN'T FUNCTION.

Steve says IF WE'RE GOING TO
LOOK AT THE BACK AND LOOK AT ALL
THOSE INGREDIENTS IN THERE, WHAT
ARE THE NUMBERS WE SHOULD BE
LOOKING AT TO SAY, OKAY, THAT'S
CHOCOLATE WE CAN'T HAVE, AND
THIS IS CHOCOLATE THAT'S
ACTUALLY NOT GOING TO BE
HELPFUL?

Aileen says 70 percent COCOA BUTTER OR HIGHER.

Steve says 70 percent COCOA BUTTER OR
HIGHER IS...

Aileen says GOOD.

Steve says GOOD.
NOTE TO SELF.
ONE OTHER THING, AILEEN, I'M
GOING TO STICK WITH YOU.
ONE OF THE CONTROVERSIAL ASPECTS
OF YOUR BOOK IS WHAT YOU HAVE TO
SAY ABOUT VITAMIN AND MINERAL
SUPPLEMENTS, AND YOU THINK THEY
OUGHT TO BE PART OF THE DIET.
LET'S DO A LITTLE EXCERPT FROM
THE BOOK HERE...

A quote appears on screen, under the title "Supplemental." The quote reads "Although the food we wat is of fundamental importance, hard-working brains benefit from additional nutrients in the form of supplements to ensure optimal function and maintain brain health."
Quoted from Aileen Burford-Mason, "The healthy brain." 2017.

Steve says YOU KNOW THERE'S A
RAGING DEBATE ABOUT WHETHER
SUPPLEMENTS ARE ANY DAMN GOOD AT ALL.

Aileen says OF COURSE.
I'M AT THE FRONT.
I KNOW THEM ALL.

Steve says WHY HAVE YOU WEIGHED
IN THE WAY YOU HAVE WEIGHED IN?

Aileen says I ABSOLUTELY AGREE THAT DIET
IS THE MOST IMPORTANT THING.
YOU COULD UNDERMINE THE BEST
SUPPLEMENTARY REGIME WITH A POOR DIET.
IT'S VERY EASY TO DO THAT.
BUT I DO CHALLENGE THE IDEA THAT
THERE'S SUFFICIENT OF ALL THE
NUTRIENTS IN THE FOOD.
IN FACT, ONCE I VISITED A
SUPPLEMENT COMPANY THAT WAS
OWNED BY A DRUG COMPANY, AND
THEY HAD A POSTER UP... I WISH I
HAD IT NOW TO SHOW YOU... OF THE
AMOUNT OF FOOD YOU'D HAVE TO EAT
TO GET THE RECOMMENDED DAILY
INTAKE OF EVERY ESSENTIAL
NUTRIENT.
AND IT WAS LIKE A BIG MOUNTAIN
OF FOOD.
SO THERE'S THAT ASPECT OF IT.
THERE'S THE FACT THAT OUR BRAINS
WILL JUST, EVEN IF YOU TELL IT
WHAT NUTRIENTS ARE IN WHAT FOOD,
OUR BRAINS CAN'T COMPUTE IT.
AND THE THIRD THING IS, IT'S
BECOMING CLEAR THAT NOW THAT
WE'RE BEGINNING TO IMAGE THE
BRAIN, AND I THINK WE'VE LEARNED
MORE ABOUT THE BRAIN IN THE LAST
TEN YEARS SINCE WE CAN ACTUALLY
IMAGE FUNCTIONING IN REAL TIME
THAN EVER BEFORE, NOW WE CAN
SEE... FOR EXAMPLE, EXPERIMENTS
DONE IN HEALTHY, FIT YOUNG MEN.
NO MEDICATION.
NO HEALTH PROBLEMS AT ALL.
APPARENTLY FIT.
AND PRESUMABLY REPRESENTATIVE OF
THE BEST PART OF OUR POPULATION.
AND WHEN YOU STRESS THEM, PUT
THEM UNDER STRESS, INTELLECTUAL
STRESS IN THE LABORATORY, YOU
COMPARE HOW THEIR BRAINS
FUNCTION IF THEY'RE ON NOTHING,
A PLACEBO; IF THEY'RE ON A
REGULAR MULTIVITAMIN WHICH HAS
THE RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE
IN IT; OR A SPECIAL
MULTI-VITAMIN THAT SOME
RESEARCHERS HAVE BEEN STUDYING
WHICH ACTUALLY HAS 10 TO 15
TIMES THE AMOUNT OF B-VITAMINS
AND VITAMIN C, ETC.
AND YOU CAN SHOW THAT THEY
FUNCTION BETTER.
NOT ONLY PHYSICALLY BUT MENTALLY.

Steve says LET ME GET NALINI'S
TAKE ON THIS.
THE ADVISABILITY OF TAKING A
MULTIVITAMIN EVERY DAY?

Nalini says WE WOULD
RECOMMEND PEOPLE CONSULT THEIR
FAMILY DOCTORS TO SEE WHAT'S
BEST FOR THEM.
WE THINK PEOPLE SHOULD HAVE
HEALTHY SOURCES OF VITAMINS
THROUGH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
AND THAT SORT OF THING?

Steve says HOW DO YOU HANDLE
YOUR PATIENTS AS IT RELATES TO
VITAMINS, SUPPLEMENTS, IT'S?

Samir says PART OF
THE WORKUP FOR DEMENTIA THAT
DOCTORS AND OTHERS USUALLY DO IS
TAKE A LOOK AT, DO YOU HAVE
DEFICIENCIES OF MINERALS OR
VITAMINS OR METABOLIC
DISTURBANCES LIKE DIABETES.
THERE ARE CERTAIN DEFICIENCIES
WE LOOK FOR.
VITAMIN B-12 IS CLASSICALLY
ASSOCIATED WITH POOR THINKING
AND MEMORY.
THAT'S ONE WE'LL ACTIVELY
PRESCRIBE VITAMIN B-12 TO BE
TAKEN.
MOST PEOPLE THEIR B-12 IS PRETTY
GOOD.
THAT'S A PERSON THAT I WOULDN'T
ACTUALLY PRESCRIBE B-12.
IF SOMEONE HAS A QUESTIONABLE
DIET, MAYBE NOT IDEAL, AND THEY
SAY, DOC, WHAT DO YOU THINK?
SHOULD I TAKE A MULTIVITAMIN?
I HAVE NO PROBLEMS WITH THAT.
I TRY TO BALANCE BETWEEN THE
PRACTICALITY OF WHAT IS THE
QUALITY OF THE VITAMIN, WHO HAS
MADE IT, AND ALSO CAN YOU EVEN
AFFORD THAT?
BECAUSE FOR SOME OF MY FOLKS,
IT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
BUYING THOSE VITAMINS OR
ACTUALLY GETTING OUT TO THE
LOCAL EXERCISE PROGRAM AT THE
SENIORS CENTRE OR DOING WHATEVER
ELSE.
SO THERE ARE A LOT OF DIFFERENT
THINGS TO CONSIDER.
I DON'T ROUTINELY PRESCRIBE
VITAMINS.
ONLY IF I HAVE A COMPELLING
REASON TO DO SO.

Steve says DO YOU WANT THE LAST WORD?

Aileen says B-12
IS A VERY GOOD EXAMPLE.
WE HAVE WHAT WE CALL THE
REFERENCE RANGE FOR B-12.
HOW IS THAT DERIVED FROM THE
POPULATION?
PLUS OR MINUS DEVIATIONS.
IF YOU LOOK AT OUR REFERENCE
RANGE FOR B-12, AND BY THE WAY
THERE IS NO UPPER LIMIT AND NO
RESTRICTION ON THE AMOUNT OF
B-12 YOU CAN TAKE, IF YOU LOOK
AT RECOMMENDATIONS BANG-SLAP IN
THE MIDDLE OF OUR NORMAL RANGE,
THERE ARE STUDIES FOLLOWING
PEOPLE FROM THE AGE OF 65
ONWARDS FOR FIVE YEARS, YOU CAN
MEASURE THEIR BRAIN SHRINKING,
WHICH IS A PRECURSOR TO DEMENTIA.
SO I REALLY CHALLENGE THE IDEA
THAT WE DO GET OPTIMUM AMOUNTS
OF THE MICRO-NUTRIENTS FROM A
CASUAL DIET OR EVEN ONE THAT'S
MORE FOCUSED ON COLOURFUL FRUITS
AND VEGETABLES.
I THINK WE HAVE A CHALLENGE THERE.

Steve says OKAY.
LET'S FINISH UP WITH THE
FOLLOWING.
I WANT TO REMIND EVERYBODY,
OKAY, THERE'S THAT.
THIS IS THE BRAIN HEALTH FOOD
GUIDE.
THIS IS ALL OVER THE INTERNET,
RIGHT?
PEOPLE CAN GET THIS ANYWHERE.
LET US TO BRING TO PEOPLE'S
ATTENTION THE HEALTHY BRAIN, AND
THAT IS THE LATEST CONTRIBUTION
OF AILEEN BURFORD-MASON, WHOSE
NAME I HEARD PRONOUNCED TWO
DIFFERENT WAYS, AILEEN AND EILEEN.
WHICH DO YOU PREFER?

Aileen says AILEEN WITH AN "A."

The caption changes to "Producer: Gregg Thurlbeck, @GreggThurlbeck."

Steve says OTHERWISE MY THANKS
TO NALINI SEN FROM THE
ALZHEIMER'S SOCIETY RESEARCH
PROGRAM, DR. SAMIR SINHA FROM
MOUNT SINAI, AND AILEEN
BURFORD-MASON, AUTHOR OF "THE
HEALTHY BRAIN."
GOOD OF ALL OF YOU TO JOIN US ON
TVO TONIGHT.
THANK YOU.

Watch: Combatting Dementia: Feed Your Brain