Transcript: The Future of Medicine | Dec 06, 2016

Nam sits in the studio. She's in her thirties, with shoulder length curly brown hair. She's wearing glasses and a black blazer over a purple shirt.

A caption on screen reads "Nam Kiwanuka, @namshine."
Then, it changes to "The future of medicine."

Nam says IMAGINE RESTORING SIGHT
IN A PERSON WHO HAS GONE BLIND.
OR REPAIRING PATHWAYS IN THE
BODY DESTROYED BY STROKE.
OR HITTING CANCER CELLS EXACTLY
WHERE THEY LIVE.
THESE ARE THE KINDS OF MEDICAL
MIRACLES MOLLY SHOICHET WORKS
TOWARDS EVERY DAY IN HER LAB AT
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO.
SHE IS CANADA RESEARCH CHAIR IN
TISSUE ENGINEERING, AND IS A
PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY,
BIOMATERIALS AND BIOMEDICAL
ENGINEERING.
AND MOLLY SHOICHET JOINS US NOW
FOR MORE.

Molly is in her forties, with long straight brown hair. She's wearing a black blazer and a large blue pendant necklace.

Nam says WELCOME.

Molly says IT'S WONDERFUL TO BE HERE.

Nam says WHERE DID YOU GET
YOUR love OF ENGINEERING?

The caption changes to "Meet Molly."

Molly says WELL, I
THINK...
I THINK I
GREW UP IN AN ENVIRONMENT WHERE
MY PARENTS ENCOURAGED ME TO
PURSUE WHAT I WAS GOOD AT AND
ENJOYED AND I HAD SOME FANTASTIC
HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS, MY
CHEMISTRY TEACHER, MR. MELLEN,
WAS A FANTASTIC TEACHER, AND
THAT LED ME TO AN UNDERGRADUATE
DEGREE AT M.I.T. IN CHEMISTRY.
AT ONE OF OUR ADVANCED CHEMISTRY
LABS I MADE A POLYMER.

Nam says WHAT'S THAT?

Molly says IT'S
EVERYWHERE.
TIRES ARE POLITICS OR POLYMERS
AND URETHANE COATINGS ARE
POLYMERS, SO WE MADE ONE IN ONE
OF MY ADVANCED CHEMISTRY LABS.
I THOUGHT THIS IS SO COOL.
THIS IS CHEMISTRY THAT I CAN SEE
AND FEEL AND TOUCH.
SO THAT INSPIRED ME TO GET A
PH.D. IN THAT FIELD IN POLYMER
SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING.

Nam says HOW DID YOU COME TO BE
AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO?

The caption changes to "Molly Shoichet. Univesrity of Toronto."

Molly says WELL, MY
FIRST JOB AFTER GRADUATING WITH
MY PH.D. WAS ACTUALLY AT A
BIOTECH COMPANY.
IT TURNS OUT THAT WAS A
FANTASTIC OPPORTUNITY BECAUSE WE
WERE WORKING IN WHAT REALLY
WASN'T CALL REGENERATIVE
MEDICINE BUT STEM-CELL BIOLOGY
IS COMBINED WITH MATERIALS TO
OVERCOME BIG PROBLEMS, BIG
DISEASES THAT CAN'T BE SOLVED
OTHERWISE, AND WHEN I WAS
LOOKING... AFTER WORKING FOR A
COUPLE OF YEARS, I LOOKED AT
OPPORTUNITIES TO COME BACK TO
CANADA AND WAS REALLY EXCITED BY
THE RESEARCH GOING ON AT THE
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO.

Nam says WHAT WERE THEY DOING?

Molly says WELL,
TORONTO, AND THE UNIVERSITY OF
TORONTO AND THE ASSOCIATED
MEDICAL HOSPITALS, IT'S JUST A
WEALTH OF RESEARCH IN STEM-CELL
BIOLOGY, REGENERATIVE MEDICINE,
NEW ENGINEERING ASPECTS, AND ONE
OF MY COLLEAGUES WAS DOING
FANTASTIC WORK IN DIABETES AND
PARKINSONS DISEASE, AND THAT
AREA OVERLAPPED WITH SOME OF THE
RESEARCH THAT I HAD BEEN DOING
IN INDUSTRY, AND SO I WAS REALLY
EXCITED TO JOIN THE FACULTY AT
U OF T.

Nam says AND TO BE BACK HOME.

Molly says YES.
COMING BACK HOME WAS A BIG DRAW.

Nam says YOUR TALK THAT YOU'RE
GIVING AT THE PERIMETER
INSTITUTE IS CALLED "ENGINEERING
CHANGE IN MEDICINE."
WHY DID YOU DECIDE TO CALL IT THAT?

The caption changes to "Engineering change."

Molly says WELL, I
THINK WHAT WE DO IS, FIRST OF
ALL, WE APPROACH MEDICAL
PROBLEMS FROM AN ENGINEERING
PERSPECTIVE.
AND ALSO, WE KNOW THAT, IN
ANYTHING, PLAN B HAS TO BE
DIFFERENT FROM PLAN A.
YOU KNOW, IF YOU'RE GOING TO TRY
TO CHANGE THE WAY THINGS ARE
DONE, YOU HAVE TO HAVE A NEW
APPROACH.
AND ONE THING THAT'S EXCITING, I
THINK, ABOUT THE WAY WE APPROACH
MEDICAL PROBLEMS IS WE APPROACH
IT FROM A VERY DIFFERENT
PERSPECTIVE THAN OUR COLLEAGUES
IN NEUROSURGERY OR STEM-CELL
BIOLOGY.
AND THROUGH CLOSE COLLABORATION
WITH THEM, WE CAN, YOU KNOW, TRY
AND ANSWER QUESTIONS THAT PEOPLE
HAVEN'T BEEN ABLE TO ANSWER YET
OR SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT PEOPLE
HAVEN'T SOLVED.
OF COURSE, EVERYBODY IS TRYING
TO DO THAT.
BUT BY COMING AT THIS PERHAPS
WITHOUT SOME OF THE DOGMA YOU
HAVE IN TRADITIONAL TRAINING, WE
THINK OF SOLUTIONS AND IDEAS
THAT SOME PEOPLE MIGHT DISCARD
BECAUSE THEY'RE TOO CRAZY.
BUT BECAUSE WE DON'T HAVE THAT
DOGMA, WE'RE NOT AFRAID TO TRY
THOSE CRAZY IDEAS, AND SOMETIMES
THEY WORK.

The caption changes to "Connect with us: @theagenda, TVO.org, YouTube, Facebook, Instagram."

Nam says AND HOW IS
PERSONALIZATION THE FUTURE OF MEDICINE?

Molly says WELL, I
THINK, YOU KNOW, WE HAVE... YOU
KNOW, IF WE TAKE CANCER, FOR
EXAMPLE.
RIGHT NOW ALREADY WE'RE STARTING
TO SEE PERSONALIZED MEDICINE
WITH GENOMICS.
WHAT WE'RE REALIZING IS THAT NOT
EVERY MEDICATION IS GOING TO
WORK FOR EVERY PERSON, AND SO
REALLY, IF WE'RE GOING TO TRY
AND REALLY PUSH THE NEEDLE AND
CHANGE THE WAY HUMAN HEALTH IS
DELIVERED, WE HAVE TO FIGURE OUT
WHAT'S GOING TO BE BEST FOR THAT
INDIVIDUAL, AND IT'S NOT GOING
TO BE THE RIGHT THING FOR
EVERYBODY.

Nam says AND HOW ARE YOU
APPLYING THAT PERSONALIZATION TO
CANCER RESEARCH?

Molly says SO WHAT
WE'RE DOING IN CANCER RESEARCH
IS TRYING TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO
GROW SOMEONE'S CELLS IN THE LAB.
SO CURRENTLY, IT'S VERY
DIFFICULT TO GROW PATIENT'S
CELLS IN THE LABORATORY.
EITHER THEY DON'T GROW OR THEY
GROW IN A WAY THAT DOESN'T
REPRESENT HOW THEY GROW IN US.

Nam says BECAUSE OBVIOUSLY A
DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT.

The caption changes to "A new approach to cancer."

Molly says COMPLETELY
DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT.
USUALLY WE'RE GROWING CELLS ON
HARD PLASTIC DISHES.
SO, FIRST OF ALL, THAT'S TOO
DEEP.
AND SECOND OF ALL, IT'S A HARD
PLASTIC DISH.
SO WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO DO IS
GROW THOSE CELLS IN AN
ENVIRONMENT THAT MIMICS BETTER
HOW THEY GROW IN US OR HOW THEY
GROW NATIVELY.
FIRST OF ALL WE'RE GROWING THEM
BY GROWING IN 3-D.
AND MANY OF OUR TISSUES ARE
SOFT.
SO WE'RE GROWING THEM ON SOFT
MATERIAL.
SO INSTEAD OF A HARD PLASTIC, A
SOFT... IT'S CALLED A HYDROGEL,
JELLO, JUST A WATER-SWOLLEN
MATERIAL, AND THEN PROVIDING
THEM WITH AN ENVIRONMENT, YOU
KNOW, PROTEINS, OTHER PEPTIDES,
FACTORS THAT MIMIC... SO THEY
HAVE THE MORPHOLOGY, SO THEY
LOOK THE SAME AS THEY GROW IN
US.
AND THEN WHAT WE CAN DO IS
SCREEN A SERIES OF DRUGS ON
THOSE CELLS GROWN IN THE LAB
VERSUS BASICALLY SCREENING THEM
ON US AS PATIENTS.

Nam says HOW COULD THAT CHANGE
FOR PEOPLE WHO HAVE CANCER?

Molly says WELL,
IDEALLY, IF WE CAN GROW YOUR
CELLS IN AN ENVIRONMENT THAT
MIMICS THE WAY THEY GROW IN US
AND TEST A SERIES OF DRUGS AND
WE CAN FIGURE OUT WHAT DRUG
MIGHT BE BEST FOR THAT
INDIVIDUAL BEFORE TREATING THEM.
WE DO HAVE MOUTH MODELS THAT
PEOPLE USE WHERE THEY WILL TAKE
A BIOPSY FROM A PATIENT AND GROW
THEM IN WHAT'S CALLED AN
IMMUNOCOMPROMISED MOUTH, SO
THAT'S WHERE THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
HAS BEEN WIPED OUT.
BUT OFTEN IT WILL TAKE SO LONG
TO GET THE ANSWER.
THE PATIENT HAS ALREADY BEEN
TREATED.
SO IT'S... YOU KNOW, WE HAVE TO
DO THINGS FASTER, BUT THEY ALSO
HAVE TO GIVE US BETTER OUTPUTS,
YOU KNOW, SO BETTER INDICATIONS.

Nam says FASCINATING.
YOU ALSO DO THIS, THOUGH, FOR
BLINDNESS.
HOW DO YOU APPLY PERSONALIZATION
TO BLINDNESS?

Molly says OKAY.
SO WE'RE WORKING IN TWO AREAS OF
BLINDNESS: ONE IS RELATED TO
AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION
AND ONE IS RELATED TO RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA.

Nam says WHAT IS THAT?

The caption changes to "Restoring sight."

Molly says WHAT
HAPPENS BASICALLY IN THOSE
DISEASES, YOU EITHER LOSE YOUR
CENTRAL VISION OR YOU LOSE YOUR
PERIPHERAL VISION.
AND EITHER WAY, YOUR VISION IS
DRASTICALLY REDUCED.
AND SO OBVIOUSLY YOU CAN'T SEE
WELL.
AND SO THIS IS A PROGRESSIVE
FORM OF BLINDNESS.
AND WHAT HAPPENS IN THOSE
DISEASES IS THE CELLS AT THE
VERY BACK OF YOUR EYE IN THE
RETINA, THOSE CELLS DEGENERATE.
SO WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO DO IN
BLINDNESS IS DESIGN A STRATEGY
TO REPLACE THOSE ACTUAL CELLS
THAT ARE LOST IN BLINDNESS.

Nam says IS THAT TO STOP THE
BLINDNESS COMPLETELY OR JUST
DELAYS IT?

Molly says RIGHT.
SO CURRENTLY THE WAY BLINDNESS
IS TREATED IS WITH DRUGS, AND
THE DRUGS WORK REALLY WELL, BUT
ULTIMATELY, THEY ONLY SLOW THE
PROGRESSION OF THE DISEASE.
WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO DO IN THIS
FIELD IS GO BEYOND THAT.
LET'S SEE IF WE CAN STOP THE
DISEASE.
AND MORE THAN THAT, LET'S
REVERSE IT.
CAN WE ACTUALLY GIVE PEOPLE
THEIR VISION BACK?
CAN WE RESTORE VISION?
SO THIS IS A FANTASTIC
COLLABORATION WITH DEREK VANDER
KOEY'S LAB WHERE HIS LAB HAS
DISCOVERED STEM CELLS THAT WE
ALL HAVE IN OUR EYES AND WE'RE
WORKING WITH HIM, AGAIN, TO
DELIVER THOSE STEM-CELLS IN A
WAY THAT THEY SURVIVE AND THAT
THEY INTEGRATE.
SO IF YOU IMAGINE YOU HAVE A
CABLE OF WIRES AND YOU SEVERED
IT, CUT IT IN HALF.
IF YOU JUST THROW IN A BUNCH OF
WIRES...

Nam says THAT'S NOT GOING TO WORK.

Molly says THAT'S NOT
GOING TO WORK.
SO CAN WE DELIVER THE CELLS AND
SORT OF THE EQUIVALENT OF
SOLDERING THEM INTO PLACE.
IF THE CELLS AREN'T PART OF IT,
THEY'RE NOT GOING TO DO IT.
SO IF THEY AREN'T A PART OF IT,
THEY'RE NOT GOING TO SURVIVE.
WE TRY TO GIVE THEM A BOOST AND
GET THEM TO SURVIVE LONG ENOUGH
SO THEY INTEGRATE.

Nam says YOUR LAB IS ALSO
WORKING TO HELP STROKE VICTIMS.
WHAT ARE YOU DOING?

The caption changes to "Molly Shoichet, @ShoichetLab"
Then, it changes again to "Helping stroke victims."

Molly says WE HAVE THE
OPPORTUNITY TO WORK IN ALL THESE
DIFFERENT FIELDS BECAUSE WE'RE,
I'D SAY, CREATING THE TOOLS THAT
ALLOW US... THE ENABLING TOOLS
THAT ALLOW US TO COMBAT SO MANY
OF THESE DISEASES.
IN STROKE, WE'RE ALSO LOOKING AT
CELL THERAPY.
BUT THE HOLY GRAIL OF I'D SAY
REGENERATIVE MEDICINE IS TRYING
TO GET THE STEM-CELLS THAT ARE
ALREADY IN US, GET THOSE TO
REGENERATE THE LOST TISSUE.
SO IT TURNS OUT, WHEN A PERSON
HAS A STROKE, THE STEM-CELLS IN
THE BRAIN ARE STIMULATED.
BUT NOT SUFFICIENTLY TO OVERCOME
THE DEVASTATION THAT OCCURS IN
THE STROKE.
SO WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO DO IS
STIMULATE THOSE CELLS FURTHER SO
THAT THEY ACTUALLY DO PROMOTE
REPAIR.

Nam says HOW DO YOU DO THAT?

Molly says WELL, ONE
OF MY COLLABORATORS SHOWED THAT
WHEN YOU DELIVER TWO FACTORS,
TWO PROTEINS, ONE AFTER THE
OTHER, DIRECTLY INTO THE BRAIN,
YOU CAN STIMULATE THOSE STEM
CELLS.
BUT THE STRATEGY WAS HIGHLY
INVASIVE.
SO TOGETHER WE THOUGHT, WHY
DON'T WE JUST CREATE LIKE A
DRUG-INFUSED BAND-AID OR A
LITTLE PATCH THAT YOU CAN PUT ON
THE BRAIN AND THEN DELIVER THOSE
PROTEINS DIRECTLY TO THE BRAIN
TISSUE SO THEY DIFFUSE IN AND
STIMULATE THOSE SAME CELLS, THAT
WE KNOW ARE THERE AND THAT WE
KNOW WILL RESPOND TO INJURY, BUT
WE KNOW NEED AN EXTRA SORT OF
BOOST TO REALLY PROMOTE TISSUE
REPAIR.

Nam says AND DOES IT WORK?

Molly says SO IT HAS
WORKED IN MODELS OF DISEASE.
YEAH, WE'RE REALLY EXCITED ABOUT THAT.
AND, YOU KNOW, THE CHALLENGE NOW
IS TO GO TO DIFFERENT MODELS OF
DISEASE AND SEE IF WE CAN REALLY
SCALE THIS UP TO MAKE IT WORK IN
A HUMAN.

Nam says WOW.
YOUR BRAIN.
[LAUGHTER]
A BEAUTIFUL BRAIN.

Molly says THANK YOU.

Nam says I WANT TO MOVE AWAY
FROM THE SCIENCE FOR A MINUTE
AND TALK TO YOU ABOUT RESEARCH
TO REALITY.
WHAT IS THAT?

The caption changes to "Research2Reality."

Molly says RESEARCH TO
REALITY WITH THE NUMBER TWO IS A
SOCIAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN THAT I
STARTED WITH MIKE MCMILLAN.
MIKE IS A FEATURE FILM PRODUCER.
OF COURSE, I'M A SCIENTIST.
AND WE REALIZED THAT THERE WAS
AN OPPORTUNITY TO ENGAGE THE
PUBLIC IN WHAT WE DO ALL ACROSS
CANADA IN RESEARCH.
SO WE'RE WAVING THE CANADIAN
FLAG OF RESEARCH AND REALLY
TAKING SOCIAL MEDIA IS A GREAT
MEDIUM AS A WAY TO LET PEOPLE
KNOW WHAT WE'RE DOING AND HOW
IT'S CHANGING THEIR PRESENT AND
THEIR FUTURE.
YOU KNOW, WHAT'S GOING ON IN
THESE LABS?
SO SIMILAR TO WHAT WE'RE DOING
NOW BUT REALLY USING, YOU KNOW,
FACEBOOK, TWITTER, YOUTUBE TO
DISTRIBUTE A NUMBER OF VIDEOS.
SO IT'S REALLY BEEN FANTASTIC TO
GO ACROSS CANADA, MEET AMAZING
RESEARCHERS INTO EVERYTHING
FROM, YOU KNOW, ENVIRONMENTAL
ISSUES TO ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TO
OF COURSE HEALTH AND MEDICINE,
BUT SOCIAL SCIENCES AS WELL, YOU
KNOW?
TALK TO RESEARCHERS ABOUT
ABORIGINAL LITERATURE AND
IMMIGRATION POLICIES IN CANADA
AND THEN, YOU KNOW, ABOUT THE
LATEST CANCER RESEARCH.

Nam says WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO
PROMOTE CANADIAN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH?

Molly says WELL, YOU
KNOW, ALL OF OUR FUNDING... MOST
OF IT... COMES FROM THE
GOVERNMENT, WHICH MEANS IT COMES
FROM THE TAXPAYERS.
AND I THINK IT'S OUR OBLIGATION
AND OUR OPPORTUNITY TO LET THE
PUBLIC KNOW WHAT WE'RE DOING IN
RESEARCH, AND ALSO ENGAGE THEM
IN WHY IT'S IMPORTANT.
LIKE, WHY SHOULD THEY CARE?
BUT IF THEY KNEW HOW IT'S GOING
TO GIVE, YOU KNOW, BETTER
MEDICAL TREATMENT TO THEIR MOM
OR THEIR GRANDMOTHER OR THEIR
SISTER OR THEIR, YOU KNOW, THEIR
DAD, OR, YOU KNOW, IT'S GOING TO
IMPACT THE FOOD WE EAT OR THE
AIR WE BREATHE, OR JUST OUR CELL
PHONES THAT WE USE.
YOU KNOW, ALL OF THESE THINGS
IMPACT US EVERY DAY.
INVENTING THE FUTURE IS WHAT'S
GOING ON.
WE'D LOVE THEM TO PARTICIPATE AS
WELL.
BECAUSE WE KNOW THAT SO MANY
SECTORS OF THE COMMUNITY HAVE TO
COME TOGETHER FOR ANYTHING TO BE
SUCCESSFUL.
WHETHER THEY'RE IN BUSINESS OR
RESEARCH OR IN MEDICINE OR JUST,
YOU KNOW, THEY HAVE THAT CORE
PASSION TO LEARN MORE.

Nam says I'M ALSO THINKING THAT
MAYBE YOU COULD EVEN PLANT A
SEED FOR YOUNG MINDS FOR, YOU
KNOW, FUTURE SCIENTISTS AND...

Molly says RIGHT,
YEAH, ABSOLUTELY.
WE'VE STARTED TO WORK WITH SOME
HIGH SCHOOL PRINCIPALS ABOUT
GETTING THE RESEARCH-TO-REALITY
VIDEOS INTO THAT CURRICULUM.
I HAVE INCORPORATED IT INTO MY
OWN CLASSES AT THE UNIVERSITY OF
TORONTO.
YEAH.
SO IT TURNS OUT IT'S JUST A
FANTASTIC RESOURCE, AND SO MANY
RESOURCES HIGHLIGHT OTHER
PEOPLE, NOT NECESSARILY
CANADIANS.
SO IT'S THAT PRIDE IN CANADA.
SIMILAR TO WHAT WE HAVE IN THE
OLYMPICS.
YOU KNOW, WE'RE FEATURING OUR
ROCK STAR RESEARCHERS, JUST LIKE
WE SEND OUR BEST ATHLETES TO THE
OLYMPICS, WE'RE FEATURING OUR
INTERNATIONALLY RENOWNED
RESEARCHERS.

Nam says FOCUSING ON PROBLEMS
FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF AN
ENGINEER, DOES THIS FREE YOU TO
THINK ABOUT THINGS LIKE CANCER
IN A DIFFERENT WAY?

The caption changes to "Not the ivory tower."

Molly says I THINK SO.
I THINK THAT WE HAVE REALLY HAD
THE OPPORTUNITY TO THINK ABOUT
CANCER AND ALL OF THE DISEASES
THAT WE WORK ON IN A DIFFERENT
WAY, BUT WE REALLY RELY ON OUR
COLLABORATORS.

Nam says WHY IS COLLABORATION IMPORTANT?

Molly says IT'S REALLY
IMPORTANT BECAUSE, FOR EXAMPLE,
THINK ABOUT STROKE.
A THOUSAND FAILED CLINICAL
TRIALS.
THOSE PEOPLE WEREN'T STUPID.
THOSE WERE REALLY SMART PEOPLE
TRYING TO SOLVE A REALLY BIG
PROBLEM.
IT'S CHALLENGING.
SO NOBODY CAN DO IT ALONE.
AND THEN ALSO WE WORK WITH
PEOPLE WHO HAVE... WHO BRING A
SYNERGISTIC APPROACH.
YOU KNOW... OR A DIFFERENT
APPROACH TO SOLVING THE SAME
PROBLEM.
SO THEY COME WITH A LOT OF
KNOWLEDGE AND DOMAIN EXPERTISE
THAT IS COMPLEMENTED BY OURS.
SO WE COULDN'T DO HALF OF WHAT
WE DO WITHOUT OUR COLLABORATORS.
AND WE LEARN A LOT IN THE
PROCESS AND WE ALSO HAVE AN
OPPORTUNITY TO CONTRIBUTE.
NO, WE'RE NOT REINVENTING THE
WHEEL.
WE'RE DOING SOMETHING THAT
NOBODY HAS BEEN ABLE TO SOLVE
YET.

Nam says I WANT TO ASK YOU THIS
FINAL QUESTION.
WE HEAR ABOUT MAJOR
BREAKTHROUGHS IN LABORATORIES
BUT ONCE THE HEADLINES DIE DOWN,
THEY SEEM TO JUST DISAPPEAR.
WHY DOES IT TAKE SO LONG FOR A
SCIENTIFIC BREAKTHROUGH TO MOVE
FROM THE LAB TO A PATIENT?

Molly says IT'S A
REALLY GOOD QUESTION.
THERE'S A HUGE AMOUNT OF WORK
THAT HAS TO GO ON TO GO FROM THE
LAB TO THE PATIENT.
FIRST OF ALL, WE HAVE TO
DEMONSTRATE IT'S SAFE.
WE HAVE A LOT OF REGULATORY
HURDLES TO GO THROUGH TO MAKE
SURE THAT WHAT WE'RE GIVING TO
THE PATIENT IS SAFE.
AND THEN OF COURSE IT HAS TO
WORK.
AND SOMETIMES THINGS WILL WORK
IN A MODEL BUT NOT WORK IN THE
PATIENT.
SO THERE'S A LOT OF WORK THAT...
AND THEN BECAUSE THAT REGULATORY
PROCESS IS SO STRINGENT, IT CAN
TAKE A DECADE AT LEAST,
SOMETIMES 20 YEARS, TO GO FROM
THE LAB TO THE PATIENT.
YOU KNOW, THINGS HAVE TO BE DONE
OVER AND OVER AGAIN,
REPRODUCIBLY, YOU HAVE TO HAVE A
PRODUCT THAT MEETS A CERTAIN
QUALITY AND THEN OF COURSE IT
HAS TO BE SAFE.

The caption changes to "Producer: Katie O'Connor, KA_OConnor"

Nam says THANK YOU VERY MUCH
FOR BEING HERE, PROFESSOR SHOICHET.
WE'VE LEARNED A LOT, I'VE
LEARNED A LOT FROM YOU. THANK YOU.

Molly says THANK YOU.

Watch: The Future of Medicine