Transcript: Summer Learning Losses | Sep 15, 2016

Steve sits in the studio. He's slim, clean-shaven, in his fifties, with short curly brown hair. He's wearing a gray suit, pale pink shirt, and striped purple and gray tie.

A caption on screen reads "Summer learning losses."
Then, it adds "@spaikin, @theagenda"

Steve says IT'S CALLED SUMMER
LEARNING LOSS.
AND AS THE SCHOOL YEAR GETS
UNDERWAY, PARENTS, TEACHERS AND
STUDENTS ARE JUST NOW
DISCOVERING HOW MUCH SUMMER
VACATION MAY HAVE SENT SOME
STUDENTS TO THE BACK OF THE
CLASS.
JANICE AURINI IS A PROFESSOR IN
THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY AND
LEGAL STUDIES AT THE UNIVERSITY
OF WATERLOO.
SHE HAS JUST PUBLISHED ONE OF
THE FIRST LARGE-SCALE STUDIES ON
HOW THIS PLAYS OUT FOR CANADIANS
STUDENTS.
PROFESSOR AURINI JOINS US NOW.

Janice is in her early forties, with straight blond hair in a bob. She's wearing a hot pink blazer.

Steve continues NICE TO HAVE YOU HERE.

Janice says THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR HAVING ME.

Steve says BEFORE YOU GOT INTO
THIS, OTHER JURISDICTIONS
ELSEWHERE IN THE WORLD STARTED
TO STUDY IT.
I WANT TO START THERE.
WHEN RESEARCHERS FROM OUTSIDE
THE CANADA LOOKED AT THE IMPACT
OF SUMMER VACATION ON WHAT
STUDENTS RETAIN WHEN THEY CAME
BACK THE FOLLOWING YEAR, WHAT
DID THEY FIND?

The caption changes to "Janice Aurini. University of Waterloo."
Then, it changes again to "Who's on the honour roll?"

Janice says WELL, THE
FINDINGS ARE NOT GOOD.
ONE OF THE LARGEST STUDIES OUT
OF BALTIMORE, AND THEY'VE BEEN
TRACKING KIDS FOR ABOUT 25
YEARS, LOOKING AT SUMMER
LEARNING LOSSES, AND WHAT THEY
FOUND WAS THAT OVER TIME, JUST
SUMMER LEARNING LOSSES AND GAINS
CAN COUNT FOR A LARGE PORTION OF
THE ACHIEVEMENT GAP,
PARTICULARLY BETWEEN LOWER AND
HIGHER SOCIOECONOMIC CHILDREN,
AND SO THAT GAP... NOT WHAT'S
HAPPENING IN THE SCHOOL YEAR,
BUT THAT SUMMER LEARNING LOSS...
CAN ACCOUNT FOR THINGS LIKE WHO
GRADUATES FROM HIGH SCHOOL,
WHICH KIDS ARE IN THE
PREPARATORY COURSES FOR COLLEGE
AND UNIVERSITY, AND THEN WHO
EVENTUALLY GOES ON TO
POSTSECONDARY.

Steve says SINCE THE KIDS ARE
ALL OFF FOR THE SAME TWO MONTHS,
THERE HAVE TO BE I GUESS A
VARIETY OF EXPLANATIONS AS TO
WHY SOME DO OKAY AND WHY SOME DO NO.
HELP US OUT WITH THAT.

Janice says SOME PEOPLE
REFER TO IT AS FAUCET THEORY.
YOU THINK ABOUT DURING THE
SCHOOL YEAR, THE FAUCET IS
TURNED WIDE OPEN AND ALL THE
RESOURCES ARE FLOWING.
KIDS GET ACCESS TO LITERACY AND
NUMERACY, THERE'S RECREATION.
I SHOULD SAY ONE OF THE THINGS
THE AMERICAN RESEARCHERS ALSO
FOUND IS THAT NOT ONLY DO KIDS
LOSE LITERACY AND NUMERACY,
THEY'RE ALSO MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO
WEIGHT GAIN OVER THE SUMMER.
YOU THINK ABOUT SCHOOL.
THEY STRUCTURE THAT LEARNING
TIME, THEY STRUCTURE RECREATION
TIME.
KIDS GET ACCESS TO WEEKLY TRIPS
TO THE LIBRARY, MUSIC CLASSES.
BUT IN THE SUMMER TIME, AT LEAST
FOR SOME KIDS, THAT FAUCET IS
TURNED OFF.

Steve says WHICH KIDS?

Janice says USUALLY KIDS
FROM LOWER SOCIOECONOMIC
BACKGROUNDS, THE MOST VULNERABLE
KIDS, WHERE PARENTS HAVE LOWER
LEVELS OF EDUCATION AND INCOME.

Steve says SO IF YOU HAVE
HIGHER EDUCATION, HIGHER INCOME,
YOU SEND YOUR KIDS OFF TO SUMMER
CAMP OR ANY NUMBER OF DIFFERENT
PROGRAMS DURING THE SUMMER THAT
SORT OF KEEPS THE FAUCET GOING A
LITTLE BIT?

Janice says THAT'S RIGHT.
AND PROFESSIONAL PARENTS OR
PARENTS OF HIGHER INCOMES
USUALLY HAVE MORE FLEXIBLE
SCHEDULES SO THEY CAN DO THINGS
LIKE TAKE THEIR KIDS TO A
VACATION OR UP TO THE FAMILY
COTTAGE AND THOSE KINDS OF THINGS.

Steve says THOSE AMERICAN
STUDIES, AGAIN, BEFORE WE START
TALKING ABOUT YOUR WORK, I'M
TRYING TO GAUGE HOW MUCH
EDUCATION YOU WOULD ACTUALLY
LOSE BY BEING OFF IN THE SUMMER
AND HAVING THAT FAUCET TURNED
OFF OR DOWN?

Janice says IT WAS
PRETTY SIGNIFICANT.
IN MY OWN STUDY AS WELL AS
AMERICAN RESEARCH, IT CAN BE
UPWARDS OF FIVE MONTHS OF LIT
THERE'S OR NUMERACY.

Steve says FIVE MONTHS?
HALF A YEAR DOWN THE DRAIN.

Janice says THAT'S RIGHT.
BUT REMEMBER, WHILE SOME KIDS
ARE LOSING, OTHER KIDS ARE
GAINING.
SO YOU CAN IMAGINE THAT IN
SEPTEMBER, YOU'VE GOT SOME
CHILDREN WHO ARE THREE, FOUR,
FIVE MONTHS BEHIND; OTHER KIDS
WHO ARE TWO OR THREE MONTHS
AHEAD.
THAT CAN ACCOUNT FOR A
SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF THE ACTUAL
ACHIEVEMENT GAP.

Steve says IF YOU ADD HOW MUCH
BEHIND PLUS HOW MUCH AHEAD,
MAYBE A WHOLE YEAR?

Janice says THAT'S
RIGHT, ABSOLUTELY.
IN MOST EXTREME SENSE, YES.

Steve says ALL RIGHT.
SO ALL OF THAT IS GOING ON
OUTSIDE CANADA, THEN YOU DECIDED
YOU WANTED TO DO YOUR OWN
RESEARCH ON THE CANADIAN
SITUATION.
HOW DID YOU BEGIN TO WANT TO DO THAT?

The caption changes to "A tough first day."

Janice says WE WERE
FORTUNATE ENOUGH TO RUB
SHOULDERS WITH SOME OF THE
COLLEAGUES WHO WERE CONDUCTING
THE U.S. STUDIES AND WE BECAME
REALLY INTERESTED IN WHAT WAS
HAPPENING, AND WE DIDN'T REALLY
KNOW A WHOLE LOT ABOUT SUMMER
SETBACK IN A CANADIAN CONTEXT.
WE SUSPECTED THAT BECAUSE THE
DIFFERENCES IN HOW WE FUND
SCHOOLS, THAT THERE MAY BE
DIFFERENCES; THAT IS, WE MAY
FIND LESS SUMMER LEARNING LOSSES
THAN IN THE U.S.
SO THAT'S WHERE IT SORT OF
STARTED.
BUT THE BIG QUESTION THAT WE
ALSO WANTED TO ANSWER IS, YOU
KNOW, WHERE DO ACHIEVEMENT GAPS
COME FROM?
HOW MUCH OF IT IS ATTRIBUTED TO
THE SUMMER VERSUS THE SCHOOL YEAR.

Steve says WHAT DID YOU FIND
OUT ABOUT WHETHER OUR SUMMER
LEARNING LOSSES ARE SIGNIFICANT
AS THOSE IN THE UNITED STATES?

Janice says THEY'RE A
LITTLE BIT MORE MUTED, BUT
AGAIN, THE NEWS IS NOT GOOD.
WE FOUND THAT, AGAIN, AT THE
EXTREME END, SOME KIDS WERE
GAINING UP TO THREE MONTHS;
OTHER KIDS WERE LOSING UP TO
THREE MONTHS.
AGAIN, SIX-MONTH GAP AT THE
BEGINNING OF THE SCHOOL YEAR.
BUT ON AVERAGE, KIDS,
PARTICULARLY KIDS FROM MORE SORT
OF VULNERABLE HOME LIFE
SETTINGS, WERE LOSING ABOUT ONE
TO TWO MONTHS.
AGAIN, MIDDLE CLASS AND UPPER
MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN WERE
GAINING.
AGAIN, PRETTY SIGNIFICANT LOSS.

Steve says WHAT ARE WE IN THE
PROVINCE OF ONTARIO DOING ABOUT THIS?

Janice says WE ARE
ACTUALLY DOING SOMETHING REALLY
GOOD.
WE PARTNERED WITH THE ONTARIO
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, SCOTT
DAVIES, MY CO-RESEARCHER AND I,
WE STARTED TO WORK WITH THE
MINISTRY AND EVALUATE A BRAND
NEW INITIATIVE ABOUT FOUR OR
FIVE YEARS AGO, AND CURRENTLY
RIGHT NOW IN THE PROVINCE, EVERY
SINGLE SCHOOL BOARD OFFERS VERY
INTENSIVE LITERACY AND NUMERACY
PROGRAMS FOR KIDS.
THEY'RE ONLY TWO OR THREE WEEKS.

Steve says THIS IS OVER THE SUMMER?

The caption changes to "Levelling the playground."

Janice says OVER THE SUMMER.
AGAIN, CHECK OUT YOUR LOCAL
SCHOOL BOARD.
THERE'S ONE PROBABLY IN YOUR
COMMUNITY.
WHAT'S GREAT ABOUT THEM IS THAT
THEY'RE FREE AND THEY'RE STAFFED
BY CERTIFIED TEACHERS AND THEY
ALSO BRING IN ALL KINDS OF OTHER
RESOURCES FOR KIDS.
WHAT WE DID IS WE TESTED KIDS IN
JUNE AND SEPTEMBER TO TRY TO
BRACKET THAT LEARNING THAT
HAPPENS OVER THE SUMMER, AND
WHAT WE FOUND IS THAT THE KIDS
WHO ATTENDED THE PROGRAMS WERE
FAR BETTER OFF WHEN THEY CAME
BACK TO SCHOOL IN SEPTEMBER.
SO KIDS WHO OTHERWISE HAD ALL
THE CHARACTERISTICS THAT WE
WOULD PREDICT WOULD HAVE LOST,
EITHER THEY CAME BACK TO SCHOOL
WHERE THEY LEFT OFF IN JUNE, AND
IN SOME CASES, MOST POSITIVE
CASES, THEY ACTUALLY CAUGHT UP A
BIT TO THEIR MORE ADVANTAGED
CLASSMATES.

Steve says THESE WOULD BE
PEOPLE IN THE LOWER
SOCIOECONOMIC CATEGORIES YOU
STUDIED?

Janice says THEY TEND TO
TARGET OR FOCUS THE PROGRAMS IN
THOSE TYPES OF NEIGHBOURHOODS.
THE BEAUTY OF THESE PROGRAMS IS
THAT ANYONE COULD ATTEND.
CERTAINLY THE SCHOOL MADE A LOT
OF EFFORT TO TARGET STUDENTS WHO
THEY THOUGHT COULD MOST BENEFIT
FROM A SUMMER PROGRAM, BUT
REALLY ANYONE WHO... THIS
PROGRAM IS TARGETED AT KIDS IN
GRADES ONE, TWO, AND THREE COULD
COME.

Steve says I AM DYING TO KNOW
HOW A PARENT CONVINCES A
STUDENT-CHILD OVER THE SUMMER
NOT TO HANG OUT WITH KIDS AT THE
MALL OR NOT TO GO TO SUMMER CAMP
OR NOT TO GO TO DAY CAMP OR
ONTARIO PLACE OR THE MYRIAD
THINGS THEY DO OVER THE SUMMER,
BUT INSTEAD GO TO SCHOOL FOR TWO
OR THREE MORE WEEKS.

Janice says I THINK THE
FACT IT'S TARGETED YOUNGER
CHILDREN...

Steve says CRACK THE WHIP.

Janice says PRETTY MUCH.
ALSO I THINK THEY'RE QUITE
SMART, THAT THIS IS NOT JUST
LIKE SUMMER SCHOOL.
WHAT WE'RE DOING AT LEAST IN THE
PROVINCE OF ONTARIO THEY'VE
REALLY MADE IT LIKE A SUMMER CAMP.
SO THE KIDS REALLY THINK... YES,
THERE'S INTENSIVE LITERACY AND
NUMERACY FOCUS, BUT THERE'S A
WHOLE RECREATION COMPONENT TO
THESE PROGRAMS.
SO KIDS... REMEMBER, THESE ARE
KIDS WHO OTHERWISE COULD NOT
HAVE AFFORDED OR THE PARENTS
COULD NOT AFFORD TO SEND THEM TO
ANY KIND OF HIGH QUALITY CAMP OF
ANY SORT.
THESE KIDS ACTUALLY HAD A
WONDERFUL EXPERIENCE AND LEARNED
PROBABLY WITHOUT EVEN REALIZING IT.

Steve says LET'S TALK FOR A
MOMENT ABOUT STIGMA.
YOU TELL ME IF IT'S DIFFERENT NOW.
I KNOW WHEN I WAS A KID, IF I
EVER FOUND OUT ANY OF MY BUDDIES
WERE GOING TO SUMMER SCHOOL,
THAT WAS GROUNDS FOR TEASING THE
HELL OUT OF THEM BECAUSE THAT
SHOWED THEY WERE SLOW OR FALLING
BEHIND OR WHATEVER.
IS THERE ANY STIGMA ATTACHED TO
ATTENDING THAT'S PROGRAMS?

Janice says NO.
IN FACT A LOT OF THESE PROGRAMS
HAVE WAITING LISTS.

Steve says REALLY?

Janice says ONCE THE
WORD GOT OUT IN THE COMMUNITIES
AND THE KIDS HAD A GREAT TIME
AND PARENTS SAW THE POSITIVE
OUTCOME FROM THESE PROGRAMS,
THEY RECOGNIZED... AND THE
TEACHERS RECOGNIZED THAT THE
KIDS WERE ABLE TO ENTER SCHOOL
IN SEPTEMBER AND REALLY HIT THE
GROUND RUNNING AND THEY NOTICED
DIFFERENCES IN TERMS OF KIDS'
CONFIDENCE.
IF KIDS AT THAT AGE DON'T SEE
THEMSELVES AS A READER, THEY
DON'T IDENTIFY AS A LEARNER AND
GOOD AT SCHOOL.

Steve says WHAT AGE ARE WE
TALKING?

Janice says YOUNG KIDS,
GRADES 2 OR 3.
IF KIDS, AND THIS IS SOMEBODY
ELSE'S TERM, NOT MY OWN, BUT IF
THEY'RE NOT ABLE TO TRANSITION
FROM READING, LEARNING TO READ,
TO READING TO LEARN, YOU'VE LOST
THEM.
AND THAT HAPPENS DURING THAT
CRITICAL TIME PERIOD IN GRADE 2
AND 3.
SO AS A CONSEQUENCE, THESE
PROGRAMS ARE REALLY POPULAR AND
PEOPLE WANT TO GO BECAUSE THEIR
FRIENDS ARE GOING.

Steve says THAT WAS GOING TO BE
MY NEXT QUESTION, WHICH IS, DO
YOU EVER HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT
THEM NOT SHOWING UP?

Janice says WE FOUND
THAT ATTENDANCE IS A BIG ISSUE.
THAT WAS ONE OF THE THINGS WE
TRACKED.
OBVIOUSLY IF IT YOU'RE NOT
SHOWING UP, YOU'RE NOT GOING TO
BENEFIT FROM THE PROGRAM.
SO, AGAIN, WE MADE A LOT OF
EFFORT AND THE SCHOOLS MADE A
LOT OF EFFORT TO MAKE SURE THAT
KIDS WERE ATTENDING THE PROGRAM.
AGAIN, IT'S ONLY TWO OR THREE
WEEKS SO...

Steve says IF EVERYBODY... AND
I ASSUME EVERYBODY, TO SOME
EXTENT, WHETHER YOU'RE FROM A
HIGH SOCIOECONOMIC BRACKET OR
FROM A LOWER ONE, EVERYBODY
EXPERIENCES... IF YOU DON'T GO
TO SCHOOL FOR TWO STRAIGHT
MONTHS, YOU'RE GOING TO
EXPERIENCE SOME KIND OF SUMMER
LEARNING LOSS.

Janice says I
EXPERIENCED SUMMER LEARNING LOSS.

Steve says THERE YOU GO.
AND WHAT ARE YOU?
A Ph.D.?

Janice says YES.

Steve says YOU'RE A Ph.D.
SO THERE YOU GO.
IF SOMEBODY IS GOING TO MAKE THE
ARGUMENT WE SHOULD MAKE SCHOOL
12 MONTHS OF THE YEAR OR AT
LEAST 11 and a half OR SOMETHING LIKE
THAT, IS THAT A GOOD IDEA?

The caption changes to "No more pencils, no more books."

Janice says I DON'T
THINK SO.
YOU KNOW, I DON'T THINK WE
SHOULD GET RID OF SUMMER
VACATION.
I'M NOT JUST SAYING THAT BECAUSE
I THINK MY CHILDREN WOULD DISOWN
ME, BUT... NO.
I THINK IN THE CASE, I THINK
EVERYTHING IN MODERATION, AND I
THINK THAT THE PROGRAM THAT I
HAD THE PRIVILEGE OF BEING A
PART OF AND EVALUATING SHOWS
THAT EVEN JUST A TWO OR THREE
WEEK BOOST, A TUNEUP, IF YOU
WILL, CAN REALLY MAKE A
DIFFERENCE.
AGAIN, I DON'T THINK WE HAVE TO
GET RID OF SUMMER VACATION AT
THIS POINT.

Steve says THE TUNEUP, I
PRESUME, SHOULD BE AT THE END OF
THE SUMMER AS OPPOSED TO AT THE
BEGINNING?
DOES THAT MAKE SENSE?

Janice says WE DIDN'T
MAKE A DIFFERENCE.
THEY VARIED IN TERMS OF WHETHER
THEY WERE OFFERED IN JULY OR
AUGUST SO...

Steve says WOULD PARENTS
BLANCHE AT THIS IDEA OF TRYING
TO SEND KIDS TO SCHOOL
THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE SCHOOL YEAR?

Janice says I THINK SO.
CERTAINLY FULL-YEAR SCHOOLING OR
12-MONTH CALENDAR HAS HAPPENED
IN PLACES LIKE CALIFORNIA, FOR
EXAMPLE, AND NEVADA.
AND THEY'RE NOT THAT POPULAR
WITH PARENTS FOR ALL SORTS OF
REASONS.
JUST TO BE CLEAR, IT'S NOT ABOUT
ADDING MORE SCHOOL DAYS, IT'S
JUST DISTRIBUTING THE VACATION
THROUGHOUT THE YEAR VERSUS SORT
OF A TWO-MONTH BLOCK.
IN THOSE CASES WHAT THEY FOUND,
SURPRISINGLY, THAT IT DIDN'T
ACTUALLY IMPROVE ACHIEVEMENT
GAINS, FOR WHATEVER REASON.
YOU KNOW, THERE'S A LOT OF
THEORIES ABOUT WHY THAT MIGHT BE
THE CASE IN TERMS OF JUST IT NOT
BEING VERY POPULAR WITH GETTING
HIGH QUALITY TEACHERS AND SO
FORTH.
BUT IT WAS ALSO EVIDENT IN THE
U.S. RESEARCH THAT IT'S VERY
HARD FOR TWO PARENTS TO WORK IN
THOSE SITUATIONS.
YOU CAN IMAGINE IF YOU'VE GOT
KIDS WITH DIFFERENT SCHOOLS AND
THE VACATION IS DIFFERENT...

Steve says IT'S COMPLICATED.

Janice says IT GETS VERY
COMPLICATED FOR ANYONE WHO HAS
EVER TRIED TO ARRANGE FOR CHILD CARE.

Steve says YOU KNOW, IF I'VE
HEARD THIS ONCE, I'VE HEARD IT A
THOUSAND TIMES, THAT WE'RE
RUNNING A SCHOOL SYSTEM
ESSENTIALLY TODAY BASED ON A
CALENDAR OF 150 YEARS AGO SO
KIDS COULD GO OFF IN THE FIELDS
AND HELP BRING IN THE CROPS.
THAT'S CLEARLY NOT THE CASE FOR
99 PERCENT OF KIDS IN SCHOOLS.
IN SOME RESPECTS DOES IT MAKE
SENSE TO CONTINUE TO OPERATE THE
SCHOOL CALENDAR YEAR WITH THESE
TWO MONTHS OFF IN THE SUMMER
KNOWING WHAT THE SUMMER LEARNING
LOSSES ARE GOING TO BE FOR
PRETTY MUCH EVERYBODY?

Janice says I KNOW.
THAT'S A REALLY FAIR QUESTION.
AGAIN, I GUESS I WOULD JUST GO
BACK WITH, I DON'T THINK WE NEED
TO GET RID OF SUMMER VACATION AT
THIS POINT, BUT I DO THINK THAT
IN ONTARIO AS WELL AS OTHER
PROVINCES IN CANADA, THAT WE
SHOULD BE OFFERING SOME KIND OF
INTERVENTION, AND, AGAIN, I
THINK FOR THE SUMMER TIME, ONE
OF THE BENEFITS OF NOT HAVING TO
JUST WORRY ABOUT ALL THE THINGS
THAT SCHOOLS DO DURING THE
REGULAR SCHOOL DAY, THAT IN THE
SUMMER TEACHERS WERE ABLE TO
REALLY PROVIDE A REALLY TARGETED
AND FOCUSED INTERVENTION THAT I
THINK BENEFITED KIDS.
AGAIN, WITHOUT ALL THE OTHER
STUFF THAT THEY HAVE TO DO.
AND THE OTHER BENEFIT ABOUT
HAVING SOMETHING IN THE SUMMER
IS THAT THEY WERE ABLE TO
ACTUALLY ENCOURAGE PARENTS TO
PARTICIPATE IN THE PROGRAMS, AND
THESE ARE PARENTS WHO MAY NOT
HAVE EVER STEPPED INTO THE
CLASSROOM BEFORE.
SO THERE WERE THESE OTHER...
THERE'S QUANTITATIVE BENEFITS
BUT ALSO QUALITATIVE OR
SECONDARY BENEFITS.

Steve says I WONDER WHETHER OR
NOT, BECAUSE WE'VE SEEN THIS IN
OTHER SITUATIONS AS WELL, WHERE
OFTEN STUDENTS WHO COME FROM
HOMES WHERE THE PARENTS ARE NOT
LITERATE, OR MAYBE ENGLISH IS A
SECOND LANGUAGE OR SOMETHING,
DON'T NECESSARILY GET THAT
REINFORCEMENT TO BE AS ACADEMIC
AS THEY CAN BE.
CAN YOU HAVE SUMMER TUNEUP
PROGRAMS WHERE THE PARENTS GO AS WELL?

Janice says WELL, I
THINK THERE'S A REAL BENEFIT.
YOU KNOW, EVEN IF THE PARENTS
STILL STRUGGLE WITH THEIR OWN
LITERACY OR NUMERACY, THE
BENEFITS OF HAVING A PARENT IN
THE CLASSROOM, AND KIDS REALLY
JUST SHINE WHEN MOM OR DAD OR
GRANDPARENTS ARE IN THE
CLASSROOM, AND SO THERE WERE
THOSE BENEFITS OF HAVING PARENTS
JUST COME AND EVEN JUST
PARTICIPATE IN A VERY SMALL WAY
IN A READ-ALONG, FOR EXAMPLE, OR
SOME KIND OF SMALL ACTIVITY.
ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WE KNOW
IS THINGS LIKE PARENTAL
EXPECTATION REALLY DO PREDICT
ACADEMIC OUTCOMES, SO IF PARENTS
ARE THEN PARTICIPATING AND
INVOLVED IN SCHOOL, EVEN IN A
REALLY SMALL WAY, IT CAN BE
REALLY A BOOST TO KIDS' ACADEMIC
ACHIEVEMENT.

Steve says IT REALLY IS A
THING... WE CAN DOOM OUR KIDS
WITH TOO LOW EXPECTATIONS OF
THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.

Janice says EXACTLY.

Steve says SO WE HAVE TO SET
THE STANDARDS HIGH AND MAKE SURE
THEY HIT THEM.

Janice says THAT'S
RIGHT, ABSOLUTELY.

The caption changes to "Producer: Mark Brosens, @MarkBrosens"

Steve says GOT IT.
MOST INTERESTING.
JANICE AURINI, UNIVERSITY OF
WATERLOO. THANKS SO MUCH FOR
COMING IN TO TVO AND HELPING US
OUT WITH THIS TONIGHT.

Janice says THANKS FOR HAVING ME.

Watch: Summer Learning Losses