Transcript: The Brain Prize | Jun 08, 2016

Steve sits in the studio. He's slim, clean-shaven, in his fifties, with short curly brown hair. He's wearing a gray suit, checkered purple shirt, and purple tie.

A caption on screen reads "The brain prize."

Steve says HOW DO WE MAKE
MEMORIES? EVERYONE DOES IT ALL
THE TIME, BUT FEW UNDERSTAND
WHAT'S INVOLVED AT THE LEVEL
OF NEURO-SCIENCE. AND IN AGING
SOCIETIES WITH BOTH ALZHEIMER'S
AND DEMENTIA ON THE RISE,
FIGURING OUT THE ACTUAL
MECHANISMS INVOLVED WAS BREAK
THROUGH SCIENCE
WORTHY OF ONE OF THE WORLD'S
RICHEST SCIENCE PRIZES.
GRAHAM COLLINGRIDGE AND TWO
COLLEAGUES DID JUST THAT, AND
WERE RECENTLY AWARDED THE GRETE
LUNDBECK EUROPEAN BRAIN RESEARCH
PRIZE, OR THE BRAIN PRIZE AS
IT'S CALLED.
HE IS THE FIRST CANADIAN-BASED
RESEARCHER TO WIN THIS
PRESTIGIOUS PRIZE AND HE JOINS
US FOR MORE. GRAHAM COLLINGRIDGE
CHAIR OF THE DEPARTMENT OF
PHYSIOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF
TORONTO AND A SENIOR
INVESTIGATOR AT THE LUNENFELD
TANNENBAUM RESEARCH INSTITUTE AT
MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL...

Graham is in his fifties, clean-shaven, with short blond hair. He's wearing a gray suit and a gray shirt.

Steve continues AND WE ARE
DELIGHTED TO WELCOME YOU HERE
FOR YOUR FIRST TELEVISION
INTERVIEW TO OUR STUDIO.
HOW DID YOU GET THE NEWS YOU WON
THE BRAIN PRIZE?

The caption changes to "The Nobel of Neuroscience."

Graham says I
RECEIVED AN e-mail FROM THE
SECRETARIAT SAYING THE CHAIRMAN
WANTED TO TALK TO ME URGENTLY ON
THE PHONE.

Steve says THAT USUALLY
INDICATES BAD NEWS.

The caption changes to "Graham Collingridge. University of Toronto."

Graham says IT
OFTEN MEANS IT'S NOT WORK.
ON THIS OCCASION IT WAS GOOD
NEWS.

Steve says GOOD NEWS.
SO YOU MADE THE PHONE CALL
AND...

Graham says I WAS
COMPLETELY SURPRISED I RECEIVED
THIS WONDERFUL PRIZE.

Steve says WHAT WAS YOUR
REACTION WHEN THEY TOLD YOU?

Graham says DEEP BREATH.

Steve says DEEP BREATH.
TELL US, I'M GOING TO GO OUT ON
A LIMB HERE AND THINK THAT A LOT
OF PEOPLE HAVE NOT HEARD OF
QUOTE, UNQUOTE, THE BRAIN PRIZE
BEFORE.
WHAT IS IT?

Graham says IT'S A
PRIZE AWARDED EVERY YEAR, IT'S
BEEN RUNNING NOW FOR 6 YEARS,
AND IT'S AWARDED TO ONE OR
MORE... IT'S USUALLY A TEAM OF
TWO OR THREE SCIENTISTS WORKING
IN THE AREA OF BRAIN RESEARCH.
IT HAS A HEAVY EUROPEAN ELEMENT
BECAUSE IT'S AWARDED BY THE LIEU
WHILST IT HAS A EUROPEAN
CONNECTION, IT COULD BE AWARDED
ANYWHERE AROUND THE WORLD.

Steve says GRAHAM, I HEARD IT'S
A LOT OF MONEY.

Graham says IT'S A
REASONABLE AMOUNT OF MONEY, YES.

Steve says DO YOU WANT TO SAY IT?
IT'S A MILLION EUROS, WHICH YOU
SHARE WITH YOUR COLLEAGUES, OF COURSE.

Graham says YES.

Steve says YOUR CHUNK OF A
MILLION EUROS WORKS OUT TO...
IT'S HALF A MILLION CANADIAN DOLLARS.

Graham says APPROXIMATELY, YES.

Steve says APPROXIMATELY HALF A
MILLION CANADIAN DOLLARS IS NOT
BAD.

Graham says OF COURSE.

Steve says DO YOU KNOW WHAT
YOU'RE GOING TO DO WITH THE
MONEY?

Graham says I'M
AFRAID IT'S GOING TO HAVE TO GO
TOWARDS A MORTGAGE TO BUY A
PROPERTY IN TORONTO.
I JUST MOVED TO THIS CITY.
AS YOU KNOW.

Steve says WHAT DO YOU THINK?

Graham says TORONTO?
FANTASTIC.
ABSOLUTELY WONDERFUL CITY.
I'M REALLY, REALLY ENJOYING IT
HERE.

Steve says WITH THAT ACCENT,
YOU KNOW, IT'S A LITTLE BIT OFF
FOR TORONTO, YOU KNOW?

Graham says I COME
FROM LONDON.

Steve says YOU DON'T SAY?

Graham says LONDON, U.K.

Steve says HAS YOUR LIFE
CHANGED MUCH SINCE YOU GOT THE
NEWS?

Graham says YES,
IT HAS, BECAUSE I'M BEING
CONSTANTLY INTERVIEWED BY THE
PRESS.

Steve says ARE YOU ENJOYING
THAT?

Graham says YEAH.
I ENJOY IT, BUT I HAVE ANOTHER
JOB I HAVE TO DO AS WELL.

Steve says YOU HAVE A REAL JOB.

Graham says I HAVE
A REAL JOB.
THIS IS VERY INTERESTING, IT'S
VERY IMPORTANT.
I ENJOY DOING IT.
BUT MY OTHER JOB DOESN'T GO AWAY
TOO.

Steve says UNDERSTOOD.
LET'S TALK ABOUT THAT OTHER JOB.

Graham says OKAY.

Steve says WHAT ARE THE SERIES
OF DISCOVERIES THAT YOU MADE
THAT LED TO YOUR WINNING THIS AWARD?

A black and white picture shows a clean-shaven man in his sixties, with rounded glasses.

The caption changes to "Making memories."

Graham says JUST
TO GO BACK ONE STEP BEFORE MY
INVOLVEMENT.
THERE WAS A VERY FAMOUS CANADIAN
PSYCHOLOGIST WHO WORKED AT
McGILL WHO POSTULATED THAT
MEMORIES WILL BE STORED AT THE
CONNECTIONS BETWEEN NERVE CELLS,
THE SYNAPSES, IN RESPONSE TO THE
ACTIVITY OF THE NEURONS.
IF TWO NEURONS WERE FIRING
TOGETHER, THEY WOULD WIRE
TOGETHER.
THE CONNECTIONS WOULD BECOME
STRONGER.
AND THAT WAS BELIEVED OR
POSTULATED TO BE THE WAY IN
WHICH OUR BRAINS STORE
INFORMATION, HOW WE LEARN TO
REMEMBER THINGS.
ONE OF MY COLLEAGUES, THE
CO-RECIPIENT OF THE PRIZE, TIM
BLISS, WAS A STUDENT AT
McGILL, NOT FORMALLY WITH
DONALD HEP BUT INFLUENCED BY HIS
HYPOTHESIS, WHICH IS A WAY OF
STUDYING THE SAME MECHANISMS WE
USE WHEN WE'RE LEARNING
INFORMATION BUT IN AN
EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM AND IT HAS
NOW BECOME EXTREMELY WIDELY
STUDIED AROUND THE WORLD AS THE
PROMINENT MODEL OF LEARNING AND
MEMORY.
MY INVOLVEMENT STARTED WHEN I
WAS A POST DOC SCIENTIST IN
VANCOUVER.

A coloured picture shows a man in his eighties.

Steve says HOW MANY YEARS AGO
WAS THAT?

Graham says THAT
WAS QUITE A LONG TIME AGO.
LONGER THAN I CAN REMEMBER.
THIS IS BACK IN THE EARLY
1980s, I WAS AT UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA WORKING IN A
LABORATORY OF A GREAT CANADIAN
PHYSIOLOGIST BY THE NAME OF HUGH
McLENNAN, AND IN HIS LAB
WORKING WITH A YOUNG Ph.D.
STUDENT, STEVEN KALE, BETWEEN US
WE IDENTIFIED THE TRIGGER
MECHANISM FOR THIS PROCESS OF
LONG TERM POTENTIATION.
WE IDENTIFIED A PARTICULAR
MOLECULE WHICH IS KNOWN AS NMDA
RECEPTOR AS THE TRIGGER FOR LONG
TERM POTENTIATION.
A FEW YEARS LATER THE THIRD
RECIPIENT OF THE BRAIN PRIZE
RICHARD MORRIS SHOWED THAT SAME
RECEPTOR WAS IMPORTANT FOR
LEARNING AND MEMORY AS WILL BE
PREDICTED BY THE DISCOVERY OF
ITS ROLE IN LONG TERM
POTENTIATION.

Steve says YOU HAVE BEEN AT
THIS FOR THREE AND A HALF DECADES.

Another coloured picture shows a man in his fifties in a lab coat standing next to a large tub of water in a lab.

Graham says I HAVE.
TIM BLISS STARTED HIS WORK IN 1966.

Steve says SO YOUR DISCOVERIES
CAME BUILDING ON THE WORK OF
OTHERS PREVIOUSLY.

Graham says ABSOLUTELY.

Steve says HAVE OTHERS BUILT ON
YOUR WORK SUBSEQUENTLY?

Graham says ABSOLUTELY.
THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF
NEUROSCIENTISTS AROUND THE
WORLD.
WE KNOW MUCH, MUCH MORE ABOUT
THE PROCESS NOW THAN OF COURSE
WE DID WHEN I STARTED.
WHAT WE DISCOVERED WAY BACK THEN
WAS THE ROLE OF THE NMDA
RECEPTOR IN THIS PROCESS.
THROUGH THE WORK OF OUR LAB AND
MANY OTHER LABS AROUND THE
WORLD, WE NOW KNOW THIS RECEPTOR
IS CENTRAL FOR UNDERSTANDING
BRAIN PLASTICITY, SO THE
MECHANISMS OF LEARNING AND
MEMORY.
BUT YOU HAVE TO HAVE OPTIMAL
ACTIVATION OF THE NMDA RECEPTOR.
TOO MUCH ACTIVATION IS BAD, TOO
LITTLE IS BAD.
EIGHTS APPARENT THAT MANY OF THE
BRAIN DISORDERS ARE DUE TO
ALTERATIONS IN THESE PLASTICITY
MECHANISMS.

Steve says IS THERE ANYTHING
YOU CAN POINT TO THERE THAT CAN
HELP US UNDERSTAND?

The caption changes to "Graham Collingridge. Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute."

Graham says THAT'S
A BEAUTIFUL PICTURE.
THAT'S A SCHEMATIC OF A NEURON,
THE BRAIN CELL OF WHICH WE HAVE
BILLIONS IN OUR BRAINS, AND
THERE ARE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN
THOSE NERVE CELLS CALLED
SYNAPSES, OF WHICH WE HAVE
TRILLIONS, AND IT'S AT THOSE
SYNAPSES WHERE MEMORIES ARE
STORED, IT'S THE CONNECTIONS
BETWEEN THE NERVE CELLS, AS
POSTULATED BY DONALD HEPP.
AND IT'S THE NMDA THAT IS THE
TRIGGER FOR HOW THE PROCESS IS
STARTED.
TOO MUCH NMDA ACTIVATION CAN
LEAD TO NEURODEGENERATION.
TOO LITTLE NMDA ACTIVATION CAN
LEAD TO LEARNING AND MEMORY
DEFICITS, AND IT SEEMS THAT
THESE MAY BE CAUSALLY RELATED TO
CONDITIONS SUCH AS ALZHEIMER'S
DISEASE, SCHIZOPHRENIA, AUTISM
AND DEPRESSION AND CHRONIC PAIN.
IF WE CAN UNDERSTAND THESE
PROCESSES IN MORE DETAIL THAN WE
CURRENTLY DO NOW, SO IN
PRINCIPLE... WHEN I SAY WE, THE
NEUROSCIENCE COMMUNITY CAN
TRANSLATE THESE DISCOVERIES INTO
BETTER TREATMENTS AND HOPEFULLY
EVENTUALLY CURES FOR SOME OF THE
WORLD'S WORST DISEASES.

Steve says DANG, WHO I'M SURE
YOU KNOW, CANCER RESEARCHER IN
PHILADELPHIA, HE WAS ON OUR
PROGRAM NOT TOO LONG AGO, I WANT
TO PLAY A LITTLE CLIP OF THAT
AND WE'LL PICK UP ON THAT.
THIS IS WHAT HE HAD TO SAY ABOUT
THE WAY IN WHICH SCIENTIFIC
RESEARCH IS CONDUCTED.
SHELDON, THE CLIP, PLEASE.

A clip plays on screen with the caption "Chi Van Dang. April 6, 2016."
In the clip, Chi speaks in The Agenda. He's in his late forties, clean-shaven, with short side-parted black hair and glasses.

He says COMPETITION HAS BEEN VERY HEALTHY.
I THINK COMPETITION HAS ALREADY
GENERATED VAST AMOUNTS OF
INFORMATION THAT JIM ALLUDED TO
AND EVERY TIME WE DISCOVER
SOMETHING NEW.
AFTER THE CANCER GENOME MAP LIST
AS WELL AS MANY OTHER THINGS
HAVE BEEN DONE, NEW DRUGS,
IMMUNOTHERAPY, THAT WE'VE GOTTEN
TO A CROSSROADS WHERE I THINK
COLLABORATION IS GOING TO BREAK
THE BARRIERS MUCH FASTER THAN
WORKING ON THINGS ALONE.

The clip ends.

Steve says THAT'S WHAT I WANT
TO PICK UP ON.
DO YOU THINK THERE'S ENOUGH
COLLABORATION GOING ON IN YOUR
WORLD TO MAKE THE BREAKTHROUGHS
THAT THE REST OF THE WORLD OF
COURSE HOPES FOR?

Graham says I
THINK CERTAINLY THE AMOUNT OF
COLLABORATION IN OUR AREA IS
INCREASING ALL THE TIME.
PEOPLE RECOGNIZE THAT THEY
CANNOT JUST MAKE BREAKTHROUGHS
ON THEIR OWN.
THE TECHNOLOGIES ARE DEVELOPING
ALL THE TIME AND TO MAKE
IMPORTANT ADVANCES IN THE
UNDERSTANDING REQUIRES APPLYING
LOTS OF DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES,
SO-CALLED MULTI-DISCIPLINARY
RESEARCH, AND MOST INDIVIDUALS,
CERTAINLY MYSELF, DON'T HAVE THE
QUALIFICATIONS TO DO EVERYTHING.
SO WE TEND TO COLLABORATE.
SO INCREASINGLY THAT IS
HAPPENING.

Steve says WE ALSO HEAR,
THOUGH, THERE IS A HELL OF A LOT
OF COMPETITION AMONGST THE
DIFFERENT INSTITUTIONS WHICH
COULD INHIBIT COLLABORATION.

Graham says THERE'S COMPETITION BETWEEN
INDIVIDUALS AND INSTITUTIONS AND
THAT'S DRIVEN LARGELY BY THE
NEED TO OBTAIN FUNDING.
FUNDING IS VERY COMPETITIVE.
THERE'S NOT ENOUGH MONEY TO GO
AROUND AND SUPPORT ALL THE GREAT
SCIENCE THAT COULD POSSIBLY BE DONE.

Steve says HAVE THE THREE OF
YOU EVER WORKED TOGETHER?

Graham says WE'VE
WORKED TOGETHER A LITTLE BIT IN
TERMS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH,
BUT NOT VERY MUCH.
WE'VE DONE A LOT TOGETHER IN
TERMS OF WRITING REVIEW ARTICLES
WHERE WE'VE GIVEN AN OVERVIEW OF
THE FIELD.
WE'VE ORGANIZED MEETINGS
TOGETHER.
WE'VE COLLABORATED IN THOSE
AREAS.

Steve says THERE'S A LOT OF
CONCERN IN CANADA RIGHT NOW THAT
WE DON'T DO ENOUGH TO FUND EARLY
CAREER SCIENTISTS.

Graham says YEAH.

Steve says WERE YOU ALL IN THAT
STAGE WHEN YOU MADE THOSE
DISCOVERIES?

Graham says I WAS
CERTAINLY AN EARLY CAREER
SCIENTIST, I WAS A YOUNG POST
DOC, I HAD JUST COME THROUGH THE
U.K. SYSTEM WHERE YOU OBTAIN A
Ph.D. QUICKLY.
I WAS QUITE YOUNG AS OPPOSED TO
A POST DOC IN CANADA.
AFTER TWO YEARS AS A POST DOC, I
THEN MOVED ON TO A SECOND
POSITION IN SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA,
AND WAS ABLE TO ATTAIN A FACULTY
POSITION WHICH NOW WOULD BE
CONSIDERED A VERY YOUNG AGE.
WHAT HAS HAPPENED IS GROUPS SUCH
AS MYSELF HAVE TRAINED PEOPLE.
THEY'VE GONE AND STARTED,
THEY'VE TRAINED PEOPLE WHO HAVE
GONE ON TO STAFF THEIR OWN LAB.
THERE HAS BEEN A MUSHROOMING OF
THE PRODUCTION OF MORE AND MORE
REALLY WELL-QUALIFIED
SCIENTISTS.

Steve says ONE OF THE THINGS
YOU MAY COME TO REALIZE, NOW
THAT YOU'RE IN TORONTO, IS THAT
CANADIANS, AS MUCH AS THEY LOVE
THE PLACE, HAVE A BIT OF AN AN
INFERIORITY COMPLEX ABOUT THIS
PLACE BECAUSE WE'RE NEXT TO THE
BIGGEST EVERYTHING IN THIS
WORLD.
SO THIS QUESTION WOULD SOUND ODD
COMING OUT OF AN AMERICAN OR A
BRIT BUT NOT ODD COMING OUT OF A
CANADIAN: WHY DID YOU WANT TO
COME TO TORONTO?

The caption changes to "Our gain."

Graham says TORONTO IS A VERY UNIQUE PLACE.
IT HAS ONE OF THE WORLD'S
GREATEST UNIVERSITIES.
THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO IS
CONSISTENTLY RANKED IN THE TOP
20 UNIVERSITIES IN THE WORLD BY
ANY MEASURE.
IT ALSO HAS FANTASTIC HOSPITALS
WITH THESE RESEARCH INSTITUTES
SUCH AS WHERE I WORK, MANY OTHER
EXAMPLES TOO.
AND THEY ALL WORK IN
COLLABORATION.
SO ALL THE RESEARCHERS WITHIN
THE INSTITUTES IN HOSPITALS HAVE
AFFILIATIONS WITHIN THE
UNIVERSITY.
THIS BRINGS A UNIQUE OPPORTUNITY
FOR COLLABORATION BETWEEN BASIC
SCIENTISTS, SUCH AS MYSELF, AND
CLINICAL SCIENTISTS AND OTHER
BASIC SCIENTISTS EMBEDDED WITHIN
RESEARCH UNITS IN HOSPITAL.

Steve says YOU SAY UNIQUE.

Graham says YOU
GET IT ANYWHERE BUT I'VE NOT
SEEN IT WORK TO THE SAME DEGREE
THAT IT WORKS WELL HERE.
SO WITHIN DOWNTOWN TORONTO,
THERE'S THE LUNENFELD-TANENBAUM,
SICK KIDS IS FIVE MINUTES' WALK
AWAY.
THE OTHER RESEARCH CENTRES ARE
CENTRALLY BASED.
IT'S VERY EASY FOR
COLLABORATIONS AND INTERACTIONS.

Steve says AGAIN, THIS CANADIAN
MODESTY COMING TO THE FORE, MY
HUNCH IS FIVE OR TEN YEARS AGO
YOU DIDN'T KNOW THAT EXISTED.

Graham says I DIDN'T.

Steve says THE NOTION WE HAVE
ALL OF THIS INFRASTRUCTURE TO
ASSIST THAT WHICH YOU ARE DOING
IS PROBABLY NOT VERY WELL-KNOWN
AROUND THE WORLD?

Graham says I
THINK IT COULD BE BETTER
PROMOTED, ABSOLUTELY.
THE INFRASTRUCTURE IS FANTASTIC.
ABSOLUTELY FANTASTIC.
I'VE BEEN BLOWN AWAY BY HOW GOOD
IT IS.

Steve says HOW DO YOU GET THE
WORD OUT?

Graham says MORE INTERVIEWS.

Steve says YOU'RE PREACHING TO
THE CONVERTED HERE.
YOU'RE ON TELEVISION IN ONTARIO.
HOW ABOUT FOR YOUNG PEOPLE WHO
WANT TO GET INTO NEUROSCIENCE.
WHAT'S THE ADVICE TO THEM?

Graham says IF
YOU'RE PASSIONATE ABOUT IT,
DEFINITELY DO IT.
IT'S INCREDIBLY INTERESTING
SUBJECT.
IT EXPLAINS WHO WE ARE.
THE BEST WAY TO DO IT IS TO DO
AN UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE IN
NEUROSCIENCE OR
NEUROSCIENCE-RELATED DISCIPLINE.
I'M CHAIR OF THE DEPARTMENT OF
PHYSIOLOGY.
MANY WILL STUDY A SIGNIFICANT
AMOUNT OF NEUROSCIENCE.
THERE ARE OTHER SUBJECTS AS
WELL.
THEN, IF YOU FIND THAT YOU
REALLY ENJOY IT, THE NEXT STAGE
WILL BE A MASTERS OR A Ph.D..

Steve says HOW DID YOU GET INTO
IT ORIGINALLY?

Graham says I APPLIED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRISTOL IN THE U.K. TO STUDY
PHARMACOLOGY, WHICH IS BUILDING
UPON BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, AND
IT HAPPENED THAT MOST OF THE
LECTURERS, THE ASSISTANT
PROFESSORS, AS THEY WILL BE
CALLED HERE, WERE INTERESTED IN
BRAIN SCIENCES.
SO I LEARNT ABOUT BRAIN
SCIENCES.
I BECAME COMPLETELY FASCINATED
BY IT.
AND I DECIDED THIS IS A SUBJECT
I WANT TO WORK ON.

Steve says SO YOU HAD NO
INTENTION OF GOING INTO IT IN
THE FIRST PLACE.

Graham says NOT
UNTIL I WAS AN UNDERGRADUATE AND
REALIZED HOW INTERESTING IT WAS.

Steve says IF YOU'RE A STUDENT,
DO YOU THINK IT'S EASY TO ACCESS IT?

Graham says WE
CAN'T ACCOMMODATE EVERYBODY.
I WISH WE COULD.
IT'S SO POPULAR.
I HAVE eMAILS EVERY DAY OF
PEOPLE WANTING TO WORK IN THE
LAB.
I WISH I COULD ACCOMMODATE THEM ALL.

The caption changes to "tvo.org/current-affairs"

Steve says WHEN I INTERVIEW
NEUROSCIENTISTS, I ALWAYS LIKE
TO PUT THINGS IN PERSPECTIVE.
FOR EXAMPLE...
ON A SCALE OF 1 TO 10, 1 MEANS
WE DON'T KNOW HARDLY ANYTHING
ABOUT THE BRAIN, 10 MEANS WE
KNOW ABSOLUTELY EVERYTHING ABOUT
THE BRAIN, WHERE ARE WE?

Graham says THAT'S
VERY HARD TO ANSWER THAT.
I WOULD GUESS AROUND ABOUT 3 OR 4.

Steve says THAT'S WHAT THEY ALL
SAY.
THEY ALL SAY ABOUT 3 OR 4.
EXACTLY RIGHT.
ISN'T THAT SOMETHING?
AND WITH ALL YOU KNOW, YOU'RE
NOT EVEN HALFWAY THERE TO
UNDERSTANDING THE BRAIN?

Graham says IF WE
COULD UNDERSTAND THE BRAIN IN
ITS ENTIRETY, WE WOULD HAVE
CURES NOW FOR ALZHEIMER'S
DISEASE AND SCHIZOPHRENIA,
ET CETERA, ET CETERA.
WE KNOW A LOT MORE THAN WE DID
10, 15, 20 YEARS AGO.

The caption changes to "Sandra Gionas, @sandragionas"

Steve says IT'S ALL AMAZING
STUFF.
GRAHAM COLLINGRIDGE, IT'S REALLY
GOOD OF YOU TO VISIT US AT TVO.
CONGRATULATIONS ON THE BRAIN
PRIZE AND BEST OF LUCK WITH YOUR
WORK.

Graham says THANK
YOU VERY MUCH.

Watch: The Brain Prize