Transcript: Arthur McDonald: Nobel Neutrinos | Nov 05, 2015

Steve sits in the studio. He's slim, clean-shaven, in his fifties, with short curly brown hair. He's wearing a black suit, lilac shirt, and white plaid tie, as well as a red flower on his lapel.
Behind him, a wall screen reads “The Agenda, with Steve Paikin.”

Steve says WHEN THE PHONE RINGS
IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT, IT
ALMOST CERTAINLY MEANS BAD NEWS.
UNLESS YOU'RE ARTHUR McDONALD.
FOR THE CANADIAN PHYSICIST, IT
WAS A LIFE-CHANGING CALL FROM
STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN.
McDONALD WAS TOLD HE'D WON THE
NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS FOR HIS
WORK ON NEUTRINOS, A
FUNDAMENTAL BUILDING BLOCK OF
OUR UNIVERSE.
JOINING US FOR MORE ON HIS WORK
AND WHAT HIS WIN MEANS FOR
SCIENCE IN CANADA
IN KINGSTON, ONTARIO:
ARTHUR MCDONALD, PROFESSOR
EMERITUS AT QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY
AND CO-WINNER OF THE 2015 NOBEL
PRIZE IN PHYSICS.

Arthur appears on screen against a backdrop with the Queens University logo. He’s in his late sixties, with sparse white hair and a trimmed beard. he’s wearing glasses, a gray suit, white shirt, and dark blue tie.

Steve continues HAVE YOU GOT USED TO HEARING THAT YET?
“NOBLE PRIZE WINNER”?

Arthur chuckles and says ACTUALLY NOT.
I WAS THINKING OF THAT WHEN YOU
SAID IT.
IT SOUNDS STRANGE.

Steve says YOU DON'T GET SICK
OF BEING CONGRATULATED?

Arthur says I HAVE SO
MANY PEOPLE TO SHARE IT WITH.
ME HAVE 270 AUTHORS ON OUR
PAPERS AND THEY'RE ALL OVERJOYED
THAT ALL OF THEIR HARD WORK HAS
BEEN RECOGNIZED IN THIS WAY.

A caption appears on screen. It reads "Arthur McDonald. Nobel Prize in Physics winner."

Steve says WHAT TIME DID THE
CALL ACTUALLY COME IN?

Arthur says ABOUT TEN
AFTER 5:00 IN THE MORNING.

Steve says YOU WERE ASLEEP?

Arthur says I WAS.

Steve says AND JUST TAKE A
MINUTE.
SHARE YOUR FEELINGS OF HOW THAT
MOMENT WENT.

The caption changes to "Nobel neutrinos. An early morning phone call..."

Arthur says WELL, IT
WAS KIND OF UNREAL.
THE PERSON ON THE OTHER END WAS
THE CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMITTEE,
AND HE TOLD ME THAT HE HAD THE
HONOUR TO INFORM ME THAT I HAD
WON THIS PRIZE ALONG WITH
PROFESSOR KAJITA FROM THE
SUPER-KAMIOKANDE EXPERIMENT.
SO I SAT DOWN TO BEGIN WITH
BECAUSE IT WAS REALLY A SHOCKING
BIT OF NEWS.
AND THEN THE VARIOUS MEMBERS OF
THE COMMITTEE CAME ON IN
SEQUENCE, AND THE FINAL PERSON
TO COME ON WAS LARS BERGSTROM,
WHO HAPPENS TO BE FROM MATS
SUNDIN'S HOMETOWN, AND HE
REMINDED ME OF A CONVERSATION WE
HAD ABOUT A YEAR AND A HALF AGO
WHEN WE WERE TALKING ABOUT
HOCKEY AND THE TORONTO MAPLE
LEAFS IN PARTICULAR, AND I TOLD
HIM WE STILL NEEDED MATS.
AT THAT POINT I KNEW IT WASN'T A
HOAX, WHICH I HAD HEARD ABOUT IT
OCCURRING TO OTHER PEOPLE.

Steve says IT'S FUNNY HOW
ALMOST EVERY STORY GETS BACK TO
THE TORONTO MAPLE LEAFS IF IT'S
A -- ANYWAY...

Arthur says IF YOU'RE A FAN.

Steve says IF YOU'RE A FAN.
YES, INDEED.
LET'S TALK ABOUT WHAT IN FACT
YOU WERE AWARDED FOR.
WE'LL START BY ASKING YOU:
WHAT'S A NEUTRINO?

The caption changes to "Ghosts of the universe."

Arthur says A
NEUTRINO, ALONG WITH ELECTRONS
AND QUARKS, ARE THE BASIC
BUILDING BLOCKS THAT WE DON'T
KNOW HOW TO SUB DIVIDE ANY
FURTHER.
THEY ALL PARTICIPATE IN WHAT HAS
BEEN REFERRED TO AS THE STANDARD
MODEL OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLE
PHYSICS.
IF THAT MODEL THEY WERE
POPULATED TO HAVE NO MASS AND
THEREFORE TRAVEL AT THE SPEED OF
LIGHT, AND WHAT WE WERE ABLE TO
DEMONSTRATE IN FACT IS THAT THEY
DO HAVE A FINITE MASS AND WE DID
THAT BY SHOWING THAT THEY
CHANGED AFTER BEING CREATED IN
THE SUN INTO ONE OF THE OTHER
TWO TYPES.
THERE ARE THREE ALTOGETHER.
BEFORE THEY REACHED THE EARTH.
AND IN ORDER TO DO THAT, WE WERE
FORTUNATE TO HAVE A REAL
CANADIAN RESOURCE, HEAVY WATER,
AND THAT MEASUREMENT WAS
CONCLUSIVE AND THAT WAS BACK IN
2002.
SO IT'S BEEN QUITE A WHILE SINCE
THE MEASUREMENTS WERE RECORDED,
BUT THESE NEUTRINOS ARE SO
FUNDAMENTAL AT BEING ABLE TO
DETERMINE THAT THEY HAVE A
FINITE MASS IS EXTREMELY
IMPORTANT IN TERMS OF HOW THE
BASIC LAWS OF PHYSICS WORK, AND
IN FACT, THE STANDARD MODEL NOW
HAS TO BE REVISED IN ORDER TO
GIVE THEM A MASS WITHIN THE MODEL.

Steve says SO WE HAVE NEW
UNDERSTANDING OF HOW ALL THIS
WORKS, AND I WONDER HOW YOU WERE
ABLE TO DEMONSTRATE, OBVIOUSLY
TO YOUR COLLEAGUES AND THEN
ULTIMATELY TO THE NOBEL PEOPLE,
WHAT IT WAS THAT YOU WERE
PUTTING FORWARD.

Arthur says WELL, IT
TURNS OUT THAT IF NEUTRINOS IN
FACT CHANGE FROM THE TYPE
PRODUCED IN THE CORE OF THE SUN,
THEY'RE CALLED ELECTRON
NEUTRINOS, INTO ONE OF THE OTHER
TYPES, THAT'S A PHENOMENON THAT
SIMPLY CANNOT HAPPEN UNLESS THEY
HAVE A FINITE MASS, AND THAT'S
EXACTLY WHAT WE DEMONSTRATED AND
WE DID SO BY HAVING TWO
REACTIONS USING THE HEAVY WATER.
EACH OF THEM, WHEN A NEUTRINO
HIT THE NUCLEUS IN HEAVY WATER,
EACH OF THEM PRODUCES A BURST OF
LIGHT BUT DIFFERENT BURSTS OF
LIGHT, SO WE COULD DISTINGUISH
THEM.
AND WHAT WE FOUND WAS THE
REACTION THAT GIVES US A MEASURE
OF EXACTLY HOW MANY OF THE
ELECTRON NEUTRINOS FROM THE SUN
SURVIVE AND COMPARED IT WITH THE
OTHER REACTION THAT TELLS US THE
SUM OF ALL NEUTRINO TYPES, ONLY
ABOUT ONE-THIRD HAD SURVIVED.
TWO-THIRDS OF THEM HAD CHANGED
THEIR TYPE.
AND SO IT WAS A VERY CONCLUSIVE
RESULT, ONE THAT WE REFER TO AS
BEING CORRECT WITHIN ABOUT FIVE
STANDARD DEVIATIONS, OR MORE
THAN 100 MILLION-TO-ONE THAT IT
WAS INCORRECT.
SO THAT MEASUREMENT WAS VERY
SUBSTANTIAL FOR ELECTRON
NEUTRINOS.
THE SUPER-KAMIOKANDE EXPERIMENT
DID A SIMILAR THING FOR
NEUTRINOS PRODUCED IN THE
ATMOSPHERE, THEY'RE CALLED MUON
NEUTRINOS.
THE COMBINATION OF THE TWO
EXPERIMENTS REALLY WAS VERY
DEFINITIVE IN KNOWING THAT THE
NEUTRINOS HAD TO BE TREATED
DIFFERENTLY AT THE VERY BASIC
LEVEL OF WHAT WE KNOW IN
ELEMENTARY PARTICLES THESE DAYS.

Steve says PROFESSOR
McDONALD, THERE HAVE TO BE A
MILLION, IF NOT 10 MILLION,
UNKNOWABLE THINGS IN OUR WORLD,
AND YET THIS IS THE ONE THAT YOU
DECIDED YOU NEEDED TO RESOLVE.
WHY THIS ONE?

Arthur says WELL,
FIRST OF ALL, BECAUSE NEUTRINOS
THEMSELVES ARE VERY IMPORTANT
PARTICLES IN TERMS OF HOW THE
UNIVERSE HAS EVOLVED AND HOW
STARS BURN AND HOW STARS EXPLODE
AND THINGS OF A VERY FUNDAMENTAL
NATURE OF BOTH PHYSICS AND
ASTROPHYSICS, AND THERE WAS A
PUZZLE.
THERE WERE A NUMBER OF
EXPERIMENTS THAT HAD MADE
MEASUREMENTS OF THE NUMBERS OF
NEUTRINOS COMING FROM THE SUN
AND HAD FOUND THAT THERE WERE
APPARENTLY ONLY ONE-THIRD OF
THEM WERE SURVIVING BY THE TIME
THEY CAME TO THE EARTH.
THAT WAS IN COMPARISON TO
CALCULATIONS THAT HAD BEEN DONE
THAT WERE THOUGHT TO BE VERY
ACCURATE, AND SO THE QUESTION
WAS: IS THAT IN FACT WHAT WAS
HAPPENING, THAT THEY WERE
CHANGING TO ANOTHER TYPE, WHICH
HAD ALL THESE IMPLICATIONS THAT
WE WERE EVENTUALLY ABLE TO
DEFINE?
OR IS IT SIMPLY THAT THE
CALCULATIONS WERE INCORRECT?
WHICH WOULD HAVE HAD OTHER
SIGNIFICANT, LET'S SAY, NEGATIVE
EFFECTS, BECAUSE WE THINK THAT
WE UNDERSTAND HOW TO CALCULATE
THOSE VERY HOT FUSION REACTIONS
IN THE CORE OF THE SUN.
THAT'S WHAT GIVES US CONFIDENCE
THAT WE CAN DEVELOP FUSION POWER
HERE ON EARTH USING SIMILAR
SORTS OF CALCULATIONS, AND IF
THEY WERE WRONG, WE WOULD HAVE
BEEN BACK TO THE DRAWING BOARDS
ON THAT.
BECAUSE WE COULD BE DEFINITIVE
ABOUT A QUESTION THAT HAD BEEN,
YOU KNOW, PUT ON THE TABLE FOR A
NUMBER OF YEARS, IT MOTIVATED
THE HUNDREDS OF PEOPLE THAT
WORKED ON OUR PROJECT TO WORK
VERY HARD, STARTING IN 1984, AND
EVENTUALLY RECEIVING THEIR FINAL
RESULT IN 2002, BECAUSE IT WAS
SUCH AN IMPORTANT QUESTION IN
SCIENCE.

Steve says I THINK IT WAS ABOUT
15 OR 20 YEARS AGO THAT I
VISITED THE NEUTRINO LAB THAT
YOU BUILT IN SUDBURY.
I DON'T KNOW, IS IT A MILE OR
TWO UNDER THE SURFACE OF THE
EARTH?
I MEAN, IT'S A LONG WAY DOWN
THERE.

Arthur says TWO KILOMETRES.

Steve says TWO KILOMETRES.
OKAY.
AND I GUESS I'M WONDERING HOW
SIGNIFICANT TO YOUR EVENTUAL
DISCOVERY, HAVING THE SUPPORT OF
THAT LOCAL COMMUNITY WAS -- THE
UNIVERSITY, LAURENTIAN, THE
PEOPLE IN SUDBURY -- TO
EVENTUALLY GETTING TO THE FINISH
LINE?

Arthur says EXTREMELY IMPORTANT.
WE STARTED WITH VERY STRONG
SUPPORT FROM THE COMPANY INCO AT
THE TIME, IT'S NOW CALLED VALET
AFTER IT HAD BEEN PURCHASED, BUT
AT THE TIME INCO, RIGHT FROM THE
START, WHEN THEY WERE APPROACHED
ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF A
FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE EXPERIMENT
BEING CARRIED OUT IN THEIR MINE
IN SUCH A WAY THAT THEY COULD DO
SOMETHING THAT'S REALLY UNIQUE,
AND IN FACT IT IS UNIQUE AND
IT'S STILL TAKING PLACE WITH AN
EXPANSION OF THE LABORATORY FOR
OTHER EXPERIMENTS, IT IS THE
LOWEST RADIO ACTIVITY
LOCATION -- I SHOULD SAY
LABORATORY CURRENTLY IN
OPERATION IN THE WORLD.
BUT THE SUDBURY COMMUNITY, THE
PARTICIPATION OF LAURENTIAN
SCIENTISTS FIRST AND FOREMOST,
THEY REALLY TOOK VERY
SUBSTANTIAL ROLES, BEING
SITUATED IN SUDBURY.
THE DEPARTMENT HAS BEEN
EXPANDED.
THERE'S A CANADA RESEARCH CHAIR
IN THE DEPARTMENT.
IT'S REALLY MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS.
BUT THE COMMUNITY ITSELF, THE
LOCAL POLITICIANS WENT TO BAT
FOR US IN TERMS OF GETTING
APPROVAL FOR A WIDE VARIETY OF
THINGS, SCIENCE NORTH -- REALLY,
ONE OF THE TOP SCIENCE CENTRES
IN THE WORLD, FROM WHAT I'VE
OBSERVED, GAVE US THE
OPPORTUNITY TO INTERACT WITH THE
GENERAL PUBLIC, CREATED A
SO-CALLED OBJECT THEATRE, WHICH
THEY'RE EXCELLENT AT, EXPLAINING
WHAT WE WERE DOING AND EDUCATING
ALL KINDS OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN
THIS AREA OF SCIENCE.
SO THE COMMUNITY AS A WHOLE --
I'VE HAD PEOPLE SAY TO ME, I'M
IMPRESSED WITH HOW THE TAXI
DRIVER I TOOK GETTING TO THE
LABORATORY WAS SO ENTHUSIASTIC
ABOUT WHAT YOU'RE DOING.
SO IT WAS VERY IMPORTANT TO US.

Steve says AND YET WE HEAR FROM
SOME OF YOUR COLLEAGUES AT THE
PERIMETER INSTITUTE THAT YOU'VE
HAD A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF
PUSH-BACK FROM SOME IN THE
SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY AS TO WHAT
YOU WERE TRYING TO PROVE IN THE
FIRST PLACE OR WHETHER IT WAS IN
FACT DOABLE?

The caption changes to "tvo.org"

Arthur says WHETHER IT
WAS DOABLE WAS SOMETHING WE
WORRIED A LOT ABOUT OURSELVES IN
TERMS OF THE FACT THAT WE WERE
TRYING TO BUILD A DETECTOR THE
SIZE OF A TEN-STOREY BUILDING IN
AN ULTRA-CLEAN ENVIRONMENT, 2
KILOMETRES UNDERGROUND IN A VERY
ACTIVE NICKEL MINE.
VALET IS STILL TAKING LOTS OF
ORE OUT OF THAT MINE EVERY
SINGLE DAY.
ON THE OTHER HAND, I MEAN, YOU
SAY THERE WERE SOME DOUBTERS,
BUT EVERY PEER REVIEW THAT WE
WENT THROUGH FOR THIS PROJECT
WAS VERY POSITIVE.
WE HAD TO COMBINE A NUMBER OF
AGENCIES, SUPPORT AND GOVERNMENT
SUPPORT IN ORDER TO GET THE
FINANCES IN THE FIRST PLACE, BUT
THAT WAS ON THE BASIS OF VERY
SOLID PEER REVIEW BY PANELS OF
SCIENTISTS, KNOWLEDGEABLE
SCIENTISTS, AND THAT'S THE WAY
THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY WORKS.
YOU PUT FORWARD YOUR PROPOSALS,
YOU HAVE THEM REVIEWED BY
KNOWLEDGEABLE PEOPLE, AND IF
THEY'RE SUCCESSFUL, THEN YOU
HOPE THAT THE FUNDING AGENCIES
ARE ABLE TO RESPOND.
I GUESS I ALWAYS WAS THINKING OF
THIS IN A FAIRLY POSITIVE WAY
JUST BASED ON THE WORDS THAT
WERE ON PAPER AS TO WHAT THE
REVIEWS SAID.

Steve says OKAY, IN WHICH CASE,
LET ME ASK YOU ABOUT CANADA
VERSUS THE UNITED STATES.
YOU WERE AT PRINCETON, RIGHT?

Arthur says YES, I WAS
A PROFESSOR AT PRINCETON WHEN I
BECAME INVOLVED IN THE PROJECT.
I'M ORIGINALLY FROM NOVA SCOTIA.
BUT I THEN CAME BACK TO CANADA
IN 1989 --

Steve says THAT'S WHAT I WANT
TO ASK ABOUT.
I WONDER -- I MEAN, CLEARLY, THE
UNITED STATES, THERE'S NO
SHORTAGE OF FOUNDATION MONEY TO
PUT INTO SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND
THEY SEEM TO HAVE MASSIVE
RESOURCES TO BE ABLE TO BRING TO
BEAR, AND YET YOU CAME BACK TO
CANADA TO DO THIS, AND I WONDER WHY.

The caption changes to "Return to Canada."

Arthur says WELL,
CANADA HAD SOME NATURAL
ADVANTAGES IN DOING THIS, AND I
THINK WHEN YOU'RE -- I MEAN, BIG
SCIENCE IS ONLY ABOUT 1 percent OR SO
OF THE TOTAL EXPENDITURE IN
SCIENCE IN CANADA, AND IT'S
IMPORTANT I THINK WHEN YOU'RE
CHOOSING THINGS TO DO, TO PICK
THINGS WHERE YOU MAY HAVE SOME
NATURAL ADVANTAGES.
THE NATURAL ADVANTAGES WE HAVE
HERE IS THAT WE HAD THE DEEPEST
POTENTIAL LABORATORY IN THE
WORLD, THANKS TO THE SUPPORT OF
INCO AT THE TIME, AND WE HAD THE
AVAILABILITY OF A THOUSAND
TONNES OF HEAVY WATER FROM
ATOMIC ENERGY OF CANADA, WITH
THE ASSISTANCE OF ONTARIO POWER
GENERATION, AND THAT MATERIAL,
HEAVY WATER, WAS REALLY UNIQUE.
NO OTHER COUNTRY IN THE WORLD
HAD SUCH RESOURCES AND NO OTHER
EXPERIMENT WAS CAPABLE OF MAKING
THE MEASUREMENT THAT WE MADE
WHERE WE MEASURED TWO THINGS:
THE TYPE THAT WERE PRODUCED IN
THE SUN AND THE SUM OF ALL THE
TYPES, INCLUDING THE ONES THEY
CHANGED INTO.
THAT'S WHAT MADE THE EXPERIMENT
POSSIBLE.
YES, IT WAS DAUNTING, WHEN WE
STARTED OUT TRYING TO SEE
WHETHER IT WAS POSSIBLE, BUT THE
SIMULATIONS WE MADE BACK THEN
PROVED TO BE VERY CORRECT ONCE
WE WORKED VERY HARD, AND THIS IS
A TEAM OF CANADIAN, AMERICAN,
AND U.K. SCIENTISTS WORKING
TOGETHER TO MAKE IT HAPPEN.
WE ENDED UP WITH OUR RESULTS
THAT WERE WHAT YOU MIGHT EXPECT
IF IN FACT NEUTRINOS CHANGE FROM
ONE TYPE TO THE OTHER.

Steve says LET ME JUST FINISH
UP ON THIS ANGLE, AND THAT IS, I
CAN REMEMBER TALKING WITH JOHN
POLANI ABOUT HIS NOBEL VICTORY
AND HOW MANY MORE PEOPLE TOOK
HIS PHONE CALLS AFTER HE WON
THAT AWARD THAN SAY BEFORE, SO
WITH A NEW LIBERAL GOVERNMENT
NOW IN CANADA, YOU HAVE AN
OPPORTUNITY, I WOULD THINK, TO
START TO INFLUENCE SCIENTIFIC
POLICY AND POLITICAL ENGAGEMENT
IN SCIENCE AS NEVER BEFORE.
WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO TELL THE
LIBERALS IF THEY REACH OUT TO
YOU OR IF YOU REACH OUT TO THEM
ABOUT WHAT THEY NEED TO DO TO
ENCOURAGE MORE SCIENTIFIC
INNOVATION IN THIS COUNTRY?

Arthur says WELL, I
THINK THAT CANADA ACTUALLY HAS
BEEN VERY SUCCESSFUL UNDER A
NUMBER OF PROGRAMS THAT WERE PUT
IN PLACE STARTING IN THE
1990s.
THE CANADA FOUNDATION FOR
INNOVATION, THE CANADA RESEARCH
CHAIRS, SCHOLARSHIPS, INDIRECT
FUNDS TO UNIVERSITIES -- A
NUMBER OF THINGS THAT WERE
INTENDED TO SUPPORT ACADEMIC
RESEARCH, AND IN FACT, THE
RESULTS OF THAT ARE SUCH THAT
CANADA HAS INCREASED ITS STATURE
IN THE WORLD SIGNIFICANTLY IN
THAT AREA.
I THINK RIGHT NOW THERE'S A
DIFFICULTY IN THAT THERE'S BEEN
A LOT OF CAPITAL EQUIPMENT THAT
HAS BEEN PROVIDED, WHICH IS
FANTASTIC IN TERMS OF GETTING
THINGS GOING IN SCIENCE, AND
THAT'S PART OF THE REASON WHY
THERE HAS BEEN SUCH SUCCESS.
EVERY PIECE OF CAPITAL
EQUIPMENT, OF COURSE, NEEDS TO
BE OPERATED EVENTUALLY, AND I
THINK THE AGENCIES ARE JUST IN
THE PROCESS OF GETTING THEIR
ACTS TOGETHER IN TERMS OF MAKING
SURE THAT THEY ARE SUPPORTING
APPROPRIATELY PROJECTS ACROSS
THE COUNTRY, AND THAT'S NOT JUST
BIG SCIENCE.
IT'S THE PEOPLE WHO ARE GETTING
INDIVIDUAL GRANTS FROM AGENCIES
LIKE CIFAR THAT ARE FINDING
OPERATING FUNDS FOR SUCH
RESEARCH AND REALLY GET RETURN
ON INVESTMENT FROM ALL OF THIS
EQUIPMENT THAT HAS BEEN
PURCHASED REQUIRES A CAREFUL
EXAMINATION, SO I WOULD SUGGEST
THAT THAT'S SOMETHING THAT THEY DO.
I THINK THEY COULD BENEFIT FROM
HAVING A SCIENCE ADVISOR WITHIN
THEIR ORGANIZATION IN THE
GOVERNMENT, SOMEONE WHO IS, YOU
KNOW, A VERY EXPERIENCED PERSON
THAT'S CAPABLE OF HELPING THEM
ANALYSE THE THINGS THAT ARE
BEING PRESENTED TO THEM, AND I
THINK THAT IF THEY DID THOSE
COUPLE OF THINGS, THAT WOULD BE
A REAL GOOD START FOR A FUTURE
PROGRAM.
OF COURSE, IT'S VERY IMPORTANT
THAT THE WAY IN WHICH SCIENCE IS
DEALT WITH IN THIS COUNTRY IS
VERY OPEN, TRANSPARENT,
SCIENTISTS FEEL THEY ARE ABLE TO
SPEAK THEIR MINDS, AND SO I'M
VERY HOPEFUL THAT THAT'S ALSO
GOING TO BE SOMETHING THAT THIS
NEW GOVERNMENT TAKES VERY
SERIOUSLY.

The caption changes to "Produced by Katie O’Connor, @KA_OConnor."

Steve says UNDERSTOOD.
PROFESSOR McDONALD, LET US
HEAR AT TVO ADD OUR VOICES TO
THE MANY YOU'VE HEARD SO FAR IN
CONGRATULATING YOU ON THIS
EXTRAORDINARY HONOUR AND WE
THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR COMING ON
TVO TONIGHT TO TELL US ABOUT IT.

Arthur says THANK YOU.
I HOPE THIS WILL BE GOOD FOR
CANADA AND CANADIAN SCIENCE.

Steve says HEAR HEAR!

Watch: Arthur McDonald: Nobel Neutrinos