Transcript: Manitouwadge | May 30, 1988

Gilles sits behind a white desk. He's in his forties, with straight brown hair. He's clean-shaven and wears a blue suit with a stripped tie.

He says OUR DEGREE OF ISOLATION STEMS
FROM THE FACT THAT WE ARE
VERY AWKWARDLY, IF I MAY
USE THAT EXPRESSION,
AWKWARDLY SITUATED.
WITH MUST BE, SURELY, THE ONLY
MUNICIPALITY OUR SIZE IN ALL
OF THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO.
WE'RE 3300 PEOPLE HERE.
THAT HAS NO RAIL SYSTEM, NO
PUBLIC BUS TRANSPORTATION,
AND NO AIRPORT.
NO PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
SYSTEM WHATSOEVER.

Music plays.

A split screen shows photographs of four different people, a woman in her sixties wearing a purple shirt and glasses, a man in his thirties with long brown hair and a thick beard, a young girl under the age of ten and a man in his sixties with a grey beard and a sailor’s suit.

A split screen shows photographs of four different pairs of people, two young girls wearing white dresses and flower headbands, a young boy and girl with straight black hair wearing winter jackets, a women with blonde hair holding a young boy with straight black hair, and two women in their twenties, one with curly brown hair and the other with short black hair.

A split screen shows photographs of four different groups of people. In the first several children wearing winter jackets and hats smile at the camera. In the second a man in a white lab coat hunches over a book while several people surround him. In the third, several men dressed in long white dresses gather together. And in the last photograph a man in a thick winter jacket stands next to a women who carries a baby on her back and holds hands with a young boy. They all have straight, black hair.

A split screen shows photographs of four different people, a man in his eighties with thinning grey hair and a clean-shaven face, a man in his sixties with white hair, a man in his sixties with greying hair and a woman in her fifties with short black hair and pale white skin.

A photograph shows a woman in a grey sweater and black pants leading a group of young children through an outdoor play yard.

A split screen shows photographs of four different groups of people. In the first, several people walk down the street. In the second, several men and women sit around a table. In the third, several young children gather along a boardwalk. In the final photograph, several older women hold papers in their hands and sing aloud.

A split screen shows four photographs of different people. In the first, third young girls under the age of ten wear thick winter coats and hats and embrace each other. In the second, a young girl plays a violin. In the third, a women with short brown hair and overalls bends over to talk with a man in a button-down shirt and glasses. In the fourth photograph, two young girls paint on canvases.

A split screen shows photographs of four different groups of people. In the first, a women with blonde hair holds a young boy with straight black hair. In the second, a woman in her seventies holds an infant child. In the third, two young plays sit on the ground and play together. In the fourth photograph, three young boys stand side-by-side. They all wear thick winter jackets and have straight black hair.

A photograph shows several people walking down the street.

A fast clip shows photographs of many different people.

A drawing shows hundreds of people gathered together in the street. The title of show “People Patterns” appears on screen.

A town of snow-covered houses appears on screen. The word “Manitouwadge” appears on screen.

The female narrator says FOR OVER NINE YEARS, THE
REEVE OF THE TOWNSHIP OF
MANITOUWADGE, GILLES POULIOT.

Gilles appears on screen. He says WELL, IN ORDER TO LIVE IN
THIS KIND OF ENVIRONMENT,
I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT
THAT WE GO BACK.
TAKE A MOMENT OR TWO
TO FIRST SEEK OUT
WHAT BROUGHT PEOPLE HERE.
PEOPLE CAME TO ENVIRONMENT
SUCH AS MANITOUWADGE AND,
INCIDENTALLY, IF YOU ARE MORE
THAN 27 YEARS OF AGE YOU
WEREN'T BORN HERE.
AND THE LIKELIHOOD OF RETIRING
HERE IF YOU'RE MORE THAN 65
IS ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE.
IT'S NOT SOMETHING
PEOPLE CAN ENVISAGE.
PEOPLE WERE DRAWN
IN HERE BY JOBS.
BY THE JOB MARKET.
IT'S NOT A SECRET TO
ANYONE THAT IN 1954, WHEN
MANITOUWADGE WAS FIRST
INCORPORATED, AS AN
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT, NOT AS
A MUNICIPALITY BECAUSE THIS
CAME LATER IN 1974, THE
DISCOVERY OF MINERALS, OF
BASE METALS SUCH AS ZINC,
COPPER, SOME SILVER AS
A BY-PRODUCT.
AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF
NORANDA MINES GECO DIVISION,
THROUGH GENERAL ENGINEERING
AT FIRST.
SHORTLY THEREAFTER, WILROY MINES
CREATED THE POSSIBILITY
FOR PEOPLE TO COME AND WORK.
SO PEOPLE WERE
DRAWN IN BY JOBS.
AFTER A FEW YEARS, CAME
SUPPLEMENTARY JOBS
IN THE FIELD OF FORESTRY.
LOGGING, CUTTING.
SO YOU HAVE TODAY A COMMUNITY
WITH SOME MODERN SOCIAL
AMENITIES OF SOME 3300
PEOPLE, ALL DRAWN IN BY THE
POSSIBILITY HERE OF JOBS
IN THE GREAT NORTHWEST.
MANY PEOPLE CAME FROM
NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO.
THE MAJORITY OF PEOPLE
CAME FROM ELSEWHERE.
MANY CAME FROM EUROPE,
STOPPED IN THE NORTH.
WHEN THEY CAME TO MANITOUWADGE
WAS THE FIRST TIME THEY HAD
BEEN TO NORTH AMERICA.
SO THEY WERE DIRECTLY
DRAWN IN, ATTRACTED IN,
BY THE JOB MARKET.
OTHER PEOPLE CAME
FROM OTHER PROVINCES.
SISTER PROVINCES SUCH
AS MANITOBA AND QUEBEC.
YET OTHERS CAME FROM
SOUTHERN ONTARIO.
THE MAJORITY OF PEOPLE
CAME FROM OUTSIDE OF
NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO.

A large forest surrounds the town of Manitouwadge.

The female narrator says ASSISTANT MINE MANAGER,
NORANDA MINES GECO DIVISION,
ROSS WEEKS.
Ross is in his fifties, with a clean-shaven face and short greying hair. He wears a green button-down shirt.

Ross says WELL, THE TOWN WAS PLANNED AS
A SORT OF MODEL COMMUNITY FOR
MINING TOWNS, OR COMPANY
TOWNS IN THE NORTH, OKAY?
AND OF COURSE, AT THAT TIME,
THERE WAS, WHAT, GECO AND
WILROY BOTH HAD INPUT INTO IT.
AND AS FAR AS THE GOVERNMENT
GOES, THEY WERE IN IT UP UNTIL
ABOUT SIX YEARS AGO WHEN
WE FORMED OUR OWN COUNCIL.
SHOULD THE GOVERNMENT
TAKE OVER THE COMMUNITY
RESPONSIBILITIES
FROM THE COMPANIES?
THAT'S A HARD ONE TO ANSWER.
I THINK IN THE AREAS OF
EDUCATION, THEY COULD PROBABLY
DO MORE, OKAY?
NOT WITH ENROLLMENT, BUT
WITH THEIR GRANTS, ETC.,
TO THE EDUCATIONAL FIELD.
AS FAR AS THE COMMUNITY ITSELF
AND THE RECREATION FACILITIES
GO, I THINK WE DO A
PRETTY GOOD JOB OF IT.
AND WHETHER OR NOT IT WOULD BE
BETTER FOR THE GOVERNMENT TO
TAKE IT OVER, I DON'T KNOW.
BECAUSE THE GOVERNMENT,
REALLY, THEY DON'T KNOW
EXACTLY WHAT THE TOWN NEEDS.
AND MOST OF US DO BECAUSE
WE ARE ALL NON-PROFIT
ORGANIZATIONS THAT RUN THE
TOWN, REALLY, LIKE THE SKI
HILL AND THIS SORT OF THING.
SO IF THE GOVERNMENT WERE TO
ALLOW THE COMPANY TAX BENEFIT
WHEN THE COMPANY MADE
DONATIONS TO THESE THINGS,
THEN WE WOULD
LIKE TO SEE THAT.

A large, rounded building surrounded by several houses appears on screen.

The female narrator says DIRECTOR OF RECREATION,
MANITOUWADGE COMMUNITY CENTRE,
GRANT GOODWIN.

Grant is in his thirties. He has thick black hair and long sideburns. He wears a short-sleeved blue collared shirt.

Grant says YEAH, THE COMMUNITY CENTRE
WAS DEVELOPED BY THE COMPANY
TO ACT AS A FOCAL POINT
FOR THE COMMUNITY
FOR A NUMBER OF REASONS.
ONE BECAUSE WE DIDN'T HAVE
ANY RECREATION FACILITIES
IN THE COMMUNITY.
AND, SECONDLY, I THINK ON THEIR
PART, IN PART IT WAS TO KEEP
PEOPLE IN THE COMMUNITY.
BECAUSE WE ARE ISOLATED, WE
ARE 50, 60 MILES FROM THE
NEAREST COMMUNITY, WE TRY TO
HAVE A MAJORITY OR MAJORITY OF
THE FUNCTIONS CIRCUMVENT
AROUND THE COMMUNITY CENTRES.
YOU CAN TELL BY WALKING
THROUGH THE COMMUNITY CENTRE,
ALL OF THE FACILITIES ARE
GROUPED AROUND THE BUILDING.
THE TENNIS COURTS, THE
GOLF COURSE, WHATEVER.

Several children play a game in an indoor ice court. Many people enjoy the skating rink.

Grant continues WHEN YOU REALLY LOOK AT IT,
THE DEPARTMENT ITSELF, OR THE
TOWNSHIP, RUNS
VERY FEW PROGRAMS.
WE MIGHT RUN FIVE OR SIX
ACTUAL PROGRAMS OVER THE YEAR.
THERE IS ABOUT 35 TO
40 COMMUNITY GROUPS,
AND THEY ARE ACTUALLY
RUNNING THE PROGRAMS.
AND IT IS OUR JOB, AS TOWNSHIP
EMPLOYEES AND RECREATION
PERSONNEL, TO MOTIVATE THESE
PEOPLE TO RUN PROGRAMS TO
BRING IN THE NEW
PROGRAMS THAT THEY LIKE.
THERE IS ONLY TWO OF US,
AND THERE IS 300 OF THEM.
SO IT IS A LOT EASIER FOR THEM
TO DO THE JOB THAN IT IS FOR US.
WE JUST COULDN'T
ACCOMPLISH IT WITHOUT THEM.
SO IT'S SORT OF
AN ONGOING THING.
IF THEY WANT IT, THEY HAVE TO
DO IT, AND WE'LL HELP THEM
OUT THE BEST WE CAN.
AND REALLY, THAT'S
WHY WE'RE HERE.

Guitar music plays. Several shots show people enjoying the snow-covered town.

A tall square building appears on screen. A sign in front of the building labels it as the “Noranda mines limited geco division.” Several men wearing helmets and carrying tool boxes exit the building and walk through the snow.

Ross says WHAT ATTRACTS
THEM TO THE NORTH?
WELL, MOST OF THIS NORTHERN
COMMUNITY LIVING IS SMALL
COMMUNITY LIVING, OKAY?
AND I THINK THAT THE PEOPLE
THAT YOU ARE GOING TO ATTRACT
HERE AND KEEP HERE HAVE TO BE
PEOPLE WHO CAN OPERATE WITHIN
THAT KIND OF AN ENVIRONMENT.
NOW, WHY DO THEY COME INTO
MANITOUWADGE, SAY, VERSUS
SOME OTHER TOWN?
I THINK IT'S BECAUSE,
A, THE EMPLOYMENT.
WE HAVE VERY STEADY
EMPLOYMENT HERE.
WE DO NOT FLUCTUATE OUR
WORK FORCE VERY MUCH.
WHEN TIMES GET A LITTLE BIT
TOUGH FINANCIALLY WHEN SOME OF
THE MANUFACTURING FIRMS HAVE
SORT OF A DOWNTURN LAYING OFF
EMPLOYEES, WE DO
NOT HAVE THAT HERE.
WE TEND TO GO
ALONG PRETTY STALE.
AND THEREFORE ANYBODY THAT
COMES HERE AND LOOKS AT THE
JOBS AND LOOKS AT OUR
RESERVES, THEY CAN SEE A
PRETTY STABLE
SORT OF OPERATION.
SO ANYBODY THAT IS INTERESTED
IN MINING OR ANY FACET OF IT,
THEY FIND IT GOOD.
SAME WAY WITH THE LUMBER
COMPANIES, PULP COMPANIES THAT
WORK HERE.
THEY ARE VERY STABLE AS
FAR AS WORK FORCE GOES.
THEY DON'T FLUCTUATE THAT
MUCH WITH THE ECONOMY.

The female narrator says RETIRED CHIEF CHEMIST AT
THE MINE, HUGH MCDONALD.

Hugh's in his fifties with thin white hair. He wears a grey jacket and a black shirt. He sits in a black chair in front of home library and looks through an album of old black-and-white photographs of the town.

Hugh says IT'S QUITE EXCITING.
I CAME IN THE SUMMER OF 1954.
THE CLEARING FOR THE TOWN
SITE BEGAN DECEMBER OF 54.
THE MINE SITE WAS
CLEARING AT THE SAME TIME.
IT WAS QUITE REMARKABLE,
ACTUALLY BECAUSE WE MOVED MY
FAMILY IN HERE
IN AUGUST OF 55.
AND BY NOVEMBER OF 55, WE
HAD HYDRO, WATER AND SEWER.
THERE'S AN ATMOSPHERE OF REAL
CHALLENGE, AND ALSO, IT'S
REALLY EXCITING TO SEE THINGS
JUST COME UP FROM NOTHING,
AND GROW INTO -- BOTH THE
MINE SITE AND THE TOWN.
IT'S BEEN A REMARKABLE
EXPERIENCE.

The female narrator and Clay walk together through the snow. The female narrator wears a brown jacket and glasses. She's in her late fifties with short brown hair. Clay has white hair, in his seventies, and wears a blue jacket and jeans.

The female narrator looks at Clay and says CLAY, ALONG ABOUT THE TIME
YOU CAME HERE, ABOUT 1955,
C.D. HOWE PREDICTED THERE WAS
GOING TO BE STUPENDOUS GROWTH
IN THIS AREA, PARTICULARLY
THE MANITOUWADGE AREA.
HAS THAT COME TRUE?

Clay says I DON'T KNOW WHETHER IT'S
COME TRUE TO THE FULFILLMENT
THAT HOWE HAD PREDICTED.
I THINK AT THAT TIME, THEY
WERE CERTAINLY LOOKING AT A
TOWN BETWEEN FIVE TO TEN THOU.

The female narrator says OH.
IT HASN'T COME THERE YET.

Clay says NO.
AND I DOUBT THAT IT EVER WILL.

The female narrator says WHAT IS IT, THREE
AND A HALF NOW?

Clay says ABOUT THREE AND A HALF.

The female narrator says BUT IT SEEMS TO BE
A WELL-SETTLED TOWN.
A STABLE TOWN.
ECONOMICALLY, AS WELL AS,
WELL, I GUESS YOU'D ALMOST SAY
CULTURALLY, SOCIALLY.

Clay says YEAH, YEAH, THE ECONOMIC
PEAKS AND VALLEYS ARE PRETTY
CLOSE TOGETHER.
WE DON'T HAVE THE RECESSIONS
THAT THEY HAVE IN
MANUFACTURING CENTRES BECAUSE
IT IS A BASIC INDUSTRY.
WE HAVE OUR METALS FROM THE
GROUND, OF COURSE, AND THEN WE
HAVE OUR FOREST INDUSTRY.
SO OUR PAYROLLS ARE BASICALLY
STABLE ALL THE TIME.
WE HAVE THE ODD SHUTDOWN
BECAUSE OF STRIKES, BUT WE'VE
NEVER HAD A SHUTDOWN BECAUSE
OF LACK OF SALES OF THE
RESOURCE PRODUCT.

The female narrator says DOES THAT MEAN THE
COMMUNITY ALSO IS STABLE?
OR IS THERE A LOT OF TRANSIENT
PEOPLE COMING THROUGH WORKING
AT THE MINES?

Clay says OH, YES, YES.
MINING PEOPLE ARE PROBABLY
THE MOST TRANSIENT PEOPLE
THAT I'VE EVER MET.
THEY MOVE FROM MINE TO MINE.
THEY'RE ALWAYS IN SEARCH OF
MORE KNOWLEDGE SO THEY CAN
IMPROVE THEIR STATION
WITH THE MINE.
THE OLD STORY,
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER.

The female narrator says BUT THERE IS A BASIC
POPULATION THAT'S BEEN HERE
FOR QUITE A LONG TIME.

Clay says YEAH.
OH YEAH.
THERE'S, I DON'T KNOW, IT
WOULDN'T BE ANY MORE THAN
ABOUT, MAYBE ABOUT
15 PERCENT IS BASIC.
THE REST, MAYBE 25, MAXIMUM.
BUT THE REST IS TRANSITORY.

The female narrator says YOU MEAN BASIC
FROM THE BEGINNING.

Clay says NO, NO.
THERE AREN'T 25 PERCENT
HERE FROM THE BEGINNING.
AS A MATTER OF FACT, I THINK
THERE ARE THREE PEOPLE HERE
IN THE SAME VINTAGE AS ME.

The female narrator says AND THAT'S RIGHT
FROM THE BEGINNING.

Clay says THAT'S RIGHT.

Ross says I THINK, I'VE BEEN WORKING
IN MINING FOR A LONG TIME,
AND I FIND IT'S A REAL GOOD
ENVIRONMENT TO WORK IN.
IT'S THE SAME AS ANY
OTHER TYPE OF WORK.
SOME OF IT IS HEAVY WORK.
AND OF COURSE, WHEN YOU DEAL
WITH HEAVY MACHINERY, AND
HEAVY EQUIPMENT, THEN YOU HAVE
TO BE MORE SAFETY CONSCIOUS.
RIGHT TODAY, IF YOU LOOKED
AT THE OIL FIELDS OFF
NEWFOUNDLAND, AND ONE THING OR
ANOTHER, IT DOESN'T SEEM TO
BE SO DANGEROUS UNDERGROUND.
WE DO NOT HAVE THAT
MANY FATAL ACCIDENTS.
AND, IN GENERAL, I WOULD SAY
MINES ARE VERY SAFE PLACES
TO WORK.
ESPECIALLY HARD ROCK
MINES LIKE WE HAVE.

A man wearing a helmet with a flashlight stands in a mine and oversees a drill. He uses a long metal pole to poke at the rock. Several men wearing helmets and gloves saw long pieces of wood and assemble them together using nails and a hammer. A man controls a large tractor and pushes dirt through a hole in the ground.

Ross continues THEN, OF COURSE, WHEN YOU GET
DISASTERS LIKE THE BALMORAL,
FOUR OF FIVE PEOPLE KILLED
AT ONE TIME, SPRING HILL
DISASTERS, THAT SORT OF THING,
THAT STICKS IN PEOPLE'S MIND
FOR QUITE A WHILE BECAUSE
IT GETS NATIONAL COVERAGE.
WHEREAS PEOPLE ARE DYING ON
OUR HIGHWAYS EVERY DAY,
BUT THEY ARE ONE OR
TWO PEOPLE AT A TIME,
SO YOU DON'T GET THAT.
SO I FEEL JUST AS SAFE WORKING
HERE IN THE MINE UNDERGROUND
AS ANYWHERE ELSE.
AND MOST OF OUR PEOPLE FEEL
THE SAME WAY ABOUT IT.
THERE ARE PEOPLE, OF COURSE,
WHO JUST BECAUSE OF THE
CONFINES OF THE AREA, THEY ARE
WORKING WITH A CAP LAMP ON,
THEY JUST DON'T ADJUST
TO THAT ENVIRONMENT.
AND, OF COURSE, THEY WOULD FEEL
THAT IT'S A VERY HARSH PLACE
TO WORK.
BUT THE PAY IS GOOD.
AND THEY ARE WELL-COMPENSATED.
SO I THINK, YOU KNOW, FOR THE
PERSON WHO LIKES MINING, AND
THERE ARE A LOT OF THEM, OKAY,
THERE ARE A LOT OF THEM,
IT IS A VERY GOOD ENVIRONMENT
TO WORK IN AND A VERY SAFE
ENVIRONMENT TO WORK IN.

A miner appears on screen. He wears a large yellow helmet with a flashlight and glasses.

He says ACTUALLY, WE WAS ON OUR WAY
TO ELLIOTT LAKE, AND WE SAW
THE WORK CREW IN HERE.
AND SOMEBODY SAID,
THERE'S MINING THERE.
SO I SAID, WELL, LET'S GO
IN AND SEE WHAT'S THERE.
SO WE CAME IN, AND WE STAYED.
27 YEARS.

A miner pushes his time card. Several miners sit in an industrial building and chat. Several miners come up from the mine and enter the building through a large metal door.

Ross says I THINK THE PEOPLE THAT ARE
IN THE NORTH ARE THERE BECAUSE
THEY WISH TO BE.
THEY ENJOY THE OUTDOORS.
AND, OF COURSE, THE MINING
INDUSTRY ATTRACTS --
YOU CAN EARN GOOD WAGES
WITH A MINIMAL EDUCATION.
APART FROM THE FACT THAT
MINING REQUIRES A LOT OF
LABOUR, OTHER THAN SKILLED
LABOUR, ALTHOUGH RECENTLY,
THAT'S BEEN CHANGING, TOO.
MINING IS BECOMING A
RECOGNIZED SKILL,
THE SAME AS ANY OF THE TRADES.
BUT THIS IS ONE OF THE BIG
DIFFICULTIES WITH THE MINING
INDUSTRY NOW, I THINK,
IS ATTRACTING TRADES,
SKILLED TRADES.
I DON'T THINK IT'S
JUST THE MINING INDUSTRY,
BUT INDUSTRY ACROSS CANADA.
THE MINING INDUSTRY RECENTLY
HAS SET UP TRAINING FOR
UNDERGROUND SKILLS
WHERE YOU CAN QUALIFY,
AS YOU DO IN A TRADE.
AND THEY ALSO HAVE, I THINK,
A RATHER GOOD APPRENTICESHIP
COURSE IN CONJUNCTION WITH
THE MINISTRY OF MANPOWER.
BECAUSE THEY CAN WORK AT THE
MINE AND THE SHOPS FOR A
PERIOD, THEN GO OUT TO
COMMUNITY COLLEGE FOR A PERIOD,
AND EVENTUALLY, GET THEIR
JOURNEYMAN'S PAPERS THEN.

A minor with long brown hair and a mustache wears overalls and a helmet with a flashlight.

He says
I DECIDED TO COME
UP HERE BECAUSE OF
THE STEADY EMPLOYMENT.
GOOD MONEY.
IT'S A SMALL TOWN.
GOOD PLACE TO RAISE KIDS.
I'VE GOT TWO KIDS.
I THINK I'M GOING
TO ENJOY IT HERE.
PEOPLE ARE FRIENDLY.

A miner with a large brown beard and mustache says IT'S A PRETTY GOOD
PLACE TO RAISE A FAMILY.
IT'S A GOOD JOB.
UNDERGROUND IS, I DON'T KNOW,
IT'S ABOUT AS GOOD A JOB AS ANY.
ONE THING ABOUT
IT, IT'S STEADY.
NO UNEMPLOYMENT.

The female narrator says TALKING ABOUT MINE
SAFETY, TOM WARREN.

Tom stands in front of a cabinet filled with medicines. He's in his fifties with thin grey hair and wears a blue button-down shirt.

He says OUR RECORD FOR SAFETY, I
THINK, IS COMPARABLE TO ANY
IN ONTARIO.
AND THIS IS MAINLY DUE TO
COOPERATION BETWEEN THE MEN
AND THE PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE
FOR SAFETY AT THE MINE.
EVERY CREW, THEY HAVE CREW
MEETINGS EVERY MONTH DEALING
SPECIFICALLY WITH SAFETY.
AND THEY ALSO HAVE FILM SHOWS
AND THIS TO EDUCATE THE
PEOPLE ON ALL THE HAZARDS THAT
ARE PRESENT IN THIS INDUSTRY.

Several men in a classroom appear on screen. A couple of them wear large metal backpacks with black tubes. The tubes connect to gas masks that they wear over their heads.

Keith squats down and touches the metal backpacks and says YOU WATCH THE BREATHING BAG
AS IT IS MOVING, AND YOU JUST
AID HIS BREATHING.
HE IS BREATHING SOME, SO ALL
YOU NEED TO DO IS HELP HIM.

The female narrator says MINE RESCUE TRAINING
BEGAN IN ONTARIO IN 1929.
TODAY, NINE EXPERTS FROM THE
MINISTRY OF LABOUR TRAVEL FROM
MINE TO MINE, ACROSS THE
PROVINCE, TO ENSURE TRAINING
APPARATUS AND PROCEDURES
ARE KEPT UP TO STANDARD.
KEITH GILBERT, FROM THE
MINISTRY OF LABOUR, WAS AT
GECO THE DAY WE ARRIVED.

Keith is in his forties with thick black hair and a mustache. He wears a yellow button-down shirt.

Keith says YOU'RE USING APPARATUS, AND
FORCING PURE OXYGEN INTO HIM
TO MAKE HIM BREATHE.
THESE MEN ARE NEW IN THE
FIELD OF MINE RESCUE.
THEY ARE TAKING
A BASIC MINE RESCUE COURSE,
WHICH IS THE PRELIMINARIES.
IT IS MOSTLY THEORY WORK AND
LEARNING THE PARTS AND WEARING
OF THE APPARATUS.
ON ANOTHER THREE DAY COURSE,
THEY WILL BE DOING THE
UNDERGROUND PRACTICAL SESSION,
WHICH IS THREE DAYS OF
UNDERGROUND WORK, WHICH
INVOLVES A LOT MORE DRILLS
AND PRACTICAL PUTTING
THE THEORY TO USE,
BEFORE THEY ARE QUALIFIED.
AT WHICH TIME THEY WILL JOIN
THE MINE RESCUE TEAM FROM THE
MINE AND WILL BE INVOLVED IN
FIGHTING FIRES, RESCUING OF
MEN UNDERGROUND, AND CLEARING
OF THE MINE ATMOSPHERE FOR
RECOVERY OPERATIONS.

Keith looks at one of the trainees and says THERE IS NOT GOING TO BE
ANY BAD AIR GOING INTO
THE APPARATUS.
OKAY, HE HAS RUN OUT OF
OXYGEN IN HIS BOTTLE.
AND...
TURN IT OFF.
GO FOR HIS WARNING
SIGNAL HERE.
OKAY, HE HAS RUN
OUT OF OXYGEN.
WITHIN THE APPARATUS THERE IS
A WARNING SIGNAL WHICH WILL
SOUND THAT HE HAS NO MORE
OXYGEN LEFT IN HIS BOTTLE.

The trainees turn a knob on the metal backpacks that causes a loud whistling noise.

Keith continues HE HAS A SUPPLY OF OXYGEN IN
HIS BREATHING BAG, AND HE CAN
BREATHE OFF OF THAT FOR
APPROXIMATELY TEN MINUTES.
AND THE WARNING
SIGNAL IS TELLING YOU
THAT HE IS OUT OF OXYGEN.

Tom says I THINK THE SAFETY RECORDS
IN MINES IS COMPARABLE
TO ANY HEAVY INDUSTRY.
AND I THINK SAFETY IS TAKEN
A LOT MORE SERIOUSLY IN THE
MINING INDUSTRY.
IT IS DEFINITELY AT THIS
MINE, I KNOW THAT FOR SURE.

The female narrator says HOW ABOUT THE WOMEN WHO CAME
TO A MINING TOWN 250 MILES
NORTHEAST OF THUNDER BAY?
FIRST, ROSEMARY LEVADOWITZ
AND THEN BETTY BAKER.

Rosemary wears a jean top and jean pants. She's in her late thirties with short brown hair.

She sits in a room next to a statue of a miner and says
I'M USED TO SMALL TOWNS.
I REALLY DIDN'T HAVE
TO CHANGE ANYTHING.
AND THEN I WAS RAISING MY
CHILDREN WHEN WE CAME HERE,
20 YEARS AGO, ON A
TEMPORARY BASIS.
SO WE STAYED.

Betty is in her sixties with short white hair. She wears a pink top and sits in a chair in front of a kitchen sink.

She says
FOR ME, I MEAN, IT WAS
SOMETHING REALLY NEW,
BUT AT THE SAME TIME, IT WAS
SOMETHING, WELL, EXCITING.
I REALLY NEVER FELT TOO
MUCH OF THE DANGER FROM IT.
I MEAN, IT WAS SOMETHING
REALLY NEW AND, YOU KNOW,
GOOD, REALLY.

Rosemary says I THINK WHAT WOMEN MISS HERE
IS MAYBE NOT ENOUGH SHOPPING,
YOU KNOW?
JUST TO LOOK AT SOME CLOTHES
OR THINGS LIKE THAT.
SO MOST PEOPLE THEY
MAKE TRIPS TO THUNDER BAY
OR SAULT SAINT MARIE.

Betty says IN MANITOUWADGE, WE HAVE
ALWAYS REALLY LIKED IT.
AND WE HAVE, YOU KNOW?
LIKE, WHEN WE CAME, WE SAID
WE WERE GOING TO BE HERE THE
SAME AS ALL THE OTHER
PLACES, MAYBE FOR TWO YEARS.
AND WE HAVE BEEN HERE
20 SOME YEARS, YOU KNOW?
AND IT HAS BEEN REALLY GOOD.

Rosemary says MY YOUNGEST
CHILD, JOHN, IS 22.
AND HE'S AWAY IN THUNDER BAY.
HE'S WORKING THERE.
HE COMES HOME ON HOLIDAYS.
HE WAS HOME FOR CHRISTMAS.
AND HE SAID AS LONG AS YOU CAN
COME HOME TO MANITOUWADGE
AND, YOU KNOW, YOUR PARENTS
ARE THERE, EVERYTHING JUST
FALLS INTO PLACE.

Several children dressed in costumes practice in a skating rink.

The female narrator says IN THE ARENA AT THE COMMUNITY
CENTRE,
THE WIZARD OF OZ
IS
IN REHEARSAL.

Grant says RIGHT NOW, WE ARE GOING THROUGH
A WEEK LONG WINTER CARNIVAL.
ONE OF THE PROGRAMS WE HAVE,
WE PROMOTE, IN AN ATTEMPT TO
CREATE A COMMUNITY AWARENESS,
A COMMUNITY SPIRIT.
BECAUSE WE HAVE SO MANY
DIFFERENT PEOPLE IN THE
COMMUNITY, AND A LOT OF NEW
PEOPLE OVER THE LAST COUPLE OF
YEARS, IT IS REALLY
A PROBLEM WE HAVE.
A LOT OF PEOPLE RELATE TO
BACK HOME, WHEREAS THEY DON'T
REALLY RELATE TO OUR COMMUNITY
YET, OR THAT COMMUNITY.
SO PROGRAMS SUCH AS THE WINTER
CARNIVAL, WE HAVE 400 TO 500
KIDS UP HERE TODAY, AND WE
HAVE CULTURAL DISPLAYS,
SPORTING DISPLAYS.
THE MAIN THRUST IS TO BRING
PEOPLE TOGETHER IN A COMMUNITY
SPIRIT, AS OPPOSED TO HAVING A
SPORTING DISPLAY FOR THE FACT
OF THE SPORTING DISPLAY.
I THINK THE THING THAT NEEDS
THE MOST CARE WITH REGARDS TO
OUR MULTICULTURAL COMMUNITY
IS THAT WE'VE BEEN VERY
NEGLIGENT OF TAKING ADVANTAGE
OF ALL THE CULTURAL GROUPS WE
HAVE IN THE COMMUNITY.
SUCH AS THE PORTUGUESE
COMMUNITY WHERE WE HAVE
ANYWHERE BETWEEN
55, 65 FAMILIES.
THE FRENCH COMMUNITY, WHERE WE
HAVE MAYBE 80 TO 90 FAMILIES.
AND WE HAVE NOT PUT ANY
PRESSURE ON THESE PEOPLE TO
GIVE US A LITTLE BIT OF
WHAT THEY ARE ALL ABOUT.

Several people gather in a hall filled with tables. Many objects on display on top of the tables.

Grant continues AND HOPEFULLY, THROUGH
MULTICULTURAL ACTIVITIES LIKE
WE ARE HAVING THIS WEEKEND,
WE'LL BRING SOME OF THAT
ACTIVITY OUT.

Gilles stands at the front of the hall and says LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, MADAMES
ET MONSIEURS, SENIORAS, FIRST
OF ALL, I WOULD LIKE TO THANK
Mrs. TURNER, AND ANGELO FOR
KINDLY INVITING ME, WITH A
GREAT DEAL OF PLEASURE, OF
COURSE, TO OFFICIALLY OPEN
THIS SECOND MULTICULTURAL
DISPLAY, AS PART OF
OUR WINTER CARNIVAL.

The people in the hall applause and take photographs.

The tables display objects from various different countries. The people in the hall look at the objects and enjoy the food.

Grant says WE DO HAVE THE SEMBLANCE OF
A MINISTRY OF UNITED NATIONS.
IT MAKES IT VERY,
VERY DIFFICULT.
I GUESS PEOPLE MUST
DRAW FROM WITHIN.
MUST DRAW FROM THEIR PEERS
WITHIN THE COMMUNITY.
MUST DRAW FROM
WITHOUT THE COMMUNITY.
MUST DRAW FROM PEOPLE FROM
MULTICULTURALISM IN TORONTO.
WHAT IS IN TORONTO OR THE
SECRETARY OF STATE IN OTTAWA.
TO GET THE BIT OF SATISFACTION
THAT ONE TAKES FOR GRANTED IN
PLACES LIKE TORONTO BECAUSE
YOUR BACKGROUND IS EASILY
IDENTIFIED WITH BECAUSE
OF THE NUMBERS GAME.
WE DON'T HAVE THE NUMBERS GAME
IN PLACES LIKE MANITOUWADGE.
SO YOU MUST BE VERY,
VERY RESOURCEFUL.
AND YES, WE DO HAVE
RESOURCEFUL PEOPLE.
BUT IT MAKES IT REALLY,
VERY, VERY DIFFICULT.

The female narrator says TIM BAKER, ONCE A
HORTICULTURIST IN HOLLAND,
NOW A MINERAL EXPERT WITH
ONE OF THE FINEST MINERAL
COLLECTIONS IN NORTH AMERICA.

Tim sits in a large armchair next to shelves of books. He's in his sixties with grey hair and a clean-shaven face. He wears brown pants and a yellow shirt.

Tim says TO RECOGNIZE MINERALS HERE,
IT IS A HOBBY OF MINE.
AND IF IT IS A HOBBY,
IT IS EASY TO RECOGNIZE,
IT SEEMS TO ME.
IF IT IS YOUR JOB, IT IS A
DIFFERENT STORY ALTOGETHER.
LIKE IF I SEE A MINERAL ONCE,
I RECOGNIZE IT THE NEXT TIME
I SEE IT.
SOME PEOPLE HAVE BROUGHT OVER
ROCKS FROM WAY DOWN THE ROAD
SOMEWHERE, AND I CAN TELL THEM
EXACTLY WHICH SPOT IT CAME
FROM, I RECOGNIZE IT.
BEING A HOBBY, YOU ARE
MORE INTERESTED IN IT.
AND LIKE EVEN ON THE GROUND,
MY JOB WAS MORE LESS
LIKE A HOBBY.

Many different stones and rocks are on display.

Tim continues I DIDN'T KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT
GEOLOGY BEFORE, BUT THROUGH
EXPERIENCE, IT MADE IT THAT
MUCH MORE INTERESTING.
THAT WAY, I COLLECTED ABOUT
3,000 DIFFERENT MINERALS
IN ABOUT, OH, I WOULD SAY,
10, 12 YEARS PERIOD.

The female narrator says MINERS AND THEIR JOBS ARE
FAVOURITE SUBJECTS IN
BUCK LEVADOWITZ'S
INCREDIBLE WOOD CARVINGS.

Buck appears on screen wearing a brown shirt and glasses. He is in his sixties with short grey hair. He points to a wooden carving of a miner and says
THIS IS CARVING OF
UNDERGROUND MINER.
AND THIS CARVING IS MADE
OUT OF KILN DRY BASSWOOD.
AND IT TAKES ABOUT 35
HOURS TO COMPLETE IT.
AND IT IS A GREAT DEAL TO HAVE
IT IN TOWN, MINING COMMUNITY,
AND ONE OF MY BEST CUSTOMERS
ARE NORANDA MINES, WHICH
MANAGER, Mr. PETE MCLEOD
ALWAYS ORDER THOSE THINGS FOR
PEOPLE WHICH ARE RETIRED
AFTER 25 YEARS SERVICE.
THAT'S WHY I THINK WE HAVE
TO KEEP BUSY AND DOING
THOSE THINGS.

Buck continues to mold the shape of a miner using a knife to peel away layers of wood.

Gilles says I THINK THE FUTURE IS
DIRECTLY TIED WITH THE LARGEST
EMPLOYER IN THE TOWNSHIP, IS
NORANDA MINES GECO DIVISION,
WITH A WORK FORCE
OF SOME 650 PEOPLE.
IN TERMS OF THE ECONOMY OF THE
TOWNSHIP, IT'S WHERE IT'S AT.
NOW, LET US REMEMBER THE
MINUTE YOU EXTRACT ONE
SHOVEL FULL OUT OF THE BOWELS OF
THE EARTH, OUT OF THE GROUND,
YOU ARE THAT MUCH
CLOSER TO EXTINCTION.
SHOULD YOU BE SUCCESSFUL IN
DISCOVERING ADDED MATERIAL,
MORE RESERVES, IF YOU WANT,
MORE COPPER, MORE ZINC, MORE
BY-PRODUCTS SUCH AS SILVER
AND A TRACE OF GOLD.
YOU ARE ONLY DELAYING
THE INEVITABLE.

Ross says WELL, RIGHT NOW WE HAVE A
LITTLE OVER 19 MILLION TONS
OF ORE RESERVES, OKAY?
AND WE ARE OPERATING AT
ABOUT 1.4 MILLION PER YEAR.
SO IF YOU MATHEMATICALLY
DIVIDE IT, WE'VE GOT ABOUT
10 OR 15 YEARS.
10 YEARS, 15 YEARS.
BUT MINES DIE HARD, OKAY?
SO WE'LL PICK UP AREAS OF ORE
THAT WE DO NOT CONSIDER ORE NOW.
WE WILL CUT OUR TONNAGE
IN THE MILL, SOMEWHAT,
AND WE'LL PROBABLY
OPERATE FOR 20 TO 25 YEARS.

Gilles says THE ADVANTAGES
ARE MANY, MANY.
THE PACE IS SOMEWHAT SLOWER.
YOU GET TO KNOW YOUR PEERS.
YOU GET TO KNOW
YOUR FELLOW MAN.
WE HAVE STABILITY IN THE
MARKETPLACE, WE HAVE STABILITY
OF EMPLOYMENT.
THAT GOES A LONG WAY.
WE CAN AFFORD TO DO THE
THINGS THAT BECOME
A LUXURY ELSEWHERE.
THE CHANCE TO GROW UP
IN A SAFE COMMUNITY.
THERE HAS NEVER BEEN A
MUGGING IN THE STREETS OF
OUR COMMUNITY IN 27 YEARS.
WE DON'T ANTICIPATE ANY.
THE FACT THAT YOU
HAVE THREE SCHOOLS.
THE FACT THAT YOU
HAVE SEVEN CHURCHES.
GIVES YOU A CHANCE TO
APPRECIATE THE RICHNESS.
WE HAVE NO UNEMPLOYMENT
IN OUR COMMUNITY.
WE HAVE A LOT TO
BE THANKFUL FOR.

Music plays as the credits role.

Executive producer, Ken MacKay.

Producer and Director, Joan Reed Olsen.

A caption reads “A production of TV Ontario. The Ontario Educational Communications Authority.”

Watch: Manitouwadge