Transcript: Butter Making in New Liskeard | Apr 19, 1988

(music plays)

An old black and white movie clip plays and the title reads "Ontario Retrospect: Buttermaking in New Liskeard."

The video shows a group of men at a construction followed by a man milking a cow.

A Male Narrator says
IN 1917, THE GOVERNMENT
BUILT A CREAMERY
IN NEW LISKEARD TO
HELP TO DEVELOP
THE BUTTER INDUSTRY
IN NORTHERN ONTARIO.
OVER 1000 COWS IN THE
AREA PROVIDED THE MILK
THAT WAS TO BE USED
BY THE NEW CREAMERY.
BUTTER MAKING REQUIRES
CLEANLINESS IN EVERY PART
OF THE PROCESS AND THE
SEPARATION OF THE MILK
SHOULD BE DONE QUICKLY TO
PRESERVE THE FRESHNESS
OF THE PRODUCT.

(music plays)

A clip shows a man preparing butter. He uses a simple system composed by different stations connected to one another. He starts by pouring the milk through a funnel covered with a thin cloth. He rotates a handle to put the equipment to work and collects the flowing liquid in a different container.

The Narrator says
IMMEDIATELY AFTER
SEPARATION,
THE CREAM WAS
ALWAYS COOLED.
EACH BUCKET OF SEPARATED
CREAM WAS POURED INTO A VAT
THAT WAS SURROUNDED BY
ICE WATER TO BRING
THE TEMPERATURE DOWN TO
50 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

(music plays)

The man takes the buckets to a different station where he keeps two large metal containers cooled down.

The Narrator says
AFTER THE FROTH WAS
CAREFULLY REMOVED
FROM THE SURFACE OF
THE SKIMMED MILK,
IT COULD BE FED
TO YOUNG CATTLE.
IT WAS RECOMMENDED AS A
SUPPLEMENT IN THE FEEDING
OF YOUNG STOCK WHICH MADE
RAPID WEIGHT GAINS
ON SUCH A DIET.

(music plays)

The man now removes what’s formed on top of the bucket and continues to move the liquid to another container.

The Narrator says
TO PROVIDE THE
SWEETEST CREAM,
THE SEPARATOR IS KEPT
EXTREMELY CLEAN.
AT THAT TIME, THE PARTS
AFTER BEING WASHED,
WERE SIMPLY EXPOSED TO
FRESH AIR AND SUNLIGHT.

(music plays)

The man washes the separation device and takes it outside to sun dry. The many pieces are exposed vertically hanging from the wall or kept on top of a table. Next, the numerous containers are sealed and carried on board of a cart.

The Narrator says
THE CHURNS WERE COLLECTED
ALONG AN ORGANIZED
ROUTE TO MINIMIZE
STANDING TIME.

(music plays)

The Narrator says
AFTER ITS ARRIVAL
AT THE CREAMERY,
EACH ONE WAS
WEIGHED AND SAMPLED.

(music plays)

The cart arrives to the creamery and the staff downloads it and stores it inside. A man in a white apron weights and tests the product.

The Narrator says
THE BABCOCK TEST, WHICH
IS STILL DONE TODAY,
WAS USED TO DETERMINE
THE PERCENTAGE OF FAT
IN THE CREAM OF
EACH SUPPLIER.
THE TEST INVOLVES MIXING A
MEASURED AMOUNT OF CREAM
WITH SULFURIC ACID.
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE IS USED
TO HELP PRECIPITATE
THE SOLIDS WHICH
CAN BE MEASURED
AS A PERCENTAGE
OF A WHOLE.

(music plays)

A series of machines work to continue the test. A man uses a small pool with water to cool down the containers. Next, everything is loaded back in the cart.

The Narrator says
BY PASSING COLD WATER
THROUGH COILS INSIDE THE VAT,
THE CREAM WAS THEN
COOLED QUICKLY
TO THE RIPENING
TEMPERATURE.
MEANWHILE, EACH EMPTY CAN
WAS WASHED AND STERILIZED
BEFORE BEING RETURNED
TO THE FARMERS.

(music plays)

A man at a fabric controls a big churn. The main door is rounded with a big handle. The operator closes it, secures the handle and put the machine to work.

The Narrator says
THE COOLED CREAM WAS
PASSED BY A SANITARY PUMP
INTO A LARGE MOTORIZED
CHURN WHERE THE BUTTER
COAGULATED AND THE
BUTTERMILK WAS WASHED OUT.
SPECIAL DAIRY SALT WAS
ADDED AND THE BUTTER
WAS THOROUGHLY WORKED AGAIN
TO ALLOW FOR EVEN SALTING
AND A CLOSE TEXTURE.
THE CHURNING PROCESS WAS
COMPLETE WHEN THE BUTTER
GRANULES WERE
THE SIZE OF PEAS.
IF THEY WERE TOO LARGE,
THE BUTTERMILK
WOULD NOT WASH OUT.

(music plays)

Once the product is ready, two men fill wooden boxes with it using large sticks that help press the butter to compress it.

The Narrator says
90-POUND BOXES WERE FILLED
WITH THE FRESH BUTTER
AND THEN MOVED TO THE
REFRIGERATOR TO BE STORED.
EVERY PART OF THE CHURNING
AREA WAS CLEANED
WITH STEAM TO STERILIZE
THE MACHINERY.

(music plays)

The men take the boxes to the fridge and proceed with the cleaning of the machine.

The Narrator says
AFTER COOLING, SPECIAL
CUTTING FRAMES WERE USED
TO SEPARATE THE LARGE
BLOCKS OF BUTTER
INTO POUND PRINTS
WHICH WERE THEN
WRAPPED IN
PARCHMENT PAPER.

(music plays)

Using a special instrument, the men cut the big butter cube into smaller pieces for commercialization. Once packed, they’re loaded back in the cart.

The Narrator says
ALL OF THE 85,000 POUNDS
OF BUTTER PRODUCED ANNUALLY
BY THE CREAMERY WERE CONSUMED
IN THE TEMISKAMING AREA.
ESSENTIALLY, THE BUTTER-MAKING
PROCESS HAS NOT CHANGED
TO THIS DAY, ONLY THE
EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN UPDATED.

Music plays and the end credits roll.

A slate reads "Ontario Retrospect: Buttermaking in New Liskeard. Material courtesy of National Film Archives, Ottawa."

A production of TVOntario.

The Ontario Educational Communications Authority, 1979.

Watch: Butter Making in New Liskeard