Transcript: East | Mar 02, 2020

(music plays)

Logo: TVF International.

Aerial views show images of archaeological sites in Great Britain.

Alice says WE MAY BE A SMALL
ISLAND, BUT WE HAVE A RICH AND
COMPLEX HISTORY THAT IS STILL
FULL OF MYSTERIES.
SO EVERY YEAR, HUNDREDS OF
ARCHAEOLOGISTS GO OUT HUNTING
FOR LOST PIECES FROM OUR
MISSING PAST.

A woman at an excavation site says OOH.

A man says A TINY, TINY COIN.

An excavator says EVERY ELEMENT IS THERE.
THIS IS JUST UNBELIEVABLE.

Alice says IN 2017, THEIR INVESTIGATIONS
CONTINUE TO FILL IN THE GAPS.
(WOMAN GASPING)

A woman says WOW!

Alice says BRINGING US CLOSER TO OUR
ANCESTORS THAN EVER BEFORE.

A man says WHAT DO YOU THINK OF
THAT, ROY?

Roy gives it two thumbs up.

Alice says IN THIS PROGRAM,
DIGGING FOR
BRITAIN
SHOWCASES THE BEST DIGS
FROM THE EAST OF THE UK.

A woman says OH, WOW!
THAT'S A RATHER LOVELY SHARD.

Alice is in her forties, with long straight red hair in a half ponytail and wears a form fitting black dress and a necklace.

Alice says EACH OF THE EXCAVATIONS HAS
BEEN FILMED AS IT HAPPENED BY
THE ARCHAEOLOGISTS THEMSELVES.
THEIR DIG DIARIES MEAN THAT WE
CAN BE THERE FOR EACH EXCITING
MOMENT OF DISCOVERY.

A man finds a buried sword and says AH, IT'S EXCALIBUR!

A woman HOW DOES THAT FEEL,
RUPERT?

The man says YEAH, PRETTY GOOD.
(LAUGHING)

Alice says AND NOW THE ARCHAEOLOGISTS
ARE BRINGING THEIR FINDS, FROM
POTTERY TO METALWORK TO HUMAN
REMAINS, INTO OUR LABS SO THAT
WE CAN TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT
THEM, AND FIND OUT WHAT THEY
TELL US ABOUT OUR BRITISH
ANCESTORS.
WELCOME TO
DIGGING FOR BRITAIN.
(RUMBLING)

The name of the show reads "Digging for Britain."

Alice says IN THIS PROGRAM, I'M JOINING
ARCHAEOLOGISTS IN THE EAST TO
SHARE IN THEIR BIGGEST
DISCOVERIES.
WE'RE DIVING DEEP IN THE
ENGLISH CHANNEL, RESCUING THE
PRECIOUS CARGO OF A LOST EAST
INDIA SHIP.

A man on a ship says WE'RE FINDING LOADS AND LOADS
OF COINS.

Alice says AND WE TRAVEL TO SUFFOLK TO
UNEARTH TRACES OF BRITAIN'S
EARLIEST OCCUPANTS.

A man at a site says WE FOUND THIS INCREDIBLE
HAND AXE, FANTASTIC FIND.

Alice says IT'S ALSO A BIG YEAR IN THE
EAST FOR ROMAN ARCHAEOLOGY, AND
THIS EPISODE INCLUDES HUNTING
DOWN EVIDENCE OF BRITAIN'S
FIRST CLASH WITH THE MIGHT OF
ROME.

Another man on a site says THIS COULD BE A VERY
IMPORTANT CLUE TO CONFIRMING
THAT THIS IS A BASE OF JULIUS
CAESAR.

Alice says AND TO FIND OUT HOW THESE
DISCOVERIES FIT INTO THE STORY
OF BRITAIN...

A caption reads "Professor Alice Roberts."

Alice says I'VE COME TO COLCHESTER TO
EXPLORE THE CASTLE MUSEUM, AND
FIND OUT HOW THE OBJECTS INSIDE
HELP TELL THE STORY OF THE EAST.

An animated map shows the locations of London and Colchester.

Alice says BUT OUR FIRST DIG TAKES US OUT
OF COLCHESTER AND INTO THE
BUZZING FINANCIAL CENTRE OF
LONDON, AND ONE OF THE BIGGEST
EXCAVATIONS IN OUR CAPITAL'S
HISTORY.
DURING THE BLITZ, THE GERMAN
LUFTWAFFE DESTROYED A THIRD OF
THE CITY OF LONDON, BUT AMONGST
THE DEVASTATION, GLIMPSES OF
ITS ANCIENT ROMAN PAST BEGAN TO
EMERGE FROM THE RUBBLE.
INCLUDING A REMARKABLE ROMAN
TEMPLE OF MITHRAS, FOUND JUST
OFF CANNON STREET.
FOR ARCHAEOLOGISTS OF THE TIME,
THIS WAS AMONG THE FIRST
EVIDENCE THAT PARTS OF ROMAN
LONDON WERE STILL WELL
PRESERVED UNDER THE MODERN
CITY, WAITING TO BE
REDISCOVERED.
IN THE POST-WAR YEARS, THE SITE
OF THE TEMPLE WAS BUILT OVER,
BUT IT'S LONG BEEN BELIEVED
THAT THERE WAS MUCH MORE TO BE
FOUND IN THE LAYERS BENEATH THE
MITHRAEUM.
IN 2012, ARCHAEOLOGISTS FINALLY
GOT THE CHANCE TO REVISIT THE
SITE WHEN THE GLOBAL
INFORMATION COMPANY, BLOOMBERG,
STARTED TO REDEVELOP THE AREA.
NOW IN THE YEAR THAT THE NEW
BUILDING HAS BEEN OPENED, THE
TEAM ARE SHARING THEIR DIG
DIARY WITH US.
THIS WAS AN INCREDIBLE
OPPORTUNITY FOR ARCHAEOLOGISTS
TO DELVE DOWN INTO THE DEEPEST
LAYERS OF LONDON'S HISTORY,
RIGHT BACK TO ITS ORIGIN.
THE EXCAVATION GAVE THEM A
CHANCE TO FIND OUT MORE ABOUT
THE ORIGINAL APPEARANCE OF THE
TOWN, ABOUT WHO LIVED THEIR,
AND ABOUT THE LIVES OF THOSE
FIRST LONDONERS.
THE BLOOMBERG SITE WAS ONCE AT
THE HEART OF ROMAN LONDON,
STRADDLING THE WALLBROOK, A
LOST TRIBUTARY OF THE RIVER
THAMES.
BECAUSE THE SITE REMAINS
WATER-LOGGED, MANY ORGANIC
REMAINS HAVE SURVIVED.
THIS EXCEPTIONAL PRESERVATION
GAVE ARCHAEOLOGISTS THE UNIQUE
OPPORTUNITY TO EXPLORE THE
REALITIES OF LIFE IN THE VERY
FIRST LONDON.
SADIE WATSON IS HEADING UP THE
DIG.

The caption changes to "Sadie Watson. Dig director, MOLA."

Sadie is in her thirties, with light brown hair in a bun and wears an off white T-shirt and a safety vest.

She says TO BE HONEST, WE HAVE BEEN
ITCHING TO GET OUR HANDS BACK ON
THIS SITE SINCE 1954, REALLY,
WHEN GRIMES FOUND THE TEMPLE OF
MITHRAS.
WE KNEW THERE WAS A BREADTH OF
ARCHAEOLOGY HERE THAT WAS
UNSURPASSED IN THE GENERAL AREA.
IF YOU WENT 50 METRES TO EITHER
SIDE OF THIS EXACT SPOT, YOU
WOULDN'T GET THE SAME DEPTH OF
MATERIAL.

Alice says THE ROMANS BUILT LONDON FROM
SCRATCH IN THE MID FIRST
CENTURY AD.
BUT UNTIL NOW, THE ORIGINAL
APPEARANCE OF THE TOWN HAS BEEN
A BIT OF A MYSTERY.
HOWEVER, BECAUSE THE
PRESERVATION IS SO GOOD HERE,
THE TEAM CAN EFFECTIVELY
RECONSTRUCT THE LAYOUT OF AN
ENTIRE ROMAN NEIGHBOURHOOD.

The caption changes to "Dig Diary. January 2012."

The caption changes to "Karl Macrow. Archaeologist. MOLA."

Karl is in his thirties, with short brown hair and a thick beard. He wears jeans, a gray hooded and protective gear.

He says WHAT WE'VE GOT HERE
IS A WAFFLE STRUCTURE,
UM, PERHAPS DELINEATING
SOME PRIVATE LAND WITH
SOME ANIMALS ON THE INSIDE, OR
IT COULD BE PART OF A BUILDING.
BUT IT'S ABSOLUTELY AMAZING.
I MEAN, OBVIOUSLY WE'RE THE
FIRST PEOPLE TO SEE THIS FOR
NEARLY 2,000 YEARS, UM, SO IT
FEELS A BIT SPECIAL, AND IT JUST
MAKES YOU WONDER WHAT'S
UNDERNEATH THIS, WHAT'S THE NEXT
THING YOU'RE GOING TO FIND.

Alice says WHEN THE TEAM BEGAN THE DIG,
THEY WERE UNSURE OF HOW MUCH OF
THE ROMAN TOWN HAD BEEN CRUSHED
BY MILLENNIA OF REBUILDING OVER
IT, BUT WHAT THEY'RE
DISCOVERING IS NOT JUST THE
TRACES OF THE ORIGINAL LAYOUT
OF THIS PART OF EARLY LONDON,
BUT THE VERY FABRIC OF THE
STREETS.
MANY OF THE WOODEN BUILDINGS
ARE PRESERVED UP TO SHOULDER
HEIGHT, UNHEARD OF IN ROMAN
BRITAIN.

Sadie says SO AS WELL AS THE STREET, WE
HAVE THE HOUSES ALONGSIDE THE
STREET, AND THE ALLEYWAYS BEHIND
THE HOUSES.
AND THE OPEN AIR IS WHERE THEY
WERE DUMPING THEIR RUBBISH AND
THINGS LIKE THAT, SO WE HAVE THE
WHOLE STREETSCAPE LAID OUT IN
FRONT OF US.

Alice says THIS INCREDIBLE DIG IS
REVEALING THAT BENEATH THE
MODERN STREETS OF LONDON LIES A
ROMAN TIMBER TOWN, WITH WOODEN
BUILDINGS LINING THE STREETS,
AND A LAYOUT THAT WOULDN'T HAVE
BEEN OUT OF PLACE IN THE WILD
WEST.
THIS ASTONISHING DISCOVERY
REMINDS US THAT LONDON HAS
ALWAYS BEEN EVOLVING, ADAPTING
TO THE NEEDS OF ITS TIME.
FROM ITS HUMBLE WOODEN
BEGINNINGS INTO THE MODERN CITY
THAT WE KNOW TODAY.
HALFWAY THROUGH THE DIG, THE
TEAM START TO EXCAVATE DOWN
INTO THE WOODEN BUILDINGS,
HOPING TO DISCOVER NEW DETAILS
ABOUT THE LIVES OF THE FIRST
LONDONERS.
AND THEY'RE NOT DISAPPOINTED.

The caption changes to "Dig Diary. February 2012."

Sadie says SO THIS IS AN ANNULAR
BROOCH, MADE OF COPPER ALLOY.
AND THE PIN IS GONE, BUT IT
WOULD HAVE BEEN PINNED INTO YOUR
TUNIC.
AND A REALLY HEAVY STEEL YARD
WEIGHT.
AND WE'VE HAD LOTS OF WEIGHTS
AND MEASURES FROM THIS SITE, SO
THE ASSUMPTION IS THAT THEY ARE
DOING INDUSTRIAL WEIGHING AND
MEASURING HERE.

Alice says AS THE DIG CONTINUES, THE
TEAM UNEARTHS A WEALTH OF
PERSONAL FINDS FROM 2,000 YEARS
AGO.
THE FINDS LOOK SO FRESH, THE
WATER-LOGGED CONDITIONS HAVE
SEEMINGLY FROZEN THEM IN TIME.
BUT IT'S ONE PARTICULAR GROUP
OF LEATHER FINDS THAT ALLOWS
THE TEAM THE MOST INTIMATE
INSIGHT INTO LONDON'S FLEDGLING
POPULATION.

The caption changes to "Michael Marshall. Finds specialist, MOLA:."

Michael is in his thirties, with long brown hair in a ponytail and wears glasses and a navy blue shirt. He sits behind a table full of old leather shoe soles.

He says GOT COMING UP FOR ABOUT 500
SHOES, AND YOU CAN SEE VERY
CLEARLY THAT THESE ARE CHILD
SIZE SHOES, AND AT THE OTHER END
OF THE SPECTRUM, YOU'VE GOT
LARGE MEN'S BOOTS.
SO WE HAVE EVIDENCE FOR FAMILIES
LIVING HERE.
IT'S NOT JUST ALL ABOUT ECONOMIC
LIFE, IT'S QUITE A TANGIBLE
CONNECTION TO THE INDIVIDUAL
PEOPLE WHO LIVED HERE.

Alice says THESE ITEMS BELONG TO THE
EARLIEST OCCUPANTS OF OUR
CAPITAL CITY.
THEY ALLOW US TO POPULATE THE
ANCIENT ROMAN STREETS WITH MEN,
WOMEN, SOLDIERS, TRADERS, AND
CHILDREN.
THE FIRST PEOPLE TO CALL
LONDON HOME.
THIS EXCAVATION IS PRODUCING
MORE ROMAN DISCOVERIES THAN ANY
OTHER SITE IN LONDON.
BUT THEN TOWARDS THE END OF THE
DIG, THE TEAM FINDS SOMETHING
TRULY REMARKABLE.
SMALL RECTANGULAR PIECES OF
WOOD.
MORE VALUABLE TO THE
ARCHAEOLOGIST THAN SILVER OR
GOLD, THESE ARE ANCIENT WRITING
TABLETS.

The caption changes to "Dig Diary. March 2012."

The caption changes to "Ben Saunders. Archaeologist. MOLA."

Ben is in his thirties, with long red hair in a ponytail and a beard. He wears glasses, a red T-shirt and protective gear.

He says THERE ARE TWO PIECES
OF WRITING TABLET HERE.
YOU'VE GOT A LITTLE INDENTATION
FOR THE WAX TO GO THERE.
THEY'RE ESSENTIALLY JUST
LETTERS-- REALLY NICE, GETS YOU
CLOSE TO THE PEOPLE.

Alice says INCREDIBLY, THIS WRITING
TABLET WAS NOT ALONE.
IN THE END, THE TEAM WOULD FIND
MORE THAN 400 OF THEM.
THE LARGEST COLLECTION OF THEIR
KIND EVER FOUND.
BUT THE BIG QUESTION WAS WOULD
THEY DISCOVER ANY WRITING ON
THEM?
THESE WOULD HAVE BEEN WAX
TABLETS.
THE WAX ITSELF IS LONG GONE,
BUT ARE THERE ANY TRACES OF THE
WRITING ON THE WOOD ITSELF?
THE TEAM IS IN LUCK.
THEY CAN SEE THE IMPRESSIONS OF
LETTERS.
BUT IN ORDER TO READ THEM, THEY
NEED TO BRING IN A SPECIALIST.
PROFESSOR ROGER TOMLIN IS ONE
OF THE WORLD LEADERS IN
TRANSLATING LATIN SHORTHAND.
WORKING FROM PHOTOGRAPHS AND
HAND DRAWINGS, HE HAS THE
DAUNTING TASK OF DECIPHERING
THE WRITING.
NOW I'M INVITING ROGER AND
SADIE INTO THE LAB WITH THESE
AMAZING TABLETS, SO THAT I CAN
FINALLY HEAR THE VOICES OF
THE FIRST LONDONERS.
WHAT AN AMAZING SITE, AND HOW
FANTASTIC TO HAVE WRITING
PRESERVED!
SO ROGER, WHAT DO THESE LETTERS
ACTUALLY SAY?
WHAT DO THEY TELL US?

The caption changes to "Roger Tomlin. Oxford University."

Roger is in his sixties, bald and clean-shaven and wears a blue turtleneck sweater and a blue blazer.

He says WELL, THEY TELL US ALL SORTS
OF TANTALIZING EXTRACTS OF WHAT
ROMAN BUSINESSMEN WERE WRITING
TO EACH OTHER ABOUT.
THIS IS A PARTICULARLY WELL
PRESERVED TABLET, AND WHEN I SAW
THIS IN THE CONSERVATION BAG
WHEN IT WAS STILL WET, I WAS
VERY EXCITED, BECAUSE I COULD
READ THE FIRST WORD AT THE TOP
LEFT-HAND CORNER, WHICH WAS
"NERONE," WHICH IS CLEARLY A
REFERENCE TO NERO, THE EMPEROR
NERO.
AND THEN THE DATE, THE 8TH OF
JANUARY, 57.

Alice says AMAZING.

Roger says AND THEN THE BEGINNING OF THE
TEXT IS WRITTEN BY A MAN CALLED
TIBULLUS, AND HE ACKNOWLEDGES HE
OWES A SUM OF 105 DENARII IN
RESPECTIVE GOODS SOLD AND
DELIVERED.

Alice says SO AN INCREDIBLY EARLY
FINANCIAL DOCUMENT?

Roger says YES, IT SEEMS TO BE THE
EARLIEST DATED FINANCIAL
DOCUMENT, ONLY ABOUT TEN YEARS
AFTER THE ROMANS GOT TO LONDON.
AND HERE THEY ARE SETTING UP
BUSINESS ENTERPRISES, IMPORTING
AND EXPORTING.

Alice says NOT MUCH HAS CHANGED!

Roger says WELL, NO, NOT MUCH HAS
CHANGED.

Alice says AND WHAT ABOUT THE NAMES?
DO THEY GIVE US AN INSIGHT INTO
WHO THESE PEOPLE WERE, WHERE
THEY'D COME FROM?

Roger says WELL, IDEALLY THEY TELL US
WHO THE PERSON IS, AND THIS IS A
NICE EXAMPLE HERE.
IT'S AN ADDRESS OF A LETTER,
WHICH READS "DAUBES, YOU WILL
GIVE THIS LETTER TO JUNIUS THE
CUPARIUS," THE COOPER, THE
BARREL MAKER.
A BREWERY SOMEWHERE IN THE AREA.
AND PRESUMABLY JUNIUS IS MAKING
BARRELS FOR IT.

Alice says IT'S JUST ASTONISHING!
YOU KNOW, THIS IS THE KIND OF
DETAIL WE EXPECT FROM, YOU KNOW,
THE SECOND WORLD WAR.
AND TO BE ABLE TO RECONSTRUCT
THAT LEVEL OF DETAIL GOING BACK
2,000 YEARS AGO, THAT'S AMAZING.
WHAT ABOUT THE OTHER OBJECTS,
SADIE?
WHAT ABOUT-- WHAT ABOUT THESE
BEAUTIFUL BROOCHES?
DO THEY GIVE US CLUES AS WELL,
AS TO WHERE PEOPLE WERE COMING
FROM?

Sadie says CERTAINLY THEY DO, AND
BROOCHES TELL YOU A LOT, BECAUSE
PEOPLE TEND TO BRING THEM WITH
THEM FROM WHEREVER IT IS THEY'VE
COME FROM, TO LONDON.
SO WE HAVE LOTS AND LOTS OF
EXAMPLES FROM THE WESTERN ROMAN
EMPIRE, GAUL AND THE RHINELAND,
PARTICULARLY.
UM, BUT THIS SUPERBLY DECORATED
WONDERFUL EXAMPLE IS ACTUALLY
FROM WHAT WE NOW CALL NORFOLK,
SO IT'S FROM THE ICENI TRIBE.

Alice says OH, BOUDICCA'S TRIBE.

Sadie says BOUDICCA'S TRIBE, EXACTLY.
AND WHO WOULD HAVE MOVED INTO
LONDON AND WORKED AND LIVED
AMONGST THE LONDONERS AS WELL,
SO NOT ONLY DO WE HAVE PEOPLE
COMING FROM OUTSIDE BRITAIN, TO
COME TO LONDON AND FOUND THIS
TOWN IN OPEN FIELDS, WE ALSO
HAVE PEOPLE COMING FROM
ELSEWHERE ACROSS THE COUNTRY,
TO LIVE AND WORK HERE, AS WELL.

Alice says IT SEEMS THAT JUST LIKE TODAY
THE FIRST LONDON DREW ITS
INHABITANTS FROM ACROSS BRITAIN
AND EUROPE.
SO WE ARE REALLY LOOKING AT THE
VERY BEGINNING OF LONDON.
WHAT WOULD IT HAVE BEEN LIKE?

Sadie says WELL, WE HAVE EVIDENCE OF
COURSE THAT THERE IS COMMERCIAL
ACTIVITY GOING ON WITH THE
WRITING TABLETS FROM THE VERY
BEGINNING.
WE ALSO HAVE ASSEMBLAGE OF
MILITARIA, SO WE KNOW THAT THE
ARMY WERE HERE IN GREAT NUMBER.
THERE WOULD HAVE BEEN INDUSTRY
SUCH AS METALWORKING, SLIGHTLY
MORE NOXIOUS ONES, LEATHER-
WORKING... ALL THE THINGS THAT
YOU WOULD EXPECT, REALLY, BUT
LIVING CHEEK-BY-JOWL WITH
EVERYTHING ELSE, AS WELL.
WE ALSO HAVE-- ONE OF THE
TABLETS HAS AN ALPHABET ON IT.

Alice says THIS ONE HERE?

Sadie says YEAH, THIS ONE HERE.
POSSIBLE EVIDENCE OF EDUCATION,
SOMEBODY LEARNING OR PRACTICING
THEIR ALPHABET.

Roger says A, B, C, D...
AND SO ON.

Alice says OH, THAT'S JUST
EXTRAORDINARY, THAT'S WONDERFUL!
SOME ROMAN CHILD LEARNING TO
READ AND WRITE.

Sadie says SO IT'S A REAL MIX OF
ACTIVITY.

Alice says SO THE VERY, VERY EARLIEST
BEGINNINGS OF SOMETHING, BUT A
LOT OF THINGS WHICH REMAIN VERY
FAMILIAR TO US TODAY.
BANKING, BEER, AND THIS MELTING
POT OF CULTURES.

Sadie says MM-HM, ABSOLUTELY.

(music plays)

Alice says THE BLOOMBERG DIG HAS
REVEALED THE FORGOTTEN VOICES
OF THE PEOPLE THAT FIRST BUILT
LONDON, AND AS THE MOLA TEAM
FINISHES THE ANALYSIS OF THE
FINDS OVER THE COMING YEAR,
THEY'LL BE ABLE TO GIVE US A
UNIQUELY DETAILED PICTURE OF AN
ENTIRE NEIGHBOURHOOD IN A ROMAN
BRITISH TOWN.
BY THE MIDDLE OF THE SECOND
CENTURY AD, LONDON HAD BECOME
ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT
TRADING CENTRES IN NORTHERN
EUROPE.
AS WELL AS THE CAPITAL OF ROMAN
BRITAIN.
BUT IT COULD HAVE TURNED OUT
VERY DIFFERENTLY.
LONDON WASN'T THE FIRST CAPITAL
OF ROMAN BRITAIN... COLCHESTER
WAS-- THAT IS, UP UNTIL THE
MIDDLE OF THE FIRST CENTURY WHEN
IT MET A GRISLY FATE.
AND I'M TOLD THE BEST PLACE TO
UNDERSTAND THIS STORY IS
UNDERNEATH THE CASTLE.
IN AD 60, WITHIN 20 YEARS OF
LONDON BEING FOUNDED, THE
BRITISH WARRIOR QUEEN BOUDICCA
REVOLTED AGAINST ROMAN RULE.
AND EVENTUALLY LED AN ARMY OF
ENRAGED NATIVES RIGHT INTO
COLCHESTER.
AT THE HEART OF THE TOWN WAS
THE TEMPLE OF CLAUDIUS, AND IT
WAS SITUATED RIGHT HERE.
AMAZINGLY, IT'S FOUNDATIONS
STILL SURVIVE, AND CURATOR
GLYNN DAVIS IS TAKING ME DOWN
INTO THE BASEMENT TO SEE THEM.

They walk into the basement and says THIS IS INCREDIBLE, GLYNN!

The caption changes to "Glynn Davis. Senior collections and learning curator, Colchester Museums."

Glynn is in his forties, balding and with a beard. He wears glasses, beige trousers, and a plaid shirt.

He says YES, THIS IS A VERY SPECIAL
SPACE.
WE'RE ACTUALLY STANDING IN A
FULL SPACE.
WE'RE STANDING IN A CHAMBER THAT
WOULD HAVE ORIGINALLY BEEN
FILLED WITH SAND, AND THIS
CONSTRUCT, MADE OF A HUGE
PLATFORM OR PODIUM, UPON WHICH
THE TEMPLE OF CLAUDIUS-- THE
LARGEST OF ITS KIND IN ROMAN
BRITAIN AT THE TIME, WOULD HAVE
BEEN BUILT.

Alice says SO WHAT HAPPENED TO THE
TEMPLE, THEN?
'CAUSE OBVIOUSLY COLCHESTER WAS
ATTACKED DURING THE BOUDICAN
REBELLION.

Glynn says IT WAS... NOW, YOU HAVE TO
REMEMBER THE TEMPLE OF CLAUDIUS
WAS ALSO WHERE THE IMPERIAL CULT
WAS WORSHIPPED.
IN A WAY, IT WAS A SYMBOL OF
ROME, AND TO THE ROMAN BRITS, A
SYMBOL OF THEIR OPPRESSION.
AND THIS WOULD HAVE BEEN A
TARGET.
AND AFTER BURNING A LOT OF THE
TOWN, BOUDICCA AND THE TRIBES
WHO UNITED WITH HER WOULD HAVE
BEELINED TO THIS TEMPLE, WHERE
THE TOWNSFOLK BASICALLY SOUGHT
REFUGE.
AND WE KNOW FROM TACITUS, OUR
ANCIENT ROMAN WRITER, THAT THEY
BESIEGED THE TEMPLE FOR TWO
DAYS.

Alice says IT MUST HAVE BEEN ABSOLUTELY
TERRIFYING FOR THE PEOPLE OF
COLCHESTER WHO HAD SEALED
THEMSELVES UP IN THIS TEMPLE
WHEN BOUDICCA ARRIVED WITH HER
ARMY.

Glynn says IT MUST HAVE BEEN, I MEAN,
YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT HUNDREDS OF
MEN, WOMEN, CHILDREN.
HEARING THE SHOUTING AND THE
RAMPAGE OUTSIDE.
AND OF COURSE THEY START TO SET
FIRE TO THE TEMPLE, SO IT
STARTS TO HEAT UP.
MAYBE EVEN ELEMENTS OF IT START
TO FALL AFTER TWO DAYS.
AND IT'S AFTER THOSE TWO DAYS,
TACITUS TELLS US, THAT THEY
EVENTUALLY BROKE DOWN THOSE
FRONT DOORS.
AND THEN, A BLOODBATH.
ABOVE OUR HEADS, 2000 YEARS
AGO, WOULD HAVE BEEN ABSOLUTE
CARNAGE.

Alice says AND WHAT ABOUT AFTER THE
REBELLION, 'CAUSE THAT REBELLION
EVENTUALLY FAILED.

Glynn says IT EVENTUALLY FAILED WITH A
HUGE LOSS OF LIFE ON BOTH SIDES.
AND COLCHESTER WAS REBUILT.
INDEED, THE TEMPLE WAS REBUILT,
BUT COLCHESTER NEVER RETAINS
THAT CAPITAL-- THAT MOVES ONTO
LONDON, LONDINIUM.
AND IT NEVER QUITE REACHES THE
HEIGHTS THAT LONDINIUM DOES
AFTER THAT.

Alice says SO IT NEVER QUITE RECOVERS
FROM THAT-- THE ONSLAUGHT OF
BOUDICCA.

Glynn says THAT DEVASTATION, NO.

Alice says YEAH.

Glynn says THEY LEFT A MARK.

Alice says ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES
FROM BOTH LONDON AND COLCHESTER
HAVE ADDED FLESH TO THE BARE
BONES OF HISTORY, REVEALING THE
LIVES OF THE PEOPLE THAT LIVED
THROUGH THE BLOODY BEGINNINGS
OF ROMAN BRITAIN.
OUR NEXT STORY TAKES US INTO
THE ENGLISH CHANNEL, TO ONE OF
THE RICHEST SHIPWRECKS OFF OUR
SHORES.

The animated map shoes the location of the wreck of the Rooswijk.

Alice says THE GOODWIN SANDS ARE NOTORIOUS
AS SWALLOWERS OF SHIPS.
TODAY THE REMAINS OF OVER 2,000
WRECKS LITTER THE AREA.
ONE OF THEM IS THE ROOSWIJK, A
DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY SHIP
THAT SANK IN 1740 ON ITS WAY
OUT TO INDONESIA.
IN THE 17TH AND 18TH CENTURY,
BRITAIN AND THE NETHERLANDS
WERE TWO OF EUROPE'S LEADING
POWERS.
BOTH WERE GREAT SEAFARING
NATIONS, LOCKED IN A BATTLE FOR
CONTROL OF THE LUCRATIVE TRADE
WITH ASIA.
FOR THE WINNER, THE PRIZE WAS
ENORMOUS WEALTH.
THE RACE FOR THE EAST WAS A
DANGEROUS BUSINESS, AND IT
WASN'T JUST ABOUT THE WEALTH OF
INDIVIDUALS AND CORPORATIONS,
BUT OF ENTIRE NATIONS.
AS ARCHAEOLOGISTS GET TO WORK ON
THE LARGEST UNDERWATER
EXCAVATION SINCE THE MARY ROSE,
THEY'RE HOPING TO GAIN INSIGHTS
INTO JUST HOW HIGH THE STAKES
AND THE RISKS REALLY WERE.
THE EAST INDIA SHIPS WERE
STUFFED WITH INCREDIBLE RICHES
TO TRADE WITH THE FAR EAST.
WHAT MAKES THE ROOSWIJK SO
SPECIAL IS THAT IT SANK WITH
ALL OF ITS CARGO, AND NOTHING
WAS EVER SALVAGED.
NOW A TEAM FROM HISTORIC
ENGLAND AND THE DUTCH
GOVERNMENT IS INVESTIGATING.
THEY HOPE TO UNDERSTAND MORE
ABOUT THESE TRADE ROUTES, AND
THE LEVEL OF FINANCIAL RISK
TAKEN BY THE TRADERS ON EACH
VOYAGE.
UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGIST
MARTIJN MANDERS IS LEADING THE
TEAM.

The caption changes to "Dive Diary. August 2017."

The caption changes to "Martjin Manders. Project director. Dutch Cultural Heritage Agency."

Martjin is in his forties, with short receding gray hair and a beard. He wears a black T-shirt and a life vest.

He says WE'RE NOW ON BOARD OF THE
SCHELLING, WHICH IS OUR RESEARCH
SHIP, AND WE'RE JUST RIGHT ABOVE
THE SHIPWRECK.
WITHIN THREE MONTHS, WE HAVE TO
EXCAVATE A VERY LARGE SHIP.
WELL, LUCKILY WE ALREADY DO THE
STERN PART OF THE SHIP.
I THINK PEOPLE WILL BE AMAZED
WITH WHAT WE BRING UP.

Alice says THE TEAM HAVE DECIDED TO
EXCAVATE THE BACK HALF OF THE
SHIP, BECAUSE IT IS THE BEST
PRESERVED SECTION.
PART OF THE CARGO HOLD IS
LOCATED HERE, SO THEY'RE
CONFIDENT THEY'LL BE ABLE TO
FIND EVIDENCE OF WHAT THE
ROOSWIJK WAS TAKING TO THE EAST
INDIES.
BUT EXCAVATING A SHIPWRECK ON
THE PERILOUS GOODWIN SANDS IS A
COMPLEX OPERATION.
THE UNPREDICTABLE WEATHER AND
STRONG CURRENTS MEAN THAT TIME
AND TIDES ARE ALWAYS AGAINST
THEM.
IN LATE AUGUST, AFTER MONTHS OF
PREPARATION, THEY FINALLY BEGIN
THE DIVING OPERATION.

A man in the control room of the boat says JUST TO CONFIRM, THEY CAN
WAIT A COUPLE OF METRES OFF THE
SEABED.

A woman on the radio says COPY THAT.

Alice says SLOWLY, THE GHOSTLY
TIMBERS OF THE ROOSWIJK BECOME
VISIBLE AMONGST THE GLOOM.
THE TEAM GETS TO WORK USING
GIANT SUCTION TUBES KNOWN AS
AIR LIFTS, TO HELP THEM CLEAR
AWAY CENTURIES OF SAND FROM THE
WRECK.
THEN THEIR HARD WORK PAYS OFF.
THEY GET THEIR FIRST GLIMPSE OF
THE ROOSWIJK'S LOST CARGO.

The caption changes to "Thijs Coenen. Archaeologist."

Thijs is in his forties, with short blond hair and wears gray trousers, a gray sweater and a life vest.

He says OVER HERE WE'VE GOT A FEW OF
THE ARTIFACTS THAT WE EXCAVATED
SO FAR.
THESE ARE VERY NICE JUGS.
ACTUALLY WE FOUND QUITE A FEW
DOWN THERE, CLOSE TOGETHER, SO
THIS COULD BE THAT IT WAS CARGO,
MEANT FOR TRADING.

Alice says THESE TANKARDS PROVIDE THE
FIRST INSIGHTS INTO THE KIND OF
GOODS THAT WERE BEING TRADED IN
THE FAR EAST.
BUT THE TEAM NEEDS MORE
EVIDENCE TO FIND OUT ABOUT THE
TRUE SCALE OF WEALTH THAT WAS
STOWED ON BOARD.
THEY NEED TO EXPLORE FURTHER
INTO THE WRECK.
HOWEVER, WHAT THEY BEGIN TO
RETRIEVE IS... COPPER SHEETING.

Martjin says THERE WASN'T MUCH THAT PEOPLE
NEEDED IN THE DUTCH INDIES, BUT
WHAT THEY DID NEED WAS BUILDING
MATERIAL.
SO A LOT OF RAW MATERIAL, COPPER
AND ALSO A LOT OF JUST... NORMAL
BRICKS-- THEY WERE WEIGHT, SO
THEY WERE BALLAST, BUT IN A WAY,
THEY WERE ALSO GOODS TO BE SOLD.

Alice says THESE DISCOVERIES ARE
IMPORTANT EVIDENCE OF HOW THE
BRITISH AND THE DUTCH BUILT
THEIR SETTLEMENTS IN THE EAST.
BUT THEY WEREN'T JUST OUT TO
BUILD COLONIES.
THE REAL REASON FOR TAKING SUCH
RISKS WITH AN EIGHT MONTH
VOYAGE ACROSS PIRATE AND STORM
RIDDEN WATERS WAS TRADE.
THE KEY MISSION OF THESE SHIPS
WAS TO TAKE OUT WEALTH FROM THE
NETHERLANDS AND BRITAIN, AND
BRING BACK RICHES FROM THE
ORIENT.
EXOTIC GOODS LIKE SPICES AND
TEXTILES.
ITEMS THAT WERE WORTH A FORTUNE
BACK IN EUROPE.
HISTORICAL RECORDS SUGGEST THAT
THIS SHIP SHOULD HAVE BEEN
LADEN WITH SILVER CURRENCY, BUT
THE TEAM HOPES TO DISCOVER THE
TRUE SCALE OF THE INVESTMENT
INVOLVED IN A SINGLE VOYAGE.
AFTER WEEKS SPENT LIVING ON THE
RESEARCH SHIP AND DIVING DAY
AND NIGHT, THEY'VE FINALLY HIT
THE JACKPOT.

The caption changes to "Dive Diary. September 2017."

Martjin says WE FOUND LOADS AND LOADS OF
COINS.
WE HAVE SILVER FROM MEXICO, WE
ALSO HAVE SILVER FROM THE POTOSI
MINES IN BOLIVIA.

A woman says SO IT'S WORTH EIGHT
REALS, MOST OF THE ONES THAT
WE'VE GOT SO FAR HAVE BEEN FROM
MEXICO.

Alice says THE DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY,
ALSO KNOWN AS THE VOC, TRADED
USING SPANISH SILVER.
AS THE ARCHAEOLOGISTS CONTINUE
DIVING, THEY RETRIEVE HUNDREDS
MORE COINS, BUT TOWARDS THE END
OF THE PROJECT, THEY MAKE AN
UNUSUAL DISCOVERY.

A diver says THEY'RE COMING IN CLUSTERS,
YEAH, COMING IN CLUSTERS.

Alice says NOT ALL THE COINS APPEAR TO
BE OFFICIAL SPANISH CURRENCY.

The caption changes to "Tom Flatt. Diver."

Tom is in his thirties, with short wavy brown hair and wears a black T-shirt and a life vest.

He says WE'VE ONLY JUST STARTED
UNCOVERING THESE ONES, A LOT OF
THE MONEY THAT'S BEEN RECOVERED
HAS BEEN THE SPANISH MONEY SO
FAR.
I BELIEVE THESE ARE RIDERS,
THESE ARE DUTCH COINS.

Alice says THIS LEADS MARTIJN TO A
SURPRISING CONCLUSION-- HE
BELIEVES THAT THE DUTCH MONEY
BELONGED TO THE CREW
THEMSELVES.

Martjin says I THINK WE'RE GETTING TO THE
PERSONAL STUFF BECAUSE OF THE
COINS THAT ARE SO DIFFERENT FROM
THE CARGO.
UM, THE COINS OF THE VOC, SO WE
ARE GETTING TO PERSONAL
BELONGINGS, REALLY INTERESTING.

Alice says SO WHY WERE THE MEN ON BOARD
THE ROOSWIJK TRANSPORTING SUCH
LARGE QUANTITIES OF PERSONAL
WEALTH TO INDONESIA?
I'VE ASKED MARTIJN TO COME INTO
THE LAB WITH THIS EXTRAORDINARY
HAUL OF SILVER COINS.
I'M JUST AMAZED AT WHAT A HUGE
AMOUNT OF WEALTH WENT DOWN WITH
THIS SHIP.
I MEAN, THIS IS LIKE A FLOATING
BANK.
(LAUGHING)

Martjin laughs and says YES, WELL, IN A WAY IT WAS.
WE KNOW THAT IT HAD 36,000 COINS
FROM MEXICO, THE PILLAR DOLLARS,
ON BOARD OF THE SHIP.
THE VOC WOULD TAKE A LOT OF
COINS WITH THEM FROM THE SAME
KIND OF DATES, VERY SHORTLY
BEFORE THE VOC WOULD GO OUT.
SO WE THINK THAT LOOKING AT THE
DATE, 1737, JUST BEFORE THE SHIP
WENT OUT, WE THINK THIS IS THE
MONEY THEY TOOK ALONG WITH THEM.

Alice says SO THAT'S KIND OF OFFICIAL
BUSINESS, THAT'S OFFICIAL VOC
MONEY.

Martjin says EXACTLY, AND IT IS EIGHT
REALS, SO A PIECE OF EIGHT, AS
THEY SAY.
THESE COINS WE FIND HERE HAVE A
MUCH OLDER DATE.
AND THESE ARE DUCATONS FROM THE
SOUTHERN NETHERLANDS.
AND THESE ARE FROM 1619, SO 120
YEARS BEFORE THE SHIP SANK.

Alice says SO WHERE ARE THESE EARLY
COINS FROM, THEN?

Martjin says EXACTLY, WELL, THEY WERE
SMUGGLED.
THEY WERE SMUGGLED ON BOARD.
AND WHY WOULD THEY SMUGGLE
MONEY, AND WHO WOULD SMUGGLE
MONEY?
WELL, IT'S ACTUALLY EVERYBODY,
FROM THE CAPTAIN UNTIL THE MOST
SIMPLE SEAMAN, THEY WOULD BRING
SILVER FROM THE NETHERLANDS TO
THE DUTCH INDIES, BECAUSE SILVER
WAS WORTH MORE IN THE INDIES
THAN IN THE NETHERLANDS.

Alice says THAT'S JUST EXTRAORDINARY.
SO THERE'S THE OFFICIAL BUSINESS
OF THE VOC, AND THEN EVERYONE ON
BOARD, FROM THE CAPTAIN DOWN TO
THE HUMBLEST SAILOR ALSO STOOD
TO MAKE A PERSONAL GAIN FROM
THIS VOYAGE.

Martjin says EXACTLY.

Alice says BUT MARTIJN ALSO BELIEVES
THAT SMUGGLING PLAYED A
SIGNIFICANT PART IN THE FINAL
DEMISE OF THE EAST INDIA
COMPANIES.

Martjin says THE FUNNY THING ABOUT THE
SMUGGLING MONEY IS THAT ALTHOUGH
IT WAS ILLEGAL, PEOPLE WOULD
EVEN BORROW FROM OFFICIAL BANKS,
MONEY TO BRING TO THE EAST
INDIES AS WELL, AND WHEN THEY
LOST THE MONEY, THEY HAD TO GO
TO COURT, OR THE WIDOWS HAD TO
GO TO COURT.

Alice says YEAH.

Martjin says AND THERE WAS SO MUCH
CORRUPTION THAT IN 1795, THE VOC
WAS SO MUCH UP TO ITS DEBT THAT
IT WENT BANKRUPT, AND ALL THE
ASSETS OF THE VOC CAME TO THE
DUTCH GOVERNMENT.

Alice says SO THAT WAS WHAT, 50-ODD
YEARS AFTER THE SHIPWRECK, THE
COMPANY WENT BUST.

Martjin says EXACTLY.

Alice says AND I THINK WHAT THIS
SHIPWRECK SHOWS US IS BASICALLY
ON THE ONE HAND, WHAT THERE WAS
TO GAIN FROM THIS INTERNATIONAL
TRADE, BUT ALSO THE IMMENSE
RISKS THAT WERE TAKEN.

Martjin says WELL, THAT'S EXACTLY THE
TRUTH, YEAH.

(music plays)

Alice says THE EAST INDIA COMPANIES WERE
THE WORLD'S FIRST MULTINATIONAL
CORPORATIONS.
THEY ACCUMULATED VAST FORTUNES
BUT WERE PRONE TO CORRUPTION
AND MISMANAGEMENT.
IT WAS THE DUTCH THAT FOLDED
FIRST.
THE BRITISH SOON FOLLOWED, BUT
NOT BEFORE THEY'D EXPANDED
THEIR INFLUENCE IN ASIA.
WHEN THE GOVERNMENT TOOK OVER
THE BUSINESS, THE FOUNDATIONS
HAD ALREADY BEEN LAID FOR
BRITAIN'S EMPIRE IN THE EAST.
ARCHAEOLOGY PROVIDES US WITH
ANOTHER WAY OF LOOKING AT
HISTORY, ADDING TO AND
SOMETIMES CHALLENGING THE
WRITTEN RECORDS.
BUT WHEN IT COMES TO PREHISTORY
WE RELY SOLELY ON EVIDENCE
UNEARTHED FROM THE GROUND.
AND THAT'S EXACTLY THE CASE
WITH OUR NEXT DIG AS WE HEAD TO
BARNHAM IN EAST ANGLIA, WHERE
ARCHAEOLOGISTS ARE SEARCHING
FOR THE ANSWER TO AN OLD STONE
AGE MYSTERY.
400,000 YEARS AGO, BRITAIN WAS A
VERY DIFFERENT PLACE INDEED.
THERE WAS SAVANNAH HERE, WHERE
ELEPHANTS, RHINO, AND LIONS
ROAMED, ALONGSIDE SOME OF OUR
EARLY ANCESTORS.
AND ANY EVIDENCE THAT WE CAN GET
OF THESE PEOPLE AND THE WAY THAT
THEY BEHAVED IS INCREDIBLY
PRECIOUS.
THAT'S EXACTLY WHAT OUR NEXT
EXCAVATION IS REVEALING.
AROUND 400,000 YEARS AGO, THERE
IS EVIDENCE OF AN EXPANDING
HUMAN POPULATION, RIGHT ACROSS
NORTHERN EUROPE, INCLUDING
BRITAIN.
BUT WHO WERE THESE PEOPLE AND
WHY WERE THEY HERE?
PART OF THE ANSWER MAY LIE IN A
DISUSED CLAY PIT NEAR THE
VILLAGE OF BARNHAM.
AN INCREDIBLY WELL PRESERVED
STONE AGE SITE, FIRST
DISCOVERED BY THE VICTORIANS.
NICK ASHTON FROM THE BRITISH
MUSEUM IS ONE OF THE LEADERS OF
THE TEAM.

Nick is in his fifties, with short gray hair and a beard. He wears glasses, beige trousers and a striped polo shirt.

Nick says WE'RE JUST HERE FOR
THREE WEEKS, SO DAY TWO, WE'VE
GOT ANOTHER 20 TO GO, SO A LOT
OF WORK TO BE DONE.

Alice says THE TEAM STARTS THE DIG BY
TRYING TO DISCOVER WHAT THE
ENVIRONMENT WAS LIKE FOR SOME
OF BRITAIN'S EARLIEST
OCCUPANTS, INVESTIGATING AN
AREA THAT WAS ONCE ON THE EDGE
OF AN ANCIENT LAKE.
IT'S NOT LONG BEFORE THE TEAM'S
ANIMAL BONE EXPERT, SIMON
PARFITT, IS CALLED IN TO
IDENTIFY THE FIRST FIND.

The caption changes to "Dig Diary. Day 2."

Simon is in his fifties, with short gray hair and a beard. He wears glasses, a white shirt and a beige hat.

He says IT'S A POND TERRAPIN,
SO THIS IS ONE OF THE REALLY
IMPORTANT ELEMENTS IN THE ANIMAL
ASSEMBLAGE THAT TELLS US ABOUT
THE CLIMATE.
SO TODAY, THESE ANIMALS ARE
LIVING IN MORE CONTINENTAL
EUROPE, IN PARTS OF FRANCE WHERE
THE SUMMERS ARE MUCH WARMER.
SO THIS PROVIDES A REALLY GOOD
INDICATION OF WHAT THE CLIMATE
WAS LIKE.
(ELEPHANT TRUMPETING)

Alice says 400,000 YEARS AGO, BRITAIN
WAS A VERY DIFFERENT PLACE.
MUCH WARMER THAN TODAY, WITH
ANIMALS THAT SEEM EXOTIC TO US
NOW.

The caption changes to "Simon Parfitt. Co-dig director."

Simon says WE FOUND THE EDGE OF A PIECE
OF BONE... IF WE TAKE IT OUT, WE
CAN SEE THAT IT'S A SPONGY BONE
IN THE MIDDLE, AND VERY THICK
CORTICAL BONE.
IT'S ACTUALLY THE RIB OF AN
ELEPHANT.
SO THIS IS OBVIOUSLY A TINY
FRAGMENT OF A VERY LARGE RIB.

Alice says AND LIVING RIGHT NEXT TO THE
ELEPHANTS... WERE HUMANS.

Simon says IN THIS AREA, WE FOUND
ARTIFACTS THROUGH THIS PART OF
THE SEQUENCE, AND THESE ARE HARD
HAMMER FLAKES, UM, PART OF THE
CLACTONIAN INDUSTRY, SO, YEAH,
THIS IS PART OF THE CONTEMPORARY
VERTEBRATE LIFE THAT WAS LIVING
WITH HUMANS AT THAT TIME.

Alice says CLACTONIAN IS THE NAME GIVEN
TO A PARTICULAR STONE TOOL KIT,
INCLUDING SIMPLE FLAKES OF
FLINT USED FOR BUTCHERY.
THESE TOOLS MAY LOOK
UNREMARKABLE, BUT TO THE
ARCHAEOLOGIST'S EYE, THEY HAVE
THE TELL-TALE SIGNS OF BEING
WORKED BY A HUMAN HAND.
THEY'RE EVIDENCE THAT PEOPLE
WERE LIVING AND HUNTING HERE IN
EARLY BRITAIN.
BUT THEN TOWARDS THE END OF
WEEK ONE, THE TEAM FINDS A MORE
ADVANCED STONE AGE TECHNOLOGY.

Nick says WE'RE AT THE END OF DAY SIX,
AND UM, A FANTASTIC FIND, FOUND
IN AREA THREE JUST AS WE'RE
PACKING UP.
UH, THIS INCREDIBLE HAND AXE.
AND, UM, IT'S ONLY THE THIRD
WE'VE FOUND FROM THE SITE IN,
I THINK, ABOUT 10 YEARS OF
DIGGING.
AS YOU CAN SEE IT'S INCREDIBLY
FRESH CONDITION, IT'S THIS BLACK
FLINT, VERY FRESH EDGES.

Alice says THIS EXQUISITE HAND AXE IS
MUCH MORE ADVANCED COMPARED
WITH THE BASIC FLINT TOOLS THAT
THE TEAM HAS BEEN FINDING SO
FAR.
SO THE QUESTION IS...
DID THE PEOPLE LIVING HERE MAKE
A SUDDEN TECHNOLOGICAL LEAP
FORWARD, OR IS THIS HAND AXE
EVIDENCE OF A DIFFERENT GROUP
COMING INTO THE AREA?
IT'S NOT CLEAR YET, SO THE TEAM
CONTINUE THEIR HUNT FOR MORE
CLUES, AND IN WEEK TWO, THEY
FIND SOMETHING SURPRISING AND
EXCITING.

A man at the site says GOT SOME BURNED FLINT...

Another man says YES, THERE ARE
MULTIPLE PIECES HERE.

Alice says THIS EVIDENCE IS FOUND IN THE
SAME BAND OF SOIL AS THE MORE
ADVANCED TOOLS, AND FROM THE
BURNING PATTERN, NICK BELIEVES
THAT THIS COULD BE INTENTIONAL
USE OF FIRE BY HUMANS.

The caption changes to "Dig Diary. Day 15."

Nick says THE INTERESTING THING
IS THE QUANTITY OF BURNED FLINT
THAT'S COMING UP, SO IT'S
ASSOCIATED WITH THE GROUP OF
PEOPLE WHO ARE MAKING HAND AXES.
A REALLY INTERESTING CONCLUSION
IS THE USE OF FIRE AND THE
MANUFACTURE OF HAND AXES, ARE
THEY TWO PARTS OF THE
TECHNOLOGICAL PACKAGE THAT THEY
BRING INTO THE AREA AT THIS
TIME?
UM, I MUST CONFESS, I STILL KEEP
AN OPEN MIND, BUT I'M INCLINING
MORE AND MORE TOWARDS THE
CONCLUSION THAT PEOPLE WERE
ACTUALLY USING FIRE IN THIS AREA
AND IT'S NOT JUST A NATURAL
FIRE.

Alice says THIS POTENTIAL EVIDENCE FOR
HUMANS USING FIRE COULD BE
AMONG THE EARLIEST EVER FOUND
IN BRITAIN.
COMBINED WITH THE MORE ADVANCED
STONE TOOLS, IT SUGGESTS THAT A
NEW GROUP OF PEOPLE WAS
ARRIVING HERE, BUT WHO WERE
THEY, AND WHERE DID THEY COME
FROM?
NICK HAS BROUGHT SOME OF THE
ARTIFACTS INTO THE LAB TO HELP
US ANSWER SOME OF THESE
QUESTIONS.
WELL, NICK, THIS IS A REALLY
EXCITING SITE, AND THANK YOU FOR
BRINGING IN THE FINDS!
NOW YOU'VE GOT THESE TWO
DIFFERENT TYPES OF STONE
TECHNOLOGY ON THE SAME SITE.

Nick says YES, SO OVER HERE ON THE
RIGHT YOU HAVE VERY SIMPLE
FLAKES, THEY'LL DO THE JOB BUT
THEY'RE VERY SIMPLE.
AND OVER HERE, WE HAVE A CLEAR
CHANGE IN THE TECHNOLOGY AND YOU
HAVE THIS BEAUTIFUL HAND AXE.

Alice says THAT'S BEAUTIFUL, VERY
INDIVIDUAL THING.
SO WHO DO YOU THINK WAS MAKING
THE CLACTONIAN, AND WHO DO YOU
THINK WAS MAKING THAT?

Nick says IF I WAS TO HAZARD A GUESS,
AND IT IS ONLY A GUESS... MAYBE
YOU'VE GOT HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS
MAKING THESE MORE PRIMITIVE
LOOKING TOOLS, AND PERHAPS THE
HAND AXE MAKERS ARE VERY EARLY
NEANDERTHALS.

Alice says SO THIS COULD BE EVIDENCE OF
THE FIRST NEANDERTHALS IN
BRITAIN?

Nick says UH, YEAH, SOME OF THE FIRST
EVIDENCE.

Alice says OH, THAT'S REALLY EXCITING!
HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS AND
NEANDERTHALS ARE THOUGHT TO BE
THE TWO MAIN SPECIES OF HUMANS
LIVING IN NORTHERN EUROPE
AROUND THIS TIME.
AN ANCIENT LAND BRIDGE WITH THE
CONTINENT WOULD HAVE ALLOWED
THEM EASY ACCESS INTO WHAT IS
NOW BRITAIN.
HERE'S A TRICKY QUESTION, WHY
ARE THEY COMING OVER?
IS IT-- IS THIS JUST POPULATIONS
EXPANDING AND PEOPLE ARE JUST
MILLING ABOUT AND STARTING TO
SPILL FURTHER NORTHWEST?

Nick says ONE OF THE IDEAS WE'RE
LOOKING AT IS THAT THERE'S...
MORE OR LESS AROUND THIS TIME,
THERE'S A BIG DEFORESTATION
EVENT, NOT JUST IN BRITAIN, NOT
JUST EAST ANGLIA, BUT RIGHT
ACROSS EUROPE, AND SO THE
QUESTIONS WE'RE ASKING ARE DOES
IT RELATE TO SOME BIG NATURAL
DISASTER?
IS IT VOLCANIC ACTIVITY, FOR
EXAMPLE, CREATING A BIG NUCLEAR
WINTER, OR IS IT SOMETHING EVEN
MORE EXCITING LIKE A BIG METEOR
STRIKE?
AND THAT IN ITSELF WOULD HAVE A
BIG IMPACT ON WHAT HUMANS WERE
DOING.
IF SUDDENLY THERE IS A LOSS OF
THE, SORT OF, LOCAL HABITAT,
LOSS OF VEGETATION, THAT'S GOING
TO AFFECT THE WILDLIFE, AND THIS
WILL TRIGGER POPULATION MOVEMENT
SO MAYBE THIS IS A LINK TO A
DIFFERENT GROUP OF PEOPLE COMING
IN JUST OVER 400,000 YEARS AGO.

Alice says THIS NEW EVIDENCE FROM BARNHAM
IS HELPING US TO UNDERSTAND
MORE ABOUT THE EARLY
INHABITANTS OF BRITAIN, AND THE
ENVIRONMENT THEY LIVED IN,
AT AN IMPORTANT MOMENT IN
PREHISTORY, WHEN THE VERY FIRST
NEANDERTHALS ARRIVED IN
BRITAIN.
BUT OUR NEXT DIG DEALS WITH
NEWCOMERS OF A VERY DIFFERENT
KIND.
WE'RE HEADING TO THE TIP OF
KENT, AND POSSIBLE EVIDENCE OF
THE FIRST ROMAN INVASION OF
BRITAIN.

The animated map shows the location of Ebbsfleet.

Alice says I CAME HERE BACK IN 2010 FOR
DIGGING FOR BRITAIN,
TO SEE THE
EXCAVATIONS IN ADVANCE OF THE
CONSTRUCTION OF THE KENT ACCESS
ROAD.
I WITNESSED THE UNEARTHING OF
BRONZE AGE BURIAL MOUNDS.
IRON AGE TREASURE.

The caption changes to "2010."

A man at the site says HERE WE'VE GOT A TINY
GOLD COIN.

Alice says AND MULTIPLE ROMAN GRAVES.
BUT THIS WAS JUST THE TIP OF
THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL ICEBERG.
BECAUSE AFTER I LEFT, THE TEAM
MADE THEIR MOST AMAZING
DISCOVERY... THE DITCHES OF A
VAST FORT THAT WAS POTENTIALLY
ROMAN.
WE KNOW THAT THIS AREA OF KENT
WAS WHERE THE ROMANS INVADED IN
AD 43, BUT INCREDIBLY, THE TEAM
DATED THIS FORT TO ALMOST A
CENTURY EARLIER.
AT THIS TIME, ONLY ONE ROMAN
GENERAL WAS KNOWN TO HAVE
VISITED OUR SHORES, THE MIGHTY
JULIUS CAESAR.
SO WAS THIS FORT THIS FIRST
TANGIBLE EVIDENCE OF HIS TIME
IN BRITAIN?
NOW NO ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE
OF CAESAR'S ARRIVAL IN BRITAIN
HAS EVER BEEN FOUND, SO THE
DISCOVERY OF AN EARLY ROMAN FORT
IS PROVIDING ARCHAEOLOGISTS WITH
A PRECIOUS OPPORTUNITY TO GET
CLOSER TO THE TRUTH.
IN THE 50S BC, JULIUS CAESAR IS
RECORDED AS MAKING TWO FLEETING
VISITS TO OUR ISLAND.
DR. ANDREW FITZPATRICK BELIEVES
THAT THIS FORT COULD HAVE BEEN
BUILT DURING ONE OF THOSE
TRIPS.
NOW HE JUST NEEDS TO PROVE IT.
WHAT HE HOPES TO FIND IS ROMAN
MILITARY EQUIPMENT THAT HE CAN
DATE TO THE TIME OF CAESAR.

The caption changes to "Andrew Fitzpatrick. Dig director."

Andrew is in his fifties, with short wavy white hair and wears a striped blue sweater.

He says WE KNOW THAT CAESAR, IN THE
SECOND INVASION, BROUGHT AT
LEAST 24... 25,000 SOLDIERS, AND
800 SHIPS.
THAT MUST HAVE LEFT A LOT OF
EVIDENCE.

Alice says IF ANDREW SUCCEEDS, HE'LL NOT
ONLY HAVE FOUND JULIUS CAESAR'S
FORT, BUT PUT US ON THE PATH TO
UNDERSTANDING WHY HE MADE THIS
EARLY EXPLORATION OF BRITAIN.
ANDREW'S FIRST TASK IS TO GET
TO GRIPS WITH THE FULL LAYOUT
OF THE FORT.
HIS TEAM USES GEOPHYSICS TO MAP
THE LINE OF THE DITCHES THAT
ONCE RINGED THE ENCAMPMENT.
AS THE RESULTS COME IN, THEY
REVEAL A TANTALIZING CLUE.

Andrew shows a map of the site and says OUR GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY SHOWED
THAT THE FORT RUNS IN A RATHER
UNUSUAL IRREGULAR PATTERN HERE,
SO I THINK THIS IS A SPECIFIC
STYLE OF DEFENSE TO ENCIRCLE
LARGE AREAS.
AND THE REASON IT'S A LARGE AREA
IS BECAUSE WHAT THIS IS
DEFENDING ISN'T SO MUCH THE
SOLDIERS AS THE FLEET.
AND SO THE KEY TO THE STORY,
REALLY, IS THE SEA.

Alice says ANDREW BELIEVES THAT THE
FORT'S HUGE DITCHES FORMED A
CIRCUIT OF DEFENSES THAT
PROTECTED NEARBY PEGWELL BAY.
THIS LARGE OPEN AREA IS NOT
ONLY THE PERFECT PLACE TO LAND
A SIZEABLE NAVY, BUT ALSO
MATCHES THE DESCRIPTION OF
CAESAR'S SECOND VISIT TO
BRITAIN IN 54 BC.
IT LOOKS LIKE ANDREW IS ON THE
RIGHT TRACK, BUT HE NOW NEEDS
TO FIND DATEABLE ROMAN
ARTIFACTS LEFT BEHIND BY
CAESAR'S ARMY.
HE BELIEVES THE DITCHES ARE THE
BEST PLACE TO FIND THEM.
AS HIS TEAM STARTS DIGGING,
THEY DISCOVER SOMETHING
INTRIGUING.

The caption changes to "Dig Diary. October 2016."

A man at the site says WELL, WE BELIEVE IT TO BE A
ROMAN ARROWHEAD.

Andrew says AND WHERE WAS IT FOUND?
IT COMES FROM HERE?

The man says IT WAS FOUND ABOUT ABOUT
30 CENTIMETRES OFF THE BOTTOM
OF THAT DITCH THERE.

Andrew says SO IT WAS REALLY NEAR
THE BOTTOM OF THE DITCH THERE.
THAT COULD BE A REALLY IMPORTANT
FIND FOR US IN TRYING TO
ESTABLISH IF THESE DITCHES WERE
DUG BY THE ARMIES OF JULIUS
CAESAR.

Alice says ALTHOUGH RUSTY AND BROKEN,
THIS PIECE OF IRON COULD
REPRESENT A MAJOR BREAKTHROUGH
IN ANDREW'S SEARCH FOR CAESAR,
BECAUSE TO A SPECIALIST'S EYE,
ROMAN WEAPONRY IS JUST AS
DIAGNOSTIC AS A WORLD WAR 1
RIFLE FOR A MODERN HISTORIAN.
TO MAKE A POSITIVE
IDENTIFICATION, IT STILL NEEDS
A GOOD CLEAN, SO ANDREW TAKES
THE FIND TO CONSERVATOR GRAHAM
MORGAN FOR INITIAL ANALYSIS.
AFTER A COUPLE OF HOURS OF
WORK, THE WEAPON TURNS OUT NOT
TO BE AN ARROWHEAD, BUT THE TIP
OF A SPEAR.

Graham is in his late sixties, bald and with a mustache. He wears glasses, gray trousers and a white shirt.

Graham says ALL RIGHT, THERE WE ARE,
THERE'S THE OBJECT SO FAR.
IT'S VERY CORRODED.
THAT MIGHT BE LIKE THE
ILLUSTRATION YOU SHOWED ME
BEFORE.

Andrew picks up the illustration and says THIS ONE HERE.

Graham says YOU CAN SEE THERE'S A CENTRE
RIB ON THAT AS WELL, VERY
SIMILAR.

Andrew says I KNOW THAT THIS
WEAPON HERE WAS FOUND IN THE
ROMAN CAMP AT THE SIEGE WORKS OF
ALESIA, AND THAT'S A SITE THAT
JULIUS CAESAR ATTACKED IN 52 BC.
SO THE QUESTION IS, IS THIS
FROM EBBSFLEET SIMILAR ENOUGH TO
THE ONE FROM ALESIA TO SUGGEST
THAT WE REALLY DO HAVE FIRM
EVIDENCE FOR ROMAN SOLDIERS AT
EBBSFLEET IN THE 50S BC, AND...
IT LOOKS QUITE CLOSE.

Graham says IT DOES, YEAH.

Alice says THIS POSSIBLE ROMAN SPEARHEAD
IS AN EXCITING CLUE, BUT TO BE
SURE THAT THE FORT BELONGED TO
JULIUS CAESAR, ANDREW NEEDS
MORE EVIDENCE.
IN SEPTEMBER 2017, HE RETURNS
TO THE SITE FOR THE FINAL TIME,
HOPING THIS TIME TO UNEARTH
CONCLUSIVE PROOF.
THE TEAM BEGINS BY TRYING TO
FIND ONE OF THE ENTRANCE WAYS
TO THE FORT, WHERE THEY BELIEVE
THEY ARE LIKELY TO FIND MORE
ARTIFACTS.
BUT THEIR FIRST DISCOVERY IS
TOTALLY UNEXPECTED.

At the site, Andrew says SO IS THERE... IS
THERE TWO SKULLS THERE?
OR ARE THERE MORE?
THERE ARE MORE, THERE'S THESE
TWO, THERE'S ONE OVER THERE, AND
THERE'S ONE YOU MAY JUST ABOUT
SEE BEING UNCOVERED THERE.
GOSH, THAT'S REMARKABLE!

Alice says THE TEAM BELIEVES THAT THESE
SKULLS MAY HAVE ONCE LINED THE
APPROACH TO THE FORT, AS A
CHILLING DETERRENT TO THE
LOCALS.
IF THEY'RE RIGHT, THEN PERHAPS
THEY ARE CLOSE TO ONE OF THE
FORT'S ENTRANCES.
THEY EXPAND THEIR TRENCH AND
MAKE A BREAKTHROUGH.

Andrew says AND THEN WE HAVE A ROAD HERE,
WHICH YOU CAN SEE IN THE
COBBLING VISIBLE BEHIND ME, AND
IT RUNS INTO THE ENTRANCE OF THE
DEFENDED ENCLOSURE.

Alice says ANDREW BELIEVES THE FORT
WOULD HAVE BEEN SIMILAR TO
CAESAR'S OTHER CAMPS IN FRANCE
WITH EARTHEN BANKS, DEFENSIVE
DITCHES, AND A ROUGH COBBLED
ROAD LEADING INTO THE ENTRANCE.
BUT MORE IMPORTANT IS WHAT THE
TEAM FIND ON THE ROAD.
STREWN ACROSS THE SITE IS MORE
HUMAN BONE.
HEAVILY CORRODED WEAPONS...
AND ONE TINY FIND THAT COULD BE
THE KEY IN LINKING THIS FORT TO
JULIUS CAESAR.

The caption changes to "Dig Diary. October 2017."

Andrew says WELL, THIS SMALL BIT OF IRON
COULD BE THE FIRST HOBNAIL THAT
WE'VE FOUND ON THIS SITE.
AND YOU CAN SEE THERE'S A SHANK
HERE, AND THEN IT COMES DOWN TO
A SLIGHTLY POINTED DOMED HEAD.
AND IF THAT TURNS OUT TO BE A
HOBNAIL, THE SURFACE IN WHICH
IT'S BEEN FOUND DATES TO THE
FIRST CENTURY, BC.
AND THE ONLY PEOPLE WHO CAME TO
BRITAIN WEARING BOOTS WITH
HOBNAILS IN THEM WERE THE
SOLDIERS OF JULIUS CAESAR'S
ARMY.
THERE CAN BE NO DOUBT ABOUT THE
SIGNIFICANCE OF HOBNAILS, AND IT
WOULD BE, IN MANY WAYS, THE
SMALLEST OF DETAILS THAT GIVE US
THE CLINCHING FACT IN THE
BIGGEST OF STORIES OF THE FIRST
CHAPTER OF BRITAIN'S HISTORY.

Alice says SO COULD THIS HUMBLE PIECE OF
RUSTY IRON SOLVE ONE OF THE
BIGGEST QUESTIONS IN ROMAN
ARCHAEOLOGY IN BRITAIN?
TO HEAR THE LATEST NEWS FROM
THE SITE, I'VE ASKED ANDREW TO
COME INTO OUR LAB WITH SOME OF
THE MOST IMPORTANT FINDS.

At the lab, Alice says OH, HOW EXCITING!
ANDREW, WHAT IS ALL THE EVIDENCE
THAT YOU ARE USING TO COME TO
YOUR CONCLUSION THAT THIS
PROBABLY IS CAESAR'S FORT?

Andrew says WE HAVE A VERY LARGE DEFENDED
ENCLOSURE THAT DATES TO THE
FIRST CENTURY BC.
THE SHAPE OF THE DEFENSES IS
VERY SIMILAR TO KNOWN ROMAN
SITES IN FRANCE, OF 52 BC OF
CAESAR.
IT'S THE RIGHT PLACE, GEOGRAPHY
FITS, WE HAVE WEAPONRY THAT
COULD WELL FIT, AND IT'S-- IN
TERMS OF WHERE WOULD YOU LAND
YOUR ARMY, I THINK IT'S HERE.
IT ALL POINTS TO THAT
CONCLUSION.

Alice says IF THAT IS A HOBNAIL, IS THAT
GOING TO CLINCH IT?

Andrew says IT WOULD BE VERY STRONGLY
SUGGESTIVE, AND THERE ARE OTHER
PIECES-- WE HAVE POSSIBLE ROMAN
WEAPONS.

Alice says THESE THINGS HERE?

Andrew says YEP, SO THE
POSSIBILITY IS THAT THIS IN YOUR
HAND IS THE TIP OF THE PILUM,
WHICH IS A ROMAN TYPE OF WEAPON.

Alice says AND THIS IS THE DIAGRAM OVER
HERE OF A SIMILAR ONE.

Andrew shows her the illustrations and says THIS IS THE ONE, AND IT'S THE
SAME SIZE, IT'S THE SAME SHAPE,
AND WE KNOW THIS PARTICULAR ONE
WAS FOUND IN A ROMAN FORT OF 52
BC.
THERE ARE OTHER EXAMPLES FOUND
IN ITALY, AND THE INTERESTING
THING ABOUT THAT IS THAT'S WHERE
JULIUS CAESAR RAISED HIS
LEGIONS, IN NORTH ITALY.

Alice says IT'S ALL STARTING TO STACK
UP, ISN'T IT?
WITH A FORT LOOKING LIKELY TO
HAVE BELONGED TO JULIUS CAESAR,
ANDREW HAS STARTED TO THINK
ABOUT THE REASONS THAT
MOTIVATED HIS VISITS.
WHY DO YOU THINK JULIUS CAESAR
CAME?

Andrew says MY PERSONAL VIEW IS HE COMES
FOR THE GLORY, BECAUSE HE'S
GOING BEYOND THE KNOWN WORLD.
FOR THE ROMANS, THE WORLD STOPS
AT FRANCE.
BRITAIN IS ALMOST A MYTHICAL
LAND, THEY'RE STILL NOT SURE
THAT PEOPLE REALLY LIVE THERE.
AND HE BRINGS IT UNDER THE
CONTROL OF THE ROMAN WORLD, SO
HE ACHIEVES GREAT GLORY BECAUSE
OF THAT.

Alice says THERE MUST HAVE BEEN SOME
POLITICAL BENEFIT, AS WELL.

Andrew says ONE OF THE KEY THINGS IS WHAT
HAPPENS AFTERWARDS, AND THIS
ISN'T AN ARMY OF OCCUPATION.
IT'S NOT GOING TO BE THERE WITH
BOOTS ON THE GROUND.
THE WAY THE ROMANS WORK FOR MANY
CENTURIES IS THEY WORK THROUGH
THE LOCAL RULERS, AND THEY GET
THE LOCAL ELITE TO WORK WITH
THEM.
WHEN JULIUS CAESAR LEAVES IN 54,
HE DOES TWO THINGS.
HE AGREES THE AMOUNT OF TRIBUTE
THAT WILL BE PAID TO ROME, BUT
HE ALSO TAKES HOSTAGES.
AND THOSE HOSTAGES ARE VERY
OFTEN THE FAMILY AND THE
YOUNGSTERS OF THE RULERS.
AND IT MEANS THAT BRITAIN IS
TIED INTO THE ROMAN WORLD, AND
THE KINGS OF BRITAIN BECOME
CLIENT KINGS OF ROME.
AND EFFECTIVELY, THEY ARE PART
OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

(music plays)

Alice says CAESAR'S CAMPAIGN DIARY
PROVIDES US WITH SOME OF THE
EARLIEST WRITTEN DESCRIPTIONS
OF BRITAIN, AS WELL AS OUR
FIRST RECORDED DATES.
ANDREW'S MADE A COMPELLING CASE
FOR THIS HAVING BEEN CAESAR'S
FORT, AND RATHER THAN A SIMPLE
STORY OF CONQUEST, ROME APPEARS
TO HAVE SPENT A FULL CENTURY
SOFTENING UP BRITISH RULERS
BEFORE FINALLY TAKING OVER.
I'M DYING TO MEET ONE OF THESE
CLIENT KINGS, SO I'M GOING
BEHIND THE SCENES AT THE CASTLE
MUSEUM TO EXAMINE A CONTENDER,
IN THE FORM OF THE LEXTON
BURIAL, A SELECTION OF OBJECTS
INTERRED WITH A VERY IMPORTANT
MAN IN COLCHESTER.
CRUCIALLY, IT DATES BETWEEN
CAESAR'S VISITS TO BRITAIN, AND
THE FINAL ROMAN INVASION IN AD
43.

She picks up a decorative animal and says WHAT GRAVE GOODS, I MEAN,
THEY'RE JUST GORGEOUS!
LOOK AT THIS LITTLE BOAR!
HE IS LOVELY.
THE DETAIL IS JUST WONDERFUL,
ISN'T IT?

Glynn says IT'S FANTASTIC, ISN'T
IT?

Alice says REALLY, REALLY BEAUTIFUL.

Glynn says YOU WOULDN'T BELIEVE,
IN SOME WAYS, THAT IT'S 2,000
YEARS OLD, OR JUST OVER.

Alice says HE'S FANTASTIC.

Glynn says THERE'S A REAL ROMAN FLAVOUR
TO THIS BECAUSE THE BOAR,
INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT TO IRON AGE
PEOPLE IN BRITAIN.
THEY HUNTED THEM, THEY ATE THEM,
THEY EVEN REVERED THEM.
BUT THIS LITTLE FIGURINE HAS A
REAL ROMAN CLASSICAL LOOK TO HIM
AND IT COULD WELL HAVE BEEN MADE
IN GAUL AND IMPORTED OVER HERE
TO BRITAIN.

Alice says WHAT ABOUT THIS LITTLE FOOT?
THAT'S VERY SWEET.

Glynn says THIS TINY LITTLE FOOT, YOU
CAN JUST ABOUT MAKE OUT THE
TOES.

Alice says YEAH.

Glynn says HE'S WEARING A LITTLE SANDAL.

Alice says HE'S WEARING BIRKIES.
WEARING BIRKENSTOCK SANDALS,
VERY DEFINITELY.

Glynn says A LOT OF DETAIL THERE.

Alice says SO WHAT DO YOU THINK
THIS WAS, WAS IT PART OF A
STATUE?

Glynn says NO, IT'S UNLIKE OUR
FIGURINES, I THINK THIS WAS PART
OF A PIECE OF FURNITURE.

Alice says REALLY?

Glynn says YEAH, WHICH MAY SEEM ODD, BUT
IT'S A FOOTING FOR SOMETHING
LIKE A FOLDING CHAIR OR STOOL.

Alice says SO WHO HAD CHAIRS LIKE THAT?

Glynn says UM, IT WOULD HAVE BEEN SOME
OF THE MOST POWERFUL MEN IN ROME
ALL THE WAY UP TO THE EMPEROR.
AND INDEED, IT MAY EVEN HAVE
BEEN GIFTED IF THIS PERSON WAS
OF HIGH ENOUGH RANK, MAYBE.
MAYBE EVEN A CLIENT KING HERE IN
BRITAIN.

Alice says SO SOMEBODY WHO WAS
SPONSORED BY THE ROMAN EMPIRE,
EFFECTIVELY?

Glynn says EXACTLY THAT, YEAH.

Alice says A CONNECTION WITH THE ROMAN
EMPIRE GAVE THIS INDIVIDUAL
GREAT WEALTH AND POWER, BUT THE
LAST OBJECT SUGGESTS THAT THIS
WAS MORE THAN JUST POLITICAL
EXPEDIENCY.
A RELATIONSHIP WITH ROME SEEMS
TO HAVE BEEN PERSONALLY
MEANINGFUL TO THIS BRITISH
RULER.

Glynn says THIS IS A MEDALLION, IT'S
BASED ON A COIN OF THE EMPEROR,
AUGUSTUS.

Alice says OH, IS IT?

Glynn says AND WHAT'S AMAZING ABOUT THIS
IS THIS GIVES US A BRILLIANT
DATE FOR THIS BURIAL, SO THIS
BURIAL CAN'T BE EARLIER THAN
ABOUT 15 BC, WHICH IS WHEN THE
COIN WOULD HAVE BEEN CAST.
AND IT'S TEMPTING TO THINK THAT
THIS IS A VERY PERSONAL OBJECT,
SO MAYBE THERE IS SOME
INDIVIDUAL RELATIONSHIP HERE.
MAYBE NOT WITH THE EMPEROR, BUT
CERTAINLY WITH THE ELITE IN
ROME.

Alice says SO WHEN CLAUDIUS ARRIVES IN
43 AD, DO YOU IMAGINE THAT SOME
POWERFUL PEOPLE IN BRITAIN ARE
EFFECTIVELY WELCOMING HIM IN?

Glynn says YES, I THINK THERE WILL BE
PEOPLE SIDING WITH THE ROMANS,
YEAH, INDEED, ESPECIALLY IN THE
SOUTHERN PARTS OF BRITAIN.

(music plays)

Alice says THE BELONGINGS OF THIS
POSSIBLE CLIENT KING IN ESSEX
PROVIDE A RARE GLIMPSE OF THE
FORGOTTEN RELATIONSHIPS THAT
FACILITATED THE FINAL ROMAN
INVASION.
AND AS ANDREW'S POST-EXCAVATION
RESEARCH ON CAESAR'S FORT
CONTINUES, IT WILL UNDOUBTEDLY
ENRICH OUR UNDERSTANDING OF
THE VERY BEGINNINGS OF ROMAN
BRITAIN.
RATHER THAN REWRITING BIG
HISTORY, OUR FINAL STORY IS
REVEALING THE FORGOTTEN LIVES
OF ORDINARY BRITONS.

The animated map shows the location of "Bracklesham Bay."

Alice says THROUGHOUT THE 18TH CENTURY,
MARITIME TRADE WAS THE MAINSTAY
OF THE BRITISH ECONOMY, BUT 1706
SAW ONE OF THE MOST CATASTROPHIC
DISASTERS IN ALL OF BRITISH
SEAFARING HISTORY, WHEN A FLEET
OF 182 SHIPS SAILED STRAIGHT
INTO A WINTER STORM.
THEY WERE RETURNING FROM
VIRGINIA IN AMERICA AS PART OF
THE SO-CALLED TRADE TRIANGLE.
EUROPEAN GOODS WERE SENT TO
WEST AFRICA TO BUY SLAVES.
THE SLAVES WERE SOLD TO
PLANTATIONS IN THE AMERICAS,
AND IN RETURN, TOBACCO, RUM,
COTTON, AND SUGAR FLOWED BACK
INTO EUROPE.
IT WAS A WRETCHED BUT LUCRATIVE
TRADE.
THE HAZARDOUS PRIZE WAS ONE OF
THE FLEET'S ESCORT VESSELS.
IT SANK ON THE 19TH OF
NOVEMBER, 1706 WHEN BAD WEATHER
FORCED IT TO RUN AGROUND OFF
BRACKLESHAM BAY.
DURING THE EARLY 1700S,
THOUSANDS OF SHIPS WERE
CRISS-CROSSING THE GLOBE.
THE LIVES OF THE MEN ON BOARD
ARE A VITAL BUT FORGOTTEN PART
OF OUR HISTORY.
WITHOUT THEM, BRITAIN WOULD
NEVER HAVE BECOME A MARITIME
POWER, OR BUILT ITS EMPIRE.
IN 2016, A TEAM OF LOCAL DIVERS
AND ARCHAEOLOGISTS LAUNCHED
INTO A NEW TWO YEAR EXCAVATION
OF THE WRECK, FUNDED BY
HISTORIC ENGLAND.
THEIR MISSION WAS TO RECOVER
NEW DETAILS ABOUT THE CREW, AND
THE REALITIES OF 18TH CENTURY
LIFE AT SEA.
THEY START BY CONSTRUCTING A
METAL GRID POSITIONED OVER THE
SHIP'S HOLD, SO THAT THEY CAN
RECORD AND LOCATE ANY NEW
DISCOVERIES.
SITE LICENSEE IAIN GRANT AND
ARCHAEOLOGIST DAN PASCOE ARE
LEADING THE INVESTIGATION.

The caption changes to "Dive Diary. June 2016."

The caption changes to "Dan Pascoe. Underwater archaeologist."

Dan is in his forties, with short brown hair and a moustache. He wears a diving suit.

Dan says SO WE PUT DOWN THE
FRAMES, AND THESE ARE
GONNA BE THE GRID
THAT WE'RE GONNA
BE WORKING OFF,
DOING THE EXCAVATION.
AND WE'VE GONE FROM ONE SIDE,
GOING OVER WHAT LOOKS LIKE A
BARREL STORE.

The caption changes to "Iain Grant. Hazardous site licensee."

Iain is in his fifties, with short wavy gray hair and wears a diving suit.

Iain says YEAH, THERE MUST BE AT
LEAST FIVE HALF BARRELS.
AND THEN AT LEAST ONE COMPLETE
ONE, BY THE LOOK OF IT.

Alice says THESE BARRELS WERE USED TO
STORE PROVISIONS FOR THE
HAZARDOUS'S 280-STRONG CREW.
THE FACT THAT THEY'RE STILL
INTACT IS A PROMISING FIND, AND
SUGGESTS THAT THE WRECK MAY
CONTAIN MANY MORE ARTIFACTS.
A FEW WEEKS INTO THE PROJECT,
THE TEAM MAKE AN IMPORTANT
DISCOVERY RELATED TO THE MEN'S
MOST CRUCIAL JOB ON BOARD.

The caption changes to "Dive Diary. July 2016."

Dan says A REALLY EXCITING FIND FROM
TODAY'S DIVING... WHAT IT LOOKS
LIKE IS A POWDER CHAMBER.
THE HOLLOW AREA IS WHERE THE
CHARGE WOULD HAVE BEEN.
THERE WOULD HAVE BEEN A LID ON
TOP, AND THIS WOULD HAVE BEEN
TRANSPORTED FROM THE POWDER ROOM
UP TO THE GUNS ON THE GUN DECK.

Alice says KEEPING THE MANY GUNS OF THE
HAZARDOUS AT THE READY WAS A
KEY TASK FOR THE CREW.
THE WARSHIP WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR
PROTECTING THE FLEET FROM THE
PIRATES AND PRIVATEERS THAT
TERRORIZED THE WAVES.
THESE WEAPONS ARE A POWERFUL
REMINDER THAT THE MEN OF THE
HAZARDOUS MUST HAVE BEEN
CONSTANTLY WARY OF ATTACK.
HALFWAY THROUGH THE PROJECT,
THE DIVERS BEGIN TO DISCOVER
SOMETHING ELSE.
THE PERSONAL BELONGINGS OF THE
CREW.

The caption changes to "Dive Diary. July 2017."

Iain says I THINK THE BEST TWO
FINDS ARE THESE... BUTTONS.
THAT ONE HAS GOT A PATTERN ON
IT, THAT IS...

A man on the boat says A HORSE'S HEAD?

Iain says YEAH, IT COULD BE A
HORSE'S HEAD.

The man says OR LIKE A KNIGHT.
YEAH, YEAH, YEAH.

Iain says WOW, WELL DONE, PEOPLE.
NEVER CEASE TO BE AMAZED, EH?

Alice says ALONG WITH THE BUTTONS, THE
TEAM BEGINS TO DISCOVER MANY
MORE PERSONAL ITEMS IN THE
SEABED.
A SHOE BUCKLE.
A PAIR OF BRASS DIVIDERS USED
FOR NAVIGATION.
AND A PEWTER PLATE.
AS IAIN AND DAN SORT THROUGH
THE FINDS, THEY BEGIN TO BUILD
UP A VIVID PICTURE OF THE
DIFFERENT KINDS OF LIVES ON
BOARD.

Dan says SO DO YOU THINK THE PEWTER
WARE WAS PROBABLY OFFICERS...

Iain says YES.

Dan says RATHER THAN CREW.

Iain says YEAH, I THINK THE CREW
PROBABLY ATE OFF OF WOODEN
PLATTERS, WOODEN BOWLS AT BEST.
BUT WHAT'S THE OLD STORY ABOUT
THE SQUARE MEAL?

Dan says THREE SQUARE MEALS A DAY.

Iain says YEAH, AND THEY WOULD HAVE
BEEN WOODEN PLATTERS, I DON'T
THINK ORDINARY CREW WOULD HAVE...

Dan says HAD THE PEWTER WARE.

Iain says NO.

Alice says SO EVEN AT SEA, BRITAIN WAS A
SOCIETY DIVIDED BY CLASS.
BUT IN THE END, CLASS MEANT
LITTLE WHEN THE MEN'S LIVES
WERE PUT UNDER THREAT.
ON THE 19TH OF NOVEMBER, 1706,
AFTER A 3,600 MILE JOURNEY, THE
HAZARDOUS PRIZE WAS WITHIN
TOUCHING DISTANCE OF HOME WHEN
BAD WEATHER CLOSED IN.

On a rubber boat, Iain says YOU GET THE FEELING THAT THE
SEA IS PRETTY ROUGH JUST HERE.
I MEAN, IT'S A BEAUTIFUL DAY
TODAY, BUT REALLY, REALLY ROUGH.
SO THEY COME IN, THEY MISS THEIR
SAFE ANCHORAGE.
THEY'VE BUMPED AROUND ALL
THROUGH THE NIGHT, THEY'VE
FINISHED UP VERY CLOSE TO HERE.
AND THE SHORE, ALTHOUGH IT LOOKS
NO DISTANCE TO US ON A NICE DAY,
ON A STORMY DAY, I THINK IT
PROBABLY LOOKED A LONG WAY.
AND ALL THEY WANT TO DO IS GET
ON DRY LAND.
SO THEY'RE NOT INTERESTED IN
PERSONAL EFFECTS.
THEY'RE ALL LEFT ON THE SITE.

Alice says THE HAZARDOUS WAS WRECKED IN
BRACKLESHAM BAY, THE FEROCIOUS
WAVES RIPPING APART ITS MIGHTY
TIMBERS, CONDEMNING THE SHIP TO
A WATERY GRAVE.
BUT FORTUNATELY THE MAJORITY OF
ITS MEN MADE IT TO LAND.
IT MUST HAVE BEEN DEVASTATING
THOUGH, FOR THEM TO LEAVE ALL
OF THEIR PRECIOUS BELONGINGS ON
BOARD.
INCLUDING ONE VERY UNUSUAL
OBJECT THAT IS NOW PROVIDING A
VALUABLE INSIGHT INTO THE
MINDSET OF SOME OF THE CREW.

In the lab, Alice says SO THIS IS THE ELEPHANT TUSK
THAT HAS COME UP FROM THE
HAZARDOUS PRIZE.
NOW THIS IS A SHIP THAT IS
SAILING BACK FROM VIRGINIA, AND
FORGIVE ME IF I'M WRONG HERE,
BUT I DON'T THINK THEY HAD
ELEPHANTS IN VIRGINIA.

Iain says NO, AND IT SEEMS MOST LIKELY
THAT IT'S COME FROM AFRICA TO
AMERICA, MAY HAVE COME ON A
SLAVE SHIP.
AND SOMEBODY'S BOUGHT IT AND IS
GONNA TAKE IT HOME.

Dan says AND THIS IS SOMETHING THAT
WAS PROBABLY PICKED UP BY THE
OFFICERS ON BOARD.
THEY MIGHT HAVE BEEN BRINGING IT
BACK TO MAKE A PROFIT BACK HOME.

Alice says AND THIS TUSK REALLY REMINDS
US OF THAT TRIANGULAR TRADE,
DOESN'T IT?
THE FACT THAT THE HAZARDOUS
PRIZE HERSELF MIGHT NOT HAVE
TRAVELED TO AFRICA, BUT THERE
ARE SHIPS GOING FROM AFRICA TO
THE NEW WORLD, AND THEN OTHER
SHIPS COMING FROM THE NEW WORLD
BACK TO BRITAIN.

Iain says AND AN OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE A
FEW SHILLINGS HERE AND THERE.

Alice says YEAH!

Iain says HOWEVER THEY COULD.

Alice says BUT THE CREW OF THE HAZARDOUS
PRIZE NEVER GOT A CHANCE TO
CASH IN THEIR EXOTIC
ACQUISITIONS, AND IN FACT, THIS
WRECK WAS JUST THE LAST OF A
STRING OF CASUALTIES THAT YEAR.
SO TELL ME MORE ABOUT THE...
THE HAZARDOUS PRIZE, 'CAUSE THIS
SHIPWRECK IS PART OF A MUCH
BIGGER TRAGEDY, ISN'T IT?

Dan says EXACTLY, IT WAS ESCORTING A
MERCHANT FLEET THAT WAS OVER IN
VIRGINIA, IN THE AMERICAS, AND
ITS JOB WAS TO BRING THAT FLEET
BACK SAFELY TO ENGLAND.
UNFORTUNATELY, IT WAS KIND OF
DOOMED FROM THE BEGINNING.

Iain says VERY MUCH SO.
THEY HAD A CATALOGUE OF HOLD-UPS
EARLY ON IN THE YEAR, WHICH
MEANT THAT THEY DIDN'T ACTUALLY
GET TO AMERICA UNTIL JULY, AND
THE LAST ESCORT SHIP, I THINK,
DIDN'T ARRIVE UNTIL AUGUST.
AND IT MEANT THAT THEY WERE
CROSSING THE ATLANTIC IN REALLY
POOR CONDITIONS.

Dan says SEPTEMBER IS THE WORST TIME
TO LEAVE, AS WE KNOW FROM THE
HURRICANES THAT HAVE JUST BEEN.

Iain says WHEN WE THEY GOT BACK
TO ENGLAND, THERE WAS 35 OF THE
ORIGINAL 200-ISH MERCHANT SHIPS
LEFT.

Dan says SO THAT'S A HUGE LOSS.

Iain says MASSIVE, MASSIVE LOSS.

Alice says YEAH.

Iain says NOT ONLY DID THEY LOSE ONE
OF THEIR WARSHIPS, THEY ALSO
LOST A LARGE AMOUNT OF TAX
REVENUE, THEN ON TOP OF THAT,
THERE WAS ALL PERSONAL LOSSES
FOR ALL THE TRADERS.
SO YEAH, IT WAS A MAJOR, MAJOR
TRAGEDY.

Alice says I THINK IT'S REALLY
INTERESTING CONTRASTING THIS
SHIPWRECK OF THE HAZARDOUS PRIZE
WITH THE ROOSWIJK, WHICH WENT
DOWN A FEW DECADES LATER, AND I
THINK BOTH SHOW YOU JUST HOW
RISKY THIS WAS.

Iain says EXACTLY.

(music plays)

Clips from the show roll.

Alice says THE EXCAVATION OF THE
HAZARDOUS PRIZE IS BRINGING US
CLOSER TO THE FORGOTTEN SEAMEN
WHO ONCE PLIED THE ATLANTIC
TRADING ROUTES, PROVIDING NEW
DETAILS ABOUT THEIR DAILY LIVES
ON BOARD 18TH CENTURY SHIPS.
IT'S JUST ONE DISCOVERY IN A
YEAR THAT'S BEEN JAM-PACKED
WITH NEW ARCHAEOLOGICAL
REVELATIONS.
FROM SUNKEN TREASURE THAT LAYS
BARE THE EXTENSIVE CORRUPTION
OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANIES...
AND WRITING TABLETS WITH THE
WORDS OF THE FIRST LONDONERS...
TO NEW EVIDENCE OF JULIUS
CAESAR IN BRITAIN, ARCHAEOLOGY
IS HELPING US REWRITE THE STORY
OF OUR ISLAND.
NEXT WEEK, WE'RE JOINING
ARCHAEOLOGISTS IN THE NORTH OF
BRITAIN, UNEARTHING EVIDENCE OF
A FORGOTTEN BRITISH REBELLION
ON HADRIAN'S WALL...

A man unearths a sword and a woman says OH MY GOD, HOW DOES
THAT FEEL, RUPERT?

The man says YEAH, PRETTY GOOD.

Alice says FINDING A 3,000 YEAR OLD
CACHE OF WEAPONS.

A woman says OH, MY... WOW!

Alice says LINKING US BACK TO THE
WARRIOR CHIEFS OF BRONZE AGE
BRITAIN, AND WE DISCOVER THAT
THE SCOTTISH ISLAND OF IONA WAS
HOME TO A FORGOTTEN JERUSALEM
OF THE NORTH.
IT'S QUITE AN EXTRAORDINARY
THING TO DO, IT'S LIKE EARLY
MEDIEVAL VIRTUAL REALITY.

A man at the lab says YEAH, MAYBE!

Music plays as the end credits roll.

Presented by Professor Alice Roberts.

Executive producer, Emma Parkins.

Series producer and director, Nick Gilliam-Smith.

Producer and director, Alex Rowson.

A 360 production for BBC.

Logo: BBC Northern Ireland.

Copyright 2017, 360 Production Limited.

Logo: TVF International.

Watch: East