Transcript: West | Feb 03, 2020

(music plays)

Logo: TVF International.

Aerial views show images of archaeological sites in Great Britain.

Alice says WE MIGHT BE A SMALL
ISLAND, BUT WE'VE GOT A BIG
HISTORY THAT'S STILL FULL OF
MYSTERIES.
SO, EVERY YEAR, HUNDREDS OF
ARCHEOLOGISTS GO OUT HUNTING
FOR CLUES TO OUR FORGOTTEN
PAST.

A diver finds a piece of pottery in the ocean and says I HAVE NEVER SEEN ANYTHING
LIKE THAT.

A says IN 2016, THEIR DISCOVERIES
HAVE BEEN MORE EXCITING THAN
EVER.

A man in a site says IT'S ALL HAPPENING NOW.

Another man says YOU LITTLE DEVIL, JOHAN!

Johan says YEAH.

Alice is in her forties, with long straight blond hair in a half ponytail and wears a form fitting black dress and a necklace.

A says IN THIS EPISODE,
DIGGING FOR
BRITAIN
SHOWCASES THE VERY BEST
OF THEM FROM THE WEST.
EACH EXCAVATION WAS FILMED AS IT
HAPPENED BY THE ARCHAEOLOGISTS
THEMSELVES.
THEIR DIG DIARIES MEAN THAT WE
CAN BE THERE FOR EVERY EXCITING
MOMENT OF DISCOVERY.

A man at a site holds a carved stone and says CRACKING LITTLE FIND.

Another man says SUPERB.
(WOMAN SQUEALING)

A says AND NOW, THE ARCHAEOLOGISTS
ARE BRINGING THEIR FINDS,
FROM POTTERY TO METALWORK
TO HUMAN REMAINS, INTO OUR LAB
SO THAT WE CAN GET A CLOSER
LOOK AT THEM, AND FIND OUT WHAT
THEY TELL US ABOUT OUR BRITISH
ANCESTORS.
WELCOME TO
DIGGING FOR BRITAIN
(BIRD SQUAWKING)

The name of the show reads "Digging for Britain."

A says IN THIS EPISODE, WE ARE
JOINING ARCHAEOLOGISTS IN THE
WEST AS THEY MAKE DISCOVERIES
THAT WILL TRANSFORM THE HISTORY
OF BRITAIN.
ON JERSEY, A 2000-YEAR-OLD
HOARD OF HIDDEN TREASURE...

A man at a lab holds a gold piece and says IT'S HEAVY.

A woman says REALLY?

A says REVEALS THE TERROR OF THE
ROMAN INVASION.
(MAN LAUGHING)

A man at a site picks up a small object and says THAT IS STUNNINGLY BEAUTIFUL.

A says IN TINTAGEL, CORNWALL,
AN INCREDIBLE DARK AGE PALACE
IS UNCOVERED AT THE MYTHICAL
HOME OF KING ARTHUR.

In the lab with two scientists, Alice says SEE, I'M STARTING TO GO ON
FLIGHTS OF FANCY NOW.
AND TO ME, THIS IS WHERE KING
ARTHUR LIVED.

(music plays)

A says AND ON SALISBURY PLAIN, A LOST
MAP UNEARTHS HIDDEN TRENCHES
THAT REVOLUTIONIZE OUR VIEW
OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR.

A man says THIS IS AS IF THE BRITISH
HAVE CAPTURED THE GERMAN
TRENCHES, AND THEN THEY HAVE TO
DIG IN FACING A GERMAN
COUNTER-ATTACK FROM UP THE
HILL.

A says TO PUT THESE REVELATIONS
IN CONTEXT, I'VE COME TO
BRISTOL MUSEUM.

A caption reads "Professor Alice Robertson."

A says AND I'VE BEEN GIVEN PRIVILEGED
BEHIND-THE-SCENES ACCESS
TO SEE SOME OF THE
ARCHAEOLOGICAL TREASURES RARELY
SEEN BY THE PUBLIC.
BUT OUR FIRST DIG DIARY TAKES
US 40 MILES AWAY...
TO STONEHENGE.
3,000 YEARS AGO, OUR ANCESTORS
BUILT STONEHENGE AS A SITE OF
CEREMONY AND RITUAL, WEST OF
THE RIVER AVON.
IN RECENT YEARS, ARCHAEOLOGISTS
HAVE COME TO BELIEVE THAT
STONEHENGE IS JUST PART OF A
VAST SACRED LANDSCAPE FULL OF
MONUMENTS.
BUT SO FAR, THEIR DISCOVERIES
HAVE MAINLY BEEN TO THE WEST
OF THE AVON.
WHAT LIES TO THE EAST HAS
LARGELY BEEN A MYSTERY
UNTIL THIS YEAR, WHEN A TEAM
FROM WESSEX ARCHAEOLOGY
STARTED DIGGING AT BULFORD.
AT BULFORD, JUST THREE MILES
AWAY FROM STONEHENGE, THE
DISCOVERIES WERE NOT ONLY
UNEXPECTED, THEY WERE UNIQUE.
AND THEY'RE HELPING TO WRITE
A WHOLE NEW CHAPTER IN THE
HISTORY OF THIS ARCHAEOLOGICALLY
RICH LANDSCAPE.

Phil says SIEVE THIS OUT A BIT.

A says PHIL HARDING LEADS THE TEAM.

The caption changes to "Phil Harding. Dig director."

Phil is in his fifties, with long white hair and wears jeans, a green sweater, an orange, gray and black jacket and a hat.

He says HI, THIS IS PHIL HARDING.
I'M TALKING TO YOU ON THE EDGE
OF SALISBURY PLAIN ABOUT THREE
MILES EAST OF STONEHENGE.
THAT'S IN THAT DIRECTION THERE.
AND I'M WORKING ON A SITE HERE.
WE'VE BEEN WORKING HERE SINCE,
WHAT, JUST BEFORE CHRISTMAS NOW,
AND THIS IS REALLY QUITE AN
EXCITING SITE.
COME AND HAVE A LOOK.

A says THE TEAM HAS UNCOVERED
SOMETHING NEVER SEEN IN BRITAIN
BEFORE.
A DOUBLE HENGE-- TWO CIRCULAR
BANKS AND DITCHES.

Phil says WHAT WE'VE FOUND ARE TWO
PREVIOUSLY UNKNOWN HENGE
MONUMENTS.
THIS IS AN INCREDIBLE
OPPORTUNITY TO UNRAVEL PART
OF THE RITUAL LANDSCAPE
OF THIS PART OF WILTSHIRE.
MOST IMPORTANTLY, JUST DOWN
THE ROAD FROM STONEHENGE.

A says SO, WHAT PHIL REALLY WANTS
TO FIND OUT IS WHETHER THIS
SITE WAS IN USE AT THE SAME
TIME AS STONEHENGE, AND
EXACTLY WHAT OUR NEOLITHIC
ANCESTORS WERE DOING HERE.
GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR
REVEALS A SERIES OF PITS
JUST OUTSIDE THE DOUBLE HENGE.

Phil looks at a hole in the ground and says THAT IS AMAZING.

A says PHIL HOPES THAT THESE WILL
PROVIDE THE EVIDENCE HE NEEDS.
(PHIL LAUGHING)

Phil says AN AXE.
EXCELLENT!

A says IT'S A PROMISING FIND.

Phil says THAT IS ABSOLUTELY GORGEOUS.
WITH THE BLADE THERE, IT'S JUST
BEAUTIFULLY POLISHED.

A says NEOLITHIC AXES WERE
INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT TOOLS
USED FOR THE CLEARING OF TREES
DURING THE EARLIEST DAYS
OF FARMING.
PUTTING ONE IN A PIT SEEMS LIKE
A HUGE SACRIFICE.

Phil says THERE WOULD BE PLENTY OF USE
LEFT IN THIS, AND TO PLACE ONE
OF THESE IN A PIT, THROW AWAY
A GENUINELY USEFUL AXE,
WHY WOULD YOU DO IT?

A says AS WELL AS DOZENS OF AXE
HEADS, MYSTERIOUS CHALK BALLS
ARE FOUND IN THE PITS.

Phil says AH, LOVELY.
OH!
WHAT A GEM.

A says THESE ARE FINDS THAT CONNECT
US TO OUR ANCESTORS, AND FOR
PHIL, IT'S PRECIOUS EVIDENCE
OF WHAT THEY WERE DOING HERE.

Phil says I'M SURE THEY MUST HAVE BEEN
MAYBE LUCKY MEMENTOS, MAYBE
SUPERSTITIOUS, MAYBE TOTEMIC
ITEMS.
SOME SORT OF VOTIVE OFFERING
TO THE GODS, AND MAYBE IT
BROUGHT THEM GOOD LUCK.

A says IN ONE WEEK, 40 PITS ARE
EXCAVATED, AND WHAT'S FOUND IN
EACH ONE IS REMARKABLY SIMILAR.

Phil says THIS IS AN INCREDIBLE
COLLECTION OF MATERIAL.
IT'S AS THOUGH PEOPLE HAVE GOT
A CHECKLIST, AND THEY'RE
PLACING OBJECTS INTO THE PIT.

A says THESE ARE SUCH ENIGMATIC
CLUES, GLIMPSES OF THE RITUALS
BEING CARRIED OUT AT THE DOUBLE
HENGE.
(PHIL GIGGLING)
BUT SOME OF THE PITS CONTAIN
SOMETHING RATHER DIFFERENT.

Phil says NOW, THAT...
IS WHAT I CALL A BONE.
HOO, HOO, HOO, HOO!

A says IT'S FROM AN AUROCHS...

Phil says GOD, LOOK AT THE SIZE OF IT.

A says A GIANT PREHISTORIC COW.

Phil says THE AUROCHS WAS NOT ON THE
AVERAGE FRIDAY NIGHT TAKEAWAY
MENU.
I THINK WHAT WE ARE REALLY
LOOKING AT IS FESTIVE,
FEASTING CELEBRATIONS.
WHO KNOWS, MIGHT BE SEASONAL,
IT MIGHT BE MARRIAGE,
IT COULD BE ANY OTHER THINGS.
BUT WHAT IT IS NOT IS YOUR
DAY-TO-DAY RUBBISH.

A says THIS SEEMS, THEN, TO BE A
RITUAL SITE WHERE OUR ANCESTORS
HELD RELIGIOUS FEASTS.
BUT CAN PHIL BE SURE THAT IT'S
CONTEMPORARY WITH STONEHENGE?

Phil says CAN WE PROVE THAT THESE RING
DITCHES IS OF THE SAME DATE
AS OUR NEOLITHIC PITS?
IF WE CAN DO THAT, THEN WE
ACTUALLY FIND AN INCREDIBLE
RITUAL COMPLEX OF THE SAME DATE
AS MAYBE STONEHENGE.

A says THE TEAM DIGS A TRENCH ACROSS
THE DOUBLE HENGE, LOOKING
FOR EVIDENCE THAT WILL GIVE
THEM A DATE.

Johan says PHIL, LOOK AT THAT.

Johan is in his thirties, with very short brown hair and wears sunglasses and a printed T-shirt.

Phil says WHAT YOU GOT THERE, THEN?
A POT.

Johan says YEAH, BUT... A DECORATION.

Phil says AH, THAT IS!

Johan says YEAH.

Phil says I SWEAR THAT IS, THAT'S
DECORATED.
YOU LITTLE DEVIL, JOHAN.

A says IT'S A FRAGMENT OF POTTERY.

Phil says WELL, I'M GETTING REALLY,
REALLY EXCITED ABOUT THIS
BECAUSE IT LOOKS LIKE IT IS
DECORATED.
YOU CAN SEE THERE IS A BIT OF
A RIDGE THERE AND A RIDGE THERE,
AND THESE GROOVES.
AND I THINK THAT IS THE BEST
INDICATOR THAT WE'VE GOT OF
GROOVED WARE, WHICH IS THE
TYPICAL LATE-NEOLITHIC POTTERY.
THAT IS WHAT WE WANT TO FIND.

A says GROOVED-WARE POTTERY LIKE
THIS DATES FROM THE SAME PERIOD
AS STONEHENGE, SO IT STRONGLY
SUGGESTS THAT THIS DOUBLE HENGE
WAS IN USE AT THE SAME TIME.
I'VE INVITED PHIL TO COME INTO
OUR LAB WITH SOME OF HIS FINDS
TO GIVE ME A FULLER PICTURE
AS TO WHAT OUR ANCESTORS WERE
REALLY UP TO AT THIS UNIQUE
SITE.

In the lab, Phil says THEY ARE PLACES WHERE PEOPLE
ARE GATHERING TOGETHER AND
FEASTING, AND THEY HAVE TO BE
CEREMONIAL MONUMENTS.

A says SO, THESE VERY STRANGE BALLS,
WHAT ARE THOSE ABOUT?

Phil says THESE ARE MADE OUT OF CHALK.
WHAT YOU'LL NOTICE, IN SOME
PLACES - LOOK AT THAT - YOU
CAN SEE THE ACTUAL MANUFACTURING
TRACES.
NOW, CHALK IS A VERY SOFT ROCK.
IF YOU START BEATING IT ABOUT
TOO MUCH, YOU WILL WEAR THOSE
MANUFACTURING TRACES AWAY.
SO, I THINK THAT THEY ARE RITUAL
MATERIAL, BEING MADE FOR SOME
FUNCTION, AND THEN THEY ARE
THEN BEING PLACED IN THE PIT.
THOSE SPHERES, THOSE BALLS, ARE
SPECIAL.

A says NOW, WHAT ABOUT THE STONE
TOOLS, THEN?
SO, THESE WERE COMING OUT OF
THE PITS, AS WELL.

Phil says OH, AXES.
AXES WERE INCREDIBLY POWERFUL
OBJECTS TO THEM.
THEY ARE ALMOST SYMBOLIC
OFFERINGS TO SHOW THEIR WEALTH,
THEIR STATUS, THEIR POWER,
BECAUSE THE MATERIAL THAT IS
IN THE PITS IS THE REFUSE,
IF YOU LIKE, FROM PEOPLE THAT
ARE CARRYING OUT THE CEREMONIES
IN OUR HENGE-TYPE MONUMENTS.

(music plays)

A says THIS COMPLETELY UNEXPECTED
DISCOVERY REVEALS A SIGNIFICANT
RITUAL SITE WHERE NEOLITHIC
PEOPLE GATHERED FOR CEREMONIES
AND FEASTING.

(music plays)

A says BY THE TIME YOU'VE DONE ALL YOUR
POST-EXCAVATION WORK ON THIS,
WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO ADD
TO OUR UNDERSTANDING OF
THE STONEHENGE LANDSCAPE?

Phil says THE PEOPLE AT MY SITE WOULD
PROBABLY HAVE WITNESSED THE
CONSTRUCTION OF STONEHENGE.

A says THEY'RE JUST A FEW MILES
AWAY.

Phil says AND WHAT WE'VE NOW DONE IS
WE'RE MOVING OUR KNOWLEDGE FROM
THE WEST BANK OF THE RIVER AVON,
AND SHOWING THAT EQUALLY AS
IMPORTANT IS LIFE ON THE EAST
BANK.
AND IT JUST BLOWS ME OVER.
I'M ABSOLUTELY...
(LAUGHING)

At a site, someone hands him an unearthed object and Phil says OH!

A says BRITAIN'S FIRST DOUBLE HENGE
IS A MASSIVE DISCOVERY THAT,
OVER THE NEXT FEW YEARS,
COULD FUNDAMENTALLY CHANGE
OUR UNDERSTANDING OF HOW
OUR ANCESTORS 4,500 YEARS AGO
USED THE STONEHENGE LANDSCAPE.

An animated map shows the location of Perham Down.

A says OUR NEXT EXCAVATION ALSO TAKES
PLACE ON SALISBURY PLAIN,
JUST FIVE MILES AWAY FROM
STONEHENGE.
BUT THE STORY IT'S REVEALING IS
VERY DIFFERENT, AND TOOK PLACE
JUST 100 YEARS AGO.
2016 WAS THE HUNDREDTH
ANNIVERSARY OF THE BATTLE OF THE
SOMME, THE BLOODIEST BATTLE IN
THE HISTORY OF THE BRITISH ARMY,
WITH 60,000 CASUALTIES ON THE
FIRST DAY ALONE.
THOSE THAT LED THE CAMPAIGN HAVE
BEEN WIDELY CRITICIZED FOR
THE WAY THE BATTLE WAS FOUGHT,
FOR THE INEXPERIENCE AND
INADEQUATE TRAINING OF THE
SOLDIERS.
BUT DOES ARCHAEOLOGY SUPPORT
THAT PERCEPTION THAT THE YOUNG
MEN OF BRITAIN WERE SENT TO THE
WESTERN FRONT LIKE LAMBS TO
THE SLAUGHTER?
(ROCK MUSIC PLAYING)
(SOLDIER SHOUTING INDISTINCTLY)

Clips show soldiers in training on the plain.

A says SALISBURY PLAIN.
COVERING AN AREA THE SIZE OF
THE ISLE OF WIGHT, FOR OVER
100 YEARS IT'S BEEN THE SITE
OF BRITAIN'S LARGEST MILITARY
TRAINING GROUND.
DURING WORLD WAR ONE, THOUSANDS
OF SOLDIERS CAME HERE IN
PREPARATION FOR FIGHTING IN THE
TRENCHES OF NORTHERN FRANCE.
HOWEVER, IT'S OFTEN THOUGHT
THAT THIS TRAINING WAS TOO
SHORT AND INADEQUATE.
INCREDIBLY, A MAP HAS BEEN
UNCOVERED IN THE NATIONAL
ARCHIVE THAT MIGHT CHANGE THIS
PERCEPTION ONCE AND FOR ALL.
IT SUGGESTS THAT THE ARMY WAS
AT LEAST PLANNING TO RECREATE
GERMAN TRENCHES OF THE WESTERN
FRONT IN THESE FIELDS SO OUR
SOLDIERS COULD REHEARSE
ATTACKS ON THEM.
BUT WERE THOSE TRENCHES EVER
ACTUALLY DUG AND USED FOR
TRAINING?

Richard says YEAH.

A says MILITARY ARCHAEOLOGIST
RICHARD OSGOOD HAS COME TO
INVESTIGATE.

The caption changes to "Richard Osgood. Military archaeologist."

Richard is in his mid- forties, with short wavy gray hair and wears beige trousers, a pale gray T-shirt and a gray-blue hoodie.

He shows a map and says TO GET A MAP OF WHERE THEY'VE
SITED THESE PRACTICE TRENCHES
IS REALLY UNUSUAL.
YOU'VE GOT INDIVIDUAL
NOTIFICATIONS ON THE MAP,
SO AN "S" IS A SHELTER.
"MG," YOU MIGHT HAVE GUESSED,
IS A MACHINE-GUN POSITION.
TO GET ALL THAT TOGETHER IS
REALLY, REALLY A HUGE
OPPORTUNITY.
BUT NONETHELESS, THE MAP TELLS
YOU ABOUT WHAT THEY'RE MEANT
TO DO.
IT DOESN'T TELL YOU WHAT
ACTUALLY DOES HAPPEN.
MAYBE THIS MAP WAS SCHEMATIC,
MAYBE IT'S NOT WHAT'S DUG.
OUR JOB HERE OVER THE NEXT
COUPLE OF WEEKS IS REALLY TO SEE
WHAT'S LEFT UNDER THE GROUND.
THE IDEAL WOULD BE TO GET
ARCHITECTURE FROM TRENCHES
AND EVIDENCE FOR THE LIVES OF
THE PEOPLE THAT WERE HERE 100
YEARS AGO.

A says TRENCH WARFARE DOMINATED
WORLD WAR ONE.
WITH THE INVENTION OF NEW
POWERFUL WEAPONS, SUCH AS
MASSED ARTILLERY BOMBARDMENTS
AND RAPID-FIRING MACHINE GUNS,
SOLDIERS WERE FORCED TO DIG
TRENCHES TO HIDE IN FOR
PROTECTION.
SOLDIERS COULD LIVE IN THESE
TRENCHES FOR WEEKS AT A TIME...
BEFORE BEING ORDERED TO GO
OVER THE TOP AND CHARGE AT THE
ENEMY.

Richard holds an object and says DON'T KNOW WHAT THAT IS.

A says IF RICHARD CAN PROVE THAT
EXTENSIVE GERMAN TRENCH
FORTIFICATIONS WERE RECREATED
ON SALISBURY PLAIN, IT'S PROOF
THAT THE SOLDIERS SENT HERE
RECEIVED COMPREHENSIVE TRAINING
IN ATTACKING GERMAN POSITIONS,
DISPELLING THE NOTION THAT THEY
WERE ILL-PREPARED.
ON THE FIRST DAY OF THE DIG,
RICHARD'S TEAM STARTS TO LOOK
FOR EVIDENCE OF ONE OF THE
GERMAN FRONT-LINE TRENCHES
MARKED ON THE MAP.

The caption changes to "Dig dairy. Day 1."

Richard says WE'RE LOOKING FOR A
MACHINE-GUN POSITION.
IT'S MARKED, HELPFULLY, "MG."
ON THE MAP.
ALREADY, WE'RE FINDING LOTS
AND LOTS OF TRACES OF THE
ARCHITECTURE OF THE TRENCH,
AND THIS IS JUST STRIPPING
THE TOPSOIL OFF.

A says RICHARD FINDS A POST FROM
WHICH BARBED WIRE WOULD HAVE
BEEN HUNG, CLEVERLY DESIGNED
SO IT COULD BE PUT INTO THE
GROUND WITHOUT MAKING A NOISE.

Richard says IF YOU'RE PUTTING A BARBED
WIRE FENCE IN INTO NO-MAN'S
LAND, YOU'RE HITTING IT WITH A
HAMMER, IT'S MAKING A BIG NOISE,
AND SNIPERS SOON ARE ATTRACTED
TO THAT.
THE WAY THEY WORK OUT HOW TO
DEAL WITH THAT IS TO PUT THESE
THINGS IN, AND THIS WILL HAVE
A SORT OF CORKSCREW AT THE
BOTTOM.
AND TO PUT IT INTO THE GROUND,
YOU PUT A STICK THROUGH THIS
EYELET, AND THEN YOU WIND IT
DOWN INTO THE GROUND.

A says AND A FEW METRES AWAY, THEY
FIND THE BARBED WIRE THAT
IT WOULD HAVE SUPPORTED.

Richard says YOU KNOW, YOU LOOK AT THE
OBSTACLE OF THAT, IMAGINE
HAVING THAT IN FRONT OF THE
FEATURE YOU'RE TRYING TO TAKE.
IT'S A REAL IMPEDIMENT.

A says THEN, JUST BEHIND WHERE
THE BARBED WIRE WAS FOUND,
THEY DISCOVER WHAT THEY'VE BEEN
LOOKING FOR...
A SECTION OF A FRONT-LINE
GERMAN TRENCH.

Richard says SO WE'RE ON THE GERMAN
FRONT-LINE TRENCHES, AND WE
WERE HOPING TO FIND THE FIRING
POSITIONS.
DO YOU THINK WE GOT ANY
EVIDENCE OF THAT, RICH?

A man at the site says WE'VE GOT SOME REALLY GOOD
EVIDENCE.
WE'VE GOT WHAT WE'VE IDENTIFIED
NOW AS A FIRE STEP.
A FIRE STEP IS WHAT LETS YOU
STAND UP OUT OF THE TRENCH.
SO, WHEN YOU NEED TO FIRE, YOU
CAN GET UP AND FIRE OVER THE
TOP, AND THEN, WHEN YOU FINISH
YOU CAN GET DOWN INTO THE
RELATIVE SAFETY OF THE EXTRA
FOOT-AND-A-HALF WORTH OF SOIL.

A says THIS IS CLEAR EVIDENCE THAT
THE SOLDIERS WERE TRAINING
TO CAPTURE AUTHENTICALLY
RECREATED FRONT-LINE GERMAN
TRENCHES.
BUT WERE THE FORTIFICATIONS
MARKED ON THE MAP BEHIND
THE FRONT LINE ALSO BUILT?
IF THEY WERE, IT WOULD PROVE
THAT THE SOLDIERS WERE TRAINING
NOT ONLY TO ATTACK THE FRONT
LINE, BUT ALSO TO FIGHT RIGHT
THROUGH TO THE REAR.

The caption changes to "Dig dairy. Day 3."

A woman in a trench says OKAY, SO WE'VE GOT THIS
REALLY INTERESTING SHELTER.
AND IMPORTANTLY, WE'VE GOT
THE CORRUGATED IRON ROOF THAT
COVERED THE SHELTER.
WE'VE GOT THIS LITTLE STEP HERE,
WHICH IS PROBABLY SOME SORT
OF SEATING ARRANGEMENT,
SO THAT WITH THE ROOF ABOVE,
PEOPLE COULD SIT UNDERNEATH.

A says SHELTERS LIKE THESE WOULD
HAVE OFFERED SOME PROTECTION
FROM THE ELEMENTS, AS WELL AS
FROM THE SHRAPNEL OF ARTILLERY
BOMBARDMENTS.

The woman says EVEN MORE INTERESTING IS AT
THE VERY BOTTOM WE'VE GOT ALL
OF THIS TRAMPLE, WHICH ACTUALLY
SHOWS WHERE THE TROOPS WOULD
HAVE BEEN WALKING DURING THE
TIME OF USING THESE TRENCHES.

A says THE TRAMPLED FLOOR ISN'T
THE ONLY EVIDENCE THAT THESE
TRENCHES WEREN'T JUST FOR
SHOW, BUT WERE USED BY LARGE
NUMBERS OF SOLDIERS.

A man says WHAT WE'RE LOOKING AT,
IS IT A LATRINE OR NOT?

The woman says IT IS A LATRINE.
IT'S MORE OF A URINAL RATHER
THAN A PROPER TOILET.
WE KNOW THAT BECAUSE OF THE
YELLOW SANDY-LIKE MATERIAL
AT THE BOTTOM.

The man says THAT'S PUT VERY POLITELY.

The caption changes to "Dig dairy. Day 5."

A says RICHARD IS NOW EXCAVATING
TRENCHES EVEN FURTHER BACK FROM
THE FRONT LINE, AND HERE HE
FINDS EVIDENCE OF HOW SOLDIERS
WERE TRAINED TO CONTINUE THE
BATTLE ONCE THE GERMAN TRENCHES
HAD BEEN CAPTURED.

Richard says THERE'S A SHELF FACING UP THE
HILL IN EACH OF THESE LITTLE
SLOTS.
THIS IS AS IF THE BRITISH HAVE
CAPTURED THE GERMAN TRENCHES
AND THEY HAVE WORKED THEIR WAY
THROUGH THE GERMAN FRONT LINE,
THEY'VE GOT THROUGH THE RESERVE
AND SUPPORT LINES, AND THEN
THEY HAVE TO DIG IN FACING THE
PRESUMED GERMAN COUNTERATTACK
FROM UP THE HILL.

A says IT'S EVIDENCE THAT MAJOR
BATTLE SIMULATIONS WERE TAKING
PLACE HERE.
AFTER TWO WEEKS, THEY'VE
UNCOVERED AN EXTENSIVE NETWORK
OF TRENCHES, SHELTERS AND
MACHINE-GUN POSITIONS -
A FAITHFUL RECREATION OF WHAT
SOLDIERS COULD EXPECT TO
ENCOUNTER ON BATTLEFIELDS LIKE
THE SOMME.

Richard says THEY UTILIZED THE HIGH GROUND
OVER THERE, THEY UTILIZED THE
HIGH GROUND IN FRONT OF ME
AND THE HILLSIDE BEHIND ME.
AND THIS IS JUST THE GERMAN
POSITIONS.
THIS IS HECTARES AND HECTARES.
IT'S A VAST TRAINING LANDSCAPE.

A says IT'S INCREDIBLE THAT THIS MAP
HAD BEEN LOST, AND WITHOUT IT
WE WOULDN'T HAVE HAD A CLUE
THAT SO MUCH EFFORT HAD BEEN
MADE IN RECREATING SUCH AN
AMAZINGLY HUGE TRENCH SYSTEM.
RICHARD'S DISCOVERY ON THE
GROUND CHANGES WORLD WAR I
HISTORY, AND THE VIEW THAT
SOLDIERS WERE POORLY TRAINED
BEFORE BEING SENT TO WAR.

Richard says PEOPLE THAT ARE TRAINING
THROUGH THIS IN 1915 ARE
GETTING AS GOOD AN EXPERIENCE
AS THEY POSSIBLY CAN.
THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF GENERALS
REALLY TRYING THEIR VERY BEST
TO GIVE THE TRAINING REQUIRED
FOR WHAT'S GOING TO HAPPEN IN
1916.
GETTING AWAY FROM THE IDEA
OF THESE CHAPS JUST WALKING
AROUND THE PARADE SQUARE WITH
BROOM HANDLES, AND THEN BEING
SENT TO IMMINENT DEATH ON THE
BATTLE OF THE SOMME.

A says EVEN PRACTISING ON SALISBURY
PLAIN, TRENCH WARFARE MUST HAVE
BEEN MISERABLE.
SO WHAT CAN ARCHAEOLOGY TELL US
ABOUT THE MEN WHO TRAINED HERE?
RICHARD HAS COME INTO THE LAB
TO TELL ME.
AND YOU'VE GOT SOME OF THE
ARTIFACTS HERE.

Richard says YEAH, WE DO.
THIS IS ALL ABOUT MORALE,
IN MANY WAYS.
YOU CAN BE BORED IN THE
TRENCHES, AND WET AND MISERABLE,
AND THE ONE THING YOU'LL WANT
TO DO IF YOU'RE SITTING THERE
COLD AND TIRED IS TO HAVE A
BREW.
AND THAT TIN OVER THERE, THAT'S
A TIN OF CONDENSED MILK.

A says RIGHT.

Richard says AND THE SOLDIERS BAYONETED
IT.

A says YEAH.

Richard says YOU CAN IMAGINE THEM SITTING
THERE IN THE TRENCH, NEED
A BREW.
YOU POUR THAT, THE CONDENSED
MILK IN, CHUCK THE TIN AWAY.
AND I THINK THAT'S LOVELY.
THAT'S ALL ABOUT KEEPING SANE,
FRANKLY.
THE OTHER THING YOU'VE GOT
CONNECTED WITH THAT SORT
OF THING IS THAT THING.
I'M REALLY PLEASED THIS WAS
EMPTY, AND WE DIDN'T DAMAGE IT
IN OPENING IT, BECAUSE THAT'S
A TIN OF SARDINES.
YOU CAN IMAGINE WHAT THAT WOULD
HAVE BEEN LIKE A HUNDRED YEARS
ON IF WE'D OPENED IT.
BUT AGAIN, HAVING THINGS LIKE
TINS OF FISH, CUPS OF TEA,
WILL MAKE THESE PRACTICE
TRENCHES NOT SEEM QUITE SO BAD
AS THEY MIGHT OTHERWISE.
THEY'RE NOT UNDER FIRE FROM THE
GERMANS HERE, BUT NONETHELESS,
THEY'VE GOT THE SAME SORT OF
MISERY OF EXISTENCE.
AND THAT'S THE SORT OF THING
THAT'S CRITICAL TO GET INTO
THE TRAINING.

A says AND WHAT'S THIS?
THIS HAS GOT SOME WRITING ON IT.

Richard says YOU CAN SEE "LIVERPOOL REG."
ON IT.
IT'S PART OF THE KING'S
LIVERPOOL REGIMENT.
YOU THINK OF THE FAMOUS
KITCHENER POSTER IN 1914,
THE BIG RECRUITMENT ONE.

A says YEAH.

Richard says IT'S THESE GUYS, RECRUITED
IN 1914, BUT WE HAD NO IDEA
THAT THEY WERE PRETTY CERTAINLY
HERE TRAINING FOR WHAT BECAME
THE BATTLE OF THE SOMME, AND
THEY'VE LEFT THAT CARVING
BEHIND.

A says SO, THEY'VE JUST CARVED THAT
IN A LUMP OF CHALK.

Richard says BORED SOLDIER, CARVING THEIR
REGIMENT INTO THIS THING AND
IT ENDS UP IN THE BOTTOM OF
THE TRENCH.

A says BUT A FANTASTIC RECORD THEY
WERE THERE.

Richard says OH, IT'S LOVELY.
WE DIDN'T KNOW THEY WERE THERE.
THAT'S WHY ARCHAEOLOGY'S
BRILLIANT.
IT LINKS YOU TO THE PEOPLE
AND THAT IS WHAT'S SO CRUCIAL,
THAT YOU GET BACK TO THOSE
INDIVIDUAL STORIES OF THOSE GUYS
WHO WERE HERE IN THE FIRST WAR.
AFTER THAT TRAINING EXPERIENCE,
THEY THEN GO THROUGH TO THIS
VERY FAMOUS FIRST DAY OF THE
BATTLE OF THE SOMME, AND FOR
THEM IT GOES PRETTY WELL.

A says REALLY?

Richard says YEAH.

A says BECAUSE THERE WERE THOUSANDS
AND THOUSANDS OF CASUALTIES.

Richard says FAMOUS FIGURE OF 60,000
CASUALTIES ON THE FIRST DAY.

A says YEAH, YEAH.

Richard says FOR THE LIVERPOOL PALS, THEY
FIGHT ALONGSIDE THE FRENCH ON
THE RIGHT-HAND SIDE OF THE
BRITISH ATTACK, AND THEY TAKE
ALL THEIR OBJECTIVES AND THEY
TAKE RELATIVELY FEW CASUALTIES.
AND THAT'S NOT THE STORY YOU GET
WHEN YOU THINK OF THE BATTLE
OF THE SOMME.

(music plays)

A says DESPITE THE EXTENSIVE
TRAINING THAT RICHARD HAS SHOWN
THESE SOLDIERS RECEIVED,
TRAINING WASN'T ENOUGH.
JUST A FEW WEEKS AFTER THEIR
SUCCESS ON THE FIRST DAY
OF THE SOMME, THE 4,000 EAGER
YOUNG VOLUNTEERS OF THE
LIVERPOOL PALS HAD RECEIVED
OVER 1,000 CASUALTIES.
A SHOCKING ONE IN FOUR.

She walks in a museum and says THIS IS ONE OF BRISTOL
MUSEUM'S GREATEST TREASURES,
THE THORNBURY HOARD.
IT CONSISTS OF 11,460 COINS
AND IT WAS BURIED IN THE FOURTH
CENTURY AD, JUST AS THE ROMAN
ARMY WAS WITHDRAWING FROM
BRITAIN.
BUT ACTUALLY, THIS PALES INTO
INSIGNIFICANCE BESIDE A
RECENTLY DISCOVERED HOARD, ONE
OF THE LARGEST EVER FOUND,
THIS TIME DATING TO THE FIRST
CENTURY BC, WHEN BRITAIN WAS ON
THE CUSP OF BEING ASSIMILATED
INTO THE ROMAN EMPIRE.
THE ISLAND OF JERSEY.

A man at a site says WE'VE GOT SOMETHING JUST
UNDER THE SURFACE THERE.

A says IN 2012, TWO METAL
DETECTORISTS FOUND A MASSIVE
HOARD OF 2,000-YEAR-OLD COINS
IN A POTATO FIELD.
JERSEY HERITAGE PAINSTAKINGLY
EXCAVATED.
(TALKING INDISTINCTLY)

A says IT WAS THE WORLD'S BIGGEST
DISCOVERY OF IRON AGE COINS
EVER.
THE ARCHAEOLOGISTS WANTED
TO FIND OUT WHAT TREASURES LAY
INSIDE, AND WHAT IT TELLS US
ABOUT THE BRITISH ISLES
AT A TIME WHEN THE ROMANS WERE
ADVANCING TOWARDS OUR SHORES.
THE HOARD WAS TAKEN TO THE
LOCAL MUSEUM WHERE CONSERVATOR
NEIL MAHRER AND HIS TEAM
BEGAN THE PAINSTAKING TASK
OF CLEARING OFF THE MUD.
THERE WERE AN EXTRAORDINARY
70,000 COINS.
AND MORE TREASURE LAY HIDDEN
WITHIN.
UNUSUAL COLOURED BEADS.
(LAUGHING)

At the lab, Neil pics up a bead and says RATHER LOVELY.

A says AND GOLD AND SILVER
BRACELETS.

Neil is in his sixties, with short white hair and a goatee. He wears glasses and a lac coat.

He says THIS HAS BEEN MUCH MORE
COMPLICATED THAN EXPECTED.
WE'RE LIFTING ONE PIECE AT A
TIME OUT, BUT EVERYTHING IS
INTERLINKED AND FITTED AROUND
EACH OTHER.
HA-HA!
SUCCESS!
IT'S A PIECE OF SILVER WIRE,
PROBABLY FROM JEWELLERY,
JUST CUT UP AND ESSENTIALLY
JUST SCRAP METAL NOW.

A says WHO WOULD HAVE CUT UP THIS
PRECIOUS METAL, AND WHY WAS IT
ALL HIDDEN?
AS THEY DIG DEEPER INTO
THE HOARD LOOKING FOR CLUES,
THEY UNCOVER ITS GREATEST
TREASURE.

Neil says IT'S HEAVY.

An team member says REALLY?

Neil says IT'S HEAVY.

A says AN AMAZING COLLECTION OF
THICK GOLDEN TORCS...
ORNATE NECK RINGS.
ONLY THE MOST IMPORTANT PEOPLE
IN IRON AGE SOCIETY WOULD HAVE
WORN NECK RINGS OF THIS
THICKNESS AND WEIGHT.
AFTER 2,000 YEARS IN THE
GROUND, IT'S TAKEN NEIL FOUR
YEARS CAREFULLY PICKING IT
APART TO REVEAL ITS CONTENTS.

The caption changes to "Neil Mahrer. Conservator."

Neil says WE'VE NOW REMOVED 50,000
COINS, SO WE THINK WE'RE
FIVE-SEVENTHS OF THE WAY IN.
ABOUT 20,000 COINS LEFT,
AND YOU CAN SEE THERE ARE STILL
A FEW THINGS OUTSTANDING.

A says WITH SO MUCH OF THE HOARD
NOW REVEALED, NEIL HAS MADE
SOME STARTLING REVELATIONS.

Neil says WELL, IT'S THE BIGGEST COIN
HOARD OF ITS KIND IN THE WORLD.
WE KNOW WHICH TRIBE ACTUALLY
MADE IT, BECAUSE THE COINS
THAT HAVE ALREADY COME OFF AND
WE'VE CLEANED ARE OF A TYPE
WE'VE SEEN BEFORE FROM THE
CURIOSOLITAE TRIBE, WITH A HEAD
ON ONE SIDE AND A VERY, VERY
ABSTRACT HORSE ON THE OTHER.

A says THE CURIOSOLITAE WERE AN
IRON AGE TRIBE OF CELTS THAT
INHABITED PART OF WHAT IS NOW
BRITTANY IN FRANCE.
SO, WHY DID THEY BURY THIS VAST
TREASURE ON JERSEY?
NEIL HAS COME INTO THE LAB WITH
SOME OF THIS AMAZING TREASURE
TO TELL ME.
NEIL, LET'S BE CLEAR ABOUT THIS,
THIS IS AN ABSOLUTELY ENORMOUS
HOARD, ISN'T IT?

Neil says IT IS.
I MEAN, IT'S GOT TO THE STAGE
NOW WHERE, IN THIS HOARD, WE'VE
GOT MORE COINS OF THIS PERIOD
THAN HAVE BEEN FOUND IN FRANCE
AT ALL.

A says IN THE WHOLE OF FRANCE?

Neil says YEAH, AND AS WE'VE GONE
THROUGH, WE FOUND MORE AND MORE
APART FROM THE COINS.
TORCS WERE THE BIG SURPRISE
FOR US.
I MEAN, THIS IS ONE OF EIGHT
COMPLETE ONES THAT WE HAVE.

A says CAN I PICK THAT UP?

Neil says YEAH, PLEASE DO.

A says SO, THIS IS A GOLD IRON AGE
NECK RING.

Neil says YEAH.

A says HOW DO YOU GET IT ONTO
YOUR NECK?

Neil says THEY COME IN TWO HALVES.
SO, YOU'D LITERALLY GIVE IT
A TWIST LIKE THAT AND THEN
PULL APART.

A says AND THE PATTERN IS PECULIAR,
BECAUSE IT'S NOT FACING THE
OBSERVER, IT'S FACING THE
WEARER.

Neil says NO, IT WOULD BE INSIDE,
BY YOUR THROAT, YES.

A says YEAH, THAT'S BEAUTIFUL.
WHAT ABOUT THE COINS THEMSELVES?
DO THEY GIVE US A CLUE AS TO
THE DATE?

Neil says I MEAN, LITERALLY 99.5 percent
OF THE COINS IN THIS HOARD
DATE TO AROUND SORT OF 62 BC
OR BEFORE.

A says THEY'RE LOVELY, LOOK AT THAT.

Neil says THEY'RE BEAUTIFUL FACES,
AREN'T THEY?

A says WONDERFUL LITTLE FACE ON
THAT SIDE.

Neil says WE KNOW THAT THOSE WERE ALL
MADE IN THE RUN-UP TO THE
INVASION BY JULIUS CAESAR.
SO, PERHAPS THEY KNEW THAT
JULIUS CAESAR WAS COMING UP
FROM THE SOUTH, DEFEATING TRIBE
AFTER TRIBE AFTER TRIBE, AND
THAT THEY HID THEIR WEALTH.
THEY ACTUALLY GOT IT OFFSHORE,
ROWED THE THING TO JERSEY.
THAT SEEMED TO BE SOMEWHERE
THAT WAS QUITE HARD TO REACH,
QUITE HARD TO LAND, SO PERHAPS
IT WAS SOMEWHERE TO HIDE,
AND BURIED IT WITH THE IDEA,
PRESUMABLY, OF COMING BACK FOR
IT LATER, AND WERE PERHAPS
KILLED.

(music plays)

A says THE BURIAL OF THE JERSEY
HOARD REVEALS THE FEAR THAT
GRIPPED THE CELTIC TRIBES
AS THE ROMANS ADVANCED TOWARDS
OUR SHORES.
BUT CONVERSELY, THE THORNBURY
HOARD AT BRISTOL MUSEUM DATES
FROM A TIME WHEN, 300 YEARS
LATER, THE ROMANS WERE IN
RETREAT, SHOWING US THAT THE
COLLAPSE OF EMPIRE COULD BE
EQUALLY TUMULTUOUS.
THE THORNBURY HOARD THAT IS
ON DISPLAY UPSTAIRS IS JUST A
SMALL PORTION OF THE 11,460
ROMAN COINS THAT WERE
DISCOVERED, AND SO I'VE COME
DOWN HERE TO THE STORES TO LOOK
MORE CLOSELY AT SOME OF THOSE
COINS, AND FIND OUT MORE
ABOUT THE HOARD.
HOW WAS IT DISCOVERED?

The caption changes to "Gail Boyle. Senior curator."

Gail is in her fifties, with short wavy blond hair and wears a printed white and blue dress and a short-sleeved black jacket.

Gail says IT WAS DISCOVERED BY A MAN
WHO WAS DIGGING A FISH POND
IN HIS BACK GARDEN, SO HE
FOUND THE REMAINS OF A POT
WITH OVER 11,500 COINS INSIDE.
ALL OF A SIMILAR TYPE, ALL
OF A SIMILAR PERIOD.

A says THESE COINS ACT AS A HISTORY
OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

Gail says VIRTUALLY ALL THE COINS ARE
CONSTANTINIAN.
SO, CONSTANTINE, THE EMPEROR
THAT'S ASSOCIATED WITH ENABLING
CHRISTIANITY TO BE WORSHIPPED
ACROSS THE EMPIRE.

A says AND FOUNDING CONSTANTINOPLE?

Gail says AND FOUNDING CONSTANTINOPLE.
SO, YOU GET TWO TYPES OF COINS.
YOU GET ONE COIN IN THIS HOARD
WHICH HARK BACK TO THE
FOUNDATION OF ROME.

A says OH, THAT'S BEAUTIFUL.
SO, WE'VE GOT A LITTLE WOLF WITH
ROMULUS AND REMUS UNDERNEATH.
THAT'S A GORGEOUS COIN, LOOK
AT THAT.

Gail says AND THEN, THERE'S A FEMALE
PERSONIFICATION OF THE NEW
EMPIRE'S CAPITAL, WHICH IS
CONSTANTINOPLE, AND THAT IS
CONSTANTINOPOLIS.

A says THE COINS ARE ALSO EVIDENCE
OF THE EMPIRE'S DECLINE.

Gail says BY THIS TIME, THE COINAGE HAS
BECOME VERY DEBASED.
THERE'S VERY LITTLE SILVER
CONTENT, AND VIRTUALLY
EVERYTHING IS MADE OUT OF
COPPER ALLOY, AND ALSO NOT
QUITE AS WELL MODELLED.

A says SO, THE COINS ARE BEING
LITERALLY DEBASED, THEY ARE
GETTING SMALLER.
IS THIS THE SIGN OF A CRUMBLING
ECONOMY, THEN, AS ROME GOES
INTO DECLINE?

Gail says YES.
THEY'RE DEBASING EVERYTHING.

A says SO, WHERE WERE THESE MINTED
THEN?
ARE THEY BRITISH COINS IN
ORIGIN?

Gail says NONE OF THE ONES THAT I'VE
SEEN ARE ACTUALLY FROM BRITAIN.
WE KNOW THAT BECAUSE THEY HAVE
LITTLE MARKS ON THE BOTTOMS
OF THEM.
WE'VE DONE A SORT OF ALMOST LIKE
AN AIRLINE MAP OF WHERE THESE
THINGS HAVE COME FROM, AND
THE FURTHEST ONE THAT WE FOUND
IS ANTIOCH, IN TURKEY, AND
WE'VE GOT THINGS FROM
THESSALONICA, BUT ALSO CROATIA.

A says AS PART OF THE EMPIRE,
ROMAN BRITAIN WAS CONNECTED
WITH DIVERSE PEOPLE AND
CULTURES ACROSS EUROPE AND
BEYOND, AND THIS WAS ALSO A
PERIOD OF RELATIVE PEACE.
BUT WHEN THE EMPIRE CRUMBLED,
IT MUST HAVE BEEN A DIFFICULT
AND EVEN FRIGHTENING EXPERIENCE
FOR MANY PEOPLE.
AND WHY ON EARTH WAS THIS VOLUME
OF COINS BURIED?

Gail says THAT'S THE 64,000 DOLLAR QUESTION,
BECAUSE WE HAVE NO IDEA.

A says THIS WAS A TROUBLED TIME,
WASN'T IT?
SO, I MEAN, I SUPPOSE THERE ARE
NUMEROUS DIFFERENT REASONS
THAT SOMEBODY COULD BE BURYING
MONEY IN THE GROUND.

Gail says THERE COULD.

A says THEY COULD BE TRYING TO HIDE
IT, IT COULD BE EFFECTIVELY
BANKING IT.

Gail says AND YOU KEPT IT AND YOU HID
IT FROM ANYBODY YOU DIDN'T WANT
TO HAVE IT, AND THAT MIGHT BE
SOMEBODY YOU THOUGHT WAS COMING
TO RAID.
AND CLEARLY, WE HAVE NO IDEA
WHY NOBODY COLLECTED IT.

A says BY THE FOURTH CENTURY AD,
THE ROMANS WERE PULLING OUT
OF BRITAIN.
AND WHOEVER BURIED THESE COINS
NEVER CAME BACK FOR THEM.
BRITAIN WAS PLUNGED INTO
A PERIOD OF UNCERTAINTY
FOR THE NEXT 600 YEARS,
SOMETIMES KNOWN AS THE DARK
AGES.
OUR NEXT EXCAVATION PROVIDES
BRAND-NEW AND VERY STRANGE
CLUES AS TO HOW OUR ANCESTORS
MADE SENSE OF THIS UPHEAVAL.
FOR ARCHAEOLOGISTS, BURIAL SITES
CAN OFFER PRECIOUS CLUES AS TO
HOW OUR ANCESTORS LIVED AND
DIED.
BUT SOMETIMES, THEY ALSO PROVIDE
US WITH SURPRISING INSIGHTS
INTO WHAT SEEM TO US TODAY TO BE
BIZARRE BELIEFS AND STRANGE
RITUALS, LONG SINCE FORGOTTEN.

The animated map shows the location of Merlin's Cave.

A says DEEP IN THE WYE VALLEY IN
HEREFORD, A TEAM OF
ARCHAEOLOGISTS IS ON THEIR WAY
TO INVESTIGATE AN INTRIGUING
DISCOVERY NEAR A REMOTE CAVE.

A man in the location says DAY ONE.
THE SITE IS UP A VERY, VERY
STEEP SLOPE, WHICH IS DENSELY
WOODED.
ON THREE SIDES OF THE SITE,
THERE ARE 60-FOOT-HIGH VERTICAL
CLIFFS.
AND IMMEDIATELY ABOVE THE SITE,
THERE IS THE OPENING OF A SMALL
CAVE.

A says KNOWN LOCALLY AS MERLIN'S
CAVE, IN THE 1920S, AN
INCREDIBLE FIND OF PREHISTORIC
TOOLS, POTTERY AND BONES WAS
MADE, REVEALING THIS TO BE A
SACRED BURIAL SITE FOR OUR
NEOLITHIC ANCESTORS OVER 4,500
YEARS AGO.
BUT IN 2011, A NEW DISCOVERY
WAS MADE, PURELY BY CHANCE,
JUST BELOW THE ENTRANCE.

The caption changes to "Clyde Hoare. Caver."

Clyde is in his forties, balding and with a stubble. He wears a gray T-shirt.

He says I WAS DOING CAVING WITH ONE
OF MY SONS, AND WE DECIDED TO
TRY AND GET INTO THIS CAVE,
WHICH IS ABOUT 15 FOOT UP THE
CLIFF FACE, SO I LEFT MY SON
SAT ON WHAT WAS A TREE THROW.
AND WHILE I WAS SCALING THE
CLIFF HERE, HE DISCOVERED A
FLINT SCRAPER, A REALLY LOVELY
FLINT SCRAPER, AND SOME PIECES
OF POTTERY, AND SOME TEETH.

A says CLYDE TOOK THE FINDS TO
THE COUNTY ARCHAEOLOGIST.

Clyde says THE POTTERY WAS PREHISTORIC,
THE TEETH WERE HUMAN AND THE
FLINT WAS EARLY NEOLITHIC.

A says THE COUNTY ARCHAEOLOGIST TIM
HOVERD WAS SO INTRIGUED BY THE
FINDS THAT HE ORGANIZED A DIG
TO SEE IF HE COULD FIND WHETHER
THERE WAS A CONNECTION BETWEEN
THESE NEW FINDS AND THE ONES
IN THE CAVE.
WHAT HE FOUND WAS EVEN MORE
EXCITING.

The caption changes to "Tim Hoverd. Co-dig director."

Tim is in his late forties, with short white hair and a beard. He wears a brown shirt.

Tim says WE FOUND TWO HUMAN SKELETONS
ARE LAID OUT UNDER TWO OF THE
TREE THROWS.
WE CARBON-DATED THEM TO ABOUT
600 AD.

A says THIS WAS SHOCKING.
TIM HAD EXPECTED TO FIND
NEOLITHIC SKELETONS, BUT THESE
WERE DARK AGE SKELETONS FROM
THE SEVENTH CENTURY AD,
AND THEY WERE LYING OUTSIDE
A PREHISTORIC BURIAL SITE.
BUT WITH SUCH A HUGE TIME
DIFFERENCE, SURELY THERE
COULDN'T BE A CONNECTION.
THEN, THE NEXT PIECE OF
EVIDENCE EMERGED.

Tim says ONE OF THE BURIALS HAD BONES
DEPOSITED WITH IT DATED TO THE
BRONZE AGE FROM THE CAVE,
SO 1200, 1300, 1400 YEARS OLDER
THAN THE BURIAL.

A says THE PREHISTORIC HUMAN BONES
SEEM TO HAVE BEEN DELIBERATELY
PLACED IN THE LATER GRAVES.
WHOEVER BURIED THESE MEN
CLEARLY KNEW ABOUT THE EARLIER
BURIALS INSIDE THE CAVE.

Tim says SO, WHAT WE WANTED TO KNOW
WAS WHO THESE PEOPLE WERE,
AND WHY THEY WERE INVOLVED
WITH THE BURIAL IN THE CAVE.
WE KNOW THAT THEY WERE DOING
SOMETHING VERY STRANGE,
VERY DIFFERENT.

A says ARE THESE TWO MEN THE ONLY
ONES BURIED HERE, OR ARE THEY
PART OF SOMETHING MUCH BIGGER?
THIS YEAR, ANOTHER DIG WAS
ORGANIZED TO FIND OUT.

The caption changes to "Dig dairy. Day 1."

The caption changes to "Andrew Chamberlain. Co-dig director."

Andrew is in his fifties, with short gray hair and wears glasses and a gray T-shirt.

He says IT'S A VERY UNUSUAL PLACE
TO FIND PEOPLE BEING BURIED.
WE'RE ON A VERY STEEP HILLSIDE.
THE SOIL ISN'T VERY DEEP.
IT'S ACTUALLY QUITE HARD TO MAKE
A GRAVE THAT'S DEEP ENOUGH TO
BURY A BODY, AND THE REASON
WE'VE COME BACK HERE TO DO
FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS IS TO
TRY AND DETERMINE THE EXTENT
OF THIS BURIAL ACTIVITY.
DO WE ONLY HAVE TWO BURIALS, OR
IS IT ACTUALLY A SMALL CEMETERY?
(INDISTINCT CHATTER)

A says A TRENCH IS DUG A SHORT
DISTANCE FROM WHERE THE TWO
BURIALS WERE FOUND.
AFTER TWO DAYS OF DIGGING,
THEY START TO GET RESULTS.

The caption changes to "Dig dairy. Day 3."

Andrew says WE JUST FOUND A HUMAN BONE
WHICH IS PROJECTING OUT OF
THE SIDE OF THE SECTION OF
THE TRENCH.
IT'S A FRAGMENT OF A LARGE HUMAN
FEMUR, AND WE'RE FURTHER TO
THE SOUTH OF WHERE THE PREVIOUS
TWO BURIALS ARE.
AND IT'S GIVING US AN IDEA THAT
THE EXTENT OF THIS BURIAL AREA
IS CONSIDERABLY LARGER THAN WE'D
SEEN PREVIOUSLY.
(RATTLING)

A says MORE HUMAN REMAINS ARE
UNCOVERED.

A woman says WE'VE JUST FOUND THIS,
WHICH IS A HUMAN TOOTH.
IT'S ACTUALLY A HUMAN CANINE,
AN ADULT TOOTH.

A man says AND THEN A LITTLE BIT OF BONE
WHICH IS JUST FROM THE PATH.

The caption changes to "Dig dairy. Day 4."

Andrew says NOW WE'RE FINDING REMAINS
OF OTHER SKELETONS, INCLUDING
THE THIGH BONE OF A NEWBORN
CHILD.
NOW, UP TO NOW, ALL OF THE BONES
FOUND FROM THESE BURIALS HAVE
BEEN OF ADULTS, BUT NOW WE'RE
FINDING EVIDENCE THAT EVEN
VERY YOUNG INFANTS ARE BEING
BURIED AT THIS SITE.

A says ANALYSIS SHOWS THAT THESE
DATE FROM THE SAME PERIOD
AS THE SKELETONS FIRST FOUND
BENEATH THE CAVE ENTRANCE.
IT'S EVIDENCE THAT THE TEAM HAS
UNCOVERED THE BURIAL GROUND
OF A DARK AGE COMMUNITY.
IT'S AN INCREDIBLY STRANGE
DISCOVERY.
PREHISTORIC BURIALS INSIDE
THE CAVE SEEM TO HAVE BEEN
SO IMPORTANT TO THIS COMMUNITY
2,000 YEARS LATER THAT THEY
CHOSE TO BE BURIED CLOSE TO
THE CAVE, EVEN THOUGH DIGGING
GRAVES ON THIS STEEP GROUND
MUST HAVE BEEN INCREDIBLY
DIFFICULT.
AND ANOTHER DISCOVERY IS MADE,
EVIDENCE THAT THESE PEOPLE
ARE ALSO BEING BURIED ALONG
WITH BONES FROM INSIDE THE
CAVE.

Andrew says NOW, ON THE TOP OF THIS BONE
HERE, WE CAN SEE ENCRUSTATION.
AND THIS IS IN FACT TUFA, OR
STALAGMITE, WHICH IS ONLY
FORMED INSIDE THE CAVES.
THIS BONE HAS COME OUT OF THE
CAVE, SO THIS PROVIDES A DIRECT
LINK BETWEEN THE CAVE UP THERE
AND WHAT'S BEEN DEPOSITED DOWN
HERE.

A says THE TEAM FROM MANCHESTER
UNIVERSITY HAVE DISCOVERED NOT
ONLY A FORGOTTEN BURIAL GROUND,
BUT A STRANGE FUNERARY RITUAL
THAT'S BEEN LOST FOR 1400
YEARS.
I'M INTERESTED TO FIND OUT
WHAT THE ARCHAEOLOGISTS THINK
WAS GOING ON HERE.

In the lab, Alice says SO, YOU'VE GOT DARK AGE BURIALS
OUTSIDE THE CAVE, AND THEN
INSIDE THE CAVE THERE SEEMS TO
HAVE BEEN A LOT OF BONE,
HUMAN AND ANIMAL BONE,
FROM MUCH, MUCH EARLIER.
SOME PERIOD IN PREHISTORY.

Tim says FROM AT LEAST THE NEOLITHIC.
IT'S BURIED WITH TWO COW BONES.

A says SO, THIS BIT HERE?

Tim says YEAH.

A says SO, A BIT OF COW RIB.

Tim says AND THEN, THERE'S THE KNUCKLE
OF A COW LEG BONE BY HIS HEAD
THAT HE WAS BURIED WITH, AS
WELL.

(music plays)

A says TIM BELIEVES THERE COULD BE
A SPECIAL CONNECTION BETWEEN
THIS PARTICULAR MAN AND THE
EARLIER BURIALS INSIDE THE
CAVE.

A says AND HAVE YOU ANALYZED THE BONES?
WHAT ARE YOU ABLE TO SAY ABOUT
THIS INDIVIDUAL?

Tim says HE IS CERTAINLY WELL INTO HIS
50S, IF NOT IN HIS EARLY 60S
WHEN HE DIED.
HE WAS A VERY TALL PERSON, OR AT
LEAST HE WAS WELL OVER SIX FEET.

A says WE CAN SEE THAT WITH HIM
LYING OUT HERE, CAN'T WE?
LOOK AT THOSE THIGH BONES.

Tim says HUGE, AND THE FACT THAT HE
IS LARGE AND ROBUST AND LIVED
TO A REASONABLE AGE WOULD
SUGGEST, IF NOTHING ELSE,
HE WAS WELL FED, WHICH MAY
SUGGEST THAT HE WAS BEING
LOOKED AFTER.

A says SO, WHO DO YOU THINK HE WAS?

Tim says I THINK JUST WITH THE FACT
THAT HE'S BURIED WITH ANIMAL
BONES THAT MUST HAVE COME FROM
THE CAVE THAT HE WAS ACTUALLY
IN CHARGE OF LOOKING AFTER THE
CONTENTS OF THE CAVE FOR A
PERIOD OF TIME.

A says SO, YOU'RE SEEING THIS AS A
SORT OF CULT CENTRE, THEN?

Tim says I THINK A CULT IS PROBABLY
THE WAY TO LOOK AT IT.
THEY ARE HONOURING THEIR
ANCESTORS, AND THEY'RE
HONOURING A CAVE THAT AS FAR AS
THEY'RE CONCERNED HAS BEEN
THERE FOR MILLENNIA.
BUT, AT THE SAME TIME, BOTH
BURIALS SEEM TO BE LAID OUT
IN BROADLY SPEAKING A CHRISTIAN
TRADITION: EXTENDED, WITH ARMS
FOLDED OVER THE PELVIS.

Andrew says SO, IN THAT SENSE THEY'RE
FOLLOWING THE CHRISTIAN
TRADITION, BUT THERE IS THIS
LITTLE BIT OF PREHISTORIC BONE,
AS PERHAPS AN INDICATION THAT,
OKAY, WE'RE GOING TO DO THIS
CHRISTIAN-STYLE, BUT WE'LL
INCLUDE SOMETHING FROM THE PAST
TO SHOW THAT WE HAVEN'T
FORGOTTEN ABOUT THAT TRADITION.

(music plays)

A says THE DARK AGES WERE A
TUMULTUOUS PERIOD IN BRITISH
HISTORY.
ANGLO-SAXON TRIBES WERE
INVADING AND IT WAS A TIME OF
GREAT POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS
CHANGE, WITH THE ESTABLISHMENT
OF NEW KINGDOMS AND PAGAN
IDEAS VYING WITH CHRISTIANITY
FOR SUPREMACY.

Tim says IT'S HIGHLY LIKELY THAT THESE
WEREN'T ANGLO-SAXONS, THESE
WERE ACTUALLY THE NATIVE
WELSH BRITONS, IF YOU LIKE, AND
THEY'RE ADAPTING TO CHRISTIANITY
AS IT COMES FROM THE SOUTH AND
EAST, AND MOVING UP INTO THE
WEST, AND THEY'RE GRADUALLY
ADAPTING.

A says SUCH A STRANGE SITE, AND I
THINK IT REALLY REMINDS US
THAT WE DON'T EXPECT EVERYBODY
ACROSS ENGLAND AND WALES TO BE
DOING EXACTLY THE SAME THING
AT THE SAME TIME.

(music plays)

Alice says THE COMMUNITY AT MERLIN'S CAVE
REACHED BACK INTO THEIR PAST,
COMBINING BURIAL PRACTICE WITH
WHAT SEEMS TO BE AN ANCESTOR
CULT, AND PERHAPS THAT
PROVIDED THEM WITH MUCH-NEEDED
REASSURANCE DURING SUCH AN
UNCERTAIN PERIOD IN OUR
HISTORY.
AFTER THE ROMANS LEFT, DARK AGE
BRITAIN IS OFTEN THOUGHT OF AS
LESS CIVILIZED AND MORE
BACKWARD-- A TIME WHEN WE LOST
CULTURAL AND TRADING
CONNECTIONS NOT ONLY WITH ROME,
BUT WITH THE WORLD AT LARGE.
BUT NOW, A STRIKING NEW
DISCOVERY IN TINTAGEL,
CORNWALL, IS CHALLENGING
THIS VIEW.
TINTAGEL IS BEST KNOWN FOR ITS
CONNECTIONS WITH THE LEGENDARY
KING ARTHUR, WHO ACCORDING TO
MYTH WAS CONCEIVED THERE.
WELL, THIS YEAR, ARCHAEOLOGISTS
RETURNED TO TINTAGEL HOPING TO
INVESTIGATE ITS RICH DARK AGE
HISTORY AND DISENTANGLE
ARCHAEOLOGICAL FACT FROM
ARTHURIAN FICTION.
THE CASTLE REMAINS THAT YOU
CAN SEE ON TINTAGEL TODAY
DATE FROM THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD,
BUT ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS
FROM AROUND 600 AD FOUND
ON PREVIOUS EXCAVATIONS
SUGGEST THAT THERE WAS ONCE A
LARGE DARK AGE SETTLEMENT HERE.
IN 2016, ARCHAEOLOGISTS
RETURNED TO TINTAGEL TO EXPLORE
AREAS OF THE ISLAND THAT HAD
NEVER BEEN DUG BEFORE.
THEY WANTED TO FIND OUT WHAT
KIND OF SETTLEMENT IT WAS,
BUT WHAT THEY FOUND TOOK THEM
ALL BY SURPRISE.

The caption changes to "Win Scutt. Properties curator."

Win is in his mid-forties, with short wavy white hair and a goatee. He wears a blue shirt.

He says DAY ONE OF THE DIG DIARY,
AND TODAY WE'VE STARTED
EXCAVATING ON THE EASTERN
TERRACE JUST HERE, AND OVER
BEHIND THE CASTLE ON THE
SOUTHERN TERRACE.
WE'VE OPENED UP FOUR TRENCHES,
AND THAT'S WHERE WE'RE HOPING
TO FIND WHAT WE USED TO CALL
DARK AGE BUILDINGS, OR
BUILDINGS THAT BELONG TO THE
FIFTH AND SIXTH CENTURY.

A says THE ARCHAEOLOGISTS FROM
ENGLISH HERITAGE AND CORNWALL
ARCHAEOLOGICAL UNIT HAVE BARELY
BEGUN TO STRIP OFF THE TURF
WHEN THEY MAKE THEIR FIRST
DISCOVERY.

The caption changes to "Dig dairy. Day 3."

Win says WE'VE GOT THIS POSSIBLE FLOOR
LAYER OF PAVING.

A says EVIDENCE FOR THE CONSTRUCTION
OF TERRACES.

A man at the site says WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE IS THAT
WE HAVE THREE DISTINCT FLAT
TERRACES WITH SLOPES BETWEEN
AT THE MOMENT, WHICH WE HOPE
WHEN WE TAKE SOME MATERIAL AWAY,
WE'LL FIND SOME NICE WALLS.

A says DISAPPOINTINGLY, FURTHER
DIGGING REVEALS NO TRACES OF
BUILDINGS.

The caption changes to "Jacky Nowakowski. Dig director."

Jacky is in her late forties, with mid-length straight brown hair and wears sunglasses, a neon orange jacket, a printed black and gray scarf, and a safety vest.

Jacky says MAYBE THERE ARE SOME TERRACES
WHICH ARE BEING USED FOR SMALL
ENCLOSURES, MAYBE AS
CULTIVATION PLOTS RATHER THAN
FOR BUILDINGS.

A says BUT WHO WERE THESE
CULTIVATION PLOTS FOR?
ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE
ISLAND, THEY MAKE AN
EXTRAORDINARY DISCOVERY.

A man says WE HAVE THREE TERRACES,
THIS BEING THE SUBSTANTIAL WALL
AT THE SOUTHERN END, AND
LEADING TO ANOTHER WALL,
PRESUMABLY FOR A BUILDING,
AND THAT LEADS NICELY TO A SET
OF STEPS, AND THEY LEAD NEATLY
THROUGH PART OF THE TOP
BUILDING.
SO, WE THINK THIS IS THE
BUILDING, NICE LEVEL FLOOR,
AND STEPS UP TO IT.

A says THIS IS THEIR FIRST BIG
BREAKTHROUGH.
MASSIVE ONE-METRE THICK ROCK
WALLS ARE REVEALED.
NEVER BEFORE HAS SUCH A SOLID
DARK AGE BUILDING BEEN
DISCOVERED IN BRITAIN.

The man says SUBSTANTIAL BUILD, TOP END.

A says BUT WHAT IS THIS BUILDING?
IN THEIR SEARCH FOR CLUES, THEY
FIND A RUBBISH PIT NEXT TO IT.

Another man says WE'VE GOT AN ANIMAL JAWBONE
HERE, SO YOU CAN SEE THE TEETH.
SOMETHING LIKE A WILD BOAR,
PERHAPS.

A says THE REMAINS OF BOAR AND OTHER
ANIMALS MAY BE EVIDENCE OF A
DARK AGE FEAST.

A woman says I CAN SEE, HEH.

A says AND FURTHER SURPRISING FINDS
SUGGEST THIS WAS A HIGH-STATUS
BUILDING.

The first man unearths an object.

(TEAM CHEERING)

The man says A SHALLOW BOWL, NICE RIM.
PUT A BIT OF FRUIT IN OR
SOMETHING.

Another team member says OH, IT'S BEAUTIFUL.
IT LOOKS LIKE THRACIAN, WHICH
IS FROM TURKEY.
THAT IS A BEAUTIFUL THING.

A says AND KARL THORPE, THE SMALL
FINDS EXPERT, IS PARTICULARLY
EXCITED BY THE DISCOVERY OF
AN INCREDIBLY RARE PIECE
OF GLASS.

A woman hands Karl the glass and says HOPE YOU LIKE IT.
(LAUGHING)

Karl says OH, THAT IS STUNNINGLY
BEAUTIFUL.

The woman says YEAH.

Karl is in his fifties, with thinning gray hair and a beard. He wears glasses and a printed black T-shirt.

He says THAT IS DEFINITELY POST-ROMAN
GLASS.
IT'S EVEN A RIM, WHICH IS
FANTASTIC, AND JUDGING FROM
THE CURVATURE I THINK IT IS OF
A LITTLE CONE CUP BETWEEN FIFTH
AND SORT OF SEVENTH CENTURIES
AD, SORT OF MEROVINGIAN GLASS,
ORIGINATING FROM FRANCE.

The woman says FOR WHAT, FOR...?

Karl says MOST LIKELY DRINKING WINE.
THAT IS JUST... IT IS ALMOST
STUNNINGLY BEAUTIFUL.

A says THE TEAM WERE SIMPLY NOT
EXPECTING TO FIND THIS MANY
HIGH-QUALITY FOREIGN GOODS.
THE PEOPLE LIVING HERE WERE
CLEARLY NOT ONLY VERY WEALTHY
BUT TRADING OVER VAST
DISTANCES.

A man says GOT A SMALL SHARD OF WHAT
LOOKS TO BE AMPHORA.
THAT'S FROM THE AEGEAN AREA,
EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN.

Another man says WOW, FANTASTIC!

A says BY DAY 12, THE TEAM HAS
UNEARTHED THE FOUNDATIONS OF A
BUILDING 11 METRES LONG AND
FOUR METRES WIDE.
THEY'RE CONVINCED THAT THE
PEOPLE WHO LIVED HERE MUST HAVE
HAD IMMENSE WEALTH AND POWER.

A man says I DON'T THINK THAT ANYTHING
LIKE THIS HAS BEEN FOUND BEFORE.

Another man says SO, THERE WERE SOME SURPRISED
FACES, AND LO AND BEHOLD IT'S
GONE ON AND ON, SO THIS MIGHT
BE THE STYLE FOR THE WHOLE
PRECINCT OF BUILDINGS ON THE
SOUTHERN SIDE.
SUBSTANTIAL WALLS WILL HOLD UP
SUBSTANTIAL ROOFS, SO, YEAH,
IT'S ALL GOOD.
VERY EXCITING.

A says FURTHER EXCAVATIONS
THROUGHOUT THE REST OF THE
SUMMER REVEALED THAT THIS WAS
JUST PART OF A LARGE COMPLEX
COVERING MUCH OF TINTAGEL.
THIS HAS ASTOUNDED THE TEAM.
THEY DIDN'T EXPECT TO FIND
EVIDENCE OF SUCH A WEALTHY
AND SOPHISTICATED COMMUNITY
FROM EARLY DARK AGE BRITAIN.
SO DO THEY REALLY THINK THEY'VE
DISCOVERED A DARK AGE PALACE?
AND IF SO, WHAT WAS IT LIKE
TO LIVE IN IT?

In the lab, Win says WE CAN'T BE CERTAIN THAT IT'S
A ROYAL SITE, BUT WHATEVER IT
WAS, IT WAS A HIGH-STATUS SITE
BECAUSE WE'VE GOT SO MUCH EXOTIC
MATERIAL.

A says YEAH, SO, I MEAN, WE SAW
SOME OF THIS MATERIAL COMING
OUT.
TELL ME ABOUT THIS PIECE
OF POTTERY.

Jacky says YES, WELL, THIS IS VERY,
VERY FINELY MADE.
IT'S PROBABLY PART OF...

A says IT'S VERY THIN.

Jacky says YES, IT'S A FINE TABLE DISH.
A COMPLETE VESSEL WOULD BE QUITE
LARGE, SO YOU'VE GOT THIS SORT
OF LARGE, EXPANSIVE, QUITE
SHALLOW BOWL, PROBABLY FOR
COMMUNAL FEASTINGS.
AND THIS IS THE HANDLE OF AN
AMPHORA SHARD, WHICH WOULD HAVE
CONTAINED WINE COMING FROM
THE AEGEAN, FROM TURKEY,
MARSEILLES, AROUND THE COAST
OF SPAIN.

A says AND THIS IS NOT ACTUALLY
FROM TINTAGEL, IS IT?
(LAUGHING)

Win pulls out an amphora and says THIS IS A RECONSTRUCTION OF
WHAT ONE OF THESE AMPHORA FROM
THE AEGEAN, FROM GREECE, MIGHT
HAVE LOOKED LIKE, BUT THIS
WOULD BE FOR CARRYING WINE,
PROBABLY, BUT COULD ALSO BE
FOR OLIVE OIL, WE DON'T KNOW.

A says AND THE ARCHAEOLOGY THAT
YOU'RE LOOKING AT HERE OF
COURSE DATES TO A REALLY
INTERESTING TIME.
WE'RE LOOKING AT BRITAIN AFTER
THE COLLAPSE OF THE ROMAN
EMPIRE, WE'RE LOOKING AT
INDEPENDENT STATES.

Win says YEAH.
I MEAN, BRITAIN DOES BREAK
INTO LOTS OF LITTLE STATES,
LIKE MURCIA AND WESSEX AND KENT
AND PLACES, AND CORNWALL
CARRIES ON IN ITS OWN WAY,
AND THIS MAY WELL BE A ROYAL
CENTRE WITH CONNECTIONS FAR
AFIELD.

A says SEE, I'M STARTING TO GO ON
FLIGHTS OF FANCY NOW, AND TO ME
THESE ARE THE ROYAL APARTMENTS
OF THE PALACE AT TINTAGEL.
THIS IS WHERE KING ARTHUR LIVED.

Win says WELL, IT HAS GOT THAT
EXTRAORDINARY ASSOCIATION,
FROM WHEN GEOFFREY OF MONMOUTH
WRITES ABOUT THE HISTORY OF THE
KINGS OF BRITAIN IN THE 12TH
CENTURY.
HE SAYS THAT ARTHUR WAS
CONCEIVED AT TINTAGEL.

A says YEAH.

Win says WHAT, DID HE INVENT THIS?
HAD HE PULLED IT OUT OF VARIOUS
OTHER LEGENDS?
WE REALLY DON'T KNOW.

(music plays)

A says ALTHOUGH THEY MAY NOT HAVE
FOUND EVIDENCE OF KING ARTHUR
HIMSELF, THE TEAM HAVE
DISCOVERED THAT DARK AGE
TINTAGEL WAS A PROSPEROUS
CENTRE OF TRADE, AND PERHAPS
EVEN A SEAT OF ROYALTY,
A BASTION AGAINST THE TURMOIL
THAT WAS ENGULFING BRITAIN
AT THIS TIME.
IN THE PAST, INFANT MORTALITY
RATES WERE MUCH, MUCH HIGHER
THAN THEY ARE TODAY.
IN THE DARK AGES, IT'S THOUGHT
THAT PERHAPS HALF OF ALL
CHILDREN DIDN'T MAKE IT TO
ADULTHOOD, AND YET, WHEN YOU
LOOK AT CEMETERIES FROM THE
PERIOD, THERE JUST DON'T SEEM
TO BE ENOUGH JUVENILE AND INFANT
BURIALS.
SO, WERE THE BURIAL RITES FOR
CHILDREN DIFFERENT TO THOSE FOR
ADULTS?
IT IS CERTAINLY POSSIBLE, AND
ARCHAEOLOGISTS IN SOUTH WALES
HAVE BEEN MAKING SOME INTRIGUING
DISCOVERIES.

The animated map shows the location of Whitesands Bay.

A couple stands on the boardwalk as a massive wave hits the shores.

The man steps back and says WHOA!

A says IN THE WINTER OF 2014, RECORD
STORMS BATTERED SOUTH WALES.
THEY WERE SO FEROCIOUS THAT
THEY ERODED THE PEMBROKESHIRE
COASTLINE, AND HUMAN BONES
STARTED TO APPEAR AS THE SAND
DUNES WERE STRIPPED BACK,
REVEALING AN ANCIENT CEMETERY.
THESE SKELETONS MAY CONTAIN
PRECIOUS CLUES ABOUT OUR PAST,
SO FOR THE LAST THREE YEARS,
THE TEAM FROM DYFED ARCHAEOLOGY
HAS BEEN TRYING TO SAVE WHAT
THEY CAN FROM THIS NOW
DANGEROUSLY EXPOSED SITE.

The caption changes to "Ken Murphy. Co-dig director."

Ken is in his fifties, with short wavy gray hair and wears a gray zip-up jacket.

He says THIS IS CLASSIC RESCUE
ARCHAEOLOGY, ABSOLUTELY.
YOU CAN SEE HERE THAT THE THREAT
IS OBVIOUS AND HAPPENING,
AND WE'RE JUST DEALING WITH IT.

A says IT'S DAY THREE OF THIS YEAR'S
DIG, AND THEY ARE BEGINNING
TO EXCAVATE THE DARK AGE LAYERS
FROM THE SEVENTH TO THE NINTH
CENTURIES AD.
ONE BURIAL EMERGES THAT IS
INCREDIBLY UNUSUAL AND ENTIRELY
DIFFERENT TO ANYTHING THEY'VE
SEEN SO FAR.

The caption changes to "Dig dairy. Day 3."

A woman says SO, IT SEEMS TO BE A WOMAN
BURIED WITH A BABY IN THE CROOK
OF HER ARMS.

A man says THAT'S RIGHT.

The woman says THAT'S INCREDIBLE.
THAT'S THE BABY'S HEAD, YEAH?

The man says SKULL, THERE.
PELVIS IN THIS AREA.

The woman says OKAY.

The man says HERE'S THE MOTHER'S LEFT ARM.

A says FINDING AN INFANT BURIAL FROM
THIS TIME IS EXTREMELY RARE.
TINY BONES TEND TO DECOMPOSE
QUICKLY IN MANY CEMETERIES.
BUT HERE, THE INFANT BONES
ARE PERFECTLY PRESERVED BY
THE COASTAL SAND.

A woman says KEN, DO YOU WANT TO TELL ME
WHAT YOU'RE DRAWING?

Ken says IT'S A GRAVE CONTAINING THE
REMAINS OF WHAT LOOKS LIKE
AN INFANT.

The woman says AN INFANT?

Ken says A NEWBORN, PROBABLY.

The woman says YES.

Ken says PERINATAL.
VERY SMALL CHILD, YOU CAN SEE
THE LENGTH OF IT.

A says AND INCREDIBLY, OTHER INFANT
BURIALS SOON BEGIN TO EMERGE.

The caption changes to "Marion Shiner. Co-dig director."

Marion is in her forties, with straight red hair in a bun, and wears jeans, a blue quarter zip sweatshirt and a paper boy's hat.

She says IT'S RARE TO FIND THIS
QUANTITY OF INFANTS IN A
COMMUNAL CEMETERY.
DOESN'T MATTER WHAT DATE IT'S
FROM, THEY ARE RARE TO FIND.
HERE WE'VE GOT A LARGE NUMBER
OF THEM BECAUSE THE PRESERVATION
IN THE SAND HAS BEEN SO GOOD
FOR SKELETAL REMAINS.

A says BY WEEK THREE, THEY'VE FOUND
AN INCREDIBLE 20 INFANT GRAVES,
A SOBERING REMINDER OF INFANT
MORTALITY RATES AT THIS TIME
AND AN INTIMATE INSIGHT INTO
HOW PARENTS FELT ABOUT LOSING
SO MANY YOUNG CHILDREN AT SUCH
AN EARLY AGE, 1400 YEARS AGO.

Marion says SO, WHAT WE'VE GOT HERE IS
A REALLY RATHER NICE BONE PIN,
POSSIBLY A SHROUD PIN, AND SOME
OF THE BURIALS WE'VE HAD HERE
YOU CAN SEE FROM THE POSITION
OF THE SKELETON, THE FEET
PARTICULARLY, THAT THESE PEOPLE
LOOK LIKE THEY WERE WRAPPED IN
SHROUDS WHEN THEY WERE BURIED.
THERE WAS ONE ABSOLUTELY TINY
LITTLE INFANT, I ACTUALLY
EXCAVATED IT MYSELF, ITS LEGS
WERE ACTUALLY CROSSED AT THE
ANKLES, SO AGAIN, IT SUGGESTS
IT WAS WRAPPED BEFORE BEING
PLACED IN THE GROUND.

A says THIS PIN WOULD HAVE BEEN USED
TO CAREFULLY SECURE THE SHROUD
AROUND THIS DEAD CHILD, BEFORE
IT WAS PLACED IN ITS GRAVE.
AND OUT OF THE SAND COMES
AN INTRIGUING SERIES OF FINDS.

Marion says THIS IS ONE OF A NUMBER OF
AREAS WHERE WE'VE HAD WHITE
QUARTZ PEBBLES ACROSS THE SITE,
BUT THEY'VE BEEN AT THE GRAVES
OF INFANTS, SO THE PEBBLES
HAVE BEEN REALLY CAREFULLY
PLACED.
WE HAD ONE WITH OVER 100 PEBBLES
ON THE TOP OF IT, DENSELY
PACKED, AND OBVIOUSLY A LOT OF
CARE INVESTED IN THE GRAVE
OF THE BABY INSIDE.

A says SO, WHAT DID THESE QUARTZ
PEBBLES SIGNIFY?
DIG CO-DIRECTOR MARION SHINER
AND OSTEOLOGIST KATIE HEMMER
HAVE COME INTO THE LAB TO TELL
ME ABOUT THEIR DISCOVERIES,
AND WHAT THEY TELL US ABOUT
THE ATTITUDE OF DARK AGE PARENTS
TO THE DEATHS OF THEIR CHILDREN.

Marion says WE DON'T KNOW THE PURPOSE
OF THE QUARTZ PEBBLES.
THEY'RE FOUND IN MORTUARY
CONTEXTS FROM THE PREHISTORIC
PERIOD ONWARD, AND THEY'RE
FOUND AT OTHER EARLY MEDIEVAL
WELSH CEMETERIES.
THERE'S A PASSAGE IN THE BIBLE,
IN REVELATION, WHICH TALKS
ABOUT THE PERSON WHO HAS FOUND
CHRIST BEING GIVEN A WHITE
STONE, AND A NEW NAME.
THERE IS EVIDENCE THAT IN THE
LATE MEDIEVAL PERIOD EACH
MOURNER AT A FUNERAL BROUGHT
A STONE, OR TOOK A STONE,
AND PUT IT ON TOP OF THE GRAVE.
BUT, YOU KNOW, THERE MUST HAVE
BEEN OVER 130 PEOPLE AT THE
FUNERAL OF THAT CHILD, IF
THAT'S WHAT THIS IS SIGNIFYING,
AND THEY ARE ONLY ON THE
CHILDREN'S GRAVES.

A says AND THEY'RE BURYING VERY,
VERY TINY CHILDREN, INFANTS.

Marion says YES, IT'S THE THING THAT
REALLY STRIKES YOU ABOUT THE
SITE IS THE LEVEL OF CARE THAT
A LOT OF THESE INFANTS AND
YOUNG CHILDREN WERE BURIED WITH.

Katie is in her twenties, with straight brown hair with bangs in a bun. She wears glasses, a navy blue shirt and gray blazer.

She says ABSOLUTELY, I THINK WE HAVE
TO MOVE AWAY FROM OLD NOTIONS
THAT PEOPLE DIDN'T CARE FOR
THEIR CHILDREN AT THIS TIME.
THEY ARE INVESTING THE SAME
AMOUNT OF EFFORT, IF NOT MORE,
INTO THE BURIALS OF THE REALLY
YOUNGEST MEMBERS OF THIS
POPULATION.

A says DISCOVERIES LIKE THIS SHOW
HOW ARCHAEOLOGY CAN CHANGE
THE STORY OF BRITAIN.
FROM REVEALING LOST RELIGIOUS
PRACTICES OF THE DARK AGES,
AND TURNING ON ITS HEAD OUR
VIEW ABOUT HOW PREPARED OUR
SOLDIERS WERE WHEN SENT TO
FIGHT ON THE WESTERN FRONT...
TO THE UNIQUE DISCOVERY ON
SALISBURY PLAIN THAT SHOWS
THE RITUAL LANDSCAPE OF
STONEHENGE WAS BIGGER THAN
WE'D EVER IMAGINED.
OUR ANCESTORS MADE THE COUNTRY
WE LIVE IN TODAY, AND THROUGH
ARCHAEOLOGY WE'VE BEEN ABLE TO
REACH BACK THROUGH THE
CENTURIES AND TOUCH THEIR
LIVES.
NEXT WEEK'S EPISODE OF
DIGGING
FOR BRITAIN
COMES FROM THE
NORTH, AND IS PACKED WITH NEW
REVELATIONS, FROM WHAT IT WAS
LIKE TO BE IN THE THICK OF
A ROMAN ATTACK...

A man holds some sling bullets and says THESE ARE PROPELLED FROM
A HAND-SLUNG CATAPULT AT
BETWEEN 35 AND 45 METRES PER
SECOND.

A says TO THE ASTONISHING
TECHNOLOGY OF THE SCOTTISH
STONE AGE.

A diver says IT'S DEFINITELY MAN-MADE,
SO THIS IS REALLY SIGNIFICANT.

A says AND THE DISCOVERY OF THE
FAMOUS MONASTERY AT
LINDISFARNE, SACKED BY THE
VIKINGS, AND LOST FOR OVER
A THOUSAND YEARS.

Music plays as the end credits roll.

Presented by Professor Alice Roberts.

Executive producer, Emma Parkins.

Series producer and director, Graham Cooper.

A 360 production for BBC.

Logo: BBC Northern Ireland.

Copyright 2016, 360 Production Limited.

Logo: TVF International.

Watch: West