Transcript: Citizen Jane: Battle for the City | Mar 24, 2020

A caption reads "We Like Films. Films we like."

Logo: Altimeter Films.

Logo: The Rockefeller Foundation.

Logo: Just Films Ford Foundation.

Logo Blue Moon.

Logo: Huntsman Films.

A Robert Hammond and Matt Tyrnauer Production.

A film by Matt Tyrnauer.

A quote reads "Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody. Jane Jacobs. The death and life of great American cities."

[CITY SOUNDS]

(music plays)

A bearded man says CITIES ARE,
IN MANY WAYS, THE GREATEST
INVENTION THAT HUMAN BEINGS
HAVE BROUGHT TO THE WORLD.
CITIES HAVE BEEN EXPANDING, AND
URBANIZATION HAS BEEN EXPANDING
ON THE GLOBE IN AN
EXPONENTIAL FASHION.
MOST EXTRAORDINARILY, WE ARE
URBANIZING PEOPLE ON THE PLANET
AT MAYBE ONE AND A HALF
MILLION PEOPLE EVERY WEEK.
IN LESS THAN TWO MONTHS THERE'LL
BE THE EQUIVALENT TO ANOTHER
LOS ANGELES METROPOLITAN
AREA ON THIS PLANET.

An animated map shows the growth of urban population in 2016 at an exponential speed.

A woman in a red jacket says THIS SCALE AND
SPEED OF URBANIZATION HAS NEVER,
EVER HAPPENED IN HUMAN HISTORY.
THIS IS THE FIRST TIME.

A woman with straight white hair says WHAT IS BEING BUILT IN CITIES
YOU HAVE ENDLESS,
ENDLESS ROW AFTER ROW
OF HOMOGENIZING TOWERS.
AND YOU SEE MORE
AND MORE HIGHWAYS.

A man with white hair says AT THIS MOMENT,
YOU'RE GOING TO SHAPE THE CITIES
FOR GENERATIONS TO COME.
PEOPLE NEED TO REALIZE
THIS IS AN OPPORTUNITY
WHICH WILL NEVER COME AGAIN.

Another bearded man says THERE ARE A
COUPLE OF WAYS OF APPROACHING
THE DESIGN OF CITIES.
THE QUESTION IS ALWAYS WHO
DECIDES WHAT THE PHYSICAL FORM
WILL BE, HOW THE CITY IS
GOING TO FUNCTION
AND WHO IS GOING TO
LIVE IN THE CITY.
IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND WHAT'S
HAPPENING TODAY WE NEED TO THINK
ABOUT TWO GREAT FIGURES IN THE
MIDDLE OF THE 20TH CENTURY WHO
EMBODIED THE STRUGGLE
FOR THE CITY.
THE LEGENDARY POWER BROKER,
ROBERT MOSES, REPRESENTED THE
AUTHORITY OF THE GREAT MAN WHO
WAS GONNA COME INTO THE CITY
WITH HIS CARVING KNIFE AND CLEAR
AWAY THE CANCEROUS TISSUE,
AND REPLACE IT WITH
THE SHINY IMPLEMENTS
OF MODERNIST PLANNING.

A black and white clip shows the demolition of a building.

An old clip shows Robert Moses saying YOU HAVE TO MOVE
A LOT OF PEOPLE OUT OF THE WAY
OF A BIG HOUSING PROJECT
OR SLUM CLEARANCE PROJECT.
A LOT OF 'EM ARE NOT
GOING TO LIKE IT.
MANY OF THEM ARE MISINFORMED.

Robert has short thinning white hair and wears a suit.

A man says IN OPPOSITION
TO THE HOMOGENIZING CLARITY OF
MOSES WAS JANE JACOBS.

Jane has chin length straight white hair with bangs and wears black rimmed glasses.

Jane Jacobs says I HAVE VERY LITTLE FAITH IN EVEN
THE KIND OF PERSON WHO PREFERS
TO TAKE A LARGE
OVERALL VIEW OF THINGS.

The woman in the red jacket says JACOBS
WAS AN OUTSIDER.
SHE BELIEVED THE CITY'S NOT
ABOUT BUILDINGS, THE CITY IS
ABOUT PEOPLE.
IT IS ABOUT PUBLIC
SPACES AND THE STREET.
AND SHE STOOD UP FOR THAT.

The second bearded man says SHE EVOLVED
BOTH A THEORY OF WHAT MADE A
GOOD AND JUST CITY AND A THEORY
OF OPPOSITION TO THE KIND OF
PLANNING PRACTICE THAT
MOSES REPRESENTED.

Jane says THERE'S A PRUDISHNESS, A FEAR
OF LIFE A WISH TO DIRECT THINGS
FROM SOME UNCONTAMINATED
REFUGE THAT IS PART
AND PARCEL OF THEIR BAD PLAN.

A balding man says THEY
WERE FAMOUSLY AT ODDS
WITH EACH OTHER.
IT REALLY DID BECOME A WAR
BETWEEN OPPOSING FORCES.
TODAY WE'RE STILL FIGHTING THESE
BATTLES, ACROSS THE WORLD.

The name of the film reads "Citizen Jane. Battle for the city."

A caption reads "Geoffrey West. Urbanist and theoretical physicist."

Geoffrey is in his sixties, with short gray hair and a beard. He wears glasses and a gingham shirt.

Geoffrey says WHEN WE LOOK
ACROSS THE SPECTRUM OF ALL THE
PROBLEMS GENERATED
BY URBANIZATION,
THERE IS THE
EXTRAORDINARY REALIZATION
THAT, MY GOSH, YOU
KNOW THESE HAVE
BEEN PROBLEMS THAT
HAVE BEEN AROUND
FOR THE LAST 100
YEARS IN CITIES.
NEW YORK, OF COURSE, IS THE
GREATEST EXAMPLE OF THAT.

The caption changes to "James Howard Kunstler. Author and urban theorist."

James is in his sixties, bald and with a moustache. He wears a black shirt.

James says IN THE
1930S, NEW YORK WAS THE WORLD'S
GREATEST CITY, YOU KNOW?
A VERY SPECIAL PLACE.
JUST THE EXUBERANCE
OF METROPOLITAN
LIFE IN THE EARLY-20TH CENTURY.
THAT'S, YOU KNOW, THE GREAT
AGE OF THE FIRST REAL GREAT
SKYSCRAPERS YOU KNOW, THE EMPIRE
STATE BUILDING IS THE VERY
CLIMAX OF THAT.
BUT THEN, IT ALL KIND OF
CRASHES WITH THE DEPRESSION.
THROUGH THE ENTIRE
DECADE OF THE 30S,
IT'S JUST ONE PROBLEM
AFTER ANOTHER.

The caption changes to "Max Page. Author and urban theorist."

Max is in his forties, with short wavy graying hair and a beard. He wears a gingham shirt.

Max says DOWN AT STREET LEVEL
WAS THIS DEGRADED ENVIRONMENT.
SLUMS AND DIRT
AND POLLUTION
THAT DID NOT FIT WITH THE
GLORIOUS SPIRES OF
THE NEW SKYSCRAPER CITY.

The caption changes to "Paul Goldberger. Architecture critic."

Paul is in his fifties, balding and clean-shaven. He wears a blue shirt.

Paul says THE CITY WAS
OVERCROWDED, HARSH, DIRTY,
DANGEROUS AND
INFESTED WITH DISEASE.
JACOB RIIS' FAMOUS BOOK
HOW THE OTHER HALF LIVE,
BROUGHT A LOT OF
ATTENTION TO THIS.
THE IDEA WAS, WE WILL SOLVE
THE CITY'S PROBLEM
BY CLEANING IT UP.

Robert Moses says NOW THIS
IS A UNFORTUNATE PERIOD
FOR THE CITY.
WE'VE DONE AN IMMENSE AMOUNT
TO CURE THESE DISEASES
AND WE HAVE MUCH MORE TO DO.

The caption changes to "Alexander Garvin. Urban planner."

Alexander is in his sixties, with short white hair and wears a blue suit, pale blue shirt and a bow tie.

Alexander says ROBERT MOSES
STARTED TO WORK IN AN ERA WHERE
WE HAD A GREAT MANY
PEOPLE LIVING IN
TRULY HORRIBLE CONDITIONS.
HE BEGAN HIS PROFESSIONAL
LIFE IN OPPOSITION
TO THOSE CONDITIONS.

Paul says MOSES EMERGED
OUT OF THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT
EARLY IN THE 20TH
CENTURY IN NEW YORK.
THE PROGRESSIVES WERE
EAGER TO IMPROVE THE CITY.
HIS EARLY WORK IN DEVELOPING
PUBLIC PARKS AND PUBLIC BEACHES,
WAS ABOUT MAKING LIFE BETTER
FOR PEOPLE WHO WERE NOT RICH.

Robert Moses says NOW, IF WE DON'T
CLEAN OUT THESE SLUMS THE
CENTRAL AREAS ARE GOING TO ROT.
AND IT'S ALL NONSENSE TO SAY
THAT THE PROBLEM CAN BE SOLVED
BY REHABILITATING AND
FIXING UP OLD LAW TENEMENTS.
CAN'T BE DONE.
THAT PROBLEM WE'VE GOT TO FACE.

An old newspaper article headline reads "War on the slums proceeds steadily. Old buildings are torn down and sites for model dwelling are selected."

Paul says JUST ABOUT
EVERY PROGRESSIVE BELIEVED THAT
THE WAY TO SOLVE THE CITY'S
PROBLEMS WAS TO WIPE THE SLATE
CLEAN, START ALL OVER AGAIN.
WE DIDN'T UNDERSTAND HOW
HIGH THE PRICE WAS,
HOW WE WERE GIVING UP SO
MANY THINGS THAT WERE SO
VERY IMPORTANT UNTIL
JANE JACOBS CAME ALONG.

A caption reads "New York City. 1934."

The caption changes to "Mary Rowe. Friend and associate of Jane Jabos."

Mary is in her fifties, with short wavy blond hair and wears glasses and a floral dress.

She says JANE ALWAYS WOULD SEE IN A CITY
OPPORTUNITIES THAT
EXISTED THERE.
SHE OBSERVED HINTS OF
REGENERATION,
HINTS OF CREATIVITY,
HINTS OF RESOURCEFULNESS.
IT WAS THIS LIFE SPRING OF
PEOPLE COMING TO MAKE THEIR WAY.
I THINK THAT MUST'VE SHAPED
HER APPROACH TO THE CITY.

Jane says I JUST LOVED COMING TO NEW YORK.
IT WAS INEXHAUSTIBLE.
JUST TO WALK AROUND ITS
STREETS AND WONDER AT IT.
SO MANY STREETS DIFFERENT.
SO MANY NEIGHBOURHOODS
DIFFERENT.
SO MUCH GOING ON.

Geoffrey says SHE LIVED IN
GREENWICH VILLAGE, AND JUST
VISCERALLY FELT THE PULSE OF THE
CITY AND WAS EXTRAORDINARILY
INTUITIVE, WAS
EXTREMELY OBSERVANT.

Jane says NEW YORK WAS A PLACE WHERE
YOU DON'T HAVE TO BE BIG AND
IMPORTANT AND RICH OR HAVE A
GREAT PLOT OF LAND OR A GREAT
DEVELOPMENT SCHEME, OR SOMETHING
LIKE THAT TO DO SOMETHING, AND
MAYBE EVEN DO SOMETHING NEW, AND
DO SOMETHING INTERESTING.
A PLACE THAT HAS SCOPE FOR
ALL KINDS OF PEOPLE.

Geoffrey says WHAT SHE SAW WAS
THE SOUL OF NEW YORK AND WHAT IT
MEANT TO BE A CITY AND A CITY
MEANING, A COMMUNITY OF PEOPLE.

Clips show people cheering on the streets after the war is over.

[CHEERING]

Jane says AFTER THE WAR THE MOST
SENSATIONAL THING THAT CAME WAS
THE FULL FLOWERING OF
THIS VISION OF
THE EXPRESSWAY TOWER CITY.

James says THIS
GENERATION OF IDEALISTIC
CITY PLANNERS COMES ALONG
AND THEY'RE INFECTED WITH
THE MODERNIST PURITY IDEA.
AND THEY CERTAINLY HAVE THE
TOOLS AT THEIR DISPOSAL TO SWEEP
AWAY LARGE TRACTS OF LAND.

An old announcement shows a city planner saying WE RECOGNIZE
THE PROBLEMS THAT YOUR COMMUNITY
FACES AND WE KNOW THAT YOU
SHARE THEM WITH HUNDREDS OF
CITIES EVERYWHERE.
NOW WHAT'S INVOLVED IN MAKING
YOUR CITY A BETTER PLACE?
WELL, THINGS LIKE HOUSING,
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT,
BETTER STREETS AND HIGHWAYS.
IMPROVING ALL THESE THINGS
ADDS UP TO A BETTER CITY.

Another city planner says I'M SURE THAT YOU WILL SEE THE
EXCITING OPPORTUNITY THAT EXISTS
FOR YOUR CITY
TO BECOME BETTER.

The caption changes to "Steven Johnson. Author."

Steven is in his forties, with short straight graying hair and wears a white shirt, a beige V neck sweater and a black blazer.

Steven says THERE WAS THIS
EMERGING IDEA THAT CROWDED URBAN
AREAS WHERE PEOPLE WERE KIND OF
HANGING OUT ON THE STREET ON
THEIR STOOPS, WHERE THERE WAS A
LOT OF POVERTY, THAT THE WAY TO
DEAL WITH THAT PROBLEM,
WAS TO EFFECTIVELY
GET RID OF THE STREETS.
WAS EFFECTIVELY TO ELIMINATE
THAT SIDEWALK CULTURE
AND BUILD PROJECTS THAT WOULD
MAKE IT IMPOSSIBLE, REALLY FOR
PEOPLE TO KIND OF CLUSTER
IN PUBLIC IN THAT WAY.

The caption changes to "Mindy Fullilove. Research psychiatrist."

Mindy is in her fifties, with above the shoulder curly graying hair and wears a black T-shirt under a sleeveless leather top and a beaded necklace.

Mindy THE IDEA OF URBAN
RENEWAL WAS THAT PLACES
THAT WERE BLIGHTED WERE A
CANCER ON THE CITY
AND THEREFORE WE'RE GONNA
CUT OUT THE CANCER.
THE PLANNERS
CONCEIVING THESE
URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS
ARE DOING THIS
FROM THAT GOD-LIKE
VANTAGE POINT IN THE SKY.

Max says TO BE ABLE TO LOOK
DOWN AND YOU'RE ABLE TO IMAGINE
MASSIVE TRANSFORMATIONS.

The caption changes to "Thomas J. Campanella. Author and urban theorist."

Thomas is in his forties, bald and clean-shaven and wars glasses, a blue shirt, a black vest, and a polka dotted bow tie.

Thomas says THEY
THOUGHT THAT APPLYING
THE LOGIC OF THE MACHINE
AGE WAS GONNA DO THAT.

Steven says THE PROBLEM HAD
TO BE SOLVED BY SOME SUPERVISOR
NOTICING WHERE THE SLUMS WERE,
NOTICING WHERE THE TRAFFIC WAS
AND GOING IN AND BULLDOZING
AND BUILDING GRAND PROJECTS.

Robert Moses says WELL, WE
GOT OUT A BROCHURE JUST NOW
TELLING WHEN
EVERYBODY HAS TO MOVE.

Steven says ROBERT MOSES WAS THE
GREAT EMBODIMENT OF THIS.

Robert Moses says I DON'T HONESTLY BELIEVE
THAT CONSIDERING THE
LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE WE'VE
HAD TO MOVE OUT OF THE WAY OF
PUBLIC HOUSING AND OTHER PUBLIC
IMPROVEMENTS I DON'T BELIEVE
THAT WE'VE DONE ANY VERY
SUBSTANTIAL AMOUNT OF HARM.
THERE MUST BE PEOPLE WHO ARE
DISCOMMODED, INCONVENIENCED OR
CALL IT WHAT YOU WILL, ON THE
OLD THEORY THAT YOU CAN'T MAKE
AN OMELETTE WITHOUT
BREAKING SOME EGGS.

Several clips show images of building demolitions.

Alexander says AFTER THE
SECOND WORLD WAR, ROBERT MOSES
BEGAN TO AMASS POWER.
HE WAS THE AUGUST PARKS
COMMISSIONER IN THE
CITY OF NEW YORK.
AND HE GOT POWER
TO BUILD PARKWAYS.
HE WAS APPOINTED THE CITY'S
CONSTRUCTION COORDINATOR.
HE BUILT THOUSANDS
OF APARTMENTS.
HE BECAME URBAN RENEWAL CZAR THE
HEAD OF THE MAYOR'S COMMITTEE ON
SLUM CLEARANCE.
BY THE TIME THAT MOSES WAS
RUNNING THE URBAN RENEWAL
PROGRAM WE HAD TORN DOWN
LITERALLY THOUSANDS OF TENEMENT
BUILDINGS IN CITIES LIKE
NEW YORK AND CHICAGO.

Thomas says YOU KNOW
THERE'S THE PRE-WAR MOSES
AND THE POST-WAR MOSES.
THE PRE-WAR MOSES
WAS MOSTLY AN ANGEL.
POST-WAR MOSES WAS
INCREASINGLY PROBLEMATIC.

A narrator says CENTURY, THIS MAN HAS PUSHED
PEOPLE AROUND NEW YORK.
ALMOST ANYBODY WHO IS ANYBODY
HAS CURSED HIM, FOUGHT HIM
KNUCKLED UNDER TO
HIM, AND ADMIRED HIM.
THE LIST OF HIS ADVERSARIES
INCLUDE FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT
FANNY HURST, ELMER DAVIS WHO
ONCE COMPARED HIM TO HITLER
WALTER O'MALLEY, AND HUNDREDS OF
THOUSANDS OF LANDOWNERS WHO
THOUGHT THEIR
PROPERTY WAS SACRED.

The caption changes to "Michael Sorkin. Architect and author."

Michael is in his late fifties, with short receding white hair and a beard. He wears a black shirt.

Michael says ABSOLUTE
POWER CORRUPTS ABSOLUTELY
AND ROBERT MOSES WAS
ABSOLUTELY POWERFUL.
SO, HE HAD AMASSED NOT SIMPLY AN
INCREDIBLE AMOUNT OF POWER BUT
HAD INSULATED HIMSELF FROM
OVERSIGHT BY POLITICAL
AUTHORITIES AND BY
THE BROADER PUBLIC.

Robert Moses says DON'T FORGET THAT
IT'S ONE THING TO BUY A PARK OR
A GREAT BIG CHUNK OF
LAND FROM ONE OWNER.
IT'S QUITE ANOTHER THING TO GET
A RIGHT-OF-WAY WHERE HUNDREDS
AND EVEN THOUSANDS
OF PEOPLE OWN IT.
YOU THEORETICALLY AND, ACCORDING
TO SOME OF THE GOO-GOOS AND
UPLIFT ORGANIZATIONS WE OUGHT TO
NEGOTIATE WITH EVERY INDIVIDUAL
UNTIL HE'S HAPPY.
CAN YOU IMAGINE WHEN YOU'D BUILD
ANYTHING UNDER THOSE CONDITIONS?

Alexander says MOSES, ALONG
WITH ALL OF THE PEOPLE THAT WERE
INVOLVED IN THE
URBAN RENEWAL PROGRAM
HAD AN AGREED-UPON AGENDA.
PEOPLE NEEDED ADEQUATE HOUSING
ADEQUATE RECREATION FACILITIES
AND THE MOTORCAR WAS COMING TO
AMERICA AND IT NEEDED TO BE
ACCOMMODATED ON A LARGE SCALE.
THAT WAS THE AGENDA.
MOSES BECAME ONE POLAR
VIEW OF WHAT YOU COULD DO.
UNTIL, ALL-OF-A-SUDDEN,
THERE WAS AN ALTERNATIVE.

A narrator says JANE JACOBS HAS IN
THE DEATH AND LIFE OF GREAT
AMERICAN CITIES WRITTEN A
BOOK THAT ADVANCES WITH THE
CONTROLLED AND IMPLACABLE POWER
OF A BULLDOZER AGAINST MODERN
ORTHODOX CITY PLANNING
AND REBUILDING.

Jane Jacobs says I FIRST BEGAN TO LOOK INTO
CITY PLANNING AND HOUSING.
AND IT WAS UNBELIEVABLY AWFUL.
INSANE.

Thomas says WHEN DEATH
AND LIFE COMES OUT IN THE 60S,
IT'S A CLARION CALL.
IT'S MARTIN LUTHER NAILING THOSE
95 THESES TO THE CATHEDRAL DOOR.
THE BOOK IS REALLY THE FIRST
COGENT, ACCESSIBLE ARTICULATION
OF A WHOLE SET OF IDEAS THAT
QUESTIONS THE MAINSTREAM
THINKING ABOUT OUR CITIES.

Max says SHE IS
CONSTANTLY PROBING.
BY THAT EXAMPLE SHE'S SAYING
YOU, READER, YOU HAVE THE
ABILITY TO QUESTION.

A female voice as Jane says LOOK WHAT WE HAVE BUILT.
LOW-INCOME PROJECTS THAT BECOME
WORSE CENTERS OF DELINQUENCY
VANDALISM, AND GENERAL SOCIAL
HOPELESSNESS THAN THE SLUMS THEY
WERE SUPPOSED TO REPLACE.
MIDDLE INCOME HOUSING PROJECTS
WHICH ARE TRULY MARVELS OF
DULLNESS AND REGIMENTATION
SEALED AGAINST ANY BUOYANCY OR
VITALITY OF CITY LIFE.
LUXURY HOUSING
PROJECTS THAT MITIGATE
THEIR INANITY OR TRY TO,
WITH A VAPID VULGARITY.
CULTURAL CENTERS THAT ARE UNABLE
TO SUPPORT A GOOD BOOK STORE.
CIVIC CENTERS THAT ARE AVOIDED
BY EVERYONE BUT BUMS WHO HAVE
FEWER CHOICES OF LOITERING
PLACE THAN OTHERS.
EXPRESSWAYS THAT
EVISCERATE GREAT CITIES.
THIS IS NOT THE
REBUILDING OF CITIES.
THIS IS THE SACKING OF CITIES.

Mary says SHE WAS
QUESTIONING ORTHODOXY
AND, IN ESSENCE
SAYING THE EMPEROR
HAS NO CLOTHES AT A TIME WHEN
WOMEN WERE NOT WELCOMED
IN THOSE KINDS OF ENVIRONMENTS.

Jane Jacobs says IF YOU WANNA SEE WHAT KIND OF A
CITY CAN FLOURISH YOU NEED TO
LOOK AT THE CITIES
WHERE IT'S HAPPENING.
THERE MUST BE A LOT OF DIVERSITY
CONTINUALLY BUILDING UP
DIVERSITY OF KINDS OF WORK,
DIVERSITY OF KINDS OF PEOPLE.

The caption changes to "Toni Griffin. Architect and urban planner."

Toni is in her forties, with chin length brown hair with bangs and wears glasses and a blue shirt.

Toni says SHE REVEALED THE
WAY TO CREATE BETTER CITIES IS
BY WORKING WITH THE PEOPLE WHO
LIVE THERE, AND THE FABRIC THAT
EXISTED, THE TRADITIONAL
FABRIC THAT PEOPLE INHABITED.

Jane says THERE HAVE TO BE AREAS OF THE
CITY WHICH PEOPLE USE A LOT
WALKING ON THE STREETS, AND
USE AT ALL TIMES OF DAY.

Mary says JANE UNDERSTOOD
NEIGHBOURHOODS NEED
LOTS OF CONNECTIONS.
SHORT BLOCKS, LOTS
OF TURNS, ALLOWING
DIFFERENT KINDS OF INTERACTION.
NEIGHBOURHOODS NEED A MIX
OF BUILDINGS, OLD AND NEW.
THEY NEED DIVERSE USES,
24-7, SO THAT THEY'RE SAFER.
CONSTANT CONNECTION WITH
NEIGHBOURHOODS AROUND
SO THAT YOU'RE NOT ISOLATED.
YOU NEED PUBLIC SPACES THAT
ARE ACCESSIBLE TO PEOPLE.

Jane says IT'S ALL A GREAT NETWORK IN
THE CITY, IT'S ALL RELATED.

Mary says SHE OBSERVED THESE
EARLY, EARLY QUALITIES AT A TIME
WHEN HOUSING WAS BEING
BUILT IN COMPLETELY
THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION.
THEY WERE ISOLATING COMMUNITIES.
THEY WERE CREATING
DEAD-END STREETS.
THEY WERE SEPARATING
WORK USES AND RECREATION
AND RESIDENTIAL USES.

Alexander says SHE WAS
EXPLAINING HOW LIFE WORKED.

Thomas says BEFORE DEATH AND LIFE,
SHE WAS A JOURNALIST.
SHE WAS A VERY SAVVY
OBSERVER OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
OF PLACES, OF CITIES.

The caption changes to "Peter Laurence. Jane Jacobs biographer."

Peter is in his forties, clean-shaven and with shirt graying hair. He wears a blue suit, blue tie, and pale blue shirt.

He says JACOBS STARTED
WRITING ABOUT THE CITY
WHEN SHE WAS 18 YEARS OLD.

The caption changes to "Anthony Flint. Journalist."

Anthony is in his forties, with short straight red hair and a beard. He wears a green shirt and a black blazer.

Anthony says SHE WAS A
SECRETARY FOR A CANDY COMPANY.
SHE WAS DETERMINED
TO WRITE ON THE SIDE.
SHE DID WHAT ANY GOOD
ENTERPRISING WRITER WOULD DO,
SHE GOT FREELANCE JOBS.

Mary says HER CURIOSITY WAS
SO REMARKABLE SHE WRITES ABOUT
SPECIFIC ECONOMIC
DISTRICTS IN THE CITY.
SHE DOES THE JEWELLERY DISTRICT,
SHE DOES THE FUR DISTRICT
SHE DOES THE FLOWER DISTRICT,
AND SHE DEVELOPS A VOICE.
AND WHERE DOES SHE SELL THEM TO?
VOGUE MAGAZINE.
SHE WAS WRITING PIECES ABOUT
WHAT SHE WAS OBSERVING AND
SEEING IN THE CITY.

As Jane, a female voice says THE BEST WAY TO PLAN FOR
DOWNTOWN IS TO SEE HOW PEOPLE
USE IT TODAY TO
LOOK FOR ITS STRENGTHS
AND TO EXPLOIT
AND REINFORCE THEM.
THERE IS NO LOGIC THAT CAN
BE SUPERIMPOSED ON THE CITY.
PEOPLE MAKE IT.
AND IT IS TO THEM,
NOT BUILDINGS
THAT WE MUST
FIT OUR PLANS.

The caption changes to "Alice Sparberg Alexiou. Jane Jacobs Biographer."

Alice is in her late forties, with short wavy gray hair and wears a black sweater.

Alice says Q MAGAZINE
ACCEPTED ONE OF HER
STORIES ABOUT
MANHOLE COVERS.
SHE DISCOVERED THAT THEY HAD ALL
KINDS OF INTERESTING PATTERNS ON
THEM INTERESTING LETTERING.

Mary says HOW MANY FEMALE
JOURNALISTS WERE WRITING ABOUT
MANHOLE COVERS?
NOBODY.
BUT SHE WAS.
SHE WANTED TO FIGURE OUT HOW
THE SEWER SYSTEM WAS WORKING.
SHE'S CURIOUS, SHE'S
GOT A REALLY GOOD CRAFT,
SHE KNOWS HOW TO WRITE.
AND SHE FINDS HERSELF IN A STAFF
JOB WITH ARCHITECTURAL FORUM.

A caption reads "WNYC Radio interview with Jane Jacobs."

A radio man says MRS. JACOBS,
AN ASSOCIATE EDITOR
OF THE MAGAZINE
ARCHITECTURAL FORUM
HAS BEEN A NEW
YORKER FOR 27 YEARS
AND LOVES IT.
MRS. JANE JACOBS.

[APPLAUSE]

Jane says THANK
YOU VERY MUCH, MR. DOLBIER.
ONE FINE DAY ARCHITECTURAL FORUM
PUT ME ON AN ASSIGNMENT ABOUT
SOME URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS
THAT WERE BEING DONE.
IN PHILADELPHIA, AS
A MATTER OF FACT.

The caption changes to "Philadelphia 1954."

An old clip rolls.

The caption changes to "Edmund Bacon. Executive director. Philadelphia City Planning Commission."

Edmund says WE HAVE FOUND,
IN OUR WORK IN REBUILDING
PHILADELPHIA THAT A CENTRAL
DESIGN IDEA, WELL-DEVELOPED AND
CLEARLY-EXPRESSED CAN OF ITSELF,
BECOME A MAJOR CREATIVE FORCE
AND CAN MAKE MORE MEANINGFUL THE
WORK OF INDIVIDUAL ARCHITECTS IN
VARIOUS PARTS OF AN AREA.

Jane says I FOUND OUT WHAT THEY HAD IN
MIND AND WHAT THEY WERE PLANNING
TO DO AND HOW IT WAS GOING TO
LOOK, ACCORDING TO THE DRAWINGS
AND WHAT GREAT THINGS IT
WAS GOING TO ACCOMPLISH.
I CAME BACK AND WROTE
ENTHUSIASTIC ARTICLES
ABOUT THIS.
ALL WAS WELL.
I WAS IN VERY COZY WITH THE
PLANNERS AND THE
PROJECT BUILDERS.
ANYHOW, TIME PASSED AND SOME
OF THESE THINGS
WERE ACTUALLY BUILT.

An old audio rolls.

A narrator says SOCIETY
HILL IS RESIDENTIAL.
THE OLDEST PART OF THE CITY,
IT IS THE SITE OF AN INTENSIVE
RESTORATION PROJECT.
HOUSES, MANY PRE-DATING THE
AMERICAN REVOLUTION SLOWLY HAD
GROWN DILAPIDATED AND HAD
BEEN CONVERTED TO OTHER USES.
IN ADDITION, THERE WAS ROOM FOR
NEW DRAMATICALLY CONTEMPORARY
APARTMENT TOWERS.
SOCIETY HILL EMERGES
AS A COMBINATION
OF ANCIENT AND MODERN.

Jane says BUT, THEY DIDN'T WORK AT ALL
THE WAY THEY SHOULD'VE WORKED.
THE CITY AROUND THEM DIDN'T
REACT THE WAY, THEORETICALLY THE
CITY AROUND THEM
SHOULD HAVE REACTED.

Thomas says SHE IS THE HYPER-SENSITIVE
ANTENNAE YOU KNOW, THAT'S
PICKING UP SOMETHING HERE
THAT NO ONE ELSE IS SEEING.

Jane says WHY DID STORES THAT LOOKED VERY
CHEERFUL AND POSED TO BE DOING A
GREAT BOOMING
BUSINESS IN THE PLANS
ACTUALLY GO EMPTY OR LANGUISH?
WELL, I WOULD BRING THESE
QUESTIONS UP WITH THE PEOPLE WHO
HAD BEEN RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
PLANNING OF THESE PLACES.
AND I GOT QUITE
A LOT OF ALIBIS,
BOILING DOWN TO
PEOPLE ARE STUPID.
THEY DON'T DO WHAT
THEY'RE SUPPOSED TO DO.
AND THIS WAS A
GREAT SHOCK TO ME.

Paul says NEVER MIND
HIGHFALUTIN THEORIES
AND SO FORTH.
WHAT ARE WE LOOKING AT?
WHAT ARE WE SEEING?
DO YOU WANNA TRUST SOME THEORY
THAT SOMEBODY FIGURED OUT
SITTING IN AN OFFICE SOMEWHERE?
OR, DO YOU WANNA TRUST WHAT YOU
ACTUALLY SEE OUT THERE
WITH YOUR OWN EYES?
MAYBE THE EXPERTS DIDN'T
REALLY KNOW AS MUCH
AS THEY PRETENDED TO KNOW.

Jane says ABOUT THIS TIME, A GENTLEMAN
CAME INTO THE OFFICE OF THE
ARCHITECTURAL FORUM.
HE WAS VERY MUCH WORRIED
ABOUT EAST HARLEM.
ABOUT 300 MILLION DOLLARS WORTH
OF CITY REBUILDING MONEY HAD
BEEN PUT TO WORK.
HE COULD SEE THAT THEIR PROBLEMS
WERE GROWING GREATER THAN THEY
HAD EVER BEEN IN THE PAST.

The caption changes to "Roberta Gratz. Author and friend of Jane Jacobs."

Roberta is in her sixties, with short wavy gray hair and wears glasses, a white top under a blue shirt, and a pearl necklace.

Roberta says SHE GOES UP TO
HARLEM AND SHE IS TAKEN AROUND
HARLEM BY WILLIAM KIRK OF
THE UNION SETTLEMENT HOUSE.
AND HE'S SHOWING
HER ALL THE THINGS
THAT ARE BEING LOST IN
THIS COMMUNITY WHEN
IT'S BEING DEMOLISHED.

Jane says HE WOULD WALK ME
AROUND EAST HARLEM.
WE WOULD STOP IN AT STORES,
STOP IN AT HOUSING PROJECTS.
I BEGAN TO SEE THE, JUST OUT OF
THE ACCUMULATION OF ALL OF THIS
I WAS BEGINNING TO UNDERSTAND
HOW THINGS WORKED.
MANY LITTLE DETAILS
OF CAUSE AND EFFECT.

Paul says SHE DESCRIBES
IT AS THE VERY BEGINNING
THE SORT OF MOMENT WHEN
THE LIGHT BULB KIND OF
WENT OFF IN HER HEAD.

(music plays)

Jane says WHAT I WAS SEEING, IN FACT WAS
WHAT MAKES THE VERY INTRICATE
ORDER OF THE CITY.
THIS HAS TO DO WITH A QUALITY
THAT'S CALLED RATHER VAGUELY
URBANISM.
CITIES ARE EXTREMELY
PHYSICAL PLACES.
IT'S NOT AN INERT MASS.
IT'S ENTERPRISES AND PEOPLE
REACTING IN CERTAIN WAYS TO EACH
OTHER AND MUTUALLY
SUPPORTING EACH OTHER.
AND WHEREVER IT WORKED PROPERLY,
THERE SEEMED TO BE AN AWFUL LOT
OF DIVERSITY MANY DIFFERENT
KINDS OF ENTERPRISES,
MANY DIFFERENT KINDS OF PEOPLE
MUTUALLY SUPPORTING AND
SUPPLEMENTING EACH OTHER.

Max says JANE JACOBS IS
THINKING ABOUT HOW DOES A
NEIGHBOURHOOD WORK?
HOW DOES A STREET WORK?
WHAT FUNCTION DOES
A SIDEWALK PLAY?
BUT WHAT SHE'S REALLY
AFTER IS A NEW THEORY
OF HOW CITIES FUNCTION.
IN DEATH AND LIFE OF GREAT
AMERICAN CITIES, SHE'S ASKING
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM OF A CITY?
SHE ARGUES, A CITY IS A PROBLEM
OF ORGANIZED COMPLEXITY.
LOOKS ON THE SURFACE LIKE IT'S
COMPLEX AND DISORDERLY
BUT IN FACT THERE'S AN
UNDERLYING STRUCTURE.
LOOKS LIKE CHAOS BUT IN FACT
THERE'S A BALANCE THERE'S A
PRODUCTIVE MIX OF DIFFERENT
FUNCTIONS AND ORGANISMS.
SHE DRAWS ON ECOLOGICAL
METAPHORS BIOLOGICAL METAPHORS,
TO SUGGEST HOW IT'S
REALLY AN ECOSYSTEM. SHE WROTE...

A female voice says TO SEE COMPLEX
SYSTEMS OF FUNCTIONAL ORDER AS
ORDER AND NOT AS CHAOS,
TAKES UNDERSTANDING.
THE LEAVES DROPPING FROM THE
TREES IN THE AUTUMN,
THE INTERIOR OF
AN AIRPLANE ENGINE,
THE ENTRAILS OF
A DISSECTED RABBIT
THE CITY DESK OF A NEWSPAPER.
ALL APPEAR TO
BE CHAOS IF THEY ARE
SEEN WITHOUT COMPREHENSION.
ONCE THEY ARE
SEEN AS SYSTEMS OF ORDER,
THEY ACTUALLY LOOK DIFFERENT.

Steven says JACOBS
UNDERSTOOD WHEN CITIES REALLY
WORK THEY'RE PHENOMENA THAT
COME FROM THE BOTTOM UP.
SO A GREAT NEIGHBOURHOOD
IS WHAT HAPPENS WHEN
THOUSANDS OF DIFFERENT ACTORS,
AND THAT'S THE
SHOPKEEPERS, BAR OWNERS,
THE PEOPLE WALKING THE STREETS
THEY SPONTANEOUSLY COME TOGETHER
IN AN UNCOORDINATED BUT
MEANINGFUL WAY TO CREATE
THE KIND OF FLAVOUR
AND PERSONALITY
OF A DISTINCT
NEIGHBOURHOOD.
THAT'S NOT PLANNED.
THAT'S MUCH MORE A QUESTION
OF ORGANIZED COMPLEXITY.

The caption changes to "Sanford Ikeda. Economist."

Sanford is in his forties, with short black hair and a shadow of a beard. He wears glasses and a black shirt."

Sanford says JANE JACOBS UNDERSTOOD THAT
LIVING CITIES ARE NOT PRETTY
THEY'RE MESSY,
CHAOTIC, DENSE WITH PEOPLE
INTERACTING TOGETHER.
DEAD CITIES ARE BEAUTIFUL, IN A
CERTAIN SENSE BECAUSE THEY
TEND TO LOOK PREDICTABLE.
THERE AREN'T VERY MANY PEOPLE.
IF YOU CAN UNDERSTAND A CITY,
THEN THAT CITY IS DEAD.
LIVING CITIES ARE CONGESTED,
THEY'RE FRUSTRATING.
AND AT THE SAME TIME, THAT'S
WHERE YOUR DREAMS COME TRUE.

Thomas says PLANNERS,
THEY DON'T SEE ANY OF THE
WONDROUS, HUMAN QUALITIES
THAT JACOBS IS SEEING.
THE VERY FORMS OF
URBANISM THAT SHE WROTE ABOUT
THE URBAN RENEWALISTS
SOUGHT TO DESTROY.

An old clip rolls.

An interviewer says WHAT
WOULD YOU DO FOR HARLEM?

Robert Moses says THE
SLUM CORNER OF HARLEM?

The interviewer says YES.

Robert says I'D TAKE THAT AND ALL THE OTHER
SIMILAR SLUMS I'D TEAR 'EM ALL
OUT, EVERY BIT OF 'EM.
IT'S A CANCEROUS THING
AND YOU'VE JUST
GOT TO WIPE THEM OUT.
I SAY THAT YOU HAVE
A CANCEROUS GROWTH THERE
THAT HAS TO BE CARVED OUT.

The interviewer says ALL RIGHT, YOU'VE
CARVED IT OUT AND NOW YOU'VE
REPLACED IT WITH SOMETHING NEW.

Robert Moses says YES.
THAT'S RIGHT.
WITH SOMETHING THAT'S DECENT,
SOMETHING THAT INVOLVES LIGHT
AND AIR AND NEW SCHOOLS
AND PLAYGROUNDS AND PARKS.
AND I'D SAY THAT'S A HELL OF A
BIG CONTRIBUTION AND CERTAINLY
ALL THE CONTRIBUTION THAT I
WOULD BE ABLE TO MAKE WITH ALL
THE PEOPLE I CAN
PERSUADE TO MAKE IT.

Paul says INSTEAD OF
FOLLOWING THE NATURAL WAY THAT
PEOPLE USE A SPACE CITY PLANNING
IN THIS POST-WAR ERA AND MODERN
ARCHITECTURE CREATED THIS
ABSTRACT VISION OF WHAT IT
SHOULD BE, CONCENTRATED ON
THE UTOPIAN AND THE IDEAL.

James says IN THE
1920S, YOU GET THE RISE OF THIS
CURIOUS MYSTICAL FIGURE OUT OF
SWITZERLAND WHO CALLS HIMSELF
LE CORBUSIER.
HE'S DONE SOME ARCHITECTURE AND
HE'S BETHINKING HIMSELF NOT ONLY
AN ARCHITECT, BUT A
GREAT URBAN VISIONARY.

Thomas says THE REAL GESTATION
OF HIS IDEAS ABOUT MODERNIST
URBANISM THAT CAME AS A RESULT
OF RIDING IN AN AIRPLANE OVER
PARIS SEEING THE CITY FROM
UP IN THE AIR, LOOKING DOWN
GOD-LIKE ON THIS DIORAMA VERSUS
CONSIDERING AND KNOWING THE CITY
FROM THE STREETS.
CORB WAS ENRAPTURED
BY THE AIRPLANE.
HE WRITES THAT THE AIRPLANE
INDICTS THE MESS WE'VE
MADE OF OUR CITIES.
BEFORE THE WHEELS HIT THE
TARMAC, HE'S CONCLUDED THAT WE
NEED TO SWEEP ALL THIS AWAY
AND REBUILD OUR CITIES.

Paul says LE CORBUSIER
ENVISIONED TEARING DOWN HUGE
SECTIONS OF PARIS AND
REPLACING IT WITH SLABS,
MODERN SLABS
CRUCIFORM BUILDINGS.

Alexander says HE PROPOSED
SUPERHIGHWAYS THAT WENT THROUGH
GREEN OPEN SPACE.
AND THEY WERE GOING TO
TERMINATE IN SUPERBLOCKS.
AND THE SUPERBLOCKS HAD
HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS AND THE
HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS WERE SO THAT
PEOPLE COULD HAVE LIGHT AND AIR
AND THEY COULD GET
OUT OF THE SLUMS.

An old clip rolls.

The caption changes to "Philip Johnson. Architect."

Philip says HE WAS
THOROUGHLY OF THE OPINION THAT
IF YOU HAD GOOD ARCHITECTURE
THE LIVES OF PEOPLE WOULD BE
IMPROVED AND THAT ARCHITECTURE
WOULD IMPROVE PEOPLE AND PEOPLE
WOULD IMPROVE ARCHITECTURE UNTIL
PERFECTIBILITY WOULD DESCEND ON
US LIKE THE HOLY GHOST, AND
WE'D BE HAPPY FOREVER AFTER.

James says CORB DID
THIS PLAN AND MADE HIS MODELS
AND IT EXCITED A LOT OF PEOPLE.
BUT IN FRANCE, THEY
WEREN'T SO EXCITED.
THE IDEA OF THE VILLE RADIEUSE
AND THE TOWER IN A PARK ENDED UP
MOVING TO AMERICA JUST LIKE
THE REST OF MODERNISM DID.

An old ad rolls with a caption that reads "We are now approaching the Futurama."

The announcer says TO HELP US
GET A GLIMPSE INTO THE FUTURE OF
THIS UNFINISHED WORLD OF OURS
THERE HAS BEEN CREATED FOR THE
NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR A
THOUGHT-PROVOKING EXHIBIT OF THE
DEVELOPMENTS AHEAD OF US.

Alexander says IN 1939,
GENERAL MOTORS
HAD AN EXHIBITION.
THE FUTURAMA.
IT SHOWED SUPERHIGHWAYS.
AND EVERYBODY IN
AMERICA WANTED THIS.

The Futurama announcer says HERE IS AN
AMERICAN CITY REPLANNED AROUND A
HIGHLY-DEVELOPED MODERN TRAFFIC
SYSTEM REBUILT AND REPLANNED.
RESIDENTIAL, COMMERCIAL AND
INDUSTRIAL AREAS ALL HAVE BEEN
SEPARATED FOR GREATER EFFICIENCY
AND GREATER CONVENIENCE.

The caption changes to "Jason Epstein. Jane Jacob's editor."

Jason is in his seventies, balding and clean-shaven and wears glasses and a pale blue shirt.

Jason says THE '39 WORLD'S FAIR IN NEW YORK
WAS A CORBUSIER EVENT.
IT CELEBRATED THAT STYLE.

The Futurama announcer says AND SO,
WE SEE SOME SUGGESTION OF THE
THINGS TO COME, A WORLD WITH A
FUTURE IN WHICH ALL OF US ARE
TREMENDOUSLY INTERESTED, BECAUSE
THAT IS WHERE WE ARE GOING TO
SPEND THE REST OF OUR LIVES.
IN A FUTURE WHICH CAN BE
WHATEVER WE PROPOSE TO MAKE IT.

Paul says MODERNISM
MOVED INTO THE MAINSTREAM OF
BOTH AMERICAN COMMERCIAL
ARCHITECTURE, AND URBAN RENEWAL.

The caption changes to "Robert A.M. Stern. Architect."

Robert is in his late seventies, bald and clean-shaven. He wears glasses, a navy blue suit, white shirt and printed tie.

Robert says THE PUBLIC HOUSING MODEL
THAT WE PICKED
IN THE UNITED STATES
WAS A MISINTERPRETATION
OF LE CORBUSIER.
THE TOWERS IN HIS 1923 PLAN WERE
FOR OFFICES AND THEN AROUND THE
TOWERS, BELOW, SEVEN-STORY
BUILDINGS
WITH GENEROUS BALCONIES.
HE NEVER CALLED FOR PEOPLE
LIVING IN HIGH-RISE TOWERS.

Paul says IT WAS ONE OF
THOSE ODD MOMENTS WHERE A SET OF
INTELLECTUAL IDEAS COULD BE
CORRUPTED VERY QUICKLY AND
EASILY INTO SOMETHING
CHEAP AND COMMERCIAL.

The caption changes to "Geeta Mehta. Architect and urban theorist."

Geeta is in her forties, with long wavy brown hair in a bun and wears a black shirt and a red blazer.

Geeta says THE SIMPLEST FORMULA TO MAKE
QUICK MONEY MONEY IS MODERNISM.
AND IT WAS VERY CHEAP, VERY
QUICK TO PRODUCE AND COULD
SUDDENLY ENABLE HUGE AMOUNTS OF
BUILDING TO HAPPEN VERY QUICKLY.
AND ROBERT MOSES TOTALLY
UNDERSTOOD THAT.

Paul says THE ONE THING
MISSING COMPLETELY FROM THAT
VISION IS STREETS.
AND THE IDEA THAT A STREET IS
SOMETHING YOU ACTUALLY WALK ON
AND A STREET IS A PLACE
WHERE THINGS HAPPEN.
JANE JACOBS SAW THAT AT A TIME
WHEN EVERYBODY ELSE WAS THINKING
THE SIDEWALK WAS A KIND OF
FOOLISH LEFTOVER OF ANOTHER AGE.

A female voice as Jane Jacobs says THIS IS SOMETHING
EVERYONE ALREADY KNOWS.
A WELL-USED CITY STREET IS
APT TO BE A SAFE STREET.
A DESERTED CITY STREET
IS APT TO BE UNSAFE.
BUT HOW DOES THIS WORK, REALLY?
THERE MUST BE EYES UPON THE
STREET EYES BELONGING TO THOSE
WE MAY CALL THE NATURAL
PROPRIETORS OF THE STREET.
THE BUILDINGS ON A STREET
EQUIPPED TO HANDLE STRANGERS AND
TO ENSURE THE SAFETY OF BOTH
RESIDENTS AND STRANGERS MUST BE
ORIENTED TO THE STREET.
THEY CANNOT TURN THEIR
BACKS OR BLANK SIDES ON IT
AND LEAVE IT BLIND.

Steven says PHILOSOPHICALLY, WHAT SHE
RECOGNIZED WAS SAFETY DOESN'T
COME FROM ARMED SECURITY GUARDS
BLOCKING THE ENTRANCES.
WHAT MAKES A NEIGHBOURHOOD GREAT
IS PRECISELY THE FACT THAT THERE
ARE PEOPLE ON THE STREET.

Jane says THE SIDEWALK MUST HAVE USERS ON
IT FAIRLY CONTINUOUSLY BOTH TO
ADD TO THE NUMBERS OF EFFECTIVE
EYES ON THE STREET AND TO INDUCE
THE PEOPLE IN THE BUILDINGS
ALONG THE STREET TO WATCH THE
SIDEWALKS IN SUFFICIENT NUMBERS.
NOBODY ENJOYS SITTING ON A STOOP
OR LOOKING OUT A WINDOW
AT AN EMPTY STREET.
ALMOST NOBODY DOES SUCH A THING.
LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE
ENTERTAIN THEMSELVES, OFF AND ON
BY WATCHING STREET ACTIVITY.

Alexander says SHE WENT OUT AND
LOOKED AT THINGS.
WHEN SHE SAID THAT THE DOORMEN
WERE PAID EYES ON THE STREET AND
THAT THE SAME THING COULD HAPPEN
FROM BARS ON THE STREET IN WEST
VILLAGE I UNDERSTOOD WHAT
SHE WAS TALKING ABOUT.
NOBODY HAS TO WORRY ABOUT THINGS
WHERE THERE ARE A LOT OF PEOPLE
ON THE STREET.

Max says JANE JACOBS
REVERSES THE VANTAGE POINT.
WHAT IS IT LIKE ACTUALLY
TO LIVE IN THESE PLACES,
FROM STREET LEVEL?
AND IT'S THAT SIMPLE CHANGE OF
PERSPECTIVE THAT LEAD HER AWAY
FROM THE ORTHODOXY OF THE TIME.

Paul says ROBERT MOSES
HAD NO INTEREST REALLY IN PAYING
ATTENTION TO WHAT WAS
THERE IN NEIGHBOURHOODS.
WHAT WAS THERE HE VIEWED AS
SIMPLY AN OBSTACLE TO WHAT HE
WANTED TO MAKE HAPPEN.

Old clips show images of New York.

A narrator says PEOPLE OPPOSE
MOSES ALL THE TIME.
WHETHER HE WANTED LINCOLN
CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS,
A BRIDGE ACROSS THE ENTRANCE TO
NEW YORK HARBOUR, A PARKING LOT
WHERE MOTHERS AIR THEIR BABIES
IN CENTRAL PARK, A HIGHWAY DOWN
THE SPINE OF FIRE ISLAND, OR
ONE THROUGH THE MIDDLE OF
WASHINGTON SQUARE, VEHEMENT
OPPOSITION WAS WHAT HE EXPECTED
AND WHAT HE GOT.

Robert Moses says OH, THERE'S
OPPOSITION TO EVERYTHING
THAT'S PROGRESSIVE
EVERYTHING THAT'S NEW.

The caption changes to "Ed Koch. Mayor, New York City. 1978 to 1989."

Ed is in his nineties, bald and clean-shaven. He wears a white shirt, a mustard yellow printed tie, and polka dotted suspenders.

Ed says THE OPINION OF PEOPLE
WHO WERE ACTIVISTS AS WE WERE IN
THE VILLAGE WERE, ROBERT MOSES
WAS TERRIBLE, AND ROBERT MOSES
WAS DESTROYING THE CITY, AND
ROBERT MOSES HAD TO BE STOPPED.

Jason says JANE HAD GOT
INVOLVED IN SEVERAL EFFORTS TO
STOP ROBERT MOSES FROM
RIPPING THE CITY TO PIECES,
STARTING WITH HIS ATTEMPT
TO RUN FIFTH AVENUE
DOWN THROUGH WASHINGTON SQUARE.

A clip rolls with a caption that reads "Washington Square Park, 1954."

Jane says THE FIRST TIME I BECAME AWARE OF
THE THREAT OF WHAT THE HIGHWAYS
WERE DOING AND COULD DO TO NEW
YORK WAS WHEN ALONG CAME THE
PLAN TO PUSH FIFTH AVENUE
THROUGH WASHINGTON SQUARE PARK
AND DOWN BELOW IT, AS
A CONTINUOUS STREET.

Ed says THEY WANTED TO HAVE
THE FIFTH AVENUE BUSSES GO
THROUGH THE PARK, DOWN INTO WEST
BROADWAY AND CHANGE THE NAME OF
THAT TO FIFTH
AVENUE SOUTH,
SO AS TO MAKE IT MORE
VALUABLE FOR RENTS.
AND THAT WAS A
ROBERT MOSES PROJECT.

Anthony says THIS WASN'T IN
THE ABSTRACT FOR JANE JACOBS
THIS WAS HAPPENING CLOSE TO
HOME, RIGHT IN HER BACKYARD.
THIS WAS WHERE SHE BROUGHT
HER KIDS IN STROLLERS
TO PLAY IN THAT PARK.

Roberta says IT WAS THE
CAMPUS FOR A UNIVERSITY.
IT WAS THE FRONT YARD FOR
NEIGHBOURHOOD KIDS GROWING UP.
IT WAS A TRUE REFLECTION
OF A DIVERSE NEIGHBOURHOOD.

An old clip shows people gathered around banjo players at the park.

A narrator says THIS IS THE CIRCLE.
ON WEEKDAYS IT'S A WADING
POOL FOR VILLAGE KIDS.
BUT ON SUNDAYS, THE WATER IS
TURNED OFF, AND THE CIRCLE
BECOMES A MEETING PLACE FOR
GUITARISTS, BONGO AND BANJO
PLAYERS, VILLAGERS ON A STROLL
FOLK SINGERS, AND TOURISTS.

Jane says TO ME AND TO MANY OTHERS WE WERE
OUTRAGED ABOUT A ROAD GOING
THROUGH WASHINGTON SQUARE AND WE
WERE GOING TO SAVE
WASHINGTON SQUARE PARK.

An old picture shows Jane sitting at a diner with two men and a caption that reads "Jane Jacobs researching civic growth with developers."

Paul says WASHINGTON
SQUARE WAS REALLY JANE JACOBS'
BEGINNING AS A CIVIC ACTIVIST.

Ed says ALL OF THE ACTIVISTS,
MYSELF INCLUDED, WERE INVOLVED
IN TRYING TO STOP THAT.
THE LEADERS THERE INCLUDED
JANE JACOBS AND SHIRLEY HAYES.

Carol Greitzer is in her eighties, with chin length gray hair and wears a brown T-shirt.

She says SHIRLEY HAYES
AND EDITH LYONS WERE THE TWO
WOMEN WHO STARTED THE FIGHT
AGAINST THE ROADWAY IN
WASHINGTON SQUARE PARK.

Mary says JANE WAS NOT
DEFERENTIAL TO POWER.
SO SHE UPS THE ANTE ON THAT
WASHINGTON SQUARE FIGHT AND SAYS I'M GONNA WRITE THE MAYOR.

A female voice as Jane says I HAVE HEARD WITH ALARM AND
ALMOST WITH DISBELIEF THE PLANS
TO RUN A SUNKEN HIGHWAY THROUGH
THE CENTER OF WASHINGTON SQUARE.
MY HUSBAND AND I ARE AMONGST THE
CITIZENS WHO TRULY BELIEVE IN
NEW YORK TO THE EXTENT THAT WE
HAVE BOUGHT A HOME IN THE HEART
OF THE CITY AND REMODELLED
IT WITH A LOT OF HARD WORK.
IT IS VERY DISCOURAGING TO DO
OUR BEST TO MAKE THE CITY MORE
HABITABLE AND THEN TO LEARN THAT
THE CITY ITSELF IS THINKING UP
SCHEMES TO MAKE
IT UNINHABITABLE.

The caption changes to "Carol Greitzer. Urban activist and friend of Jane Jacobs."

Carol says JANE'S EXAMPLE
THAT SHE SET FOR HERSELF IS AN
EXAMPLE FOR OTHER
PEOPLE TO FOLLOW.

Jane says IF A HIGHWAY IS COMING THROUGH
THAT'S GOING TO BE VERY
DESTRUCTIVE AND YOU KNOW
IT'S AN IDIOTIC THING,
YOU FIGHT THAT HIGHWAY.
PROTEST AGAINST STULTIFICATION
AND THE STATUS QUO AND THINGS
THAT TOUCH YOU AND YOUR
NEIGHBOURHOOD DIRECTLY.

Carol says I THINK SHE WAS
EFFECTIVE BECAUSE OF THE FORCE
OF HER PERSONALITY AND THE FACT
THAT SHE WAS ABLE TO MOBILIZE A
LOT OF PEOPLE.

Mary says AND MARGARET MEADE
AND SUSAN SONTAG AND ALL THE
VARIOUS FOLKS THAT JANE WAS
INVOLVED WITH WERE DRAWN TO THE
TANGIBILITY OF THIS
PARTICULAR FIGHT.

A newspaper excep t reads "Doctor Margaret Mead told the huge audience that "we need cities, the question is what kind?" She said the challenge is to build a city in which everyone, not just the rich and privileged, can live safely and nobly."

Robert Moses says THEY
GET TOO MANY CRITICS.
THEY GET TOO MANY MUD-THROWERS
TOO MANY PEOPLE WHO
FOUL THEIR NEST.
THAT'S OUR TROUBLE.
TOO MANY PEOPLE SITTING AROUND,
CALLING NAMES, LIKE MUMFORD,
PEOPLE THAT-- WHAT
DO THEY CONTRIBUTE?
YOU HAVE ANY PROBLEM TO SOLVE,
ANY DIFFICULTY, YOU'D NEVER CALL
UPON THEM.
CALL UPON THEM FOR
FOUR-LETTER WORDS.
THEY DON'T EVEN HAVE VERY
GOOD VOCABULARY, IN MY BOOK.

Anthony says ROBERT MOSES
WASN'T USED TO ANYBODY
SAYING NO TO HIM.
HE'D FIRE OFF THESE LETTERS TO
PEOPLE OF GREENWICH VILLAGE.

Robert Moses says I REALIZED THAT
IN THE PROCESS OF REBUILDING
SOUTH OF WASHINGTON SQUARE THERE
WOULD BE CRIES OF ANGUISH FROM
THOSE WHO ARE HONESTLY CONVINCED
THE SISTINE MADONNA WAS PAINTED
IN THE BASEMENT OF ONE OF
THE OLD BUILDINGS THERE, NOT
PRESENTLY OCCUPIED
BY A CABARET OR SPEAKEASY.
THAT MICHELANGELO'S
DAVID WAS FASHIONED
IN A GARRET IN THE
SAME NEIGHBOURHOOD,
AND THAT ANYONE WHO LAYS
HANDS ON THESE SACRED LANDMARKS
WILL BE EXECUTED IF HE HAS
NOT ALREADY BEEN STRUCK DOWN
BY A BOLT FROM HEAVEN.

Alice says THEY
MANAGED TO SHOW MOSES AS THIS
BULLY AND THEY GOT A LOT OF
IMPORTANT PEOPLE ON THEIR SIDE
INCLUDING ELEANOR ROOSEVELT.

A clip shows part of an Eleanor Roosevelt's speech.

Eleanor says I WOULD FEEL
VERY STRONGLY THAT DESTROYING
THE SQUARE BY PUTTING A LARGE
ARTERY FOR TRAFFIC THROUGH THE
SQUARE WOULD HARM NOT ONLY THE
SQUARE ITSELF BUT THE WHOLE
NEIGHBOURHOOD AND,
REALLY, THE CITY.
I'M NOT OPPOSED TO CHANGE.
IN FACT, I BELIEVE IN CHANGE.
BUT I THINK THAT GOOD
TRADITION HAS TO BE PRESERVED.

Alice says JACOBS
WAS A BRILLIANT STRATEGIST WHEN
IT CAME TO CIVIL ACTION.

Anthony says SHE HAD A
REAL SENSE FOR THE PHOTO OP.
IN WASHINGTON SQUARE PARK SHE
ARRANGED FOR HER DAUGHTER AND
ANOTHER GIRL TO CONDUCT
A RIBBON TYING CEREMONY.
THIS OF COURSE WAS THE OPPOSITE
OF THE RIBBON CUTTING CEREMONY
THE POLITICIANS LOVED TO
CELEBRATE WITH PUBLIC WORKS.

Jason says IT WAS AT ONE
OF THE HEARINGS WHERE MOSES WAS
FOOLISH ENOUGH TO SAY THAT
NOBODY'S AGAINST US EXCEPT A
BUNCH OF MOTHERS.
HOW COULD HE BE SO TACTLESS?
ONLY IF YOU THINK THAT PEOPLE
DON'T MATTER AT ALL COULD YOU
MAKE A STATEMENT LIKE THAT.

Robert Stern says SHE WAS A HOUSEWIFE.
THAT'S HOW THEY TREATED HER.
I MEAN, OF COURSE SHE WAS A
PROFESSIONAL JOURNALIST THAT WAS
NOT SOMEHOW WHEN YOU WANTED TO
DISMISS HER, YOU JUST SAY
THERE WAS THIS HOUSEWIFE
FROM HUDSON STREET.

Mary says TRY TO MESS WITH A
BUNCH OF MOTHERS I THINK THAT HE
UNDERESTIMATED WHAT THE
EFFECTIVENESS OF THESE MOTHERS
MIGHT IN FACT BE.

Jane says LITERALLY THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE
TURNED TO, AND IT TOOK QUITE A
FEW YEARS, BUT DID SAVE IT.

Mary says IT ENDED UP BEING
AN EXTRAORDINARILY POTENT
OPPOSITION WHICH HE'D
NEVER MET BEFORE.
MOSES HAD NEVER MET THIS BEFORE.
HE HAD HIS- HE HAD IT COMING.

Anthony says WASHINGTON
SQUARE PARK WAS CERTAINLY THE
FIRST PUBLIC DEFEAT
FOR ROBERT MOSES.
AND IT WAS A MAJOR
CHINK IN HIS ARMOUR.

Roberta says THE BATTLE
OVER WASHINGTON SQUARE
IS JANE'S
FIRST TASTE OF VICTORY.
NOT LONG AFTER THE WASHINGTON
SQUARE VICTORY DEATH AND LIFE
IS PUBLISHED.
AND, BENNETT CERF, HEAD OF
RANDOM HOUSE SENDS
A COPY TO ROBERT MOSES.
AND MOSES SENDS IT BACK.

A male voice as Robert Moses says I AM RETURNING
THE BOOK YOU SENT ME.
ASIDE FROM THE FACT IT IS
INTEMPERATE AND INACCURATE
IT IS ALSO LIBELLOUS.
I CALL YOUR ATTENTION,
FOR EXAMPLE, TO PAGE 131.

A female voice as Jane says ROBERT MOSES HAS MADE AN ART OF
USING CONTROL OF PUBLIC MONEY TO
GET HIS WAY WITH THOSE WHOM THE
VOTERS ELECT AND DEPEND ON TO
REPRESENT THEIR
FREQUENTLY-OPPOSING INTERESTS.
THIS IS, OF
COURSE, IN OTHER GUISES
AN OLD, SAD STORY OF
DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT.

Roberta says HE DIDN'T EVEN
WANT TO RECOGNIZE THE EXISTENCE
OF THE BOOK, OR OF JANE.

Anthony says OTHERS
WERE ALSO NOT CHARITABLE
INCLUDING LEWIS MUMFORD.

Paul says LEWIS MUMFORD,
THE GREAT ARCHITECTURAL CRITIC
FOR THE NEW YORKER HIS FAMOUS
REVIEW OF HER BOOK HAD THE TITLE
MOTHER JACOBS' HOME REMEDIES.
HE'S IMMEDIATELY TELLING YOU
THAT JANE JACOBS WAS JUST THIS
SWEET, OLD LADY TRYING TO GET
SOME HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE INTO
THE CITY INSTEAD OF DOING THE
SERIOUS SURGERY
THAT A REAL DOCTOR WOULD DO.
RIGHT AROUND THE TIME OF DEATH
AND LIFE OF GREAT AMERICAN
CITIES IRONICALLY, HER OWN
NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE WEST
VILLAGE, THE VERY NEIGHBOURHOOD
THAT SHE HAD PROCLAIMED AS A
MODEL FOR WHAT
NEIGHBOURHOODS COULD BE,
WAS EARMARKED FOR URBAN RENEWAL.

An old picture of the city appears with a caption that reads "West Village, 1961."

Anthony says MOSES WAS
COMMISSIONER OF HOUSING
IN THE URBAN RENEWAL EFFORT
TO BUILD MORE PUBLIC HOUSING
IN NEW YORK CITY.
HE ACTUALLY STEPPED DOWN FROM
THAT POSITION, BUT BEFORE HE DID
HE DESIGNATED THE WEST
VILLAGE AS ELIGIBLE
FOR SLUM DESIGNATION.

Jane says I GOT THE BOOK FINISHED, FINALLY
AND THOUGHT AH, NOW I CAN THINK
ABOUT SOMETHING ELSE.
AND, FOR THREE WEEKS, I DID
THINK ABOUT OTHER THINGS.
THEN, I OPENED THE NEW YORK
TIMES ONE MORNING AND FOUND THAT
OUR OWN AREA OF THE WEST VILLAGE
WAS GOING TO HAVE AN URBAN
RENEWAL PROJECT IN IT.

Jason says SHE REALLY
DIDN'T THINK OF HERSELF AS A
COMMUNITY ORGANIZER AS A
STREET FIGHTER OR THAT SORT.
SHE WAS A WRITER.
SHE DIDN'T APPRECIATE
THE DISTRACTION.
SHE REALLY DIDN'T, BUT
SHE KNEW SHE HAD TO DO IT.
SHE WAS SAD.
I MEAN, SHE WOULD SHRUG HER
SHOULDERS AND SAY WHAT CAN I DO?

An old newspaper headline reads "City's plan extends to survey by residents fear encroachment in area."

Jane says YOU KNOW THAT THING
ABOUT AN INERT OBJECT?
WELL THERE IS NOTHING MORE
INERT THAN A GOVERNMENT BUREAU.
THERE'S NOTHING MORE INERT
THAN A PLANNING OFFICE.
IT GETS GOING IN ONE DIRECTION
AND IT IS NEVER GOING TO CHANGE
OF ITS OWN ACCORD.
SO, I SUDDENLY HAD TO PUT INTO
PRACTICE MY OWN PREMISES THAT IF
ANYTHING WAS GOING TO HAPPEN
TO REVERSE THE WAY THINGS WERE
BEING DONE, THEN THE CITIZENS
HAD TO TAKE SOME INITIATIVE
AND THE CITIZENS HAD TO
FRUSTRATE THE PLANNERS.
I THEREUPON BEGAN TO DEVOTE
MYSELF TO FRUSTRATING PLANNERS.
AND SO DID THE WHOLE
NEIGHBOURHOOD.

Roberta says JANE CALLS A
MEETING OF LOCAL RESIDENTS AT
THE LION'S HEAD A FAVOURITE
NEIGHBOURHOOD HANGOUT ORGANIZES
PEOPLE TO SPEAK AT PUBLIC
MEETINGS AND GETS EVERYBODY TO
WEAR SUNGLASSES WITH
AN X PAINTED ON THEM.

Mary says THEY WERE FAIRLY
SOPHISTICATED, I THINK IN THE
TACTICS THAT THEY WOULD EMPLOY
AND THEY'RE TACKLING SOMEBODY
WHO'S BEEN WRITING FOR A LIVING
FOR A COUPLE OF DECADES AND
KNOWS HOW TO MAKE AN ARGUMENT.

Ed says WE ALL KNEW ONE
ANOTHER AND WERE CONSTANTLY
PLANNING ON HOW TO GET
THE MAYOR ON OUR SIDE
AND HOW TO THREATEN HIM.
AND WE DID.
WE GOT HIM ON OUR SIDE.

Paul says SHE FILED A
LAWSUIT AGAINST THE CITY OF
NEW YORK TO TRY TO BLOCK
THE URBAN RENEWAL PLAN.

A male voice as Mayor Wagner says I THINK THAT THE
TIME HAS COME TO PUT THE WEST
VILLAGE URBAN RENEWAL
PROPOSAL TO REST.
PROMPTLY REMOVE THE WEST
VILLAGE DESIGNATION.
CORDIALLY, ROBERT F. WAGNER.

Alice says THEY
PREVAILED AND AT THE END OF THE
DAY THE SLUM DESIGNATION NEVER
HAPPENED IN THE WEST VILLAGE.

Anthony says SHE EFFECTIVELY
SHOWED THE PEOPLE OF GREENWICH
VILLAGE THAT THEY COULD FIGHT
CITY HALL THAT THEY DID NOT HAVE
TO ACCEPT THE PLANS OF THE
PLANNERS AT THEIR DRAFTING
TABLES AND THAT THEY COULD
REJECT THOSE LINES BEING DRAWN
AROUND THEIR HOMES.

Mary says WE NEED TO
UNDERSTAND GREENWICH VILLAGE IS
A PROXY HERE FOR A WAVE THAT WAS
STARTING TO TAKE HOLD IN THE
UNITED STATES WHERE THERE
WAS INCREASING RESISTANCE TO
CENTRALIZED AUTHORITY.

Michael says HER STRATEGY
WAS CERTAINLY INFORMED BY OTHER
STRUGGLES THAT WERE
GOING ON AT THE TIME.
WITHIN THREE YEARS OF EACH OTHER
JACOBS PUBLISHED HER BOOK,
BETTY FRIEDAN PUBLISHED
THE FEMININE MYSTIQUE.
RACHEL CARSON PUBLISHED
SILENT SPRING.
THE ENVIRONMENTAL
MOVEMENT, CIVIL RIGHTS,
THE MOVEMENT FOR DECENT CITIES
FEMINISM, YOU KNOW, ALL WERE
BEING BORN AT ONCE, AND ALL WERE
SHARING TOOLS OF PROPAGANDA,
OF LOCAL ORGANIZING OF
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE.
JANE JACOBS WAS PERHAPS THE MOST
ARTICULATE VOICE OF A MOVEMENT
THAT NOW SEEMS
MERELY COMMON SENSE.

Jane says ANY CITY THAT'S TEARING DOWN ITS
BUILDINGS JUST TO MAKE MONEY FOR
A DEVELOPMENT OR
JUST TO HAVE NOVELTY,
IS DOING SOMETHING CRIMINAL.

(music plays)

Robert Moses says A FELLA WHO GETS
UP IN THE UPPER STORIES OF A
PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECT
WHERE HE HAS A VIEW,
WHAT'S THE MATTER WITH HIM?
HE'S GOT A NICE PLACE
TO LIVE, HASN'T HE?

An interviewer says I THINK THAT THE
OBJECTION THAT SOME MIGHT HAVE
WAS THAT THE VIEW IS JUST OF
ANOTHER HOUSING DEVELOPMENT,
AND ANOTHER HIGHWAY.

Robert says OH. OH, NO.

Jane says NO, I DON'T CONCEDE THAT.
IT WASN'T JUST THAT THEY WANTED
NEW HOUSING IN PLACE OF THE OLD.
THEY WANTED AN ENTIRELY
DIFFERENT LOOKING CITY.
ROBERT MOSES AND HIS
CONSTITUENCY WANTED IT ALL TO BE
VERY SIMPLIFIED,
VERY STERILIZED.

Michael says IT WAS THE
HUBRIS OF MOSES AND HIS ILK.
THE IDEA THAT WE'RE GONNA
REARRANGE THE SPACES AND
THEREFORE WE'RE GONNA REARRANGE
THE SOCIAL RELATIONS.
IT HAD TO DO WITH THIS TOWERS
IN THE PARK MENTALITY.
IT HAD TO DO WITH THE CREATION
OF A NEW FORM OF GHETTO.

Geeta says WHOLE DOWNTOWNS
WERE BEING BULLDOZED IN THE NAME
OF PEOPLE, BUT NOT
FOR THE PEOPLE.
THEY WERE DESTROYING LIVES
AND REPLACING THEM WITH THESE
HOUSING PROJECTS.
AND WHY?
BECAUSE IT WAS MAKING A LOT
OF PEOPLE A LOT OF MONEY.
IT WAS MAKING DEVELOPERS
A LOT OF MONEY,
POLITICIANS A LOT OF MONEY
AND IT WAS FAST MONEY.
SO THEY KEPT DOING IT OVER AND
OVER AND OVER AGAIN IN CITIES
ALL OVER THE COUNTRY.

Alexander says IT WAS
SEVERAL YEARS AFTER ROBERT MOSES
HAD BEGUN BUILDING
THESE PROJECTS
THAT THE OTHER CITIES CAUGHT UP.

Images of new developments in the cities of Detroit, Chicago, Boston, Denver, and San Francisco appear.

Alexander says WHAT THEY WERE BUILDING
WAS THE CORBUSIEN MODEL.

Steven says YOU SAW THE
KIND OF BUILDING OF THESE
HOUSING PROJECTS ACROSS THE
UNITED STATES YOU KNOW, 25-STORY
BLOCK APARTMENT BUILDINGS WITH
PLAYGROUNDS AND GARDENS AROUND
THEM THAT LOOKED GREAT
IN ALL THE DRAWINGS.

An old clip shows a populated space with a caption that reads "Pruitt-Igoe Public Housing Development. Saint Louis, Missouri, 1954."

An announcer says HERE IN BRIGHT, NEW
BUILDINGS WITH SPACIOUS GROUNDS,
THEY CAN LIVE.
LIVE WITH INDOOR PLUMBING,
ELECTRIC LIGHTS, FRESH PLASTERED
WALLS AND THE REST OF THE
CONVENIENCES THAT ARE EXPECTED
IN THE 20TH CENTURY.
IN THESE PROJECTS, CHILDREN CAN
PLAY IN SAFETY ON THE WIDE LAWNS
NOT IN THE LITTERED
ALLEYS AND VACANT LOTS.

An old clip shows president Johnson saying WE MUST MAKE SURE THAT
EVERY FAMILY IN AMERICA LIVES
IN A HOME OF DIGNITY IN A
NEIGHBOURHOOD OF PRIDE AND A
COMMUNITY OF OPPORTUNITY AND
A CITY OF PROMISE AND HOPE.

Another clip shows images of an emptied space with the caption Pruitt-Igoe Public Housing Development. 9 years later."

Steven says BUT WHAT ENDED
UP HAPPENING IS, NOBODY EVER
HUNG OUT IN THE KIND OF PUBLIC
SPACE AROUND THESE PROJECTS.
AND SO THEY BECAME THESE
UNDER-POPULATED PLACES.
AND THEY ACTUALLY VERY QUICKLY
BECAME SOME OF THE MOST
DANGEROUS PLACES IN THE WORLD.

James says CONCENTRATED POVERTY.
THIS WAS A- YOU KNOW, THE REALLY
THE WORST THING ABOUT THE
PROJECTS AND THEREFORE,
AMPLIFIED ALL OF THE
PATHOLOGICAL AND ANTISOCIAL
ELEMENTS OF POVERTY.

Toni says THESE
INSTITUTIONS BECAME FORTRESSED.
YOU BECOME CORNERED.
YOU FEEL CORNERED.
YOU FEEL TRAPPED.
THEY LEFT PEOPLE
MORE VULNERABLE.
PUBLIC HOUSING BECAME
PLACES OF FEAR.

A female reporter says HIGH-RISE
FORTRESSES LIKE THESE WERE BUILT
THIS WAY TO SAVE MONEY.
IN THE LONG RUN, THEY
DIDN'T EVEN DO THAT.
THE PROBLEM WAS THAT THEY WERE
ALL WRONG FOR THE PEOPLE WHO
WOUND UP LIVING IN THEM.
RURAL BLACKS, BROKEN FAMILIES
ALLOWED IN AND TO STAY IN ONLY
IF THEIR INCOMES
WERE LOW ENOUGH.

Writer James Baldwin says MOST CITIES NOW
ARE ENGAGED IN SOMETHING CALLED
URBAN RENEWAL.
WHICH MEANS MOVING
THE NEGROES OUT.
IT MEANS NEGRO REMOVAL.
THAT IS WHAT IT MEANS.
AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IS
AN ACCOMPLICE TO THIS FACT.
WE ARE TALKING
ABOUT HUMAN BEINGS.
THERE'S NOT SUCH A THING AS A
MONOLITHIC WALL OR, YOU KNOW
SOME ABSTRACTION
CALLED NEGRO PROBLEM.
THESE NEGRO BOYS AND GIRLS WHO
AT 16 AND 17 DON'T BELIEVE THE
COUNTRY MEANS ANYTHING THAT IT
SAYS AND DON'T FEEL THAT THEY
HAVE ANY PLACE HERE.

Mindy says THE PHRASE
URBAN RENEWAL IS NEGRO REMOVAL
WAS AN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
BY AFRICAN-AMERICANS
THAT THIS WAS AN ASSAULT.
REMOVAL IS IN THE SENSE OF OUT,
OVER THERE, AWAY FAR AWAY,
SOME PLACE INHOSPITABLE
WHERE YOU CAN JUST DIE.
AND A HUGE PART OF WHAT HAPPENED
TO PEOPLE WAS THAT THEY WERE PUT
IN INHOSPITABLE PLACES.
AND AFRICAN-AMERICANS WERE PUT
IN AT THE MARGINS OF THE CITY IN
PLACES THAT COULD BARELY SUPPORT
THE VITAL KIND OF LIFE THAT
PEOPLE NEED TO PROSPER.

A female reporter says IT'S AS THOUGH
THE BUILDERS HAVE NOT REALIZED
THAT CHILDREN WOULD BE LIVING
THERE NOR DID THEY FORESEE THE
CRIME, THE VANDALISM WHICH IS
REALLY THE ACTING OUT OF RAGE
AND SELF-LOATHING THAT CAN MAKE
PEOPLE WANT TO DESTROY
THEIR OWN PROPERTY.

Geeta says PEOPLE HAD LIVED
IN COMMUNITIES THAT WERE MESSY,
BUT THEY WORKED.
PEOPLE HAD SOCIAL CAPITALS
PEOPLE WATCHED EACH OTHER'S
CHILD WHEN SOMEBODY
WAS NOT THERE.
ALL THIS WAS
ACTUALLY TAKEN AWAY.
PEOPLE HAD NO
INVESTMENT EMOTIONALLY.
PEOPLE RESENTED THESE PROJECTS
THAT HAD BEEN BUILT FOR THEM
BECAUSE THEY WERE POOR.

A woman interviewed on the streets says SO YOU SEE A LOT OF
WINDOWS BROKEN OUT.
THEY ALL WEREN'T BROKEN OUT
BY CHILDREN THROWING ROCKS.
AND, WHAT'S MORE NATURAL THAN
CHILDREN THROWING ROCKS?
THEY DON'T HAVE
NOTHING ELSE TO DO.
THERE'S ABSOLUTELY NO
RECREATION FACILITIES HERE.
AND, THE PLAYGROUND, LIKE
THIS, IS A MOCKERY
FOR THOUSANDS OF CHILDREN.
TENANTS HAD NO INPUT
AS TO WHAT THEY WANTED.
IT WAS BUILT BECAUSE SOMEBODY
SAID THIS WOULD BE GOOD FOR
CHILDREN TO PLAY ON.

Geeta says THERE WERE
GRAFFITI EVERYWHERE AND THERE
WERE DRUG PROBLEMS AND ALL THE
PROBLEMS THAT YOU CAN IMAGINE
COME FROM WHEN YOU UPROOT
PEOPLE WITHOUT THEIR WILL.
AND WHAT DO YOU EXPECT, THAT
THEY WILL LOVE THESE PROJECTS?
NO, THAT WASN'T GONNA HAPPEN.

The caption changes to "Charles Correa. Architect and urban planner."

Charles is in his eighties, with short straight white hair and wears a white shirt and a beige vest.

Charles says PRUITT-IGOE, IF
YOU REALLY SEE AN AERIAL VIEW OF
IT THOSE BUILDINGS WERE SPACED
QUITE A DISTANCE APART.
IF YOU TOOK THEM AND THREW THEM
ON THEIR FACES WHICH IS WHERE
THEY SHOULD'VE FALLEN YOU'LL GET
LOVELY HOUSING 20 FEET HIGH.

A caption reads "Architects and engineers, Pruitt-Igoe action team."

A Pruitt Igoe man takes down some of the model buildings on a housing development model.

He says YOU CAN TAKE A
LOOK AT A LITTLE EXERCISE HERE
THAT IF THESE TOWERS THESE
SLABS ARE REMOVED FROM THE
TOWERS YOU BEGIN TO SEE A
DIFFERENT ATTITUDE OF
WHAT IS VISIBLE.
YOU BEGIN TO SEE THROUGH THE
SITE AS OPPOSED TO LOOKING AT A
SLAB OF BUILDINGS RUNNING—

Another man says ONE
THING THE TENANTS ARE REALLY
STRESSING IS FOR A LOW-RISE
BUILDING CLOSER TO A HOME
SOMETHING THAT
THEY CAN RELATE TO.

The first man says WHAT WE ARE TRYING TO DO HERE IS
TO TAKE A GIVEN SITUATION AND
TRY TO BRING IT BACK TO
A COMMUNITY WHERE
PEOPLE WOULD WANT TO LIVE.

(music plays)

A male reporter says AFTER THINKING
ABOUT THE PROBLEM OF THE
PRUITT-IGOE HOUSING PROJECT
THE CITY PLANNERS BLEW IT UP.

[EXPLOSIONS]

The reporter says JUST DYNAMITED IT AWAY.

James says THE PROJECTS END UP
BEING TREMENDOUS FAILURES.
YOU KNOW, WE KNOW ALL
ABOUT THAT FAILURE NOW.
AND EVERYWHERE THEY
EXISTED, 30, 40 YEARS LATER
THEY'RE ALL BEING TORN DOWN.

A demolition clip rolls with the caption "George B. Murphy Homes. Baltimore, Maryland, 1999."

Another demolition clip rolls with the caption "Lakefront Homes Public Housing Development. Chicago, Illinois, 1998."

Another demolition clip rolls with the caption "Mill Creek Public Housing Development. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2002."

Alexander says YOU CAN'T PUT STREETS BACK
WHERE YOU TOOK THEM OUT.
YOU CAN'T PUT STORES BACK.
YOU CAN'T PUT THE DAILY LIFE
AND ALL THE INSTITUTIONS.
IT TAKES GENERATIONS TO
BUILD UP THOSE INSTITUTIONS.
THAT'S WHAT WAS ELIMINATED
BY THESE PROJECTS.

Thomas says THE
SUPERBLOCK URBANISM
OF THE MODERNIST ILK
THAT JANE JACOBS WRITES ABOUT
IS DESTROYING CITIES.
YOU ALSO HAVE AT THE
VERY SAME TIME,
THE AUTOMOBILE BEING
RAMMED THROUGH.
THIS CAUSES AS MANY PROBLEMS
AS THE URBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS.

Paul says THE MOST
PROFOUND INFLUENCE ON THE CITY
IN THE LAST 100 YEARS
HAS BEEN THE AUTOMOBILE.

The caption changes to "Mike Davis. Author and urban theorist."

Mike is in his fifties, with very short white hair and a moustache. He wears a blue denim shirt.

Mike says THE DECISION MADE
ALMOST INEVITABLY WAS TO DRIVE
THE FREEWAYS, THE INTERSTATES IN
SOME RIGHT THROUGH THE CITIES
AND THROUGH NEIGHBOURHOODS WHOSE
VALUE CITY ELITES AND DEVELOPERS
WANTED TO ULTIMATELY RECLAIM.

Robert Moses says WE WOULDN'T HAVE
ANY AMERICAN ECONOMY WITHOUT THE
AUTOMOBILE BUSINESS.
THAT'S LITERALLY TRUE.
I BELIEVE THAT THIS IS A GREAT
INDUSTRY THAT HAS TO GO ON AND
HAS TO KEEP ON TURNING OUT CARS
AND TRUCKS AND BUSSES
AND THERE HAVE TO BE PLACES
FOR THEM TO RUN.
THERE HAVE TO BE MODERN ROADS.

A male commentator says THE FIRST OF
MOSES' COMMANDMENTS FOR PROGRESS
IS THOU SHALT DRIVE.

Paul says JANE JACOBS
WAS ONE OF THE VERY FIRST PEOPLE
TO SAY THE CAR IS NOT SUPREME.
THE PEOPLE
WHO WALK ON THE SIDEWALK
ARE WHAT MAKES THE CITY.

Jane says IT ISN'T HARD TO UNDERSTAND
THAT PRODUCING AND CONSUMING
AUTOMOBILES MIGHT SEEM
ALL-IMPORTANT TO THE MANAGEMENT
OF FORD AND CHRYSLER
AND GENERAL MOTORS.
BUT IT'S HARDER TO UNDERSTAND
WHY THE PRODUCTION AND
CONSUMPTION OF AUTOMOBILES
SHOULD BE THE PURPOSE OF LIFE
FOR ALL THE REST OF US.

Michael says MOSES WAS ABOUT
REALIZING A VERY PARTICULAR
VISION OF THE AMERICAN DREAM,
THAT WAS, YOU KNOW WHAT'S GOOD
FOR GENERAL MOTORS IS GOOD FOR
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

A clip rolls with a caption that reads "GM Better Highways Award essay contest, 1953."

A General Motors representative says I'M
PRIVILEGED TO PRESENT THE WINNER
OF THE GRAND NATIONAL AWARD
ROBERT MOSES OF NEW YORK.
[APPLAUSE]

A GM announcer says ROBERT MOSES,
NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION
COORDINATOR IS A WORLD-FAMOUS
HIGHWAY PLANNER,
A MAN WHO KNOWS HIS BUSINESS.

Jason says WHAT HE WAS
REALLY DOING WAS TEARING UP
VITAL NEIGHBOURHOODS, FOR
EXAMPLE IN THE SOUTH BRONX,
WHERE HE BUILT THE
CROSS BRONX EXPRESSWAY.

Mike says THIS WAS THE SINGLE
MOST DESTRUCTIVE DECISION
EVER MADE ABOUT U.S. CITIES.

An expressway announcer says THE CROSS
BRONX EXPRESSWAY AN ARTERY WHOSE
HISTORY WAS MARKED BY
SUCH GIGANTIC PROBLEMS OF
CONSTRUCTION, FINANCING,
RELOCATION, AND ORGANIZED
OBSTRUCTION THAT IT TOOK
17 YEARS TO COMPLETE.

The caption changes to "Ronald Shiffman. Architect and urban activist."

Ronald is in his sixties, with short wavy gray hair and a thick beard. He wears a burgundy shirt.

Ronald says THE CROSS
BRONX EXPRESSWAY RIPPED THROUGH
THE HEART AND THE MIDDLE OF THE
BRONX CREATING WHAT WAS A WALL
BETWEEN WHAT EVENTUALLY WAS
KNOWN AS THE NORTHERN AND THE
SOUTHERN PART OF THE BRONX.

Jason says ROBERT MOSES
THOUGHT HE'D GET AWAY WITH
ANYTHING. WHO'S GONNA STOP HIM?
HE'S GOT ALL THE CITY
POLITICIANS ARE ON HIS SIDE
'CAUSE HE'S BRINGING A
LOT OF FEDERAL MONEY
FROM THE FEDERAL
HIGHWAY PROGRAM.
AND THAT GETS PASSED AROUND.

A caption reads "The 90-10 federal formula."

Robert Moses says TODAY OUR
GREATEST SINGLE PROBLEM IS
TENANT REMOVAL.
THE TENDENCY ON THE PART OF
PEOPLE IN POLITICS AS WELL AS
THOSE WHO ARE LIVING ON
THESE RIGHTS-OF-WAY WHO ARE
IMMEDIATELY EFFECTED IS TO
ASSUME THAT THE PEOPLE WHO ARE
DOING THIS JOB ARE UNSYMPATHETIC
THEY'RE EVEN SADISTIC.
WELL, OF COURSE THAT
ISN'T THE TRUTH AT ALL.

Robert Stern says WHEN
MOSES WOULD RAM THE
CROSS BRONX EXPRESSWAY THROUGH,
IT WAS NOT JUST BREAKING DOWN
THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF THAT
BOROUGH LITERALLY, SO SOUTH AND
NORTH BECOME DIFFERENT
BUT THE COMMUNITY.

Alexander says WHEN YOU
REMOVE THE DAILY LIFE WHEN YOU
REMOVE THE STORES YOU REMOVE THE
PLACES THAT CONSTITUTE WHERE
THEY SPEND TIME, WHAT WE WOULD
CALL THE PUBLIC REALM, THE
SIDEWALKS, THE BARS, THE GROCERY
STORES, YOU REMOVE THE CITY.
AND THAT'S WHAT
JANE JACOBS SAYS.
YOU DRAW AWAY THE PEOPLE WITH A
PRESCRIPTION THAT IS GUARANTEED
TO HURT CITIES.

Robert Moses says WELL YOU
HAVE TO BULLET THROUGH.
YOU'VE GOTTA DO IT.
IT'S LIKE ALL THESE THINGS
THAT HAVE OPPOSITION.
THE FACT THAT 2000 PEOPLE
COME AND AGITATE AGAINST THE
EXTENSION OF AN EXPRESSWAY
DOESN'T PROVE THAT YOU'RE NOT
GONNA BUILD THE EXPRESSWAY.

Mike says SO MANY OF THE
PROBLEMS OF THE SOUTH BRONX GREW
DIRECTLY OUT OF THE
DEVASTATION CAUSED BY
BUILDING THAT EXPRESSWAY.
WHICH, OF COURSE, BECAME
TOTALLY GRIDLOCKED 15 MINUTES
AFTER IT WAS OPEN.

Paul says I MEAN, MOSES
THOUGHT HE WAS IMPROVING THE
CITY BY BRINGING IT UP-TO-DATE,
BY MAKING IT WORK
FOR THE AUTOMOBILE.
AND AS IT BECAME CLEAR THAT
URBAN HIGHWAYS WERE IN FACT
PROFOUNDLY DESTRUCTIVE, IT
REALLY BECAME A BATTLE
BETWEEN OPPOSING FORCES.

Thomas says 'COURSE,
IN LOWER MANHATTAN,
MOSES WANTED TO BUILD A ROAD
RIGHT ACROSS THE CITY THERE.
THE WHOLE CAST IRON DISTRICT
WOULD'VE BEEN BASICALLY
OBLITERATED.

Paul says THE LOWER
MANHATTAN EXPRESSWAY WAS TO HAVE
CONNECTED THE HOLLAND TUNNEL
WITH THE WILLIAMSBURG AND
MANHATTAN BRIDGES.
IT WOULD'VE DESTROYED
MOST OF SOHO.
WE WOULD'VE LOST ONE OF THE
GREATEST INVENTORIES OF 19TH
CENTURY BUILDINGS NOT JUST IN
NEW YORK, BUT IN THE WORLD.

Jane says THE HIGHWAYS, OF COURSE,
DESTROYED THE NEIGHBOURHOODS
THAT THEY WENT THROUGH.
WHERE WAS THIS GOING TO END?
THE WHOLE PLACE WAS GOING
TO BE LACED WITH HIGHWAYS.
WHAT WOULD WE HAVE
LEFT OF MANHATTAN?

A promo film announcer says ON ANY
DAY OF THE WEEK, IF YOU WALK
ALONG CANAL STREET, AND IT'S
OFTEN FASTER THAN RIDING,
THIS IS WHAT YOU'LL SEE,
THE CRUSH OF ENDLESS
WAITING TRAFFIC.
NOW LOOK AT THE SOLUTION.
A LOWER MANHATTAN EXPRESSWAY
ONLY PRACTICAL HIGHWAY CROSSING
SERVING THE LOWER
MANHATTAN COMMERCIAL
AND BUSINESS DISTRICTS.
CAN WE AFFORD TO LET ONE SECTION
OF OUR CITY SLOWLY STRANGLE IN
HOPELESS TRAFFIC CONGESTION?

Jane says THERE WAS AN AWFUL CAMPAIGN
AGAINST THAT NEIGHBOURHOOD.
IT WAS CALLED,
HELL'S HUNDRED ACRES.

The announcer says A
BOTTLED-UP, STAGNATING SECTION
OF THE CITY.
NO NEW PRIVATE BUILDINGS
ERECTED IN 30 YEARS.
A VALLEY OF ECONOMIC DEPRESSION.
THE NEED IS URGENT.
WE MUST HAVE A LOWER
MANHATTAN EXPRESSWAY NOW.

Jason says THE LOCAL PRIEST
IN A CHURCH ON BROOM STREET HAD
HEARD ABOUT JANE'S SUCCESSFUL
DEFENCES FIGHTING MOSES AND
ASKED IF SHE COULD HELP.

A reporter says FATHER, WHAT EFFECT
DO YOU FEEL THAT THE EXPRESSWAY
WILL HAVE ON THE NEIGHBOURHOOD?

Father Lamountain says WELL, THE EXPRESSWAY
WILL DESTROY THE
NEIGHBOURHOOD.

Jane says THIS IS THE WORST THING ABOUT
THESE MONUMENTAL PLANS.
THERE IS NO WAY THERE THAT OLD
BUILDINGS CAN EASILY BE TORN
DOWN AND NEW ONES PUT UP, OLD
THINGS ADAPTED TO DIFFERENT USE.
IT'S SETTLED.
WELL THAT'S NOT
PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE.

A sketch appears with the caption "Lower Manhattan Expressway. Design proposal."

A reporter says REMINDED OF
SOME OF THE OPPOSITION
TO HIS LONGTIME DREAM
FOR AN EXPRESSWAY ACROSS LOWER
MANHATTAN, MOSES WAS SPECIFIC
ABOUT WHAT IT TAKES TO OVERRIDE
THE INEVITABLE ROADBLOCKS.

Robert Moses says YOU
GOTTA MOVE PEOPLE.
AND THE POLITICAL LEADERS,
NATURALLY, IF THEY HAVE PEOPLE
TICKETED AND THEY KNOW WHERE
THEY ARE AND THEY VOTE RIGHT
THEY DON'T WANNA MOVE 'EM AND
HAVE 'EM GO SOMEWHERE ELSE.
WHAT I TRY TO DO IN NEW YORK,
WHAT WE'VE DONE SUCCESSFULLY IN
OTHER PLACES WHICH IS TO PAY
MORE MONEY TO PEOPLE IN CASH.
COME TAKE THE MONEY AND GO AWAY.
YOU GOT PEOPLE WHO RENT.
THEY DON'T OWN ANYTHING.
SO WHAT DIFFERENT DOES IT MAKE
WHEN YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT AN
EXPRESSWAY THAT COSTS
84 MILLION DOLLARS?

Jane says STOP BEING VICTIMS.
I THINK IT'S WICKED, IN
A WAY, TO BE A VICTIM.
IT'S EVEN WICKEDER TO BE A
PREDATOR, BUT IT'S WICKED TO BE
A VICTIM AND ALLOW IT.
YOU CAN'T, AS AN INDIVIDUAL,
YOU CAN'T DO ANYTHING,
BUT YOU CAN ORGANIZE.
IF YOU'RE BEING VICTIMIZED BY AN
EXPRESSWAY THAT A BUREAUCRACY IS
PUTTING THROUGH FOR THE BENEFIT
OF THE AUTOMOBILE PEOPLE,
THEN YOU FIGHT THAT, YOU REFUSE
TO BE A VICTIM OF THAT.

A caption reads "Lower Manhattan Expressway protest. Little Italy, 1962."

A reporter interviews one of the protestors and says WHAT EFFECT DO YOU
THINK THIS WILL HAVE ON
THE NEIGHBOURHOOD ITSELF?

The protestor says IT WILL DESTROY
THE NEIGHBOURHOOD.
IT'S ONE OF THE FEW
NEIGHBOURHOODS THAT YOU CAN A
WOMAN CAN GO DOWN THE
STREETS AT NIGHT AND BE SAFE.
AND THE WOMEN KNOW
IT, AND I KNOW IT.
TWO OR THREE O'CLOCK IN THE
MORNING, THE MEN ARE SITTING IN
THE CAFES AND THEY'RE WATCHING
YOU, TAKING CARE OF YOU.
YOU WANNA BUILD UP
NEIGHBOURHOODS LIKE THIS.
THEY SAY LET'S GET BACK TO
THE OLD, SAFE NEIGHBOURHOODS.
THIS IS IT!

A male voice as Robert Moses says MEMORANDUM
TO ARTHUR HODGKISS
FROM ROBERT MOSES.
THE LOWER MANHATTAN
WILL MOVE VERY SOON.
PLEASE KEEP AN EYE ON IT.

The caption changes to "Lower Manhattan Expressway. Board of Estimate Hearing, December 11, 1962."

A reporter at the hearing says MR. SIMON,
ARE YOU SAYING THAT THEY'RE
TRYING TO SNEAK IT THROUGH?

Mister Simon says I WOULD SAY
IT'S A SLEEPER.
IF THIS THING IS PASSED, THESE
ARE HOW THESE THINGS HAPPEN.
IF THEY'RE NOT WATCHED,
IT'S A SLEEPER.

The reporter says WHO DO YOU THINK
IS PUSHING THIS?

Mister Simon says WELL, THERE'S ONLY ONE MAN
THAT I CAN THINK OF
CAN BE PUSHING.

Another reporter at the hearing says THEY SEEM
TO THINK THAT THEY HAVE A CHOICE
THAT THEY'D RATHER
STAY IN THE HOUSES
THAT THEY'VE LIVED
IN ALL THIS TIME.

Robert Moses says WE CAN'T MAKE
THE WHOLE FEDERAL ARTERIAL AID
PROGRAM RUNNING INTO BILLIONS OF
DOLLARS DEPEND UPON THE VOTES OF
A FEW, A VERY FEW
PEOPLE IN ONE SECTION.
WE WOULDN'T BUILD ANYTHING.
NOTHING WOULD BE BUILT.
THERE'D BE NO HIGHWAYS, THERE'D
BE NO HOUSING THERE'D BE

A male protestor says PLEASE DO NOT
BUILD THIS EXPRESS HIGHWAY.
MOST OF THESE PEOPLE
CONSIDER AUTOMOBILES
MORE THAN THE HUMAN BEING.
IT IS NOT RIGHT!

A female protestor says I THINK IT'S AWFUL.
I DON'T THINK IT'S FAIR.
I DON'T THINK IT'S VERY GOOD,
'CAUSE I LIVE THERE, I LOOK OUT
MY WINDOW THE TRUCK,
THE CAR AND EVERYTHING.
THEY DON'T NEED EXPRESSWAY.
WHAT THEY GONNA DO,
THROW ME IN THE STREET?
AFTER 51 YEARS I'M
CITIZEN AND EVERYTHING?
THERE'S SOMETHING AWFUL
TO THINK EVERY DAY
THEY GONNA THROW YOU OUT.
I THINK IT'S AWFUL THING.
THEY MAKING ME SICK.
I HOPE GOD THEY HAVE
TO BE DAMN SICK.
THAT'S WHAT I HOPE.
GOODBYE.
I THANK YOU.

The caption changes to "Frances Goldin. Urban activist, friend of Jane Jacobs."

Frances is in her seventies, with short gray hair with a purple streak and wears a purple dress and a button that reads "Tax the rich."

Frances says IT WAS GONNA BE
A DEFINING HEARING IN WHICH THEY
WOULD APPROVE THE EXPRESSWAY.
AND JANE SAID WHEN THEY DISCUSS
THIS ISSUE I'M GONNA GET UP AND
I'M GONNA SPEAK AGAINST IT.

A interview audio rolls and a caption reads "Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation. Interview with Jane Jacobs."

Jane says I WENT UP TO THE MICROPHONE.
I WAS VERY ANGRY.
THEY WEREN'T LISTENING TO US.
THEY HAD MADE THEIR DECISION.
THAT WAS CLEAR.
THEY WERE REALLY
ONLY ERRAND BOYS
WHO HAD NO POWER TO
MAKE DECISIONS.
SO WE HAD BETTER LET
THEM TAKE BACK A MESSAGE.
WE WOULD NEVER STAND
FOR THIS EXPRESSWAY.
I INTENDED JUST TO CLIMB
UP TO THEIR LEVEL
AND WALK ACROSS THE STAGE.
THERE WAS A STENO TYPIST
WHO HAD A NEW MACHINE.
SHE WAS FRIGHTENED AND SHE
PICKED UP HER STENOTYPE MACHINE
AND CLASPED IT TO HER BOSOM.
THE TAPES FELL OUT
OF THE MACHINE
AND RAN ACROSS THE
FLOOR LIKE CONFETTI.
PEOPLE BEGAN TOSSING
IT IN THE AIR.
I KNEW IT HAD TO BE
BROUGHT TO AN END,
SO AN INSPIRATION STRUCK ME.
I SAID, THERE IS NO HEARING
BECAUSE THE RECORD IS GONE.
AND WITHOUT A RECORD
THERE CAN'T BE A HEARING.
THE CHIEF STATE PERSON WAS
SAYING ARREST THAT WOMAN.
ARREST THAT WOMAN.
AS I WENT OUT POLICE CAPTAIN
TOLD ME THAT I WAS ARRESTED.

An old newspaper article appears with the caption "Missus Jacobs' protest results in riot charge."

Jason says THE POLICE
WERE VERY APOLOGETIC.
THEY KNEW WHO SHE WAS
AND WHAT WAS GOING ON.
SHE WAS CHARGED WITH THREE
FELONIES WHICH IS PRETTY ROTTEN
FOR WHAT SHE DID.
WHAT DID SHE DO? SHE
DIDN'T HURT ANYBODY.
SHE BECAME THE HERO.
AND THE POLITICS DID
SHIFT AT THAT POINT.

The lead mediator says THE BOARD OF ESTIMATE IN AN
EXECUTIVE SESSION TODAY VOTED
UNANIMOUSLY TO TURN DOWN THE
PROPOSAL FOR A LOWER
MANHATTAN EXPRESSWAY.
THE BOARD... PLEASE.

[APPLAUSE]

Another headline reads "Downtown Expressway plan killed."

Jason says THAT
WAS THE DECISIVE MOMENT.
AND MOSES COULDN'T DO ANYTHING.
HE WAS JUST A PURE VILLAIN,
THE POLITICIANS WERE VILLAINS.
AT THAT POINT IT WAS CLEAR
THAT NO POLITICIANS
WERE GONNA GET AWAY WITH THIS.

Anthony says THE LOWER
MANHATTAN EXPRESSWAY WAS REALLY
THE BEGINNING OF THE
END FOR ROBERT MOSES.

Paul says ROBERT MOSES
WAS FINALLY SQUEEZED OUT BY
NELSON ROCKEFELLER WHO, AS
GOVERNOR OF NEW YORK MIGHT HAVE
BEEN THE FIRST PUBLIC
OFFICIAL POWERFUL ENOUGH
TO CALL HIS BLUFF.
MOSES WAS FAMOUS FOR
THREATENING TO RESIGN
WHEN HE WAS UNHAPPY
WITH SOMETHING.
ROCKEFELLER SAID
AT ONE POINT OKAY.
AND MOSES HAD NO CHOICE.
HE COULDN'T BACK
DOWN AND HE WAS GONE.

Jason says AFTER THE MOSES'
EXPRESSWAY SITUATION WAS FINALLY
SETTLED, JANE FELT SHE COULD GO
TO CANADA WITH HER TYPEWRITER
AND BECOME A WRITER AGAIN.
HER HUSBAND, WHO
WAS AN ARCHITECT,
WAS BUILDING HOSPITALS UP THERE.
AND THEIR SONS WERE THERE
TO KEEP OUT OF THE...
THAT AWFUL VIETNAM WAR.
OF COURSE, AS SOON AS SHE GOT
TO TORONTO SHE SAW THERE WAS
ANOTHER EXPRESSWAY HEADING
RIGHT FOR HER HOUSE
THE SPADINA EXPRESSWAY.
SHE STOPPED THAT, TOO.
AND THEN GOT TO WORK.

Anthony says THE LOWER
MANHATTAN EXPRESSWAY WAS
OFFICIALLY DEAD
IN THE YEAR 1970.
MEANWHILE, ACROSS THE COUNTRY
THESE KINDS OF FREEWAY REVOLTS
WERE TAKING PLACE AND SIMILAR
ROADWAYS WERE BEING DEFEATED.
BUT THE LOWER MANHATTAN
EXPRESSWAY WAS REALLY THE
LEADING EXAMPLE.

Paul says IF
THAT HAD HAPPENED,
THERE WOULD BE NO SOHO.
THE ENTIRE HISTORY OF
DEVELOPMENT AND REDEVELOPMENT
AND ADAPTIVE REUSE IN THE
CITY WOULD'VE PLAYED OUT
IN A DIFFERENT WAY.
IT WOULD'VE BEEN THE SINGLE MOST
DAMAGING INTERVENTION IN THE
URBAN FABRIC IN MANHATTAN
IN THE 20TH CENTURY.
PERIOD.
A CITY IS NOT JUST
A PHYSICAL OBJECT.
THE CITY IS A LIVING THING.
IT WILL ALWAYS MORPH AND CHANGE.
OUR GOAL HAS TO BE TO
MANAGE CHANGE WELL
NOT TO FREEZE IT IN TIME.

Michael says AS CITIES
AROUND THE WORLD ARE OBLIGED
TO HOUSE THIS
DRAMATICALLY-INCREASING
POPULATION WE STILL HAVE THE
CONVERSATION IN TERMS OF TOP
DOWN VERSUS BOTTOM UP,
FORMALITY VERSUS INFORMALITY.
THESE ARE THE ETERNAL POLARITIES
OF THINKING ABOUT THE CITY.

Geeta says IF YOU GO TO
CHINA, YOU SEE HUGE SWATHES OF
FARMLAND THAT ARE NOW BEING
URBANIZED IN EXACTLY THE MODEL
THAT AMERICA USED IN 1950S,
AND WE KNOW THAT IT FAILED.

The caption changes to "Saskia Sassen. Political economist."

Saskia is in her late sixties, with straight white hair in a bob cut and wears a black shirt.

She says CHINA TODAY IS
MOSES ON STEROIDS, YOU KNOW.
AND THE NOTION THAT MOSES COULD
NOT HAVE CONCEIVED OF THIS
EXTRAORDINARY SCALING UP OF
WHAT IT MEANS TO BUILD.
IN THAT SENSE HISTORY
HAS OUTDONE HIM.

Geeta says THESE ISOLATED
DEVELOPMENTS WITH HUNDREDS OF
SIMILAR LOOKING BLOCKS WITH NO
URBANISM NO STREET,
WHO CAN LIVE IN THEM?
AND HOW WOULD YOU LIVE IN THEM?
WHAT THEY ARE
BUILDING TODAY I THINK,
IS THE SLUMS OF THE FUTURE.

Charles says AND
THEY'RE MADE IN CONCRETE.
THEY'RE GONNA LAST
AT LEAST 60 YEARS.
WE ARE CONDEMNING FUTURE
GENERATIONS TO AN ABSOLUTE
WORLD WITHOUT HOPE.
GIVEN THE SCALE OF THE PROBLEM
WE HAVE THAT MAKES A COMPLETELY
DIFFERENT CONTEXT IN WHICH JANE
JACOBS' IDEAS AGAIN, NOW,
HAVE A NEW INCARNATION.

A female voice as Jane says IT IS SO EASY TO BLAME THE
DECAY OF CITIES ON TRAFFIC
OR IMMIGRANTS OR THE WHIMSIES
OF THE MIDDLE CLASS.
THE DECAY OF CITIES GOES DEEPER
AND IS MORE COMPLICATED.
IT GOES RIGHT DOWN TO WHAT
WE THINK WE WANT,
AND TO OUR IGNORANCE
ABOUT HOW CITIES WORK.

Saskia says WITH
THE AMOUNT OF PEOPLE WHO
NOW NEED TO LIVE IN
CITIES YOU HAVE TO ACCEPT
THAT YOU'RE GOING TO
NEED MORE DENSITY.
BUT, A LOT OF DENSELY-BUILT
UP TERRAIN IS NOT A CITY.

Alexander says IF ONE
WERE TO BUILD A CITY,
NO MATTER HOW FAST IT IS WITHOUT
BUILDING A GREAT PUBLIC REALM,
YOU DON'T HAVE A CITY.
THAT'S WHAT JANE
JACOBS TALKS ABOUT.

Jane says HISTORICALLY, SOLUTIONS TO CITY
PROBLEMS HAVE VERY SELDOM
COME FROM THE TOP.
THEY COME FROM PEOPLE WHO
UNDERSTAND THE PROBLEMS
FIRSTHAND 'CAUSE THEY'RE LIVING
WITH THEM AND WHO HAVE NEW AND
INGENIOUS AND OFTEN VERY OFFBEAT
IDEAS OF HOW TO SOLVE THEM.
THE CREATIVITY AND THE CONCERN
AND THE IDEAS DOWN THERE IN CITY
NEIGHBOURHOODS AND CITY
COMMUNITIES HAS TO BE GIVEN A
CHANCE, HAS TO BE RELEASED.
PEOPLE HAVE TO INSIST
ON GOVERNMENT
TRYING THINGS THEIR WAY.

Charles says IF YOU GAVE
PEOPLE AN ENVIRONMENT THAT THEY
COULD SHAPE THEMSELVES, THEY
WOULD NOT ONLY BE HAPPIER,
BUT YOU WOULD HAVE A COMPLETELY
DIFFERENT KIND OF CITY.

Michael says THE PROBLEM
FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE PLANNING AND
DESIGNING AND THINKING ABOUT ALL
THIS NEW URBAN TISSUE THAT'S
BEING CREATED, IS HOW TO TAKE
SOME OF THESE INCREDIBLY
VALUABLE LESSONS THAT JANE
JACOBS TEACHES, AND APPLY THEM
TO THE PROJECT OF CREATING THE
PLACES WHERE ALL OF THESE
BILLIONS OF PEOPLE
ARE GOING TO LIVE.

Paul says THE KEY THING
ABOUT JANE JACOBS, MUCH MORE
IMPORTANT THAN LOVING STOOPS
AND STREETS AND STUFF WAS A
WILLINGNESS TO BE SCEPTICAL.
A WILLINGNESS TO DOUBT THE
RECEIVED WISDOM, AND TO
TRUST OUR EYES INSTEAD.

A female voice reads a quote from Jane's book and says UNDER THE SEEMING DISORDER OF
THE OLD CITY, WHEREVER THE OLD
CITY IS WORKING SUCCESSFULLY,
IS A MARVELLOUS ORDER FOR
MAINTAINING THE
SAFETY OF THE STREET,
AND THE FREEDOM OF THE CITY.
IT IS A COMPLEX ORDER.
THIS ORDER IS ALL COMPOSED
OF MOVEMENT AND CHANGE.
AND ALTHOUGH IT IS LIFE, NOT
ART, WE MAY FANCIFULLY CALL IT,
'THE ART FORM OF THE CITY' AND
LIKEN IT TO THE DANCE, NOT TO A
SIMPLEMINDED PRECISION DANCE
WITH EVERYONE KICKING UP AT THE
SAME TIME, TWIRLING IN UNISON
AND BOWING OFF EN MASSE,
BUT TO AN INTRICATE BALLET
IN WHICH THE INDIVIDUAL
DANCERS AND ENSEMBLES ALL
HAVE DISTINCTIVE PARTS,
WHICH MIRACULOUSLY
REINFORCE EACH OTHER
AND COMPOSE AN
ORDERLY WHOLE.

A caption reads "Jane Jacobs went on to write eight more books. She spent the rest of her life in Toronto, and died at 89, in 2006."
Music plays as the end credits roll.

Produced and directed by Matt Tyranauer.

Produced by Robert Hammond and Corey Resser.

Executive producer, Juliet Page.

Copyright 2016, What would Jane do? LLC. All rights reserved.

Watch: Citizen Jane: Battle for the City