Transcript: Ep. 6 - Waterworld | Aug 28, 2018

Clips show images of railways crossing rivers and climbing up mountains.

A Male Narrator says FROM THE WORLD'S
WILDEST WATERS...

A man in safety gear says IT WAS INCREDIBLY DEEP WATER.
IT WAS DEEPER THAN THE NORTH
SEA, A LOT OF IT.

The Narrator says TO ITS MIGHTIEST
MOUNTAINS...

A balding man says IF SOMEONE SAID TO BUILD A
TRAIN THROUGH THESE MOUNTAINS,
YOU WOULD THINK THEY'RE CRAZY.

The Narrator says RAILWAYS HAVE SET OUT TO
CONQUER THEM ALL.

A man standing on the open door of a train as it drives along says WHAT A FEAT OF ENGINEERING.
ABSOLUTELY AMAZING.

A woman in a boat says I'M ACTUALLY A LITTLE BIT
SPEECHLESS.
IT'S JUST-- IT'S AWESOME.

The Narrator says DRIVEN BY DARING ENGINEERS
FOR WHOM NO OBSTACLE...

A man climbing a mountain says THIS IS MY KIND OF FUN NOW.

The Narrator says IS TOO GREAT.

A man stands at the top of a pit in a mountain and says I TRULY LOVE THIS STRUCTURE.
IT'S MAGNIFICENT.

The Narrator says IN THIS EPISODE, RAILWAYS OF
THE WATER WORLD, THEIR UNIQUE
CHALLENGES...

Luca says I CAN'T IMAGINE HOW
THEY COULD BUILD THIS LINE JUST
BY BOAT.
IT'S ONE OF THE MOST IMPOSSIBLE
RAILWAYS.

The Narrator says AND THE INGENIOUS
SOLUTIONS...

A man wearing a hat says THIS IS THE MOST STRANGE
RAILWAY IN THE WORLD.
THIS IS NOT FOR ANY KIND OF
TRAIN.

The Narrator says THAT MAKE THE IMPOSSIBLE
POSSIBLE.

A man with graying hair standing next to a bridge says I'VE WORKED ON THIS
STRUCTURE FOR OVER FIVE YEARS.
I KNOW EVERY NUT AND BOLT ON IT.
SUPERB.

The name of the show appears against black and white drawings of vintage and modern trains. It reads "Impossible railways."

The Narrator says FOLLOWING THEIR METEORIC RISE
IN THE 19TH CENTURY, RAILWAYS
HAVE BECOME THE TRANSPORT
ARTERIES OF THE WORLD.
BUILT ACROSS EVERY TERRAIN,
THEY'VE OVERCOME ALMOST ALL
NATURE CAN THROW AT THEM.
BUT THERE'S ONE ENVIRONMENT
WHICH IS THEIR NEMESIS.
SOME OF HISTORY'S GREATEST
RAILWAY ENGINEERS HAVE BEEN
PUSHED TO THEIR LIMITS IN THE
QUEST TO CONQUER OUR WATER
WORLDS.

Atsushi says THE WATER HERE IS VERY DEEP.
AN EARTHQUAKE COULD
CAUSE A MAJOR DISASTER.

The man with graying hair says BRUNEL'S JOB IS TO GET FROM
DEVON, OVER TAMAR ESTUARY TO
CORNWALL.
HELL OF A CHALLENGE.

The man with a hat says THERE'S ABOUT 11 LAKES WITH
DIFFERENCE OF LEVEL.
THIS IS THE PROBLEM.

The Narrator says WHEN DOING BATTLE WITH A
WATER WORLD, RAILWAYS MIGHT
FACE THE ODD OBSTACLE.
STEEP CLIFFS PERHAPS OR DEEP
RIVER VALLEYS.
EVEN SINKING GROUND.

An animation shows a train facing terrain and nature obstacles.

The train driver says UH-OH!
HURRAY!

The Narrator says OR DEMANDING NEIGHBOURS.
NOT TO MENTION WILD WEATHER.
BUT SOMETIMES, RAILWAY BUILDERS
ARE FACED WITH THE FULL SET.
THE FAMOUS ROLLING HILLS OF
DEVON IN THE SOUTHWEST OF
ENGLAND.

(epic music plays)

The Narrator says IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19TH
CENTURY, ENGINEERS WERE FACED
WITH A SEEMINGLY IMPOSSIBLE
CHALLENGE OF BUILDING A RAILWAY
ACROSS THIS UNDULATING COUNTY.
TODAY, ENGINEER STEVE HAWKINS
IS GETTING A BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF
WHAT HIS PREDECESSORS WERE
FACED WITH.

Steve is in his fifties, clean-shaven and balding. He wears a blue shirt under an orange safety vest and headphones.

Steve says IT ALL LOOKS VERY PICTURESQUE
NOW.
ARE WE GOING RIGHT TO LEFT?

A male helicopter driver says WE'RE GOING THAT WAY, YEAH.

Steve says YEAH.

The Narrator says THE INITIAL PLANS REQUIRED
LONG TUNNELS AND EVEN SECTIONS
WHERE THE TRAINS WOULD HAVE TO
BE HAULED UP STEEP INCLINES
WITH ROPES.
BUT THE PROJECT'S ENGINEER HAD
AN AUDACIOUS PLAN TO AVOID THE
HILLS ALTOGETHER.

Steve says IT IS A VERY UNIQUE PIECE OF
RAILWAY.
IT'S UNIQUE THAT IT RUNS RIGHT
NEXT TO THE SEA FOR SEVEN MILES.

The Narrator says BY HUGGING THE COAST, THE
SOUTH DEVON LINE COULD STAY ON
THE LEVEL.
IT'S THE BRAINCHILD OF THE
WORLD'S MOST LEGENDARY
ENGINEER-- ISAMBARD KINGDOM
BRUNEL.

A black and white picture of a man wearing a tall hat appears.

The Narrator says BUT TAKING ON THIS WATER WORLD
WITH A RAILWAY WOULD PROVE TO
BE ONE OF BRUNEL'S BIGGEST
CHALLENGES, AS TODAY'S
ENGINEERS KNOW ALL TOO WELL.

Steve says BRUNEL CREATED THAT PART OF
THE RAILWAY 150 YEARS AGO PLUS.
ON A DAILY BASIS, THE WAVE
HEIGHT AND THE STRENGTHS OF THE
WAVES CAN EFFECT THE RAILWAY,
WITH THE SEA SPRAY TOTALLY
WASHING OUT, GOING OVER THE
TRAINS.

A modern lilac train enters a tunnel.

The Narrator says THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST
UNFORGIVING STRETCHES OF
COASTLINE IN ENGLAND.
IN 2014, IT TOOK JUST ONE OF
MANY POUNDINGS.
POWERFUL WAVES DESTROYED THE
RAIL LINE AT DAWLISH AND
LANDSLIDES BLOCKED THE TRACK.

Steve says IT'S THE MAIN
INFRASTRUCTURE OF RAILWAY INTO
SOUTHERN DEVON AND INTO ALL OF
CORNWALL.
THAT'S FOR FREIGHT TRAFFIC AND
ALSO PASSENGER TRAFFIC.
SO, IT IS KEY AND IMPERATIVE
THAT WE KEEP THAT TRAFFIC
RUNNING DAILY FOR OUR CUSTOMERS.

The Narrator says ALTHOUGH SEA WALLS, TUNNELS
AND ROCK ARMOUR HAVE BEEN USED
TO PROTECT HIS LINE, MORE THAN
150 YEARS ON, IT'S A CONSTANT
BATTLE FOR ENGINEERS TO KEEP
BRUNEL'S IMPOSSIBLE RAILWAY
RUNNING.

Tim gives instructions to two male workers by tracks along a shoreline.

Tim says BASED ON RECENT INSPECTIONS,
WE'VE NOTICED THAT THERE'S SOME
DEGRADATION OF THE NETTING
SYSTEM.
SO, WHAT WE'D LIKE YOU TO DO
TODAY IS JUST CHECK FOR ANY
CARPENTRY FAILURE, MAKE SURE
THAT IT'S STILL FIT FOR PURPOSE.

The Narrator says IT'S DOWN TO 21 CENTURY
ENGINEERS TO KEEP BRUNEL'S 19TH
CENTURY DREAM ALIVE.

Back in the helicopter, Steve says THERE ARE SIX DIFFERENT TYPES
OF MESH SYSTEMS OR STRUCTURES IN
PLACE TO STOP ANY LANDSLIPS
LANDING ON THE TRACK AND
DERAILING TRAINS.

A man says THIS IS THE PROBLEM AREA,
THIS IS ALL COVERED UP.

A caption reads "Tim Laverye. Route Assistant Manager. Network Rail." Tim is in his mid-forties, clean-shaven with short hair. He wears a white helmet, sunglasses, a checked white and blue shirt and an orange safety vest.

Tim says ROCK ANCHORS HAVE BEEN
PUT INTO THE CLIFF FACE AND THE
NETTING SURROUNDS THE SLOPE
AROUND IT TO BASICALLY HOLD THE
SLOPE IN PLACE.

A male voice says YEAH, IT'S PULLED
THE EDGES APART THERE
AS WELL, HASN'T IT
STICHING'S GONE.

The Narrator says WITH A WIRE NETTING COMBINED
WITH BARRIERS AND MOTION
DETECTORS FORM AN ENGINEERING
SOLUTION THAT MEANS ISAMBARD
KINGDOM BRUNEL'S VICTORIAN
VISION STILL PLAYS A VITAL ROLE
IN BRITAIN'S MODERN RAIL
NETWORK.
BUT FURTHER DOWN THE COAST, THE
EMPHASIS IS ON RUNNING ANOTHER
EXTRAORDINARY SECTION OF
BRUNEL'S LINE, IN A WAY THAT HE
MAY HAVE FOUND MORE FAMILIAR.

(train whistle blowing)
A train crosses the woods.

The Narrator says HAVING CONQUERED THE WATER
WORLD FOR HIS SOUTH DEVON
MAIN LINE, BRUNEL TRIED THE
SAME AGAIN WITH AN AMBITIOUS
BRANCH LINE.

An animated map shows a red dotted line joining two cities.

The Narrator says THE DARTMOUTH STEAM RAILWAY WAS
DESIGNED IN 1857, AND NOW RUNS
FROM SEASIDE PAIGNTON TO
KINGSWEAR AND HISTORIC NATURAL
HARBOUR OF DARTMOUTH.

Men work in the tracks.

Man 1 says CLEAR.

Man 2 says EVERYTHING OUT?

Man 3 says YEAH.

The Narrator says TODAY, IT'S RUN AS A HERITAGE
LINE...

A fireman says THERE'S QUITE A...
QUITE AN ART TO CONTROLLING A
STEAM ENGINE.

(train whistle blowing)
The fireman shovels coal into the fire box of a steam powered locomotive.

The Narrator says PRESERVING ANOTHER SECTION
OF BRUNEL'S IMPOSSIBLE RAILWAY.

A blond middle-aged man says THIS IS ONE OF THE MAJOR
ISSUES FOR US, HUGGING COASTLINE
AS WE DO.
AS YOU CAN SEE, WE'RE RIGHT NEXT
TO THE SEA HERE.
THE CLIFF FACE IS WHAT?
15 FEET AWAY?
SO, THIS GETS THE RAVAGES OF THE
WINTER.

A male train driver wearing a blue shirt says WEATHER CONDITIONS DO HAVE AN
EFFECT ON DRIVING TECHNIQUES.

The Narrator says WHEN DESIGNING THE ROUTE,
BRUNEL HAD A SCHEME TO AT
LEAST MAKE LIFE EASIER FOR
HIMSELF BY THE DART ESTUARY.

The middle-aged blond man stands in a vast open green land.

He says ORIGINALLY, BRUNEL WAS GOING
TO BRING THE RAILWAY ACROSS
HERE-- THIS IS A GREENWAY-- AND
GO DOWN THE RIVER.
AND YOU CAN SEE THERE'S AN INLET
AND THAT'S ACTUALLY OLD MILL
CREEK.
A VIADUCT THERE.
AND WHERE YOU CAN SEE, IN THE
FAR DISTANCE, A NAVAL SHIP, THAT
WOULD HAVE THEN TAKEN THE TRACK
INTO DARTMOUTH.

The Narrator says HOWEVER, BRUNEL'S PLANS WERE
THWARTED WHEN HE WASN'T ALLOWED
TO BRIDGE THE RIVER, RESULTING
IN ONE OF THE RAILWAY WORLD'S
MOST BIZARRE HONOURS.

A vessel arrives at a pier.

The middle-aged blond man says BRUNEL ACTUALLY DESIGNED AND
BUILT THE STATION DOWN AT
DARTMOUTH AND IT'S ACTUALLY IN
THE
GUINNESS BOOK OF RECORDS
BECAUSE IT'S THE ONLY STATION
THAT'S NEVER HAD A TRAIN CALL
UPON IT, BECAUSE, IN FACT, THEY
BUILT THAT BEFORE THEY GOT THE
PERMISSION FOR THE LINE.
CONSEQUENTLY, THERE WAS A FULL
WAITING ROOM TO GET OFFICE
ACTUALLY ON THE DARTMOUTH SIDE.
INSTEAD, HE WAS FORCED TO COME
DOWN THIS SIDE.

The Narrator says BRUNEL WOULD HAVE TO TAME THE
AREA'S NATURAL OBSTACLES.
FIRST, DIGGING THROUGH THE
HILLS WITH A 450 METRE LONG
TUNNEL.
AND THEN, BUILDING AN EPIC
STONE VIADUCT OF THE SAME
LENGTH OVER THE VALLEY.

The train driver wearing a blue shirt says WE CONSIDER OURSELVES VERY
LUCKY ON THIS RAILWAY.
WE DO HAVE SOME RATHER
MARVELLOUS SCENERY.

The middle-aged blond man says IN ENGINEERING CHALLENGES, TO
GET THE MATERIALS TO SITE TO
BUILD THAT VIADUCT IS QUITE
PHENOMENAL.
IT REALLY IS THE BACK OF
NOWHERE.
SO, YEAH, HUGE AMOUNT OF WORK
WENT IN JUST TO BUILD THAT ONE
VIADUCT.

The Narrator says ONE OF BRUNEL'S BIGGEST
CHALLENGES, HOWEVER, IS
VIRTUALLY INVISIBLE.

Tourists relax on a beach.

Steve says BEFORE THE RAILWAY
CAME, THIS WHOLE AREA AROUND
GOODRINGTON WOULD HAVE BEEN A
SALT MARSH.
GOODRINGTON BEACH, AS WE SEE
TODAY, IT'S NOT THERE.
THIS WHOLE AREA, LEADING ABOUT
HALF A MILE UP INLAND, WAS A
COMPLETE SALT MARSH.

The Narrator says THE DEEP, SOFT MARSH WOULD
SWALLOW UP ANY TRACKS OR TRAINS
LAID ACROSS IT.

Steve says THEY HAD TO BUILD AN
EMBANKMENT.
FORTUNATELY, THERE WAS A HUGE
AMOUNT OF SPOIL AVAILABLE.
BUT, AS THEY WERE PUTTING IN TO
MAKE THIS EMBANKMENT, IT WAS
JUST DISAPPEARING DOWN INTO THE
SALT MARSH.

The Narrator says BRUNEL'S SOLUTION WAS TO RUN
DRAINAGE PIPES BELOW THE MARSH.

Standing by train tracks, Steve says UNDERNEATH THIS WHOLE VALLEY
THERE IS STILL BRUNEL'S ORIGINAL
PIPEWORK DRAINING THE VALLEY, AS
IT HAS SINCE 1860.

The Narrator says AND AS A WELCOME BY-PRODUCT,
THE WORK'S CREATED ONE OF THE
REGION'S MOST POPULAR BEACHES.

Steve says SO, MR. BRUNEL,
CONGRATULATIONS.

The Narrator says THE LINE BECAME FULLY
OPERATIONAL IN 1864, AND NEARLY
160 YEARS ON, DESPITE THE
CONDITIONS, BRUNEL'S PERHAPS
MOST PICTURESQUE OF ENGINEERING
ACHIEVEMENTS IS STILL GOING
STRONG.

The middle-aged blond man says IT IS STUNNINGLY BEAUTIFUL.
I'M VERY BIASED, BUT WHEN YOU GO
FROM THE COAST INTO THE INLAND
RIVER OF THE RIVER DART, WHICH
IS COMPLETELY UNSPOILED, IT IS
ONE OF THE MOST BEAUTIFUL
PLACES.

The fireman says I LIKE THE FACT THAT WE'RE
BASICALLY LIVING HISTORY.
STEAM ENGINES HAVE BEEN AROUND
FOR 150-160 ODD YEARS.

The train driver wearing a blue shirt says WE'RE KEEPING BITS OF HISTORY
ALIVE.

The Narrator says SOME OF OUR
GREATEST WATERWAYS INSPIRE
UNIQUE ENGINEERING
SOLUTIONS...

A man wearing a hat says THIS IS THE MOST STRANGE
RAILWAY IN THE WORLD.
THIS IS NOT FOR ANY KIND OF
TRAIN.

The Narrator says IN ORDER TO CREATE MORE
IMPOSSIBLE RAILWAYS.
RAILWAYS ARE TAKING ON THE
WATER.
INSPIRED ENGINEERING, REVEALING
SOME OF NATURE'S BEST KEPT
SECRETS.

The train driver wearing a blue shirt says WE CONSIDER OURSELVES VERY
LUCKY ON THIS RAILWAY.
WE DO HAVE SOME RATHER
MARVELLOUS SCENERY.

The Narrator says BUT SOME WATER WORLD RAILWAYS
TEST EVEN THE MOST SEASONED OF
ENGINEERS.
ON THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF
BRITAIN, ISAMBARD KINGDOM
BRUNEL'S ENGINEERING INGENUITY
HAD CONQUERED MUCH OF THIS
IMPOSSIBLE WATER WORLD.
(train whistle blowing)
BUT ONE MAJOR OBSTACLE STILL
STOOD IN HIS WAY.
IF HE WAS TO TAKE HIS RAILWAY
INTO ENGLAND'S MOST WESTERLY
COUNTY OF CORNWALL, HE WOULD
HAVE TO CROSS THE RIVER TAMAR.
ENGINEER PETER COOK HAS WORKED
AT THE SITE OF BRUNEL'S
PROPOSED BRIDGE FOR THE PAST
FIVE YEARS.

Peter is in his fifties, clean-shaven with graying hair. He wears a blue jacket under a green lifejacket.

Standing in a boat, Peter says BRUNEL'S JOB AND CHALLENGE
WAS TO GET THE GREAT WESTERN
RAILWAY FROM DEVON OVER THE
TAMAR ESTUARY TO CORNWALL.

The Narrator says NOT ONLY IS THE TAMAR A WIDE
AND DEEP WATERWAY, BUT IT WAS
AND STILL IS A VITAL
THOROUGHFARE FOR THE ROYAL
NAVY'S PLYMOUTH BASED FLEET.

Peter says THEY COULDN'T PUT NUMEROUS
PIERS ACROSS THE RIVER BECAUSE
THAT WOULD INHIBIT ACCESS FOR
THE NAVY AT THE TIME, AS THEY
INSISTED THAT THEY NEEDED A 100
FOOT CLEARANCE FOR THEIR TALLEST
SHIP TO PASS UNDER THE
STRUCTURE.
NOW, AT THE TIME, TECHNOLOGY
WEREN'T AVAILABLE TO GENERATE,
AS WE KNOW IT, A TRADITIONAL
SUSPENSION BRIDGE, DUE TO THE
ANCHORAGES, WHAT WOULD BE
REQUIRED.
THE TECHNOLOGY JUST WASN'T
THERE.
SO, HIS SOLUTION WAS THE BUILD
THIS.
SUPERB.
I'VE WORKED ON THIS STRUCTURE
FOR OVER FIVE YEARS.
I KNOW EVERY NUT AND BOLT ON IT.
IT LOOKS WONDERFUL.

A magnificent white bridge appears.

The Narrator The Narrator says COMPLETED IN 1859,
THE ROYAL ALBERT BRIDGE WAS
ISAMBARD KINGDOM BRUNEL'S LAST
GREAT ACHIEVEMENT.
A SINGLE MIDSTREAM PIER
SUPPORTS TWO SPANS OF 139
METRES EACH.
BOTH CROWNED WITH GIANT
WROUGHT IRON TUBULAR ARCHES.
IT'S A DESIGN UNIQUE TO THE
WORLD.

Peter says IF YOU CAN IMAGINE THAT EACH
SPAN WERE BUILT INDIVIDUALLY...
THE DEVON SPAN WERE BUILT ON THE
DEVON SHORELINE, THE CORNWALL
SPAN WAS BUILT ON THE CORNISH
SHORELINE-- AND THEN FLOATED IN
POSITION ON BARGES.
YOU CAN IMAGINE IN THE 1850'S...
THERE'S NO DIESEL ENGINES OR
SUCH, ALL ROPES, STEAM POWER...
WHAT A FEAT OF ENGINEERING.
IT'S THE BEST BRIDGE IN THE
WORLD.

The Narrator says AND IT CONTAINS VERY CLEVER
AND INNOVATIVE DESIGN FEATURES
TO GET OVER ALL THE CHALLENGES
THAT THE ESTUARY AND THE NAVY
PRESENTED.
IN FACT, IT HAS BEEN DESCRIBED
AS THREE BRIDGE DESIGNS IN ONE,
NONE OF WHICH WOULD WORK
WITHOUT THE OTHERS.
WITH A TRADITIONAL SUSPENSION
BRIDGE, THE LOAD FROM THE
BRIDGE DECK IS TRANSFERRED
THROUGH THE CHAINS AND
VERTICALLY DOWN THE PIERS
INTO THE BEDROCK BELOW.

Now, Peter stands by a scale model of the bridge.

Peter says ONE OF THE REASONS WHY ROYAL
ALBERT BRIDGE WAS NEVER A
TRADITIONAL SUSPENSION BRIDGE,
IN 1850'S, WE DIDN'T HAVE THE
TECHNOLOGIES TO INSERT SUITABLE
GROUND ANCHORS TO FORM A
TRADITIONAL SUSPENSION BRIDGE.
SO, THEREFORE IS LEFT WITH A
VERY UNSTABLE STRUCTURE, AS YOU
CAN SEE.

He bends the tops of the bridge.

He continues SO, IF YOU CAN IMAGINE LOAD
IMPOSED ONTO THE DECK, THE PIERS
WOULD JUST BEND.
CATASTROPHE.
SO, TO COUNTERACT THAT, MR.
BRUNEL, IN HIS WISDOM, INSERTED
A BOLT AT THE TOP.
NOW, THIS DOES INCREASE
STABILITY.
THE PIERS ARE NOW MUCH MORE
SOLID.
ALTHOUGH, THE LATERAL MOVEMENT
IS STILL THE SAME, WHICH IS
UNSUITABLE FOR PASSAGE OF
TRAINS.
SO, TO COUNTERACT THAT, MR.
BRUNEL INSERTED, ON THE ROYAL
ALBERT BRIDGE, VERTICAL HANGERS
CONNECTING THE TOP TRUSS TO THE
LOWER SECTIONS OF THE BRIDGE.

He adds orange bars to the side of the bride.

He continues ALREADY THIS STRUCTURE'S
STIFFENING UP SIGNIFICANTLY.
BEAR IN MIND, ALL THIS IS
HAPPENING IN 1850, WHICH IS A
MARVELLOUS FEAT OF ENGINEERING,
TO SAY THE LEAST.
IT'D BE A MAJOR PROJECT IN
TODAY'S TIMES.
ON THE ROYAL ALBERT BRIDGE
ITSELF, THERE'S 11 OF THESE
HANGERS ON EACH MAIN SPAN.
YOU CAN IMAGINE LITTLE TRAIN
COMES ALONG, THE LOAD IMPOSED BY
THAT IS DISTRIBUTED BY THE
BOLSTERING TRUSS ALONG THIS BOW
AND THEN DOWN EACH PIER,
ENABLING SAFE PASSENGER TRAINS
FOR THE LAST 150 YEARS.
BRILLIANT STRUCTURE.
UNIQUE.

The Narrator says DESPITE VIRTUALLY
BEING ON HIS DEATHBED, BRUNEL
INSISTED ON CROSSING HIS FINAL
MASTERPIECE HIMSELF.
IN MAY OF 1859, HE LAY ON A
SPECIALLY DESIGNED OPEN WAGON
AS IT CARRIED HIM ACROSS THE
BRIDGE.
HE DIED JUST FOUR MONTHS LATER.

Peter says I'VE WORKED ON THE BRIDGE FOR
FIVE YEARS, BUT FUNNILY ENOUGH,
THIS IS THE FIRST TIME I'VE EVER
BEEN ON A TRAIN ACROSS THE
STRUCTURE.
QUITE EXCITING, REALLY.

The Narrator says 150 YEARS ON, IT IS STILL
ACHIEVING THE IMPOSSIBLE.

Peter says ISAMBARD KINGDOM BRUNEL,
ARGUABLY, HIS FINEST STRUCTURE
EVER BUILT.
I LOVE THIS BRIDGE.
IT'S BRILLIANT.
IT'S THE BEST STRUCTURE IN THE
WORLD.
UNIQUE.

The Narrator says DARING ENGINEERS
ARE BUILDING THEIR RAILWAY
ACROSS CHALLENGING WATERWAYS.
BUT THERE ARE SOME WATER WORLD
RAILWAYS THAT DEFY EXPECTATION.
EXPERT CHRISTOF KOVALCHEK IS IN
REMOTE NORTHERN POLAND, WHERE
IN THE MID 1800'S, ENGINEERS
DECIDED TO BUILD A SERIES OF
CANALS TO JOIN THE SEAPORT OF
ELBLAG WITH THE RICH TIMBER
REGION OF OSTRÓDA.

Christof walks in the woods. He is in his fifties, with a beard and short hair. He wears a hat and a red shirt.

Christof says SINCE THE 16TH CENTURY, TREES
FROM THIS AREA WAS VERY
EXPENSIVE BECAUSE THERE WAS THE
BEST RAW MATERIAL FOR THE MAST
TO THE SHIPS.

The Narrator says BUT STANDING IN THE WAY WAS A
TEN KILOMETRE UPHILL STRETCH, A
TOTAL RISE OF 100 METRES.

Sunrise reflects on a calm lake.

Christof says ON THIS DISTANCE, ON THIS
DIFFERENCE OF LEVEL, THE LOCHS
WAS IMPOSSIBLE BECAUSE THERE
WERE 32 LOCHS ON THE DISTANCE OF
TEN KILOMETRES, LOCHS TAKE TOO
MUCH WATER AND THERE WAS TOO
MANY LOCHS.

A black and white drawing of an old man with a big moustache appears.

The Narrator says IT WAS DOWN TO PRUSSIAN
ENGINEER GEORG JACOB STEENKE TO
FIND AN ANSWER TO THIS
SEEMINGLY IMPOSSIBLE PROBLEM.
AND TODAY, 150 YEARS LATER,
SKIPPER BARTEK IS ABOUT TO FACE
THE OBSTACLE THAT STOOD IN HIS
WAY...

Bartek speaks in other language. He is in his mid-twenties, with blond hair and a short beard. He wears a white navy shirt.

Bartek says WE ARE GETTING CLOSER.
WE HAVE TO BE CAREFUL HERE,
BECAUSE IT IS VERY NARROW.

The Narrator says AND STEENKE'S EXTRAORDINARY
SOLUTION.

Christof says IT IS THE MOST
STRANGE RAILWAY IN THE WORLD.
THIS IS NOT FOR ANY KIND OF
TRAIN.
THIS IS FOR BOAT OR SHIPS.
IT'S ONLY ONE WORKING IN THE
WORLD SYSTEM LIKE THIS.

Bartek says NOW WE ARE RIDING, NOT FLOATING,
RIDING.

The Narrator says GEORG STEENKE CREATED A
RAILWAY CAPABLE OF LIFTING
BOATS OUT OF THE WATER AND
CARRYING THEM UP AND DOWN
HILLS.

Bartek says THE WAGON WILL TRANSPORT US
TO THE OTHER SIDE OF THE HILL.

The Narrator says THERE ARE TWO PARALLEL SETS OF
TRACK, EACH WITH A WAGON
CAPABLE OF HOLDING A 30 METRE
LONG VESSEL.
THE TWO CARRIAGES ARE CONNECTED
BY A LOOPED STEEL CABLE.

Bartek says THIS WAGON WEIGHTS 20 TONNES.

Christof says THIS CABLE IS, YOU CAN SEE,
HAVE TO BE VERY STRONG TO PULL A
CARRIAGE WITH A SHIP, WHICH IS
WEIGHED ABOUT 50 TONNES.
IT'S A LOT.
THIS AMAZING SOLUTION TO CONNECT
THESE CANALS, THERE WAS JUST
SLIPWAY, SLIPWAY LIKE THIS, WITH
DRY HILLS.
THERE IS ONE CANAL, ANOTHER ONE
CANAL IS ABOUT 20 METRES LOWER
AND THAT WAS THE GREAT SOLUTION.

The Narrator says FIVE OF THESE BOAT RAILWAYS
SIT ALONG THE TEN KILOMETRE
JOURNEY, LIFTING THE BOATS IN A
SERIES OF STEPS TO THE SUMMIT.

People board the ship.

Christof says WHEN THE SHIP
COMING ON THE CARRIAGE AND
CONNECT TO THE CARRIAGE, THE MEN
FROM THE SHIP IS COMING AND RING
THE BELL, SO OPERATOR KNOW THAT
HE IS READY.
WHEN HE'S READY AND EVERYTHING
IS OKAY, OPERATOR GIVING THE
SIGNAL WITH THE BELL TO THE
OPERATOR IN THE MACHINE PLACE.

(bell ringing)

The Narrator says AND IT'S NO ORDINARY MACHINE.

A red waterwheel stars to pump water.

Christof says THAT'S WATERWHEEL.
THAT'S ENGINE, THAT'S GIVING THE
POWER FOR ALL THE SYSTEMS FOR
PULLING THE SHIPS, (UNCLEAR)
SHIPS, 20 METRES UP TO THE NEXT
CANAL.

The Narrator says CLEVERLY, STEENKE'S RAILWAY
HARNESSED THE MASSIVE POTENTIAL
ENERGY OF WATERWAYS THEMSELVES.

Christof says YOU CAN FEEL THE VIBRATION,
HOW IT'S WORKING.
IT'S AMAZING THIS BUILDING STILL
EXISTS, IT'S NOT DESTROYED BY
THE VIBRATION.

Christof stands close to the wheel and says YOU SEE, IN ONE OF THESE WINGS
IS THE CAPACITY ABOUT ONE TON OF
WATER.
SO, IN ONE MOMENT, THREE ARE
FULL.
SO, THREE TONS OF WATER IS
TURNING THIS WHEEL.
WHEEL IS ABOUT EIGHT METRE
DIMENSION.
IT'S MORE THAN FOUR METRES WIDE.
YOU NEVER SAW A BIGGER
WATERWHEEL THAN THIS.
(thudding)

The Narrator says THE WHEEL IS USED TO WIND THE
MASSIVE LIFTING CABLE.

Inside the waterwheel, Christof says THIS IS THE HEART OF
THE SYSTEM.
YOU CAN SEE THIS DRUM
WITH THE LINE, THIS IS
ONE LINE.
EVERYTHING WORKING WITH THE
POWER OF WATER.
MIRACLE!
THAT'S AMAZING!

The Narrator says EACH WAGON IS COUNTERBALANCED
BY ANOTHER TRAVELLING
SIMULTANEOUSLY IN THE OTHER
DIRECTION.
Driving the boat, Bartek says WE ARE READY
TO GO OVER THE HILL NOW.

The Narrator says THIS INGENIOUS SYSTEM CAN
TRANSPORT SKIPPER BARTEK AND
HIS BOAT OVER EACH OF THE FIVE
INCLINES IN ONLY 30 MINUTES.

(soft music plays)
Old pictures of the train/wagon system appear.

The Narrator says FROM ITS OPENING IN 1860,
THE INCLINE LIFT SYSTEM
TRANSFORMED THE REGION.
IT WAS NOW FIVE TIMES QUICKER
TO TRANSPORT TIMBER TO THE
COAST AND THE ELBLAG CANAL
BECAME ONE OF THE LONGEST TRADE
ROUTES IN POLAND.
AS THE ROAD NETWORK GREW
HOWEVER, IT FELL FROM FAVOUR,
UNTIL ONE FORWARD-THINKING MAN
INTERVENED.

Christof says HE'S NAMED ADOLF TESLA.
ADOLF TESLA HAD EIGHT CHILDREN
WITH FIRST WIFE.
WITH SECOND WIFE, HE HAD ALSO
EIGHT CHILDREN.
HE HAVE TO FIND IDEA HOW TO EARN
MONEY.
HE FOUND IDEA TO BRING THE
TOURISTS ON THE SHIPS.
AND HE REBUILT ONE SHIP FOR
TOURISTS AND START TO TRANSPORT
TOURISTS ON CANAL, AND IT WAS
VERY GOOD IDEA.

The Narrator says TODAY, TENS OF THOUSANDS OF
TOURISTS EVERY YEAR RIDE GEORG
STEENKE'S IMPOSSIBLE BOAT
RAILWAY.

Christof says GEORG JACOB STEENKE, THANKS
HIM, WE HAVE THIS ORIGINAL.
IT'S ABSOLUTELY AMAZING BECAUSE
IT'S ONE IN THE WORLD AND IT'S
STILL WORKING.

The Narrator says BUT THERE ARE SOME
WATERY ENVIRONMENTS WHERE FEW
RAIL ENGINEERS DARE TO TREAD.

Atsushi says CRUCIALLY, WE ARE CLOSE
TO
BIG FAULT LINE
SO EARTHQUAKES ARE COMMON.

The Narrator says CALLING FOR EVEN MORE
IMPOSSIBLE RAILWAYS.
WATER WORLDS PUSH RAILWAYS TO
THEIR LIMITS, OVERCOMING THE
ELEMENTS, CHALLENGING
ENGINEERING'S GREATEST MINDS.

Peter says WHAT A FEAT OF ENGINEERING.
IT'S THE BEST BRIDGE IN THE
WORLD.

The Narrator says AND THERE ARE SOME RAILWAYS
THAT FACE THE BIG BLUE HEAD ON.
RAILWAY ENGINEERS CAN TUNNEL
THROUGH PRETTY MUCH
ANYTHING...
NO MATTER WHAT'S ABOVE, HOW
MUCH ROOM THERE IS OR EVEN WHAT
LIES OUTSIDE, AS LONG AS
NOTHING MOVES.

The animated train travels underground tunneling its way through.

The Narrator says IT'S A PROBLEM THAT FACED
ISTANBUL IN TURKEY.
THIS ANCIENT METROPOLIS LIES IN
BOTH ASIA AND EUROPE.
BUT IT'S SPLIT IN HALF BY THE
MIGHTY BOSPORUS STRAIT.

An aerial view of the Bosporus strait appears.

The Narrator says FOR THE CITY'S 15 MILLION
INHABITANTS, THIS VAST WATERWAY
POSES A PROBLEM.

Vehicles cross an impressive bridge.

Atsushi walks by a river. He is in his early fifties, clean-shaven with dark hair. He wears glasses, a white open-necked shirt and a gray jacket.

Atsushi says CROSSING BETWEEN THE
TWO PARTS OF THIS CITY
HAS ALWAYS BEEN A PROBLEM.
THE BRIDGES JUST CAN'T COPE
WITH THE VOLUME OF THE TRAFFIC
SO IT'S ALWAYS CONGESTED.

The Narrator says A RAIL TUNNEL TO CONNECT THE
CITY AND EASE THE TRAFFIC HAS
LONG BEEN A DREAM.
BUT AS ENGINEER ATSUSHI
NISHIKORI KNOWS BUILDING UNDER
THIS STRETCH OF WATER IS ABOUT
AS CHALLENGING AS IT GETS.

Atsushi says THE WATER HERE IS VERY DEEP.
61 METRES.
THERE'S STRONG CURRENTS
IN BOTH DIRECTIONS
AN EARTHQUAKE COULD.
THERE IS A CONSTANT
FLOW OF SHIPS TO DEAL WITH.

The Narrator says BUT THERE'S ONE PROBLEM THAT
MAKES THIS UNDERWATER RAILWAY
CHALLENGE A SEEMINGLY
IMPOSSIBLE ONE.

Atsushi says CRUCIALLY, WE ARE CLOSE
TO BIG FAULT LINE
SO EARTHQUAKES ARE COMMON.

A clip shows demolished houses.

The Narrator says BORING A TUNNEL IN A SEISMIC
ZONE WOULD BE OUT OF THE
QUESTION.
ADDED TO THAT, THE DEEP, FAST
FLOWING WATER MEANT THAT THERE
WAS ONLY ONE SOLUTION.

Atsushi says WE KNEW WE
HAD TO USE AN IMMERSED
TUBE TUNNEL HERE.
IT'S THE ONLY METHOD
THAT CAN COPE WITH BOTH
THE DEEP WATER
AND EARTHQUAKE CONDITIONS.

The Narrator says THE MARMARAY TUNNEL WOULD NEED
TO BE THE DEEPEST IMMERSED TUBE
TUNNEL IN THE WORLD.
A 1.4 KILOMETRE LONG SERIES OF
PREMADE CONCRETE AND STEEL
TUBES RUNNING UNDER THE
BOSPORUS STRAIT, SUNK TO DEPTHS
NEVER BEFORE ATTEMPTED.

Atsushi says THIS METHOD
IS NORMALLY USED ONLY
IN UP TO 60 METRES OF WATER...
AND WE WERE TRYING TO GO TO
61 METRES.
SO WE WERE PUSHING
DEEPER
THAN ANYBODY
HAD GONE BEFORE.

The Narrator says EACH TUNNEL SECTION IS FLOATED
INTO POSITION, THEN SUNK AND
THEN CONNECTED TO THE OTHERS.

An animation shows the process explained. Then, people get into the metro.

The Narrator says A CLEVER SOLUTION FOR THE
CONSTRUCTION.
BUT WHEN FINISHED IN 2013, THIS
SUB-AQUA RAILWAY WOULD STILL BE
IN CONSTANT DANGER FROM
EARTHQUAKES.

Atsushi says AN EARTHQUAKE COULD CAUSE
A MAJOR DISASTER.
ANY SMALL SPLIT IN
THE TUNNEL
COULD CAUSE
A MASSIVE FLOOD
THAT COULD TOTALLY
DESTROY IT.

The Narrator says IZZET YUKSEL MUST CONSTANTLY
MONITOR A SERIES OF
CUTTING-EDGE ENGINEERING
SOLUTIONS INCORPORATED TO KEEP
THE RAILWAY SAFE.

Izzet stands in a metro tunnel. He is in his late forties, with a black moustache and short graying hair. He wears glasses, a blue cap, white shirt, patterned tie, gray sweater and yellow and gray safety vest.

Izzet says OUR TUNNEL IS
WELL EQUIPPED TO DEAL
WITH BIG EARTHQUAKES.
WE'VE GOT LOTS OF
SEISMIC SENSORS
ALL THROUGH THE TWO
TUNNEL SECTIONS
AND THAT COMPUTER
GIVES DECISION
WHETHER TO CONTINUE THE OPERATION
OR MAKE ALL THE PASSENGERS
AND STAFF GO OUT OF THE TUNNEL.

The Narrator says BUT SHOULD AN EARTHQUAKE HIT,
THE TUNNEL IS WELL PREPARED.

Izzet says NOW, WE HAVE GOT
GASKETS IN BETWEEN EACH
TUBE SECTIONS.
IN FACT, THIS IS ONE
OF THOSE POINTS
AND WITH THOSE GASKETS
OUR TUBE SECTION
IS FLEXIBLE
FOR EARTHQUAKE
IN ISTAMBUL.

The Narrator says EACH OF THE 11 TUBE SECTIONS IS
CONNECTED ON THE SEABED WITH A
STEEL AND RUBBER GASKET.
IF AN EARTHQUAKE STRIKES, THE
TUNNEL CAN FLEX AND BEND
WITHOUT BREAKING.
THIS FLEXIBLE TUNNEL IS CRUCIAL
TO THE PROJECT'S SUCCESS.
SHOULD THE WORST HAPPEN,
HOWEVER, HIGH POWERED PUMPS
KICK INTO ACTION.
AND THERE'S ONE FINAL LINE OF
DEFENCE-- THE MARMARAY'S MIGHTY
FLOODGATES.

Izzet says TOTALLY, WE HAVE GOT
FOUR FLOODGATES,
TWO IN SIRKECI AND TWO
IN USKADAR STATIONS.
THEY ARE HUGE FLOODGATES.
THEY ARE STEEL CONSTRUCTIONS
AND FOR EACH SQUARE
CENTIMETRE
THEY CAN ENDURE ONE TONNE
OF WATER PRESSURE.

A close-up of the yellow steel floodgates appears.

He continues IT'S VERY EASY
TO CLOSE THE GATES
IF THERE ARE NO TRAINS.
BUT IF THERE IS A TRAIN
THEN SOME CLOSING
PROCEDURES COME
INTO ACCOUNT.
THEY ARE DEFINITELY THE
LAST LINE OF DEFENCE FOR WATER.

The Narrator says THROUGH DARING ENGINEERING, THE
TEAM IN ISTANBUL HAVE CREATED
AN EARTHQUAKE DEFYING
UNDERWATER RAILWAY, ENABLING
TRAVEL ACROSS THE CITY AND
BEYOND.

Atsushi gets into the metro.

Atsushi says TO BUILD A TUNNEL
UNDER THE BOSPHORUS,
WE CHALLENGED MANY ISSUES.
THEN FINISHED THE PROJECT
SUCCESFULLY.
THIS IS THE FIRST
UNDERWATER TRAIN TUNNEL
IN THE WORLD
BETWEEN THE CONTINENTS.
SO WE ARE VERY PROUD
OF THIS ACHIEVEMENT.
IN FUTURE, I WANT TO COME BACK
TO ISTANBUL
AND TO GET ON THE MARMARAY
AND THEN TRAVEL UNDERWATER
ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD.

The Narrator says ENGINEERS HAVE TAKEN RAILWAY
SOLUTIONS TO NEW DEPTHS.
BUT BRIDGING SOME TROUBLED
WATERS IS A SEEMINGLY
IMPOSSIBLE TASK.
THE PALK STRAIT, PART OF THE
MIGHTY INDIAN OCEAN THAT RUNS
BETWEEN SOUTHERN INDIA AND SRI
LANKA.
ALMOST 150 KILOMETRES ACROSS AT
ITS WIDEST POINT, IT'S PEPPERED
WITH TINY ISLANDS.
AND CONNECTING TO ONE OF THOSE
ISLANDS...
IS THE ICONIC PAMBAN RAIL
BRIDGE.

(train horn sounding)

The caption changes to "Roma Agrawal. Structural Engineer." Roma is in her mid-thirties, with shoulder-length black hair. She wears a blue blouse and long earrings.

Roma stands in a room with a library in the back.

Roma says THIS WAS INDIA'S FIRST SEA
BRIDGE, AND IT'S STILL QUEEN OF
INDIAN BRIDGES.

The Narrator says OPENED IN 1914, THIS TWO
KILOMETRE CANTILEVER CROSSING
CONNECTS MANDAPAM ON THE INDIAN
MAINLAND WITH THE ISLAND OF
PAMBAN.

Roma says THE PAMBAN BRIDGE IS THIS
IMMENSE STRUCTURE THAT REALLY
HELPED EASE THE JOURNEY BETWEEN
INDIA AND SRI LANKA, WHICH UNTIL
THEN HAD BEEN A GRUELLING
JOURNEY BY BOAT.

A stunning white temple rises behind a crowded shoreline.

The Narrator says NOT ONLY IS PAMBAN A STEPPING
STONE TO SRI LANKA, IT'S HOME
TO A PROMINENT HINDU TEMPLE.
SO, CREATING A PERMANENT LINK
WAS CRUCIAL, ALTHOUGH FAR FROM
EASY.

Roma says THE PAMBAN BRIDGE IS A
REAL FEAT OF ENGINEERING.
SO, FIRST OF ALL, IT HAD TO
COVER A HUGE DISTANCE OF OVER
TWO KILOMETRES.
THEN, IT WAS BUILT OVER THE SEA
AND THE SEA CAN BE ROUGH,
UNPREDICTABLE, AND IT'S AN
INCREDIBLY CORROSIVE
ENVIRONMENT.
BUT ADD TO THAT THE FACT THAT
IT'S ACTUALLY A WINDY
ENVIRONMENT, WHICH IS PRONE TO
CYCLONES.

A black and white portrait of a military man appears.

The Narrator says IN 1911, IT WAS MR. JT LEWIS,
CHIEF ENGINEER OF THE SOUTHERN
INDIAN RAILWAY WHO TOOK THE
JOB.
AND WITH A SEABED OF UNSTABLE
REEFS, HE OPTED FOR A LIGHT,
MULTI SPAN STEEL BRIDGE.
ALL 45 DECK GIRDERS WERE
DELIVERED PREMADE AND FLOATED
INTO POSITION, THEN LIFTED ONTO
THE MASONRY PIERS.
AND TO AVOID BLOCKING THE
CHANNEL TO SHIPPING, HE
INSTALLED A RATHER CUNNING LIFT
BRIDGE.

Roma says SO, THEN LIFT BRIDGE, WHICH
IS ALSO CALLED THE SCHERZER
BRIDGE, IS A DOUBLE-LEAF BASCULE
BRIDGE.
AND IF YOU IMAGINE IF YOU'RE
SITTING ON A ROCKING HORSE AND
YOU LEAN BACKWARDS, THAT THE
FRONT OF THE HORSE ACTUALLY
LIFTS UP, AND IT'S THE SAME
PRINCIPLE THAT'S APPLIED TO
LIFTING UP THESE BITS OF THE
BRIDGE.

The Narrator says EACH BRIDGE LEAF IS WOUND
OPEN WITH A SYSTEM OF
COUNTERWEIGHTS.
AS ITS WOUND, IT ROLLS BACK ON
ITS CURVED BASE, LETTING THE
WEIGHTS TAKE OVER, OPENING THE
BRIDGE TO LET SHIPS PASS.
IT'S INGENIOUS DESIGN MEANS
IT'S VERY EASY TO OPERATE.
THIS ENORMOUS BRIDGE CAN BE
WOUND OPEN BY HAND.

A cargo ship sails under the opened lift bridge.

Roma says I FIND IT COMPLETELY
FASCINATING THAT OVER 100 YEARS
LATER, THEY STILL USE THE SAME
METHODOLOGY AND IT STILL WORKS.
TO BUILD ANY BRIDGE IN THIS
ENVIRONMENT WOULD HAVE BEEN
INCREDIBLY DIFFICULT.
BUT TO HAVE BUILD A LIFT BRIDGE
WAS SUCH A MONUMENTAL
ACHIEVEMENT.

The Narrator says TODAY, THE RAIL BRIDGE
REMAINS THE SECOND LONGEST SEA
BRIDGE IN INDIA, SURVIVING
MONSOON, CYCLONES AND THE
RAVAGES OF THE SEA.

Roma says THE FACT THAT THE PAMBAN
BRIDGE HAS LASTED FOR SO LONG IS
A TESTAMENT TO TWO INCREDIBLE
FACTS.
THE FIRST IS THAT IT WAS BUILT
IN A REALLY ROBUST WAY.
AND THE SECOND, THAT IT'S BEEN
REALLY WELL LOOKED AFTER.
THIS IS A REALLY EXTREME
ENVIRONMENT AND IT REALLY TOOK
SOME BRAVE ENGINEERS TO MAKE THE
DECISION TO BUILD HERE.

The Narrator says BUT THERE ARE SOME
WATER WORLDS THAT ARE NOT FOR
THE FAINT HEARTED...

Luca says I THINK THIS IS ONE OF THE
MOST CHALLENGING AND IMPOSSIBLE
RAILWAYS.
IT'S, LIKE, AMAZING.

The Narrator says CREATING RAILWAY
ENGINEERING THAT'S SECOND TO
NONE.
WATER... ..A RAILWAY'S GREATEST
ADVERSITY, INSPIRING GREAT
ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS TO KEEP
TRAINS ON TRACK.

Atsushi says WE WERE PUSHING DEEPER
THAN ANYBODY HAD
GONE BEFORE.

The Narrator says BUT THERE ARE SOME WATER WORLD
PROBLEMS THAT NEED EXTREME
RAILWAY SOLUTIONS.

(piano music plays)
An aerial view shows pastel residences on a green hill overlooking the sea.

The Narrator says CINQUE TERRE ON THE ITALIAN
RIVIERA, THIS UNESCO WORLD
HERITAGE SITE IS MADE UP OF
FIVE ANCIENT VILLAGES CLINGING
TO THE NEAR VERTICAL CLIFFS,
OVERLOOKING THE MEDITERRANEAN
SEA.

The caption changes to "Amy Inman. Travel Writer Cinque Terre Insider." Amy is in her mid-forties, with shoulder-length blond hair and bangs. She wears white trousers and a blue jacket.

Amy says IN ITALIAN, "CINQUE" IS FIVE
AND THEN "TERRE" IS LAND.
WE HAVE THE VILLAGES OF
MONTEROSSO, VERNAZZA,
CORNIGLIA, MANAROLA-- WHICH IS
BEHIND ME HERE-- AND
RIOMAGGIORE.
THE VILLAGES ARE ABOUT 12
KILOMETRES APART.
IT DOESN'T SOUND LIKE A LOT OF
SPACE BETWEEN THEM, BUT IF
YOU'RE TRYING TO WALK IT, IT'S
INCREDIBLY STEEP.

The Narrator says FOR CENTURIES, THESE
COMMUNITIES WERE CUT OFF FROM
THE REST OF THE WORLD.
AND EVEN TODAY, THEIR
REMOTENESS IS STILL BEING FELT.

Amy says AT THE END OF THE 19TH
CENTURY, HERE, IT WOULD HAVE
BEEN VERY DIFFICULT TO TRAVEL
BETWEEN THE VILLAGES BECAUSE THE
ONLY WAY TO DO IT WAS ON FOOT OR
BY BOAT, WHICH IS ALWAYS
CONTINGENT ON WEATHER CONDITIONS
AND SEA CONDITIONS.
IT WASN'T UNCOMMON FOR PEOPLE TO
MARRY AMONGST THE VILLAGE.
IN FACT, WHEN I MOVED HERE AND
MARRIED MY HUSBAND, WHO'S FROM
ONE OF THE VILLAGES, AN ELDERLY
WOMAN TOLD ME, "OH, YOU'RE
BRINGING FRESH BLOOD."

The Narrator says IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY,
DARING ENGINEERS WANTED TO
ATTEMPT TO CONNECT THE VILLAGES
BY TRAIN.
BUT THE RUGGED LIGURIAN
COASTLINE IS NO EASY PLACE TO
CREATE A RAIL LINE.

Amy says AS LONG AS MAN HAS BEEN IN
THIS AREA, THERE'S BEEN
DIFFICULTY WITH THE SEA JUST
BECAUSE IT'S ALWAYS AN
UNPREDICTABLE ELEMENT OF NATURE.
THE TERRAIN HERE IS INCREDIBLY
RUGGED.
WE DON'T HAVE ROLLING HILLS.
WE HAVE CRUMBLING CLIFFS.
EVERYTHING HERE IS JUST A LITTLE
BIT MORE DIFFICULT THAN OTHER
PLACES IN THE WORLD.

The Narrator says IN 1874, A TEAM OF COURAGEOUS
ENGINEERS COMPLETED THE
SEEMINGLY IMPOSSIBLE-- THE
CINQUE TERRE RAILWAY.
A 44 KILOMETRE RAIL LINE CARVED
THROUGH THE CLIFF, WHICH WOULD
FINALLY CONNECT ALL FIVE
VILLAGES.

A stylish white, blue and green railway drives along the villages.

Amy says TO BUILD A RAILWAY HERE
IN THE CINQUE TERRE, IT WAS VERY
COURAGEOUS AND A BIT CRAZY, TO
BE HONEST.
WE HAVE EXTREMES-- WE HAVE THE
CLIFFS, WE HAVE EROSION, WE HAVE
ROUGH SEAS.

The Narrator says TO PROTECT THE NEW RAIL LINE
FROM THE STORM SCOURED CLIFF
FACE AND THE UNPREDICTABLE
WATERS, THERE WAS ONLY ONE
SOLUTION.

Amy says THE ENGINEERS, WHILE
THEY WERE CONSTRUCTING THE LINE,
TRIED TO HUG THE COAST, BUT THEY
HAD TO BURROW TUNNELS THROUGH.

The Narrator says THIS 44 KILOMETRE RAIL LINE
INCLUDES NO LESS THAN 51
TUNNELS, MAKING A GRAND TOTAL
OF 28 KILOMETRES ALL DRILLED
AND BLASTED BY HAND.
THIS AMBITIOUS TUNNEL
CONSTRUCTION MEANS THE RAILWAY
HAS STOOD THE TEST OF TIME.
AND TODAY, THE JOB OF LOOKING
AFTER IT FALLS TO ENGINEER
LUCA DEANGELO AND HIS TEAM.

Luca speaks Italian with male workers on a hill. He is in his mid-thirties, clean-shaven with a shaved head. He wears a white shirt under an orange safety jacket and a matching helmet.

Luca says WE ARE ON THE TOP OF
MONTEROSSO.
WE ARE WORKING IN SEVERAL PLACES
HERE.
BETWEEN MONTEROSSO AND VERNAZZA,
WE ARE GOING TO BUILD SOME
DRAINAGE WORKS TO PROTECT OUR
TUNNEL FROM THE WATER COMING
DOWN FROM THE MOUNTAINS.
AND WE'RE GOING TO DELIVER
THESE STEEL BARS.
THEY ARE QUITE HEAVY.
YOU CAN SEE IT AND YOU CAN NOT
REALLY BRING THESE BY HAND OR BY
THE PATH.

The Narrator says TO DELIVER HEAVY MATERIALS TO
CLIFFTOP WORKSITES, ENGINEERS
BECOME MORE LIKE ACTION HEROES.

Luca gets into a helicopter.

Luca says YEAH, WE HAVE HELICOPTER THAT
HELPS US A LOT NOW DURING OUR
WORK.
AND I CAN'T IMAGINE HOW THEY
COULD BUILD THIS LINE JUST BY
BOAT AND CARRYING MATERIALS.
IT WAS SOMETHING OF CRAZY, I
THINK.
I THINK IT'S AMAZING TO SEE,
ALSO, THIS PIECE OF RAILWAYS.
EVEN IF THE MOST PART OF IT IS
IN TUNNEL, WHEN YOU SEE THE
OPEN, IT'S, LIKE, AMAZING.

The helicopter stays still in front of a tunnel.

Luca continues THIS IS AN ARTIFICIAL TUNNEL,
BUT MADE BEGINNING OF THE
CONSTRUCTION OF THE LINE.
YOU CAN SEE THE WINDOWS HERE
FROM WHICH TRAIN PASSES THROUGH.
THEY HAD TO BUILD ALMOST ALL THE
RAILWAYS IN TUNNELS TO PREVENT
THE RISK OF ROCKS FALLING DOWN
FROM THE SLOPE.

The Narrator says THE FEW AREAS STILL OPEN TO
THE ELEMENTS ARE ALSO SLOWLY
BEING COVERED BY THE TEAM.

Luca says AS YOU CAN SEE, WE ARE ON A
BRIDGE, AND TO PROTECT OUR
INFRASTRUCTURE BETWEEN THE TWO
TUNNELS, WE HAD TO BUILD A STEEL
STRUCTURE MADE BY COLUMN AND
BEAMS AND THEN CONCRETE SLAB.
YOU CAN SEE HERE ROCKS FALLING
DOWN, BUT NOT ONLY ROCKS, ALSO
FLOATING FROM THE TOP OF THE
MOUNTAINS.

The Narrator says BUT THE TUNNELS THEMSELVES
ARE STILL PRONE TO THE RAVAGES
OF NATURE.
SOME HAVE BEEN CLOSED AND
REPLACED, AND THE REST ARE
PROTECTED BY A COMPLEX DRAINAGE
SYSTEM TO DEFLECT SEA WATER AND
OVERFLOW FROM THE RIVERS ABOVE.
BUT THERE ARE SOME BIG WATER
EVENTS FOR WHICH NO ONE CAN
PREPARE.

Local people walk around in the village center.

Amy says ON OCTOBER 25TH, 2011, A
TERRIBLE FLOOD STRUCK HERE IN
VERNAZZA.
IT WAS A PLACE THAT YOU WOULDN'T
RECOGNIZE TODAY.

A clip shows a powerful river of mud flooding a village.

A Woman says OH MY GOD!

Amy says MUD FILLED UP TO THE
FIRST FLOOR OF THE BUILDINGS.
THERE WERE LOCALS THAT LOST
THEIR LIVES.
THE VILLAGE WAS ABSOLUTELY
DEVASTATED.
IT LOOKED LIKE A WARZONE.
THE RAILWAY STATION IN VERNAZZA
WAS COMPLETELY COVERED WITH
RUBBLE.
THE TUNNEL THAT CONNECTS THE
VILLAGES WAS COVERED WITH
RUBBLE.
THE ONLY WAY TO REACH THE
VILLAGE DURING THAT TIME WAS
EITHER BY AIR OR BY BOAT.

The clip ends.

The Narrator says TORRENTIAL RAIN HAD FLOODED
THE RIVERS ABOVE, WASHING
DEBRIS FROM THE VINEYARD
TERRACES INTO THE DRAINING
CHANNELS.
AS THE CHANNELS BECAME BLOCKED,
BOTH TOWN AND RAILWAY WERE
FLOODED.
LUCA AND HIS INTREPID TEAM ARE
MAKING SURE THIS NEVER HAPPENS
AGAIN.

Luca gets out of the helicopter.

Luca says WE ARE ON THE TOP OF THE
RAILWAY TUNNEL.
WE ARE GOING TO BUILD A
PROTECTIVE STRUCTURE BECAUSE, IF
YOU CAN SEE HERE, WE HAVE, LIKE,
A CHANNEL THAT'S JUST UNDERGOES
THE RAILWAY TUNNELS.
IN 2011, WHEN THERE WAS A HUGE
FLOODING, MASS ROCK FALLING DOWN
JUST CLOSED THIS CHANNEL AND THE
FLOODING WAS GOING INSIDE THE
TUNNEL AND THE LINE WAS OUT OF
ORDER FOR, LIKE, ONE WEEK.
AND SO, WHAT ARE WE DOING NOW IS
GOING TO BUILD A STRUCTURE TO
PROTECT OUR INFRASTRUCTURE AND
TO BE SURE THAT IT WILL NOT
HAPPEN AGAIN ANYMORE.
THIS WORK IS ESSENTIAL, FOR
SURE.
BUT WE ARE NOW GOING TO CARRY
OUT A HUGE NUMBER OF WORKS LIKE
THIS, OBVIOUSLY WITH USE OF
HELICOPTER.
AS YOU CAN SEE, IT'S THE ONLY
WAY TO BRING MATERIAL HERE.

The helicopter unloads material on top of the mountain.

The Narrator says TODAY, THE CINQUE TERRE
RAILWAY IS USED BY LOCALS AND
TOURISTS ALIKE AND REMAINS THE
BEST WAY TO EXPLORE THIS
SPECTACULAR CORNER OF THE
WORLD.

Amy says RIGHT NOW, WE ARE IN ONE
OF THE 51 TUNNELS ALONG THE
LINE.
EVERY ONCE AND AWHILE THERE WILL
BE A GLIMPSE OF THE SEASIDE,
MAYBE THE VILLAGE.
WE'RE RIGHT ON THE WATER'S EDGE.
I REMEMBER THE VERY FIRST TIME
RIDING ON THE CINQUE TERRE TRAIN
AND BEING IN A TUNNEL AND THEN
HAVING A FLASH OF PARADISE.
IT REALLY IS BEAUTIFUL.

The Narrator says AND LUCA CONTINUES TO SUPPORT
THE WORK OF THE RAILWAY
ENGINEERS WHO DARED TO BUILD IT
IN THE FIRST PLACE.

Luca says I THINK THIS IS ONE OF THE
MOST CHALLENGING AND IMPOSSIBLE
RAILWAYS, AS YOU CAN SEE.
THEY HAD TO FACE, LIKE, A LOT OF
PROBLEMS-- ENGINEERING,
DESIGNING, BUT ALSO THE
CONSTRUCTION.
THEY DID A GREAT JOB IN THE
PAST.
IT'S ONE OF THE MOST CHALLENGING
RAILWAYS, FOR SURE.
I THINK IT WILL LAST FOREVER.

The Narrator says SINCE THE DAWN OF THE
RAILWAY, WATER HAS PROVED TO BE
ITS FIERCEST OPPONENT...
CALLING FOR DARING SOLUTIONS...

The blond middle-aged man says THEY HAD A NUMBER OF
CHALLENGES, NOT LEAST THE FACT
THAT WE ARE HUGGING THE COAST.
BUT THANK GOD THEY DID IT
BECAUSE WE HAVE A BEAUTIFUL LINE
TO ENJOY TODAY.

The Narrator says TAKING ENGINEERING TO A
NEW LEVEL...

Luca says THIS JOB WAS VERY
DIFFICULT.
THERE WAS A HUGE NUMBER OF
WORKERS AND ENGINEERS TAKING
PART IN THIS PROJECT.
THE ENGINEERS WERE THE BEST IN
THE WORLD AT THAT PERIOD.

The Narrator says TO CREATE IMPOSSIBLE
RAILWAYS.

Izzet says WATER IS THE BIGGEST
CHALLENGE ON EARTH
FOR ANY RAILWAYS,
BUT THANKS TO BRILLIANT
ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS
OUR TRAINS CAN CONQUER
THE WATER IN ALL
SORTS OF INGENIOUS WAYS.

Music plays as the end credits roll.

Narrated by Matthew Skilton.

Producer, Caroline Topliss.

Executive producer, Neil Edwards.

Series producer, Gill Hennessey.

Distributed by two Four Rights.

Produced in association with Yesterday.

Copyright 2017, Twofour.

Watch: Ep. 6 - Waterworld