Transcript: Ep. 6 - Idi Amin | Apr 08, 2019

A caption reads "Kampala, Uganda."

The narrator says JUNE, 1975.
WITH THE WORLD PRESS LOOKING ON,
UGANDA'S DICTATOR IDI AMIN
IS ABOUT TO PICK A FIGHT
WITH HIS COUNTRY'S FORMER
COLONIAL RULER--GREAT BRITAIN.

A woman says AMIN CALLED HIMSELF
THE CONQUEROR
OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE.

The narrator says THE TARGET OF HIS
ANTI-IMPERIALIST FURY
IS A BRITISH CITIZEN LIVING
IN UGANDA, DENNIS HILLS,
AN AUTHOR WHO PLANS TO PUBLISH
A BOOK THAT IS CRITICAL OF AMIN.
THE DICTATOR WANTS HILLS
TO FACE A FIRING SQUAD.

Amin is in his fifties, with very short brown hair and wears a military uniform.

Amin says ANY BRITISH CITIZEN
WHO IS HERE AGAINST ME
OR AGAINST THE PEOPLE OF UGANDA,
HE WILL FACE
THE LAW OF THE COUNTRY.

The narrator says THE BRITISH KNOW THIS IS
NO IDLE THREAT.
AMIN'S REGIME IS INFAMOUS
FOR ITS TORTURE CHAMBERS,
STATE-SANCTIONED MURDERS,
AND PUBLIC EXECUTIONS.

A woman in a printed dress says THE SCALE OF VIOLENCE
WAS IMMENSE.
IN THE 8 YEARS
THAT HE WAS IN POWER,
ALMOST 300,000 PEOPLE
WERE MASSACRED.

The narrator says QUEEN ELIZABETH HERSELF
WRITES A LETTER TO AMIN,
ASKING FOR CLEMENCY.
THE DICTATOR IGNORES HER PLEA.
IN THE END, IT'S BRITAIN
THAT BLINKS.
THE FOREIGN SECRETARY FLIES TO
UGANDA TO SECURE HILLS' RELEASE.
THE AUTHOR APOLOGIZES
FOR HIS BOOK, AND BRITAIN
EVEN AGREES TO REVIEW
ITS FOREIGN AID TO UGANDA.

A man with white hair says IT WAS A VERY CLEVER
SET-UP BY AMIN.

The first woman says CRITICS HAVE WRITTEN AMIN OFF AS
A BUFFOON, AS A BIG DUMB BRUTE.
BUT IN ACTUAL FACT, AMIN WAS
FAR MORE STRATEGIC,
CALCULATING, CUNNING, CLEVER
THAN ANYONE WOULD HAVE
EVER IMAGINED.

The narrator says IDI AMIN ROSE TO POWER
FROM HUMBLE BEGINNINGS,
WON THE AFFECTION
OF MILLIONS OF UGANDANS,
AND STRUCK FEAR IN THE HEARTS
OF HIS MANY OPPONENTS.
WAS HE JUST A MURDEROUS TYRANT,
OR WAS THERE A METHOD
TO HIS MADNESS?

The opening sequence rolls.

A clip shows a collage of pictures of world famous dictators.

A woman says DICTATORSHIPS HAVE HAD
AN INCREDIBLE IMPACT
IN THE PAST CENTURY.
THESE DICTATORS ENDED UP
LEARNING FROM ONE ANOTHER.

Written expressions appear on screen as different people mention them.

A man says THEY'RE ALL DIFFERENT BUT
MANY USE THE SAME TACTICS.

Another woman says THE USE OF TERROR.

Another man says PROPAGANDA.

Another woman says CONTROL THE ELITES.
CREATE AN ENEMY.
CULT OF PERSONALITY.

Another man says USE OF VIOLENCE...
THESE ARE TOOLS THAT DICTATORS
USE TO STAY IN POWER.

The title of the show appears against a black and white world map with those expressions written across. It reads "The dictator's playbook."

The name of the episode reads "Idi Amin."

The narrator says UGANDA, 1952.
IDI AMIN'S RISE TO POWER BEGINS
IN THE COLONIAL ARMY...
THE INSTITUTION THAT WILL,
MORE THAN ANY OTHER,
SHAPE THE KIND OF DICTATOR
HE WILL BECOME.
THE 24-YEAR-OLD IS AN AMBITIOUS
YOUNG CORPORAL
IN THE KING'S AFRICAN RIFLES,
THE BRITISH EMPIRE'S
ELITE MILITARY FORCE
IN EAST AFRICA.

A caption reads "Alicia Decker. Historian, Pennsylvania State University."

Alicia is in her forties, with above the shoulders wavy brown hair and wears a deep purple sweater.

Alicia says INDIVIDUALS LIKE
AMIN WERE RECRUITED
INTO THE KING'S AFRICAN RIFLES
TO HELP THE BRITISH
MAINTAIN ORDER.
THEY WERE ESSENTIALLY THE MUSCLE
BEHIND THE COLONIAL
ESTABLISHMENT.

The narrator says BRITISH EXPLORERS BEGAN ARRIVING
IN THE 19TH CENTURY,
DRAWN BY THE WEALTH OF COFFEE,
TOBACCO, AND GOLD.
IN 1894, NEW, INTERNATIONAL
BORDERLINES WERE DRAWN
AND THE BRITISH PROTECTORATE
OF UGANDA WAS ESTABLISHED.
FOR CENTURIES, THIS PART
OF EASTERN AFRICA WAS HOME
TO DOZENS OF FREE, TRIBAL
PEOPLES AND ANCIENT KINGDOMS
LIKE THE BUGANDA,
TORO, ANKOLE, AND BUSOGA.
NOW, THE BRITISH HAVE FULL
CONTROL OF THE COUNTRY,
OCCUPY ITS BEST LANDS
WITH WHITE SETTLERS,
AND EXPLOIT
ITS NATURAL RESOURCES.

The caption changes to "Deo Katono. Historian, Makerere University."

Deo is in his fifties, bold and clean-shaven and wears glasses and a pale yellow shirt with fine stripes.

Deo says COLONIAL RULE CAUSED HARDSHIPS.
OF COURSE, COLONIAL RULE
DESTROYED OUR KINGDOMS,
DESTROYED OUR RULERS.
IF COLONIAL RULE HAD NOT COME,
WE WOULD BE SOMEWHERE,
WE WOULD BE BETTER OFF.

The narrator says UNDER THE BRITISH-CONTROLLED
GOVERNMENT,
AFRICANS LIKE IDI AMIN
ARE CONDEMNED
TO A LIFE WITH ALMOST NO
POLITICAL OR ECONOMIC AGENCY.

The caption changes to "Mark Leopold. Anthropologist, University of Sussex."

Mark is in his late forties, with short receding gray hair and a beard. He wears glasses, a black turtleneck sweater and a brown blazer.

Mark says THE COLONIAL POWERS THOUGHT THAT
AFRICANS WERE INFERIOR
TO ALL WHITE PEOPLE.
THEY WERE SEEN AS BEING
PARTICULARLY PRIMITIVE,
UNABLE TO LOOK AFTER THEMSELVES
OR RULE THEMSELVES.
AMIN VERY MUCH GREW UP
WITHIN THAT SYSTEM.

The narrator says AMIN IS FROM A SMALL TRIBAL
GROUP CALLED THE KAKWA,
PART OF UGANDA'S
MUSLIM MINORITY.
AND AS AN AFRICAN, AMIN CAN
STRIVE TO BECOME
A SERGEANT MAJOR
BUT HE CAN NEVER BE
COMMISSIONED AS AN OFFICER.
IN SPITE OF THESE DISADVANTAGES,
HE IS DETERMINED
TO EXCEED EXPECTATIONS,
BREAK BARRIERS, AND RISE THROUGH
THE RANKS AS FAR AS HE CAN.

Alicia says AMIN WAS ALWAYS THINKING ABOUT
WAYS THAT HE COULD GET AHEAD.

The caption changes to "Iain Grahame. Amin's Former Commanding Officer."

Iain is in his seventies, with short receding white hair and wears a pale blue shirt, a dark tie and an army green jacket.

Iain says IDI AMIN WHEN I
JOINED THE BATTALION,
WAS A VERY JUNIOR SOLDIER THEN,
AND ALTHOUGH HE WAS ILLITERATE,
VIRTUALLY NO EDUCATION AT ALL,
HE MADE A MARK FOR HIMSELF
EXTREMELY QUICKLY.
AMIN WAS STRONG, ATHLETIC,
HE HAD GOOD SKILLS
ON THE RIFLE RANGE.
HE WAS KNOWN TO BE RUTHLESS,
WHICH GOOD SOLDIERS ARE...
YOU'VE GOT TO BE.

Alicia says PEOPLE WHO KNEW HIM AS A CHILD
SAID THAT HE WAS VERY VIOLENT.
AND, IN FACT, HE WOULD GET
INTO THESE
PUNCHING MATCHES
WITH OTHER CHILDREN.
AND ONE OF HIS FORMER
CHILDHOOD FRIENDS SAID
THAT THERE WERE TIMES THAT IF
THEY HAD NOT INTERVENED
TO BREAK UP THE FIGHT,
AMIN WOULD HAVE KILLED
THE OTHER CHILD.

The narrator says BUT IT'S IN THE COLONIAL ARMY
THAT AMIN LEARNS
TO HARNESS VIOLENCE AND USE IT
TO ADVANCE HIS OWN INTERESTS.
IT'S A LESSON HE WILL APPLY,
TIME AND AGAIN,
ON HIS PATH TO DICTATORSHIP.

The caption changes to "Using violence."

The caption changes to "Mariam Mufti. Political Scientist. University of Waterloo."

Mariam is in her thirties, with shoulder-length straight black hair and wears a printed blue, red and orange dress.

Mariam says VIOLENCE IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT
TO ALMOST ANY DICTATOR
BECAUSE IT CAN BE USED AS
AN OPPORTUNITY
TO NOT ONLY CONSOLIDATE
THEIR HOLD OVER POWER,
TO ALSO GET RID
OF OPPOSING FORCES,
TO GET RID OF EXTERNAL THREATS.

The caption changes to "Mahmood Mamdani. Anthorpologist, Columbia University."

Mahmood is in his fifties, with short wavy gray hair and a trimmed beard. He wears glasses, a deep blue shirt and a deep blue vest.

Mahmood says AMIN'S USE OF VIOLENCE WAS NOT
MINDLESS, IT WAS MEASURED.
AND THE OBJECT WAS ALWAYS TO
KEEP THE HOLD ON POWER.

Mariam says HE WANTED TO VERY CLEARLY,
VERY PUBLICLY, VERY VISIBLY,
DEMONSTRATE
THAT HE WAS INVINCIBLE
AND THAT NO ONE COULD
THREATEN HIM.

The caption changes to "Nairobi, Kenya."

The narrator says IN 1953,
AMIN WILL GET AN OPPORTUNITY
TO USE VIOLENCE
AS A WAY TO LAUNCH
HIS RISE TO POWER.
[A SIREN WAILS]

The narrator says IN NEIGHBOURING KENYA,
A REBELLION HAS BROKEN OUT
THAT THREATENS TO SPREAD
ACROSS THE REGION.
AN ALLIANCE OF TRIBESMEN
KNOWN AS THE MAU MAU,
FED UP WITH COLONIAL OPPRESSION,
STAGE ARMED ATTACKS
ON BRITISH-OWNED FARMS
AND PROPERTIES.
[A SIREN WAILS]
AS DOZENS OF WHITE SETTLERS
ARE KILLED, TERROR GRIPS
THE COLONIAL POPULATION
THROUGHOUT EAST AFRICA.

Alicia says THE BRITISH WERE UP IN ARMS
BECAUSE FOR THE FIRST TIME,
THEY WERE BEING TARGETED.

The narrator says THE COLONIAL AUTHORITIES
AIM TO STOP THE UPRISING...
BY ANY MEANS NECESSARY.

Mark says THE BRITISH STAMPED IT OUT
WITH A GREAT DEAL OF FORCE
AND VIOLENCE, AND IT CERTAINLY
SEEMS THAT THERE WERE
A LOT OF ATROCITIES
COMMITTED BY THE BRITISH,
BUT THAT DOESN'T MEAN
THAT BRITISH OFFICERS
WERE DOING THEIR KILLING
AND THE TORTURING THEMSELVES.
THEY WERE GETTING THEIR AFRICAN
SOLDIERS TO DO IT FOR THEM.

The narrator says THEY PICK THEIR BEST SOLDIERS
TO LEAD THE FIGHT.
AMONG THEM IS CORPORAL IDI AMIN.
IN THE SPRING OF 1953,
AMIN IS PART OF THE FIRST WAVE
OF COLONIAL FORCES
TO TAKE ON THE MAU MAU.
HIS SKILL AS A WARRIOR
WILL BE PUT TO THE TEST
ON A NIGHTTIME PATROL,
DEEP IN THE KENYAN RAINFOREST.

Iain says MY MEMORY IS THAT IDI AMIN
WAS ACTUALLY LEADING
THAT PATROL AT THE TIME.
WE WERE AMBUSHED
BY A MAU MAU GANG...
AND HE WAS VERY NEARLY
DECAPITATED.
IDI REACTED EXTREMELY QUICKLY,
THEN THE REST
OF THE MAU MAU GANG,
THEY STARTED TO ATTACK US
AS WELL,
AND WE ONLY HAD
A VERY QUICK ENGAGEMENT.

The narrator says THE SKIRMISH IS AS LETHAL
AS IT IS QUICK.
SEVERAL MAU MAU ARE KILLED
AND THE REST FLEE.

Alicia says AMIN, WAS INVOLVED IN EXTREMELY
HARSH TYPES OF VIOLENCE
AGAINST THE MAU MAU.
BUT OF COURSE, THIS IS SOMETHING
THAT PLEASED THE BRITISH.

The narrator says THROUGHOUT THE 1950S, AS THE
MAU MAU GUERRILLA WAR RAGES ON,
AMIN SEES REGULAR COMBAT,
DEVELOPING A REPUTATION
FOR FEROCITY THAT PLEASES
HIS COMMANDING OFFICERS.

Mahmood says SO THERE IS A CERTAIN LEVEL
OF CRUELTY
THAT HE LEARNED
IN THE COLONIAL LABORATORY.
AND THE FACT THAT HE WAS
PROMOTED AT EVERY LEVEL,
MEANT THAT THIS CRUELTY
WAS SEEN AS FUNCTIONAL.

The narrator says FOR THE FUTURE DICTATOR,
THE MESSAGE IS CLEAR...
VIOLENCE IS
HOW YOU SOLVE PROBLEMS.
VIOLENCE IS HOW YOU GET AHEAD.
BY 1960, THE MAU MAU UPRISING
IS ALL BUT CRUSHED.
MORE THAN 10,000 REBELS HAVE
BEEN KILLED AND THOUSANDS MORE
INCARCERATED AND TORTURED
IN DETENTION CAMPS.
FOR AMIN, HIS SUCCESS
ON THE BATTLEFIELD
POSITIONS HIM PERFECTLY
FOR HIS NEXT MOVE.

The caption changes to "Kampala, Uganda."

The narrator says BUT FIRST HE HAS TO
OVERCOME A PROBLEM.
HE'S ALREADY RISEN TO THE
HIGHEST POSSIBLE RANK
FOR AN AFRICAN ENLISTED MAN
AND FURTHER PROMOTION IS
IMPOSSIBLE.
THE COLONIAL OFFICER CORPS
IS WHITES ONLY.
BUT ON FEBRUARY 3, 1960,
AMIN'S PROSPECTS
CHANGE OVERNIGHT.
BRITISH PRIME MINISTER
HAROLD MACMILLAN
ANNOUNCES A DECISION THAT WILL
REMAKE THE CONTINENT...
BRITAIN WILL GRANT INDEPENDENCE
TO ALL ITS AFRICAN COLONIES.

Mark says AFTER THE SECOND
WORLD WAR, REALLY,
IT BECAME INCREASINGLY OBVIOUS
TO THE BRITISH THAT THEY
COULDN'T MAINTAIN THE EMPIRE
AS IT WAS AND HAD BEEN.
PARTLY THAT WAS BECAUSE OF
ECONOMIC WEAKNESS
AFTER HAVING FOUGHT
SUCH A LONG WAR.
PARTLY IT WAS BECAUSE OF
INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE.

The narrator says IN UGANDA,
DRAMATIC CHANGE BEGINS
EVEN BEFORE
THE BRITISH WITHDRAW.
DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS
WILL BE HELD
TO DECIDE
THE COUNTRY'S NEW LEADER.
AND FOR THE FIRST TIME, BLACK
SOLDIERS GET THE OPPORTUNITY
TO RISE ABOVE THE RANKS
OF ENLISTED MEN.
IN 1961, AMIN IS COMMISSIONED
AS A LIEUTENANT, THE FIRST
OF TWO UGANDAN OFFICERS
IN THE ENTIRE COLONIAL ARMY.

Mark says I THINK, PROBABLY FOR AMIN
INDEPENDENCE
WOULD HAVE REPRESENTED
BOTH A THREAT
AND AN OPPORTUNITY.
IT WOULD HAVE REPRESENTED
A THREAT BECAUSE
HIS POWER BASE UP TILL THEN
HAD BEEN VERY MUCH
THROUGH THE BRITISH,
PARTICULARLY THROUGH THE
MILITARY PART
OF BRITISH COLONIAL RULE.
INDEPENDENCE MEANT THAT A LOT OF
HIS POWER BASE WAS DISAPPEARING.
SO HE WOULD HAVE TO DEVELOP
A DIFFERENT SET OF STRATEGIES
FOR SUCCEEDING,
GETTING ON, AND WINNING.

The narrator says FINALLY, ON OCTOBER 9, 1962,
UGANDA OFFICIALLY GAINS
INDEPENDENCE FROM BRITAIN
AND THE TRANSFER OF POWER
IS COMPLETE.

A clip shows a military man raising the Uganda flag and people cheering.

[APPLAUSE]

The narrator says IDI AMIN, ALONG WITH MILLIONS
OF HIS FELLOW UGANDANS,
CELEBRATE THEIR LIBERATION
FROM FOREIGN RULE.

The caption changes to "Henry Kyemba. Former Health Minister in Amin's government."

Henry is in his sixties, bald and clean-shaven. He wears a printed coral shirt and a gray suit.

Henry says AT THE TIME OF INDEPENDENCE,
I WAS IN GOVERNMENT
AS A PUBLIC CIVIL SERVANT,
AND WE WERE ALL THRILLED,
WE WERE EXCITED.
HERE WE ARE YOUNG MEN, BLACKS
TAKING CHARGE OF THE COUNTRY!

[MEN SING
IN THEIR NATIVE LANGUAGE]

The narrator says FOR IDI AMIN,
THE END OF COLONIALISM
HAS GIVEN HIM A STATUS
BEYOND ANYTHING HE HAD EVER
DREAMED POSSIBLE.
NOW, HE SEES THE OPPORTUNITY
TO RISE
EVEN FURTHER THROUGH THE RANKS
AND BECOME SUPREME COMMANDER
OF THE MILITARY.

Alicia says WHAT HE SOON CAME
TO RECOGNIZE,
IS THAT BY GETTING RID OF THE
BRITISH,
THERE CREATED A SPACE
FROM WHICH HE COULD ENTER AND
ASSUME POWER.

The narrator says AMIN ALLIES HIMSELF
WITH THE ONE MAN WHO CAN GIVE
HIM FURTHER PROMOTION...
THE NEW, DEMOCRATICALLY ELECTED
PRIME MINISTER OF UGANDA:
MILTON OBOTE.

Mark says OBOTE AND AMIN WERE REALLY
POLAR OPPOSITES.
OBOTE WAS AN INTELLECTUAL,
A POLITICIAN,
A VERY EDUCATED MAN.
AMIN WAS A SOLDIER,
STRONG, CHARISMATIC,
VERY POPULAR AMONG
THE RANK AND FILE.
IT WAS USEFUL FOR OBOTE
TO HAVE A MILITARY ALLY,
AND IT WAS CERTAINLY USEFUL FOR
AMIN TO HAVE A POLITICAL ALLY.

The narrator says OBOTE KNOWS
HE WILL NEED THE ARMY
TO BACK UP HIS FRAGILE
COALITION GOVERNMENT,
ALREADY RIFE WITH INFIGHTING.
HE SEES AMIN, THE FIERCE,
UP-AND-COMING OFFICER,
AS THE IDEAL MAN TO HELP PROTECT
HIS AUTHORITY.
WITHIN 3 YEARS,
OBOTE PROMOTES AMIN
ALL THE WAY TO COLONEL AND
DEPUTY COMMANDER OF THE ARMY.
THE TWO MEN HAVE BUILT
A POWERFUL ALLIANCE.
BUT THEY'RE ABOUT TO FACE
A CRISIS
THAT COULD DESTROY THEM BOTH.
IN 1966, OBOTE'S GOVERNMENT
IS FACING
INTENSE OPPOSITION FROM ITS MAIN
RIVAL, THE KINGDOM OF BUGANDA.

An animated map shows the location of Buganda, south of Uganda.

The narrator says THIS ANCIENT TRIBAL GROUP,
WHOSE ANCESTRAL LANDS
COVER MUCH OF THE SOUTHERN PART
OF THE COUNTRY,
HAS LONG SOUGHT MORE POWER
AND AUTONOMY IN UGANDA.
NOW, THE BUGANDAN KING,
KABAKA MUTESA THE SECOND,
IS LEADING THE CALL
FOR REGIME CHANGE.
THE BUGANDANS CLAIM THEY HAVE
UNCOVERED A CRIMINAL CONSPIRACY
IMPLICATING OBOTE AND THE MAN
THEY SEE AS HIS LACKEY,
IDI AMIN.
THE BUGANDANS ARE RIGHT...
FOR MORE THAN A YEAR,
AMIN HAS BEEN ABUSING HIS SENIOR
POSITION IN THE ARMY.
WITH OBOTE'S SUPPORT, HE HAS
BUILT A HUGE SMUGGLING NETWORK,
SUPPLYING ARMS TO REBELS
AND MERCENARIES
IN THE JUNGLES OF CONGO.
IN EXCHANGE FOR GUNS, AMIN HAS
FUNNELLED LARGE SUMS OF CASH,
GOLD, IVORY, AND COFFEE
INTO UGANDA,
MAKING HIM AND THE PRIME
MINISTER VERY RICH MEN.

Alicia says AMIN HAD ACTUALLY PROFITED
SIGNIFICANTLY
FROM THESE DEALS-- 30,000 DOLLARSHAD
MIRACULOUSLY APPEARED
INTO HIS OWN BANK ACCOUNT.

The narrator says FOR THE BUGANDANS, THE ILLEGAL
ARMS DEAL IS PROOF
THAT OBOTE AND AMIN MUST GO.
THE BUGANDAN KING PREPARES
TO MOUNT
AN ARMED REBELLION
AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT.
AMIN IS AT RISK OF LOSING
EVERYTHING
HE HAS WORKED
SO HARD TO ACHIEVE...
HIS STATUS,
HIS WEALTH, HIS POWER.
OBOTE AND AMIN KNOW THEY MUST
ACT FAST TO CRUSH THIS THREAT.
AMIN ORDERS HIS FORCES TO
SURROUND THE BUGANDAN PALACE
IN THE CAPITAL CITY, KAMPALA.
THE NEXT DAY, THEY ATTACK,
AND SET THE PALACE ABLAZE.
SCORES OF REBELS ARE KILLED,
AND THE BUGANDAN KING
FLEES THE COUNTRY.
WITH AMIN'S SUPPORT, OBOTE USES
THE INCIDENT AS AN EXCUSE
TO SUSPEND THE CONSTITUTION
AND OUTLAW ALL REMAINING
OPPOSITION PARTIES.
HE BEGINS TO TRANSFORM UGANDA'S
FLEDGLING DEMOCRACY
INTO A DICTATORSHIP.
MANY UGANDANS ARE APPALLED BY
OBOTE'S POWER GRAB,
BUT THERE IS LITTLE RESISTANCE...
THEY KNOW ANY PROTEST WOULD MEAN
FACING THE WRATH
OF IDI AMIN AND HIS ARMY.
IN RETURN FOR HELPING TO MAKE
OBOTE DICTATOR,
AMIN GETS THE ULTIMATE
PROMOTION.

Mark says HE BECAME COMMANDER OF THE ARMY,
AND HE BECAME UNCHALLENGED
MILITARY LEADER
WITHIN THE COUNTRY.

The narrator says THE MAN WHO WAS ONCE WAS
A LOWLY FOOT SOLDIER
IN THE COLONIAL ARMY,
NOW CONTROLS THE MILITARY,
A POWERFUL TOOL
IN ANY DICTATORSHIP.

The caption changes to "Controlling the army."

Mariam says THE ARMY HAS ALL THE GUNS
AND TRAINED SOLDIERS.
AND IF THE DICTATORSHIP WANTS
TO ESTABLISH
A MONOPOLY OVER THE COERCIVE
APPARATUS OF THE STATE,
NUMBER ONE, AND NUMBER TWO
THE LEGITIMATE USE OF VIOLENCE
WITHIN THE STATE,
THEN ABSOLUTELY YOU NEED THE
COOPERATION OF THE MILITARY.

The narrator says AS COMMANDER OF THE ARMY,
AMIN HAS NEVER BEEN STRONGER.
HE WILL DO WHATEVER IT TAKES
TO PROTECT HIS POSITION.

Alicia says AMIN RECOGNIZED THAT
THE MILITARY COULD BE
THE ULTIMATE ARBITER OF POWER
AND THAT HE DIDN'T NEED TO
NECESSARILY FOLLOW THE ORDERS
OF A PRESIDENT.
AND SO ONCE HE WAS HEAD
OF THE MILITARY,
AMIN BEGAN AMASSING SUPPORTERS
BY RECRUITING HEAVILY
FROM HIS HOME REGION,
HIS SO-CALLED ETHNIC KIN
TO BUILD UP
A GREATER BASE OF SUPPORT.

The narrator says OBOTE CATCHES WIND
OF WHAT AMIN IS UP TO
BUT HE KNOWS A DIRECT
CONFRONTATION WITH
HIS POWERFUL MILITARY COMMANDER
WOULD BE FAR TOO RISKY.

Alicia says AS IT BECAME INCREASINGLY AWARE
TO OBOTE
THAT AMIN MIGHT ACTUALLY BECOME
A THREAT
TO HIS OWN HOLD ON POWER,
OBOTE BEGAN TRYING
TO FIND WAYS TO STIFLE HIM.

The narrator says OBOTE TURNS TO HIS INTERNAL
SPY ORGANIZATION
TO KEEP TABS ON THE MILITARY,
STACKING THE ARMY OFFICER CORPS
WITH LOYALISTS WHO COVERTLY
KEEP AN EYE ON AMIN.

Alicia says SO OVER TIME IT WAS THIS
CALCULATED GAME OF CHESS.

The narrator says BY 1971, OBOTE BELIEVES HE HAS
ENOUGH SUPPORT IN THE ARMY
TO MOVE AGAINST
HIS DISLOYAL COMMANDER.
OBOTE PLANS TO STRIP IDI AMIN
OF HIS RANK,
HIS POWER, AND EVEN HIS FREEDOM.
ON JANUARY 5TH, THE PRESIDENT
LEAVES UGANDA
TO ATTEND THE COMMONWEALTH
CONFERENCE IN SINGAPORE.
WHILE HE IS ABROAD,
HE GIVES ORDERS
FOR THE IMMEDIATE ARREST
OF IDI AMIN.

Alicia says OBOTE SENT A MESSAGE BACK
TO UGANDA TO THE MILITARY
SAYING THAT AMIN SHOULD BE
ARRESTED, FOR SUBVERSION.

The narrator says BUT OBOTE HAS BADLY
UNDERESTIMATED
THE ARMY'S LOYALTY
TO ITS COMMANDING OFFICER.
AMIN HAS SPENT YEARS
BUILDING UP A FORCE
WHOSE RANK AND FILE TROOPS
ARE MORE LOYAL TO HIM
THAN THE GOVERNMENT.

Alicia says THE MESSAGE FROM OBOTE
WAS ACTUALLY INTERCEPTED
BY A LOWER RANKING SOLDIER
WHO WAS LOYAL TO AMIN,
WHO THEN RELAYED
THE MESSAGE ON TO AMIN.
HE SAW THE WRITING ON THE WALL.
HE KNEW THAT HE WAS GOING TO BE
ELIMINATED.

The narrator says AMIN COUNTERS OBOTE'S MOVE
WITH THE ULTIMATE POWER PLAY.
WITH HIS ARMY BEHIND HIM,
HE STAGES A COUP.
AMIN ORDERS HIS TROOPS TO FAN
OUT ACROSS THE UGANDAN CAPITOL.
TANKS SURROUND OBOTE'S RESIDENCE
AND BLOCK MAJOR ROADS.
HIS FORCES ENGAGE
IN RUNNING GUN BATTLES
WITH THE FEW ARMY UNITS
STILL LOYAL TO OBOTE.
WITHIN HOURS,
ALL OPPOSITION IS CRUSHED,
AND AMIN HAS CONTROL OF UGANDA.
MILTON OBOTE, THOUSANDS OF MILES
FROM HOME, IS CAUGHT OFF GUARD.

Amin says DR. OBOTE WILL COME BACK TO
UGANDA AS A CITIZEN OF UGANDA
BUT NOT AS A PRESIDENT
OF THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA.

The narrator says SOME UGANDANS HAVE SECRETLY
HOPED FOR THIS MOMENT,
CONVINCED THAT OBOTE IS A
CORRUPT, OUT-OF-TOUCH ELITIST
WHO IS GETTING WHAT HE DESERVES.

Mark says OBOTE HAD BECOME
INCREASINGLY UNPOPULAR
AMONG MANY UGANDAN GROUPS.

Alicia says MANY FOLKS SAW HIM AS
REMOVED FROM THE MASSES,
AND THEY WANTED HIM OVERTHROWN.

The narrator says OBOTE DOES NOT RETURN HOME.
INSTEAD, AMIN FORCES HIM INTO
EXILE IN NEIGHBOURING TANZANIA.
AMIN HAS DEFEATED HIS NEMESIS
AND ACHIEVED GREAT POWER.
BUT NOW HE FACES
A MAJOR PROBLEM...
MANY UGANDANS ARE DEEPLY
SUSPICIOUS OF THIS
MILITARY COMMANDER WHO IS NOW
IN CHARGE OF THEIR COUNTRY.

Alicia says MANY PEOPLE WERE ON EDGE.
THEY WERE VERY NERVOUS
ABOUT WHAT WAS COMING.

The narrator says AMIN COMES UP WITH A SHREWD
POLITICAL SOLUTION.
TO WIN THE HEARTS OF THE PEOPLE,
HE SETS ASIDE
HIS AGGRESSIVE TENDENCIES
AND LAUNCHES
A NATIONWIDE CHARM OFFENSIVE.

Henry says "When Amin came in, his first few weeks were just barnstorming tours across the country."

Alicia says AMIN WAS A MASTER STRATEGIST.
HE WAS VERY GOOD
AT READING PEOPLE,
AND HE KNEW WHAT THEY NEEDED
TO HEAR AND WHEN.

The narrator says AMIN ASSURES THE PUBLIC
THAT UNDER HIS LEADERSHIP,
THE PROMISE OF INDEPENDENCE
WILL FINALLY BE REALIZED...
IMPROVED HOUSING, BETTER JOBS,
A BRIGHTER FUTURE.

Mark says HE TALKED A STRONG
ANTI-COLONIAL LINE.
HE TALKED THE LANGUAGE OF THE
AFRICAN MAN
TAKING OVER POWER OVER HIS OWN
COUNTRY
AND HIS OWN ECONOMY.
HE MADE ALL THE RIGHT NOISES.

A clip shows Amin shaking hands with supporters.

[JOYFUL EXCLAMATIONS]

The narrator says AMIN'S POPULARITY SOARS
TO EVEN GREATER HEIGHTS
WHEN HE PROMISES A RETURN
TO DEMOCRACY.

A man says WOULD YOU LIKE TO STAND
FOR PARLIAMENT YOURSELF?

Amin says I AM NOT AMBITIOUS
OF STANDING FOR POWER
BUT MY JOB IS THAT I WANT TO
HAND OVER THE GOVERNMENT CLEAN
TO SOMEBODY
WHO IS COMING
AND THAT'S WHAT I WANT AND THEN
I CAN GO BACK TO BARRACKS
AND THEN TAKE AGAIN ORDERS
FROM HIM.
YOU WILL SEE ME,
I AM COMING,
SALUTING HIM
AND OBEY HIS ORDERS.

Alicia says HE REPRESENTED A FRESH START.
IT WAS A TIME OF POSSIBILITY
AND HOPE AND EXCITEMENT.

The narrator says BUT AMIN'S
EXTRAORDINARY POPULARITY
AND HIS NEWFOUND POWER
SPUR HIM TO CONSIDER
A DIFFERENT PLAN.
MARCH, 1971.
JUST TWO MONTHS AFTER THE COUP,
AMIN EXTINGUISHES ALL HOPE
OF DEMOCRACY.
HE RE-ESTABLISHES
A DICTATORSHIP,
AND TAKES UGANDA FOR HIMSELF.

Deo says POWER CORRUPTS.
SO ONCE YOU GO INTO THIS
POSITION AND YOU REALIZE
AS AN INDIVIDUAL WHAT YOU ARE
ABLE TO DO WITH POWER,
THEN YOU WANT TO KEEP IT
RATHER THAN GIVE IT AWAY.

The narrator says AMIN HAS MUCH OF THE COUNTRY'S
LOWER CLASS BEHIND HIM.
BUT THE NEW DICTATOR FACES
FIERCE OPPOSITION FROM MANY
WHO STILL BELIEVE MILTON OBOTE
IS THE RIGHTFUL LEADER
OF UGANDA.

Alicia says AT THE VERY BEGINNING OF HIS
REGIME, HE WAS ABSOLUTELY
TERRIFIED OF BEING OVERTHROWN.
DIFFERENT MILITARY LEADERS,
CABINET OFFICIALS
AND THE SOLDIERS
WHO WERE ASSOCIATED
WITH THE FORMER PRESIDENT,
MILTON OBOTE,
WERE A THREAT TO AMIN
BECAUSE THEY HAD THE ABILITY
TO POTENTIALLY THREATEN
HIS HOLD ON POWER.

The narrator says AMIN IS DETERMINED TO AVOID
HIS PREDECESSOR'S FATE
AND HE MOVES QUICKLY
TO STAMP OUT ANY DISSENT.
HE WILL FOLLOW THE LEAD OF
COUNTLESS DICTATORS BEFORE HIM
AND BUILD A POTENT WEAPON TO
DEFEND HIMSELF AND HIS REGIME
AGAINST INTERNAL THREATS.

The caption changes to "Controlling the secret police."

The caption changes to "Natasha Ezrow. Political Scientist, University of Essex."

Natasha is in her forties, with long straight brown hair and wears jeans and a black V-neck sweater.

Natasha says HAVING CONTROL
OVER THE SECRET POLICE
IS AN INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT TOOL
FOR ANY DICTATORSHIP,
PARTICULARLY IN THE BEGINNING.
THEY HAVE TO SET THE TONE
AND SET THE MESSAGE STRAIGHT
THAT NOBODY CAN BE DISLOYAL
AND SURVIVE THIS REGIME.

The narrator says AMIN BEGINS TO TRANSFORM UGANDA
INTO A POLICE STATE.
HE ESTABLISHES A VAST NETWORK
OF SECRET AGENTS,
SPIES, AND ENFORCERS AT EVERY
LEVEL OF THE GOVERNMENT,
THE MILITARY, AND EVEN
ON THE PUBLIC STREETS.
MANY MEMBERS OF AMIN'S SECRET
POLICE ARE EASILY IDENTIFIABLE
IN THEIR FLOWERY SHIRTS, DARK
SUNGLASSES AND FLASHY CARS.

Henry says WHAT HAPPENED AFTER THE COUP
SPOKE VOLUMES.
ALL HE WAS INTERESTED WAS
HOW THE ARMY DID WITH ANY
OPPOSITION TO HIS LEADERSHIP.

The narrator says THE SECRET POLICE MAKE
THOUSANDS OF ARRESTS,
ROUNDING UP TARGETS
WITHOUT WARNING, DAY OR NIGHT,
IN MILITARY BARRACKS, PUBLIC
STREETS AND PRIVATE HOMES.

Deo says IF HE SUSPECTED YOU
TO BE IN CONVERSATION
WITH HIS OPPONENT,
YOU KNOW,
HE WOULD NOT JUST DELAY,
HE WOULD JUST REMOVE YOU
INSTANTLY.
NOT PUTTING THEM BEFORE
THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM...
JUST MURDERING.

The narrator says WITHIN THE FIRST YEAR
OF AMIN'S REGIME,
AN ESTIMATED 10,000 UGANDANS
ARE MURDERED BY THE STATE.

The caption changes to "Fathali Moghaffam. Professor of Psychology, Georgetown University."

Fathali is in his sixties, with short wavy white hair and wears glasses, a blue blazer, a gingham blue shirt and a printed bow tie.

Fathali says THEY WANT
CERTAIN PEOPLE OUT OF THE WAY
BECAUSE THEY REGARD THEM
AS INFECTIONS,
INFECTIONS THAT COULD SPREAD.
AND THEY WANT TO USE THEM
AS EXAMPLES
OF WHAT COULD HAPPEN TO YOU
IF YOU STEP OUT OF LINE.

The narrator says BUT IT'S BEHIND THE LOCKED DOORS
OF HIS SECRET POLICE PRISONS
THAT AMIN SHOWS THE FULL EXTENT
OF HIS CRUELTY.
HIS TORTURE CHAMBERS
BECOME LEGENDARY.
AMONG OTHER ATROCITIES,
PRISONERS ARE IMMERSED
IN BOILING WATER,
FORCED TO BEAT EACH OTHER
WITH HAMMERS,
AND MADE TO EAT BAGS OF SALT
UNTIL THEY NEARLY DIE
FROM DEHYDRATION.

Natasha says MANY DICTATORSHIPS RESORT
TO USING TORTURE
BECAUSE IT ENSURES COMPLIANCE.
IT ACTUALLY ALSO SERVES
A PURPOSE OF
PSYCHOLOGICALLY AFFECTING
THE VICTIM QUITE EXTENSIVELY.
THAT THEY WON'T EVER, EVER AGAIN
ATTEMPT TO,
TO CHALLENGE THE REGIME.

Mahmood says THE CONSOLIDATION OF POWER
IS BRUTAL.
THIS GOVERNMENT IS BORN
IN AN ORGY OF BLOOD.
BECAUSE IT'S PURGING
OF ALL ELEMENTS
WHICH HE THINKS COULD CHALLENGE
HIS HOLD ON POWER.

The narrator says AMIN MAKES SURE EVERYONE
IN UGANDA
UNDERSTANDS
THE PRICE OF DISLOYALTY.
PUBLIC EXECUTIONS
BECOME A COMMON EVENT.

A clip shows officers tying up a man against a post and covering his head with a bag.

Natasha says HE WANTED TO SEND A VERY CLEAR
MESSAGE TO HIS OPPONENTS,
THAT NO DISLOYALTY WOULD BE
TOLERATED.
ANYONE WHO THREATENED HIS POWER
WAS ALMOST A DEATH SENTENCE.

Fathali says ORDINARY PEOPLE IN DICTATORSHIPS
WANT TO REBEL,
WANT TO BRING THE REGIME DOWN.
BUT THEY ARE FACING A GUN,
A LOADED GUN,
AND THEY WILL BE KILLED,
MANY OF THEM WILL BE KILLED
IF THEY REBEL.

The narrator says UGANDANS FROM
ALL LEVELS OF SOCIETY
COME TO LEARN
THAT THEY ARE BEING WATCHED.
AND THAT OPPOSING AMIN MEANS
RISKING YOUR LIFE.

Amin says EVERYBODY IN UGANDA,
MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES,
POLICE, AND THE PUBLIC,
THEY ARE RESPONSIBLE
FOR MY SECURITY.
AND IMMEDIATELY THEY HEAR
ANYBODY MAKING
SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES
OR TRY TO PLAN
ANYTHING AGAINST ME,
THEY REPORT THAT PERSON
STRAIGHT TO THE POLICE.
THIS IS WHAT I AM HAPPY BECAUSE
IT SEEMS THAT THEY LOVE ME
AND THAT IS WHY
THEY ARE DOING THIS,
WHICH I AM VERY HAPPY,
AND I THANK THEM VERY MUCH.

The narrator says THROUGHOUT HIS RULE,
AMIN'S MURDERS NEVER STOP.
THE KILLINGS CUT ACROSS ALL
SECTIONS OF THE POPULATION...
THE ARMY, FARMERS, STUDENTS,
CLERKS, EVEN RELIGIOUS FIGURES.
IN MANY CASES, AMIN ORDERS HIS
VICTIM'S CORPSES TO BE THROWN
INTO THE NILE WHERE THEY BECOME
FOOD FOR CROCODILES.
[HENRY KYEMBA SPEAKS]

Henry says "By my own house in Jumja, Amin had a farm on the other side, and I would see dead bodies floating across the river. Many people died during Amin's time."

Mariam says IN THE 8 YEARS THAT HE WAS
IN POWER,
ALMOST 300,000 PEOPLE
WERE MASSACRED.
IN FACT THAT NUMBER, ACCORDING
TO AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
IS CITED TO BE AS HIGH
AS 500,000 PEOPLE.

The narrator says AMIN'S VIOLENCE WILL REMAIN
THE CENTRAL PILLAR
OF HIS DICTATORSHIP.
BUT HE KNOWS HE CANNOT RULE
THROUGH FEAR ALONE.

Mariam says DICTATORS ARE VERY CAREFUL.
WE TALK ABOUT INDISCRIMINATE
ACTS OF VIOLENCE AS A STRATEGY
THAT ARE USED BY DICTATORS,
BUT THERE IS A TIPPING POINT.
DICTATORS DO NOT WANT
TO KILL EVERYONE.
YOU DON'T WANT TO CREATE SO MUCH
STATE REPRESSION,
SO MUCH VIOLENCE, THAT YOU
ACTUALLY END UP INSTIGATING
A REBELLION FROM WITHIN,
OR A REVOLUTION FROM WITHIN.

The narrator says FOR HIS NEXT MOVE, AMIN WILL
OFFER THE CARROT, NOT THE STICK.
IN A DRAMATIC ACT
OF CROWD-PLEASING POPULISM,
HE WILL GIVE HIS PEOPLE
WHAT HE BELIEVES THEY WANT...
AND WHAT HE THINKS WILL WIN HIM
THEIR UNDYING LOYALTY.

Natasha says IN THE BEGINNING THERE'S BEEN
A LOT OF FEAR,
REPRESSION, PURGES USED,
ARRESTS,
AND OF COURSE, FEAR IS A BIG
PART OF IT.
BUT NO DICTATOR CAN SURVIVE
WITH JUST REPRESSION ALONE,
THEY HAVE TO CULTIVATE
SOME FORM OF POPULARITY.

The caption changes to "Kampala, Uganda."

The narrator says AMIN WANTS TO DEMONSTRATE
THAT HE CAN GIVE THE PEOPLE
A BETTER, MORE PROSPEROUS LIFE,
ESPECIALLY AMONG HIS BASE...
THE MILLIONS OF LOWER CLASS
UGANDANS WHO HAVE BEEN STUCK
IN A CYCLE OF POVERTY
SINCE COLONIAL TIMES.

Natasha says PEOPLE HAVE A NEED
FOR STABILITY.
THEY NEED TO FEEL LIKE
THEY'RE TAKEN CARE OF.
AND THAT'S SOMETHING THAT
DICTATORSHIPS PROVIDE.
THEY WANT TO ENSURE
THAT THE MASSES FEEL
THAT THERE IS A NEED
FOR THIS DICTATORSHIP.

Mahmood says WHEN UGANDA BECAME INDEPENDENT
IN 1962,
FOR MOST PEOPLE,
NOTHING MUCH CHANGED.

The narrator says AMIN HAS A RADICAL IDEA TO GIVE
BLACK UGANDANS REAL ECONOMIC
POWER FOR THE FIRST TIME.
AND TO MAKE HIS PLAN WORK,
HE WILL USE
A CLASSIC DICTATOR'S TACTIC.

The caption changes to "Creating a common enemy."

Mariam says IF YOU WANT TO
BRING PEOPLE TOGETHER,
AND YOU WANT TO GIVE PEOPLE
A SENSE
THAT THE DICTATOR
MUST BE IN POWER,
BECAUSE HE IS A SAVIOUR OR A
GUARDIAN OF THEIR INTERESTS,
THEN CREATING A COMMON ENEMY IS
AN EXTREMELY EFFECTIVE STRATEGY.
NOW IN THE CASE OF IDI AMIN,
THAT COMMON ENEMY
STEMMED FROM INDOPHOBIA,
WHICH WAS VERY COMMON
AT THE TIME,
AND IT WAS DIRECTED TOWARDS THE
SOUTH ASIAN SETTLERS IN UGANDA.

The narrator says SOUTH ASIANS WERE FIRST BROUGHT
TO UGANDA BY THE BRITISH
IN THE 19TH CENTURY TO HELP RUN
THE COLONIAL ECONOMY.

Mark says THE BRITISH BELIEVED THAT THE
AFRICANS
WEREN'T REALLY CAPABLE OF
CARRYING OUT
THESE THESE ECONOMIC POSITIONS...
RUNNING SHOPS
AND SMALL BUSINESSES.
IN EFFECT
THE ASIANS WERE RUNNING
PRETTY MUCH ALL
THE UGANDAN ECONOMY.

The narrator says BY 1972,
ASIAN UGANDANS MAKE UP
JUST 1 percent OF THE POPULATION,
BUT THEY OWN 90 percent OF
THE COUNTRY'S BUSINESSES.
BY TARGETING ASIANS,
AND REMOVING THEIR GRIP
ON THE ECONOMY,
AMIN BELIEVES HE CAN TRANSFER
POWER AND PROSPERITY
TO BLACK UGANDANS.
IT'S A MOVE THAT WILL PROVOKE
OUTRAGE AROUND THE WORLD
AND DEFINE THE REST
OF HIS DICTATORSHIP.
ON AUGUST 5, 1972,
AMIN ORDERS THE EXPULSION
OF UGANDA'S ENTIRE ASIAN
POPULATION, SOME 55,000 PEOPLE.

A man says WOULD YOU LIKE TO GET
ALL ASIANS OUT REALLY?

Amin says YES! THEY MUST GO
TO THEIR COUNTRY!

The caption changes to "John Nazareth. Ugandan Asian."

John is in his fifties, bald and clean-shaven, and wears blue trousers, a blue sweater and a patterned gray blazer.

John says IT WAS EARLY AUGUST IN 1972,
AND AH...
WE HAD THE RADIO ON,
AND WE HEARD THIS THING ABOUT
THE ASIAN EXPULSION.
AND IT JUST, WE WERE OBLIVIOUS,
WE SAID NO, IT CAN'T BE.
THIS MUST BE SOME KIND OF JOKE
OR SOMETHING.

The narrator says BUT AMIN PROVES TO BE
DEADLY SERIOUS.
THE DICTATOR GIVES ASIAN
UGANDANS LIKE JOHN NAZARETH
AND HIS FAMILY JUST 90 DAYS
TO ARRANGE THEIR AFFAIRS,
CLOSE THEIR BUSINESSES,
AND MAKE PLANS TO EMIGRATE
TO A NEW COUNTRY.

John says PANIC...
IT WAS PRETTY ROUGH.
THE LESS SERIOUS YOU TOOK IT...
I DON'T KNOW WHETHER IT WAS
JUST A DEFENSIVE MECHANISM
IN THE MIND TO MAKE LIGHT
OF SOMETHING BECAUSE IF YOU
DIDN'T LAUGH, YOU'D CRY.

The narrator says THE WORLD PRESS CONDEMNS AMIN
FOR HIS DRASTIC MOVE,
OFTEN RESORTING TO CARICATURE
AND BARELY VEILED RACISM.

A caricature on a newspaper appear with the headline "African butcher."

Mark says THE REACTION ABROAD,
PARTICULARLY IN THE UK
WAS TO REALLY MAKE AMIN SEEM
A HEARTLESS MONSTER,
TO MAKE HIM THE NOTORIOUS
DICTATOR THAT HE HAS BECOME.

The narrator says BUT FOR MANY OF
HIS SUPPORTERS AT HOME
AND ACROSS THE AFRICAN
CONTINENT, AMIN IS SEEN AS
A BOLD, PIONEERING CHAMPION
OF BLACK RIGHTS.
[APPLAUSE and CHEERS]

The narrator says IN THE END, MORE THAN 50,000
UGANDANS OF ASIAN ORIGIN
ARE THROWN OUT
OF THEIR OWN COUNTRY.
AMIN EXPROPRIATES
THE ASIAN OWNED BUSINESSES.
HE SIPHONS MUCH OF THE REVENUES
TO HIS GOVERNMENT
AND SHARES THE PROPERTIES
AMONG HIS SUPPORTERS.

Mahmood says AMIN WAS THE SOURCE OF A FUTURE
FOR SO MANY PEOPLE.
UGANDA HAD SUDDENLY BECOME A
LAND OF OPPORTUNITY
FOR ITS BLACK POPULATION.
HE TAPPED INTO SOMETHING BIG.
I MEAN, THIS WAS ALMOST LIKE A
SOCIAL REVOLUTION.
EXCEPT IT HAD BEEN CARRIED OUT
FROM ABOVE.

The narrator says THE ASIAN EXPULSION REMAKES
UGANDA'S ECONOMY...
BUT IN WAYS AMIN HAD NEVER
INTENDED.

Mahmood says THE IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY
WAS DISASTROUS.

Deo says IT WAS A BIG DISASTER
BECAUSE THE AFRICANS WHO TOOK
OVER THESE BUSINESSES
HAD NO EXPERIENCE AT ALL
IN THE MANAGEMENT
OF THESE PROPERTIES.

The narrator says ALL COMMERCIAL SUPPLY CHAINS,
FOR DECADES CONTROLLED
BY ASIAN BUSINESS OWNERS,
SUDDENLY BREAK DOWN.
MANUFACTURERS CAN'T GET PARTS
AND RAW MATERIALS.
UNEMPLOYMENT SOARS.
STORE SHELVES ARE BARE
AND BASIC HOUSEHOLD GOODS
LIKE MATCHES AND SUGAR
ARE UNAVAILABLE.

Deo says THEN THERE WAS
A PHENOMENON OF CRIME.
THESE WERE BURGLARS,
THESE WERE BANDITS
INVADING HOMES
AND STEALING FROM PEOPLE.
IT WAS ON THE RISE STIMULATED BY
THE BITING ECONOMIC CONDITIONS.

Mahmood says THE SUPPORT THAT HE HAD GAINED
THROUGH THE ASIAN EXPULSION WAS
BEGINNING TO WANE.
TO ENSURING A RUNNING ECONOMY,
OR A RULE OF LAW...
AMIN HAD LOST THAT CREDIBILITY.

The narrator says WITH EVEN HIS MOST
ARDENT SUPPORTERS
NOW QUESTIONING HIS LEADERSHIP,
AMIN IS FACING THE POSSIBILITY
OF REVOLT.
TO WIN BACK POPULAR SUPPORT,
HE TURNS TO
ANOTHER DICTATOR'S TACTIC.
HE WILL TRY TO DIVERT
PUBLIC ATTENTION
AWAY FROM HIS FAILED POLICIES.

The caption changes to "Politics of distraction."

Natasha says IT'S AN IMPORTANT
TOOL FOR ANY DICTATOR.
IT'S A WAY OF DISTRACTING PEOPLE
FROM THE TRANSGRESSIONS OF THE
REGIME, FROM THE REPRESSION,
FROM THE POOR POLICIES.
THE ECONOMY WAS DOING TERRIBLY.
HE WAS RUNNING THE COUNTRY
INTO THE GROUND.

The narrator says AMIN'S PLAN IS TO TURN THE
PUBLIC SPOTLIGHT
AWAY FROM THE FAILING ECONOMY
AND TRAIN IT ON HIMSELF.

Alicia says AN IMPORTANT
ASPECT ABOUT AMIN
IS THE THEATRICALITY OF HIS
PERSONALITY. RIGHT?
HE LOVED TO, HE LOVED TO MAKE
A SPECTACLE, A SHOW OF THINGS,
AND HE LOVED TO RUFFLE FEATHERS.

The narrator says THE DICTATOR LAUNCHES A PUBLIC
WAR OF WORDS
WITH THE OUTSIDE WORLD.
HE BEGINS SENDING OUT
A SERIES OF LEWD AND
CONTROVERSIAL TELEGRAMS, OFTEN
TO PROMINENT WORLD LEADERS.

Alicia says ONE EXAMPLE OF THIS WOULD BE
WHEN HE SENT
THE QUEEN OF ENGLAND
A TELEGRAM TELLING HER NOT TO
GET HER KNICKERS IN A BUNDLE
OVER SOMETHING THAT HE HAD DONE.
THE WORLD WERE OUTRAGED...
HOW CAN YOU SEND SUCH
AN INAPPROPRIATE MESSAGE
TO THE QUEEN OF ENGLAND
TALKING ABOUT HER UNDERPANTS?

Deo says THERE'S ONE TELEGRAM
THAT HE SENT TO NIXON,
THE U.S. PRESIDENT,
CONGRATULATING HIM
AFTER HE'D BEEN IMPEACHED
OVER THE WATERGATE SCANDAL.

Alicia says HE DEPLOYED IRRATIONALITY
AS A PERFORMATIVE TACTIC
TO TRY AND GET PEOPLE TALKING
ABOUT HIM.
HE LOVED A GOOD SHOW,
HE LOVED A GOOD PERFORMANCE.
AND SO BY ENGAGING IN THESE
SOMETIMES OVER-THE-TOP,
OUTRAGEOUS BEHAVIOURS,
BY SENDING THESE MISSIVES TO
VARIOUS HEADS OF STATES, SAYING
VARIOUS INAPPROPRIATE THINGS,
HE WAS ABLE TO GET PEOPLE'S EYES
FOCUSED ON HIM.

The narrator says ONCE AGAIN, THE WORLD PRESS
SCRAMBLES TO COVER IDI AMIN,
FRAMING HIM AS AN UNTHINKING
AND UNHINGED DESPOT.

Deo says THESE NEWSPAPERS SAID LOOK,
THIS MAN IS CRAZY.
HE IS A BUFFOON.
ACTUALLY THEY USED
THE WORD BUFFOON.

The narrator says BUT AT HOME,
MANY UGANDANS SET ASIDE
THEIR CONCERNS OVER THE ECONOMY
AND THRILL TO THE SIGHT
OF THEIR LEADER
ON THE WORLD STAGE,
STANDING UP TO THE WEST.

Deo says SO WHEN HE PROJECTED HIMSELF AS
A CRITIC OF COLONIALISM,
AS A PROTESTOR
AGAINST WHITE DOMINATION,
HE RECEIVED VERY HIGH MARKS.

Alicia says PART OF THE REASON WHY MANY
PEOPLE HAVE NOT
TAKEN AMIN SERIOUSLY IS BECAUSE
OF HIS ANTICS.
BUT I THINK WE NEED TO TAKE
THESE TELEGRAMS
AND THESE MISSIVES VERY
SERIOUSLY, BECAUSE THEY TELL US
A LOT ABOUT
THE INNER CALCULUS
OF THE POLITICAL MACHINE
THAT WAS, YOU KNOW, AMIN.

The narrator says AMIN MANAGES TO KEEP A TENUOUS
HOLD ON POPULAR SUPPORT,
BUT BY 1978, UGANDA'S ECONOMY
IS WEAKER THAN EVER,
AND THE DICTATOR IS FACING
AN URGENT PROBLEM.
WITH HIS GOVERNMENT
NEARLY BANKRUPT,
AMIN'S ONCE LOYAL ARMY
IS UNDERFUNDED
AND INCREASINGLY OUT OF CONTROL.

Alicia says AMIN CREATED A
HYPERMILITARIZED STATE.
WHAT HE DID IS,
OVER TIME HE CREATED
MULTIPLE DIFFERENT ORGANIZATIONS
THAT WERE RESPONSIBLE
FOR VARIOUS ASPECTS OF SECURITY
IN THE COUNTRY.
AS THESE GROUPS WERE ABLE
TO AMASS INCREASING AMOUNTS
OF POWER,
THEY WERE NOT NECESSARILY
LOYAL TO HIM ANYMORE.
AND SO EVENTUALLY THE MILITARISM
WHICH HAD BROUGHT HIM POWER
WAS WHAT ULTIMATELY UNDID HIM.

The narrator says IN NEIGHBOURING TANZANIA,
MILTON OBOTE
IS WATCHING CLOSELY.
HE RALLIES THOUSANDS
OF UGANDAN REBELS
TO JOIN FORCES
WITH THE TANZANIAN ARMY
AND WAITS FOR THE RIGHT MOMENT
TO STRIKE.

Mark says INCREASING NUMBERS
OF EXILES
WERE ORGANIZING IN TANZANIA,
AND THEY WERE GETTING MORE AND
MORE INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT.
SO HE WAS VERY MUCH
UNDER THREAT.

The narrator says AMID THE CRISIS,
AMIN SEES AN OPPORTUNITY,
A WAY TO SHORE UP
HIS CRUMBLING REGIME
AND PREEMPT TANZANIA'S
IMMINENT ATTACK.
HE'LL EMPLOY A TACTIC USED
BY MANY OTHER DICTATORS.

The caption changes to "Using war."

Alicia says THIS WAR WAS ABOUT TRYING
TO GIVE THE SOLDIERS
SOMETHING CONCRETE TO FOCUS ON
THAT WAS NOT GOING TO GET THEM
INVOLVED IN OTHER BUSINESS
THAT THEY SHOULDN'T BE
INVOLVED IN,
SUCH AS QUESTIONING THE
AUTHORITY OF THE STATE.

The narrator says IN OCTOBER 1978,
UGANDAN FORCES INVADE TANZANIA.

Clips show aircrafts throwing bombs in the region.

[LOUD EXPLOSION]

The narrator says AMIN'S ARMY, WHOSE TROOPS
HE CAN NO LONGER AFFORD TO PAY
LOOT AND PLUNDER
THEIR WAY ACROSS
NEARLY 700 SQUARE MILES
OF TANZANIAN TERRITORY.
[LOUD EXPLOSIONS]

Alicia says DURING THE INVASION,
THEY MASSACRED
EVERY LIVING THING
THAT WAS AROUND.
REPORTS SUGGEST THAT IT WAS
COMPLETE AND TOTAL DESTRUCTION.

The narrator says AMIN'S GAMBLE
ON A WAR WITH TANZANIA
SEEMS TO HAVE PAID OFF.
HE DECLARES A GREAT VICTORY,
BUT HE HAS MISJUDGED
THE WILL OF HIS ENEMY
AND THE STRENGTH
OF HIS OWN ARMY.

Mariam says THE TANZANIANS WEREN'T GOING TO
TAKE LIGHTLY, AND IN FACT
THEY CAME BACK FULL FORCE AND
RECAPTURED THEIR TERRITORY,
PUSHING AMIN BACK INTO UGANDA,
PUSHING HIS TROOPS BACK.

Alicia says AND SO INSTEAD OF
FIGHTING BACK,
AMIN'S TROOPS WERE VERY
DILAPIDATED BY THE END...
A DISORGANIZED MESS.
AND SO IT WAS VERY EASY
FOR THE TANZANIAN ARMY,
WHO AT THIS POINT WERE
VERY HIGHLY ORGANIZED,
TO CHASE AFTER AMIN
AND HIS SOLDIERS.

The narrator says WITH HIS TROOPS IN FULL RETREAT,
AMIN BARRICADES HIMSELF
IN HIS PRESIDENTIAL RESIDENCE
IN KAMPALA.
ON APRIL 10, 1979,
TANZANIAN FORCES ENTER
THE CAPITOL.
AMIN'S WAR HAS PROVED TO BE
A FATAL MISTAKE.
[CHEERING]

Mariam says THIS ENTIRE EPISODE,
WHICH STEMMED
FROM AMIN REALIZING
THAT HE WAS LOSING CONTROL
OF HIS REGIME
LED HIM TO GO ON A MISADVENTURE
AND MAKE A MISTAKE.
IT WAS A HUGE MISSTEP FOR IDI
AMIN BECAUSE IT LED TO THE END.

The narrator says THROUGH A COMBINATION
OF POPULIST CHARM
AND BRUTAL VIOLENCE,
BACKED UP BY
A VAST POLICE STATE,
IDI AMIN MANAGED TO RULE UGANDA,
AND CONFOUND THE WHOLE WORLD,
FOR 8 YEARS.
NOW, IT'S ALL OVER.
ON APRIL 11, 1979,
WITH TANZANIAN TROOPS
AND UGANDAN REBELS
CLOSING IN ON HIS COMPOUND,
AMIN BOARDS AN ARMY HELICOPTER
AND FLEES THE COUNTRY.
MILLIONS OF UGANDANS, FINALLY
FREE OF AMIN'S BRUTAL RULE,
REJOICE IN THE STREETS.
BUT THEY MUST ALSO RECKON WITH
WHAT THE DICTATOR
HAS LEFT BEHIND:
A DEVASTATED ECONOMY
AND THE SLAUGHTER
OF HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS
OF THEIR FELLOW CITIZENS.

Deo says THERE ARE PEOPLE
WHO LOST PARENTS,
AS A RESULT OF IDI AMIN
AND HAVE NEVER RECOVERED.

Henry says I LOST MY BROTHER.
I LOST MY SONS.
I LOST MY CLOSE RELATIVES.

The narrator says AS MILTON OBOTE
RETURNS TO UGANDA
TO RECLAIM
HIS OLD DICTATORSHIP,
AMIN FLEES TO THE MIDDLE EAST.
THERE HE LEVERAGES HIS MUSLIM
HERITAGE TO FIND REFUGE.
ULTIMATELY, HE IS GIVEN A SAFE
AND COMFORTABLE HAVEN
IN SAUDI ARABIA.

Alicia says ONCE AMIN GOT TO SAUDI ARABIA,
HE HAD A VERY NICE LIFESTYLE.
THE SAUDI GOVERNMENT PUT HIM UP
IN A VERY BEAUTIFUL HOUSE.
HE WAS ABLE TO MARRY AT LEAST
TWO ADDITIONAL WOMEN.
AND SO BY ALL ACCOUNTS,
IT WOULD APPEAR THAT AMIN
ENDED HIS DAYS WITHOUT EVER
HAVING TO PAY FOR THE VIOLENCE
AND DEVASTATION
THAT HE BROUGHT TO UGANDA.

The narrator says AMIN LIVED A LONG LIFE AND NEVER
ANSWERED FOR HIS CRIMES,
DYING PEACEFULLY
OF KIDNEY FAILURE IN 2003.

An aerial view shows images of Kampala, Uganda.

The narrator says BUT EVER SINCE HIS DOWNFALL
IN 1979,
THE CULTURE OF VIOLENCE
AND MILITARISM
THAT HE CREATED IN UGANDA
CONTINUED.
THE COUNTRY HAS SEEN PERIODS OF
RELATIVE STABILITY AND PEACE,
BUT AMIN'S SUCCESSORS HAVE
ALL USED HIS TACTICS
TO INTIMIDATE AND CONTROL
THEIR POPULATION.

Alicia says EVERY LEADER SINCE AMIN,
HAS RELIED UPON MILITARY FORCE
TO MAINTAIN POWER
AND TO STIFLE DISSENT,
LARGELY BECAUSE THEY HAVE
LEARNED THROUGH AMIN,
THAT VIOLENCE IS EFFECTIVE,
VIOLENCE WORKS.
THE VIOLENCE THAT WAS
INCULCATED AND SUPPORTED
BY AMIN'S MILITARISM, IS
SOMETHING THAT LIVES ON
AS ONE OF HIS MOST
ENDURING LEGACIES.

Music plays as the end credits roll.

Producer, Patrick Cameron.

Director, Mark Stevenson.

Narrator, Tom Park.

Copyright 2018, Dictator Productions Inc.

Watch: Ep. 6 - Idi Amin