Transcript: Ep. 4 - Northotago | Jun 08, 2019

(music plays)

Aerial views show images of the New Zealand coasts and forest-covered mountains.

Neil is in his late forties, clean-shaven and with long brown hair. He wears beige trousers, a blue shirt, and a printed scarf.

Neil says NEW ZEALAND IS, WITHOUT
A DOUBT, A LAND OF LIMITLESS
VARIETY.
BORN OF POTENT EARTHLY FORCES,
THEN SURROUNDED ON ALL SIDES
BY THE SEA.
THE NORTH OTAGO COAST IS A
SNAPSHOT OF ALL THAT IT
PROVIDES.
A PLETHORA OF PLEASURES THAT
SIT ON A SPECTRUM FROM
WHIMSICAL TO WONDROUS,
FROM EXPLOSIVE TO EXQUISITE.
FROM FREE-WHEELING WILDLIFE
TO MARVELS OF VOLCANIC MYSTERY,
THE DELIGHTS OF THIS
EAST-FACING SOUTHERLY SEABOARD
ARE MANY AND VARIED.
JOINING ME AS WE
EXPLORE, DAVE MURRAY FINDS
HIMSELF AT THE BACK END OF A
FAST-MOVING MOUNT.

A clip shows Dave at a horse cart race down the beach.

David is in his thirties, clean-shaven and with short straight light brown hair. He wears jeans, rubber boots, a neon yellow safety vest and a helmet.

He says SO, HOW DID I GO?

The woman says YOU'RE A NATURAL.

Dave says AH.

Neil says HAMISH CAMPBELL FINDS
GEOLOGICAL MIRACLES AT MOERAKI.

Hamish is in his fifties, with short wavy gray hair and a beard. He wears jeans and a gray shirt.

He stands next to a round rock at the beach and says THESE MAGNIFICENT ROUND
STONES ARE NOTHING SHORT OF A
FREAK OF NATURE.

Neil says AND JACKY GEURTS
LEARNS HOW TO PADDLE HER OWN
CANOE.

Jacky is in her thirties, with long straight blond hair in a ponytail and wears jeans, a White sweater and a life vest.

As she paddles, she says WE'RE ACTUALLY GOING REALLY
FAST.

A little boy says YEAH.

Neil says WE'RE IN NORTH OTAGO,
AND THIS IS
COAST NEW ZEALAND.

(Theme music plays)

Fast clips show extensions of coastal landscape, forest covered mountains, and huge rock letters slowly forming the logo "COAST NEW ZEALAND" and a round medallion with a cut-out map of the New Zealand standing out to sea.

An animated map outlines the coast from Karitane to Damaru.

Neil says OUR NORTH OTAGO ODYSSEY
TAKES IN KARITANE, TRAVERSES
KOEKOHE BEACH, AND HEADS AROUND
CAPE WANBROW.
AT ITS HEART, THE
PICTURE-PERFECT TOWN OF OAMARU.

A caption reads "Neil Oliver"

Neil says "THEN AS I LOOKED AT YOUR
BUILDINGS RISING IN A STONE OF
UTMOST BRILLIANCE, OF A KIND I
HAVE NEVER SEEN BEFORE, I
THOUGHT, 'OAMARU IS A MAIDEN
THAT SITS BY THE SEA.'"
SO SAID SIR GEORGE GREY, PRIME
MINISTER OF NEW ZEALAND IN 1878.
SHE WAS ESTABLISHED AS A SMALL
TOWN WITH BIG AMBITIONS,
NOT ALL OF WHICH CAME TO PASS.
BUT THERE'S NO DENYING OAMARU'S
PLACE IN THIS CULTURE-RICH
COAST.
OCEAN MERCIER INVESTIGATES
A WHITER SHADE OF PALE.

The caption changes to "Ocean Mercier."

Ocean is in her thirties, with long curly brown hair in a ponytail, and wears a black sweater and a long blue knitted scarf.

Ocean says OAMARU IS FAMOUS FOR
ITS STONE ARCHITECTURE.
THE LOCALS KNOW IT AS WHITE
STONE CITY.
SO, WHAT GIVES OAMARU LIMESTONE
ITS DISTINCTIVE CREAMY WHITE?
I'M HEADING TO BOATMAN'S
HARBOUR, WHERE WORLD-RENOWNED
MARINE SCIENTIST PROFESSOR ABBY
SMITH HAS THE RATHER SURPRISING
ANSWER.

Ocean meets Abby at the beach.

Ocean says KIA ORA, ABBY.

The caption changes to "Abby Smith."

Abby is in her fifties, with short straight gray hair and wears glasses, jeans, a hot pink sweater and a black vest.

Abby says HI, OCEAN, HOW ARE YOU?

Ocean says NICE TO MEET YOU.
I'M GOOD.

Abby says GOOD TO SEE YOU.

Ocean says YEAH, SO, WHAT EXACTLY ARE WE
LOOKING FOR?

Abby points at a big rock and says WE'RE LOOKING AT BRYOZOANS.
SO, BRYOZOANS ARE TINY LITTLE
CREATURES THAT WORK TOGETHER TO
BUILD A SKELETON, WHICH IS A
COLONY.
AND SO, WE'RE LOOKING AT THESE
COLONIES, THESE FOSSILS HERE.
HERE'S ONE.
AND HERE'S ONE.
AND HERE'S ONE.
AND THEY'RE JUST LIKE LITTLE
CROSS-SECTIONS OF BRANCHES.

Ocean says IT'S BELIEVED THESE
BRYOZOANS WERE FOSSILIZED
30 TO 40 MILLION YEARS AGO BY
THE SAME VOLCANO THAT FORMED
THE REGION'S UNIQUE COAST.
BUT THE LIVING VERSIONS ARE
ESPECIALLY LARGE AND ESPECIALLY
ABUNDANT IN THE WATERS AROUND
NEW ZEALAND AND AUSTRALIA.
AND THEY PLAY A VITAL ROLE IN
THE HEALTH OF OUR OCEANS.

Abby says YOU CAN SEE THAT THE SORT OF
NOOKS AND CRANNIES OF THE
SKELETON ALLOW OTHER THINGS TO
GROW.
SO, I'VE GOT A WORM AND A
BRACHIOPOD AND SOME OTHER
BRYOZOANS AND ALL SORTS OF
THINGS.
AND FISH WOULD HAVE BEEN LIVING
IN AMONGST THIS STRUCTURE THAT'S
PRODUCED BY THE BRYOZOANS.

Ocean says SO, THE STRUCTURE ITSELF IS
A WHOLE COLONY OF LOTS OF
DIFFERENT BRYOZOANS?

Abby says YEAH, AND YOU CAN'T EVEN SEE
THE INDIVIDUALS.
THEY'RE SO TINY.
THEY'RE SMALLER THAN A PINPRICK.

Ocean says WOW.

Abby says IF YOU THINK OF THIS,
IT'S A BIT LIKE AN APARTMENT
BUILDING WHERE ALL THE
DIFFERENT CRITTERS LIVE NEXT
DOOR TO EACH OTHER.
AND THEY EACH FEED BY
THEMSELVES.
BUT IF THERE'S A PROBLEM, IF
ONE OF THEM DOESN'T GET ANYTHING
TO EAT, IT CAN GET FOOD FROM THE
NEIGHBOUR.
OR IF ONE OF THEM IS BUSY
REPRODUCING, IT GETS FED BY ALL
ITS NEIGHBOURS.

Ocean says THAT'S ALL VERY WELL.
BUT HOW DO THESE INVERTEBRATE
FILTER-FEEDERS TURN INTO THE
PEARLY-HUED BUILDING MATERIAL
FOR WHICH OAMARU IS SO WIDELY
RECOGNIZED?

Abby says HERE WE HAVE THE WHOLE
PROGRESSION.
I'VE GOT A BRYOZOAN COLONY.
AND THEN THE BRYOZOANS BREAK
DOWN, AND THEY MAKE A ROCK.
AND SO, YOU CAN SEE IT'S MADE
OF LITTLE BROKEN SHELLS.
SO, THIS IS A LIMESTONE.

Ocean says WHY IS BRYOZOAN
LIMESTONE PARTICULARLY FOUND
HERE?

Abby says THIS WAS BRYOZOAN
HEAVEN, AROUND THIS VOLCANO.
SHALLOW, WARM, HEAPS OF
NUTRIENTS.
AND THERE ARE JUST SQUIZILLIONS
OF BRYOZOANS PRESERVED IN
LIMESTONES AROUND OAMARU.
THE CITY OF OAMARU IS BUILT OF A
BRYOZOAN LIMESTONE.
IT'S BEEN CRUSHED AND WELDED,
MOSTLY BY THE EFFECT OF THE
VOLCANO, THE ASH.
AND THAT MAKES IT AN EXCELLENT
BUILDING STONE.

(music plays)

Ocean says OVER TIME, SHELL
DEBRIS FROM THESE MARINE
INVERTEBRATES ACCUMULATES AND
IS MADE AVAILABLE THANKS TO
SHIFTING SEA LEVELS AND SEISMIC
UPLIFT.
JUST A FEW MINUTES FROM THE
COAST, AND THE SCALE OF
BRYOZOAN COLONY BUILDING IS
LAID BARE.
A 40-METRE DEEP LAYER OF
GORGEOUS, GLISTENING LIMESTONE.
TRULY A SIGHT TO BEHOLD!
PARKSIDE.
THE FIRST STONE QUARRY HERE WAS
IN 1906.
JOHN DOOLEY IS A
THIRD-GENERATION STONEMASON.

The caption changes to "John Dooley."

John is in his fifties, with short wavy gray hair and wears beige trousers, a beige shirt and a neon orange safety vest.

Ocean says GOOD TO MEET YOU.
WHAT'S YOUR STORY HERE?

John says I'VE BEEN IN THE BUSINESS
FOR ABOUT 45 YEARS.
MY FATHER, HE WAS A STONEMASON.
MY GRANDFATHER WAS A STONEMASON
HERE IN OAMARU.

Ocean says SO, WHAT'S THIS THAT YOU'RE
WORKING ON HERE?

John says THIS IS A PART OF THE FIRST
CHURCH RESTORATION IN DUNEDIN.
AND IT'S THE BASE OF ONE OF THE
ORNATE CROSSES.
AND I'VE JUST GOT TO FINISH
THIS PIECE BY HAND.
THIS HAS BEEN DONE BY MACHINE.

Ocean says JOHN HAS LIMESTONE IN
HIS BLOOD.
THE TOOLS OF HIS TRADE ARE
WELL-WORN FAMILY HEIRLOOMS.

John says THESE HERE ARE SOME OLD
TOOLS OF THE GRANDFATHER'S.
THEY'RE HAND-MADE ITEMS, FORGED
FROM AN OLD FILE.
SO, THESE WOULD BE PROBABLY 120
YEARS OLD OR MORE.

Ocean says AND IT'S STILL GOING WELL
120 YEARS LATER?

John says STILL AS GOOD AS ANY OF THEM.
(CHUCKLING)

Ocean says THERE ARE HUGE
DEPOSITS OF MARINE SEDIMENTS,
MADE MOSTLY OF BRYOZOAN
SKELETONS, BOTH TO THE NORTH
AND SOUTH OF NEW ZEALAND.
UP TO TWO KILOMETRES THICK.
LOTS MORE LIMESTONE IN THE
MAKING FOR CREAMY WHITE
BUILDINGS LIKE THE OPERA HOUSE.
AND THERE IT STILL STANDS,
A VIVID EXAMPLE OF OAMARU'S
GRAND OLD STONE ARCHITECTURE.
BUILT UPON THE BACKS, OR LACK
THEREOF, OF TINY BRYOZOANS.
A REMINDER THAT FROM SMALL
THINGS, BIG THINGS CAN GROW.

(music plays)

Neil says OAMARU IS THE MOST
COMPLETE VICTORIAN SETTING IN
THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE.
THE TOWN DATES TO 1853, WHEN
VICTORIA HAD BEEN QUEEN FOR 17
YEARS.
A TIME THAT RECALLS CONTRASTING
IMAGES OF CRINOLINED SOCIETY,
GREY INDUSTRIAL TOWNS, AND
GRINDING DICKENSIAN POVERTY.
NOT HERE ON THE SUNNY OTAGO
COAST.
SO, WHY IS OAMARU THE PROUD
POSTER TOWN OF NEW ZEALAND'S
VICTORIANA?
AND STEAMPUNK, A CURIOUS
MOVEMENT THAT REACHES BACK
THERE, THAT WAS LAUNCHED BY
IAIN CLARK OR AGENT DARLING?
IAIN, HOW ARE YOU?

The caption changes to "Iain Clark."

Iain is in his fifties, with long curly gray hair and a goatee. He wears burgundy trousers, a white shirt, a forest green vest, a yellow tie, a maroon leather jacket, a top hat with goggles on the front. He carries a jetpack.

Iain says NEIL, I'M GOOD.
THANK YOU.

Neil says TALK ME THROUGH THE OUTFIT
THAT YOU'RE WEARING.

Iain says TODAY, I'M WEARING THE
LATEST IN COMFORTABLE AND
AFFORDABLE JET-PACK TECHNOLOGY.

Neil says OKAY.

Iain says YES.

Neil says WHAT IS STEAMPUNK?
WHAT IDEA LIES BEHIND IT?

Iain says VICTORIAN DYSTOPIAN FUTURE.
IT IS WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF
PETROL TECHNOLOGY HADN'T TAKEN
OVER.

Neil says THE VICTORIANS HAD JUST
CARRIED ON?
THEY HADN'T BEEN SUPERSEDED BY
ANY OTHER TECHNOLOGY?

Iain says WHAT WOULD YOUR CELLPHONE
LOOK LIKE?
WHAT WOULD YOUR USB DRIVE LOOK
LIKE?
WHAT WOULD YOUR, YOU KNOW, ANY
DEVICE THAT YOU USE?

Neil says WHY HAS OAMARU BECOME
THE HEADQUARTERS, THE CENTRE
POINT OF STEAMPUNK IN THIS PART
OF THE WORLD?

They go for a bike ride around town.

Iain says AS YOU CAN SEE, WE'RE
IMMERSED IN A VICTORIAN HERITAGE
CULTURE, WHICH LENDS ITSELF VERY
EASILY TO THE STEAMPUNK ETHOS.
HAVING ALREADY GOT THAT
VICTORIAN ETHOS IN PLACE,
STEAMPUNK WAS A PERFECT FIT,
BEING THE GENRE THAT IT IS.
AND IT LENDS ITSELF SO EASILY
TO THE PHILOSOPHY THAT THE
VICTORIANS HAD WITH FUTURE
THINKING, INVENTION.

Neil says IT'S INTERESTING IN A WAY
THAT, YOU KNOW, THE VICTORIAN
ERA LEFT THIS PLACE BEHIND.
AND STEAMPUNK'S KIND OF PICKED
IT UP AND CARRIED IT UP AND...
(IAIN LAUGHING)

Iain says THAT WAS ACTUALLY A LOT TO
DO WITH THE ECONOMICS BACK IN
THE '70S, WHEN WE COULDN'T
ACTUALLY AFFORD TO PULL THE
BUILDINGS DOWN.
AND SO, IT WAS, IN SOME WAYS,
THE VERY THING THAT ACTUALLY
SAVED IT.

Neil says HOW FANTASTIC.

(music plays)

Neil says THE VICTORIAN ERA WAS SEEN AS
THE AGE OF INVENTION, THE
ARCHITECTS OF WHICH WERE THE
ROCK STARS OF THEIR DAY.
SO WHO BETTER TO PICK UP THE
STORY OF OAMARU'S RAPID RISE
THAN AN ENGINEER?
THE ONE I'M GOING TO MEET IS
WAITING ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE
PORT.
AND WHAT BETTER WAY TO GET THERE
THAN ABOARD A MAGNIFICENT STEAM
TRAIN?
(WHISTLE BLOWING)

Neil says I'M MEETING BRUCE
COMFORT ON THIS CONCRETE
BREAKWATER, WHICH WAS TRULY A
SIGN OF THE TIMES.
HI, BRUCE.

Bruce says AFTERNOON, NEIL.

The caption changes to "Bruce Comfort."

Bruce is in his sixties, with short wavy white hair and a beard. He wears glasses, white trousers, a black sweater and a cream hat.

Neil says HOW ARE YOU?
HOW ARE YOU?

Bruce says I'M REALLY GOOD.

Neil says IT'S A FINE BREAKWATER YOU
HAVE HERE.

Bruce says IT CERTAINLY IS.

Neil says TELL ME WHY IT WAS BUILT.
I MEAN, IT'S SUCH A MASSIVE
UNDERTAKING.

Bruce says TO ENABLE US TO EXPORT WOOL
VIA SAILING SHIPS IN THE 1870S.

Neil says WHAT WAS HERE BEFORE?

Bruce says AN OPEN GRAVEL BEACH.

Neil says OKAY.

Bruce says AND WE GREW WOOL.
AND IT WAS SUCH A VALUABLE
COMMODITY THAT SAILING SHIPS AND
MERCHANTS CAME HERE OVER AND
OVER AGAIN, EVEN THOUGH SHIPS
WERE WRECKED.

Neil says DO YOU KNOW HOW MUCH
SHIPPING WAS BEING LOST?

Bruce says THIRTY-SIX SHIPS IN 10
YEARS.

Neil says ONCE THE DECISION HAD BEEN
TAKEN TO BUILD IT, HOW ON EARTH
DID THEY GO ABOUT DOING IT?

Bruce says WELL, FIRST OF ALL,
IT MEANT DECIDING IT HAD TO BE
MADE OF CONCRETE.
THE CEMENT CAME FROM LONDON.

Neil says REALLY?

Bruce says LONDON, KENT.

Neil says AND WHAT KIND OF QUANTITIES
ARE WE TALKING ABOUT?

Bruce says THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS
OF BARRELS.

Neil says AND WHAT ABOUT THE
EQUIPMENT?
YOU KNOW, THIS IS THE VICTORIAN
PERIOD.
AND WHAT KIND OF TOOLS WERE
AVAILABLE TO THEM?

Bruce says CONCRETE WAS GENERALLY MIXED
BY HAND AROUND THE WORLD.
BUT THE MEN WHO BUILT THIS
REALIZED THEY COULDN'T DO IT BY
HAND.

Neil says RIGHT.

Bruce says AND SO THEY
COMMISSIONED A STEAM-POWERED
CONCRETE MIXER.
AND THEY COMMISSIONED A HUGE
CRANE TO LIFT THE CONCRETE
BLOCKS.

Neil says THEY REALLY DID PUT
THEIR NECKS ON THE LINE TO GET
IT BUILT.

Bruce says THEY THOUGHT THIS WAS GOING
TO BE THE BIGGEST TOWN IN NEW
ZEALAND.
THEY WERE FULL OF OPTIMISM.

Neil says ONCE THEY HAD IT HERE,
WHAT DID IT DO FOR THE TOWN?

Bruce says IT MADE SHIPPING SAFE.
YOU COULD BRING A SHIP HERE IN
ANY WEATHER, PARK IT ROUND THIS
SIDE OF THE BREAKWATER...

Neil says RIGHT.

Bruce says --WHICH FUNCTIONED AS A
WHARF AS WELL AS A BREAKWATER...
AND LOAD AND UNLOAD IN SAFETY.
AND THE WHOLE THING CLICKED.

Neil says SO THAT'S WHY OLD
OAMARU LOOKS THE WAY IT DOES,
WITH THOSE FANTASTIC, ELEGANT
VICTORIAN BUILDINGS.

Bruce says THERE WAS MONEY AND
ENTHUSIASM.

Neil says IT WAS A TOWN ON THE UP.

Bruce says OH, FOR SURE.

Neil says THAT'S AN AMAZING STORY.

(music plays)

A satellite map zooms in on Waikouaiti.

Neil says AND STORIES ABOUND
ALONG THIS SEASIDE EXPANSE, OF
THE LAND AND ITS INHABITANTS,
BE THEY TWO-LEGGED OR FOUR...
OR A CANNY COMBINATION OF BOTH.
DAVE MURRAY IS ONTO A HOT TIP:
A HORSE TRAINER FROM
WAIKOUAITI WHO HAS AN ACE UP
HER SLEEVE.

The caption changes to "Dave Murray."

Dave says TRAINING RACE HORSES CAN BE
A TOUGH AND EXHAUSTING BUSINESS.
SO, HOW DO YOU PUT THE SPRING
BACK INTO YOUR STANDARDBRED
CHAMPION?
AMBER HOFFMAN TRAINS FOR
GLAMOUR HOOVES STABLES AND
TAKES FULL ADVANTAGE OF THE
COASTAL SURROUNDS.
HER HORSES GET A BREAK FROM THE
TRACK AND ARE ROUTINELY PUT
THROUGH THEIR PACES ON THE LONG
SWEEPING CRESCENT OF WAIKOUAITI
BEACH.
SO, WHY IS THE BEACH SUCH A
GREAT PLACE FOR TRAINING?

The caption changes to "Amber Hoffman."

Amber is in her thirties, with wavy blond hair and wears a black jacket, an orange safety vest and a helmet

She says IT JUST FRESHENS UP THEIR
BODIES AND THEIR MINDS.
AND IT'S ESPECIALLY GOOD FOR
HORSES WITH LEG PROBLEMS.
YOU DON'T SEEM TO BREAK DOWN AS
MUCH.
THEY DON'T GO SORE AS MUCH.
AND HORSES THAT HAVE BROKEN
DOWN IN THE PAST GOING ROUND
AND ROUND ON TRACKS, IT JUST
KEEPS THEM SOUNDER FOR A LOT
LONGER.

Dave says SO, IT'S THE STRAIGHT LINE
THAT HELPS?

Amber says YEAH, A STRAIGHT LINE, YEAH.
NO PRESSURE GOING ROUND BENDS
OR ANYTHING LIKE THAT.

Dave says SO, WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN A STANDARDBRED AND A
THOROUGHBRED HORSE?

Amber says STANDARDBREDS WEAR A CART.
THE THOROUGHBREDS HAVE THE
JOCKEYS ON THEIR BACK.
STANDARDBREDS ARE A LOT MORE
QUIETER AND EASIER TO DEAL WITH.
THOROUGHBREDS ARE LOVELY.
I ABSOLUTELY LOVE THEM,
BUT YEAH, THEY'RE A BIT MORE
FLIGHTY AND, YEAH, BRED FOR
SPEED.
YEAH.

Dave says WHAT SORT OF SPEEDS DO YOU
GET UP TO?

Amber says THEY CAN GET UP TO SORT OF
50K-PLUS, YEAH.

Dave says SO, ARE THERE ANY HEIGHT
RESTRICTIONS FOR THE RIDERS?

Amber says THE GOOD THING WITH HARNESS
RACING IS, ANYONE CAN DO IT,
WHICH IS GREAT.

Dave says EVEN SOMEONE SIX-FOUR?

Amber says YEAH, PERFECTLY FINE, YEAH.
SOME OF THE DRIVERS ARE QUITE
TALL.

Dave says SO, NOW, THE BIG QUESTION:
WHAT ARE THE CHANCES OF YOU
LETTING ME HAVE A GO BEHIND THE
WHEEL OF THIS THING?

Amber says YEAH, NO, DEFINITELY.
WE'VE GOT A WEE HORSE HERE FOR
YOU TODAY TO DRIVE.

Dave says THIS ONE HERE?

Amber says YEAH, HIS NAME'S DAVE.

Dave says SO TWO DAVES?

Amber says TWO DAVES.
HE'S ALL READY FOR YOU.

Dave says GREAT.
TALK ME THROUGH IT.

Amber says OKAY, SO, SIT IN THE CART.

Dave says YEP.

Amber says AND THEN GRAB YOUR REINS.
JUST HOLD THEM LIKE THAT.

Dave says OKAY, PERFECT.
IN THE WEE LOOPS THERE.

Amber says AND THEN JUST SHOVE THESE
UNDER YOUR BUM.

Dave says UNDER MY BUM?

Amber says YEAH, SO THEY'RE NOT DRAGGING
ON THE GROUND.

Dave says YEP.

Amber says YEAH, AND THEN YOU JUST HOLD
ON LIKE THAT.
IT'S JUST THE SAME AS RIDING.
YOU STEER...

Dave says YEAH, LEFT AND RIGHT.

Amber says --THE SAME, AND YOU STOP THE
SAME.
YEAH, AND YOU JUST PUT YOUR
FEET UP IN HERE.

Dave says AND THE BRAKES ARE JUST...
YOU PRESS DOWN ON THESE PEDALS
HERE.

Amber says YEAH, THAT'S IT.
YEAH, NO, HE'S GOT PLENTY OF
BRAKES, SO YOU'LL BE FINE.
YEAH, SO, IT'S PRETTY EASY.

Dave says COME ON, COME ON!

Amber says COME ON, DAVE.

Dave says COME ON.
IT'S QUITE STRANGE, NOT
USING YOUR LEGS, YOU KNOW.

Amber says YEAH.

Dave says TYPICALLY, WHEN RIDING A
HORSE, YOU KNOW, IT'S ALL IN
THE LEGS, SO...

Amber says IT'S A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT.

Dave says YEAH.

Amber says BUT GENERALLY, IF YOU'VE
RIDDEN BEFORE, YOU SORT OF GET
THE HANG OF IT PRETTY QUICK.

Dave says YEAH.
I THINK THE SUSPENSION MIGHT BE
A BIT SHOT IN THIS CART, BUT...

(BOTH LAUGHING)

Dave says AMBER BREAKS HER STANDARDBREDS
IN AS YEARLINGS AND STARTS
RACING THEM AT THREE.
WHAT MAKES A WINNER?
A GOOD ATTITUDE, SHE SAYS.
AND THEY HAVE TO WANT TO DO IT.
SO, WE'VE HAD A BIT OF A TRIAL
RUN.

Amber says YEP.

Dave says SO, SHALL WE PICK THE PACE
UP A BIT?

Amber says YEAH, ARE YOU READY?

Dave says ALRIGHT, COME ON, DAVE!
COME ON!
COME ON!
COME ON, DAVE!
(MAKING SHUSHING SOUNDS)

They start racing along the beach.

Amber says THAT WAS AMAZING.
SO, HOW DID I GO?

Dave says YEAH, YOU'RE PRETTY GOOD.
YOU'RE A NATURAL.

Amber says AH.
I HEARD A GOOD HORSEMAN DOESN'T
LOOK AT THEIR HORSE WITH THEIR
EYES.
THEY LOOK AT THEIR HORSE WITH
THEIR HEART.

Dave says YEAH.

Amber says AND MY HEART'S TELLING ME TO
PUT 100 DOLLARS ON THIS HORSE THE NEXT
TIME IT'S RACING.

Dave says I HOPE YOU'RE RIGHT.
(BOTH LAUGHING)

(music plays)

Dave says THAT WAS AN ABSOLUTELY
UNBELIEVABLE EXPERIENCE.
YOU KNOW, I'VE RIDDEN ON A
HORSE'S BACK BEFORE BUT NEVER
BEHIND A HORSE AND A FOOT OFF
THE GROUND DOING 50 KILOMETRES
AN HOUR.
YOU KNOW, THAT WAS JUST UNREAL.
AND IT JUST GOES TO SHOW THAT
HUMANS AND HORSES HAVE ONE THING
IN COMMON.
WE BOTH LOVE A DAY AT THE BEACH.

(music plays)

Neil says THE MOERAKI BOULDERS
ARE QUITE POSSIBLY THE MOST
PHOTOGRAPHED ROCKS IN NEW
ZEALAND.
SCATTERED AS THEY ARE LIKE
GIGANTIC MARBLES ON THE SAND.
PHENOMENA LIKE THESE ARE WHAT
GETS OUR RESIDENT GEOLOGIST,
HAMISH CAMPBELL, UP IN THE
MORNING.

The caption changes to "Hamish Campbell."

Hamish walks down the beach andsays THESE MAGNIFICENT
ROUND STONES ARE NOTHING SHORT
OF A FREAK OF NATURE.
LAID DOWN DURING THE PALEOGENE
PERIOD, ABOUT 50 TO 60 MILLION
YEARS AGO, THEY HAVE REMAINED
BURIED FOR MILLIONS OF YEARS.
AND THEY ARE SLOWLY EMERGING AS
THE WAVES OF KOEKOHE BEACH WASH
AWAY THEIR MUDSTONE MANTLE.
NOT ONLY SIGNIFICANT FOR THEIR
SCIENTIFIC VALUE AND AS A
POPULAR TOURIST ATTRACTION, THE
MOERAKI BOULDERS HOLD SPECIAL
MEANING TO LOCAL MAORI, AS
DAVID HIGGINS EXPLAINS.

The caption changes to "David Higgins."

David is in his fifties, with shirt wavy white hair and wears jeans and a blue polo T-shirt.

Hamish says KIA ORA.
KIA ORA.

David says KIA ORA, HAMISH.

Hamish says SO, YOU'VE GOT SOME CRACKER
BOULDERS HERE.
WHAT IS THE MAORI EXPLANATION
FOR THESE?

David says IT'S AN INTERESTING
EXPLANATION.
THE STORY IS ABOUT A WAKA ATUA,
A CANOE OF THE GODS, A WAKA OF
THE GODS.
THIS CANOE SAILED BACKWARDS AND
FORWARDS TO FAR-OFF HAWAIKI.
AND ON ONE PARTICULAR JOURNEY,
IT RETURNED FROM HAWAIKI WITH
VEGETATION, SEEDS AND SMALL
PLANTS TO GROW IN THIS NEW
WORLD.
AS THE WAKA GOT CLOSE TO THE
OTAGO COAST, IT BECAME
WATERLOGGED.
AND THEY CAME PAST MOERAKI HERE
AND DOWN TO A LITTLE PLACE
CALLED MATAKAEA OR SHAG POINT,
JUST SOUTH OF MOERAKI...

Hamish says YES.

David says --WHERE THE CANOE OR
THE WAKA FOUNDERED.

Hamish says AH.

David says AND ALL THE CONTENTS
WERE THROWN INTO THE SEA.

Hamish says AH.

David says TO OUR PEOPLE, THESE
BOULDERS REPRESENT DIFFERENT
ELEMENTS OF THE CONTENTS OF THE
WAKA.
AND IF WE LOOK AT THESE TWO UP
HERE, IN PARTICULAR, THEY LOOK
LIKE A NET.
SO, THIS IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF
WHAT WE DESCRIBE AS THE HINAKI...

Hamish says HINAKI.

David says --OR THE FOOD BASKET.
THE MORE STANDARD BOULDERS
REPRESENT TO US THE GOURDS AND
CALABASHES THAT WERE CARRIED ON
THE VESSEL FOR FRESH WATER.

(music plays)

Hamish says THE GEOLOGICAL
EXPLANATION FOR THE BOULDERS IS
MORE MUNDANE.
THEY ARE NATURAL CONCRETIONS
FORMED BELOW THE SEA FLOOR MORE
THAN 50 MILLION YEARS AGO.
WE'RE ALL FAMILIAR WITH THE
SAYING "SOLID AS A ROCK."
BUT ONE THING I HAVE LEARNT
OVER THE MANY YEARS AS A
GEOLOGIST IS THAT WE CAN TAKE
NONE OF THIS FOR GRANTED.
SOMETHING THAT IS AS OLD AS
60 MILLION YEARS CAN BE GONE IN
THE BLINK OF AN EYE.
AND IF THE EARTH SO DECIDES,
IT CAN THROW UP NEW PHENOMENA
AT WILL.
NORTH OF MOERAKI AT CAPE
WANBROW STAND VOLCANIC CLIFFS
FORMED BY 30- TO
40-MILLION-YEAR-OLD UNDERWATER
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS.
WHAT THEY REPRESENT DEFIES THE
LAWS OF SCIENCE, AS FELLOW
GEOLOGIST BENJAMIN MOORHOUSE
EXPOUNDS.
GOOD TO MEET YOU, TOO.
NOW, WHERE ARE WE?

Benjamin is in his thirties, with short receding brown hair and wears gray Bermuda shorts and a black T-shirt.

He says WE'RE ACTUALLY STANDING IN
THE MIDDLE OF WHAT IS A BIG
VOLCANIC STACK.
JUST OVER TO THE LEFT OF ME HERE
IS THE OLDEST VOLCANO IN THAT
STACK.
AND THEN EVERYTHING OUTWARDS
FROM IT IS GETTING YOUNGER.
AND THIS VOLCANO IS A
MONOGENETIC VOLCANO.
SO IT'S A SINGLE-ERUPTING
VOLCANO.
IT BEGINS ITS LIFE.
IT THROWS OUT MATERIAL.
THAT CAN LAST A DAY, A WEEK,
A MONTH, MAYBE EVEN A YEAR.
BUT ONCE IT'S DONE, IT'S DONE,
AND IT'S FINISHED.

Hamish says THE UNIQUE FEATURE
HERE, CLEARLY VISIBLE ON THIS
STRETCH OF COAST, IS THE
LAYERING OF VOLCANOES, ONE ATOP
THE OTHER.
LIKE A MODERN CITY BUILT ON TOP
OF ANCIENT RUINS BUT ALL
CONSTRUCTED BY THE SAME FAMILY
OF ARCHITECTS AND BUILDERS.

Benjamin sketches on sand and says SO, WHAT WE'VE GOT HERE IS A
STACK OF MULTIPLE VOLCANOES IN
MORE OR LESS THE SAME PLACE.
SO, WE'VE GOT ONE VOLCANO THAT
FORMS.
AND THEN, OVER TIME, THAT
VOLCANO STOPS ERUPTING.
AND WE GET THE TOP OF IT ERODED
OFF.
SO, IT'S BROKEN DOWN BY WAVE
ACTION AND MARINE ORGANISMS
EATING AWAY AT IT.
AFTER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME,
WE GET ANOTHER VOLCANO THAT ADDS
ITSELF TO THAT MOUND.

Hamish says RIGHT.

Benjamin says AND THE SAME STORY HAPPENS
AGAIN.
THE TOP GETS ERODED OFF.
AND THAT HAPPENS AGAIN AND AGAIN
AND AGAIN, UNTIL, IN THE END,
WE HAVE A MOUND THAT IS SIX
VOLCANOES HIGH.

Hamish says WOW.

Benjamin says SOME OF THE DATES THAT WE
HAVE FOR THE GAPS BETWEEN THESE
VOLCANOES POINT TOWARDS THERE
BEING A TWO-MILLION-YEAR GAP
BETWEEN EACH VOLCANO.

Hamish says OH, WOW.

Benjamin says YEAH, SO A REALLY BIG TIME
DIFFERENCE.

Hamish says RIGHT.

Benjamin says AND ACTUALLY, THAT'S TOO
LONG A TIME FOR THESE TO BE
MULTIPLE ERUPTIONS OF ONE
VOLCANO.
THEY HAVE TO BE THEIR OWN
INDIVIDUAL VOLCANOES...

Hamish says RIGHT.

Benjamin says --BECAUSE THE PLUMBING SYSTEM
OF THE VOLCANO IN THAT TIME
WOULD HAVE FROZEN.

Hamish says GOT YOU.
HOW MUCH TIME WAS INVOLVED IN
THIS WHOLE SEQUENCE?

Benjamin says SO...

Hamish says SO FAR?

Benjamin says "SO FAR," EXACTLY.
WE DON'T KNOW EXACTLY WHEN THE
FIRST ONES WERE.
BUT BASED ON THE DATA FOR THE
LAST FEW VOLCANOES, THAT'S AT
LEAST SIX MILLION YEARS.

Hamish says RIGHT.

Benjamin says WE CAN ACTUALLY SEE THAT UP
IN THE ROCKS UP HERE.
I CAN SHOW YOU.

Hamish says SOUNDS GOOD, RIGHT.

Benjamin says SO, JUST LIKE THE LINES IN
THE SAND THAT I DREW, WE'VE GOT
A VOLCANO DOWN HERE.
WE CAN SEE ITS DEPOSITS ALL THE
WAY UP TO HERE.
AND THEN HERE IS OUR LINE IN THE
SAND, AND THAT'S THE END OF THIS
VOLCANO.

Hamish says COULD THIS ERUPT AGAIN?

Benjamin says SO, IT'S UNLIKELY THAT A
VOLCANO WILL ADD ITSELF TO THIS
STACK.
THE PATTERN WAS AROUND TWO
MILLION YEARS IN BETWEEN EACH
VOLCANO.
AND WE'VE HAD 34 MILLION YEARS
NOW OF TIME PASSED.

Hamish says RIGHT.

Benjamin says HOWEVER, THIS STACK HERE IS
A CAUTIONARY TALE TO OTHER
MONOGENETIC VOLCANOES, BECAUSE
THEY MAY NOT HAVE BEEN
SINGLE-ERUPTING.
MAYBE THEY'RE GOING TO ERUPT IN
THAT SAME SPOT AGAIN.

Hamish says EXCELLENT.
SO, I CAN SEE A WHOLE LOT OF NEW
RESEARCH COMING OUT, ALL BECAUSE
OF YOUR RESEARCH.

Benjamin says YES.

Hamish says I THINK THAT'S WONDERFUL.

Benjamin says EXCITING.

Hamish says YES, BRING IT ON.

(music plays)

Neil says IT'S A RIDDLE AS OLD
AS TIME.
WHY DID THE PENGUIN CROSS THE
ROAD?
WELL, IN OAMARU, THEY HAVE A
CLEAR MISSION: TO GET FROM THE
SEA TO THEIR NESTS.
AND IF YOU THINK THAT SOUNDS
LIKE A PERILOUS MISSION, YOU'RE
DEAD RIGHT.
SO IN SEPTEMBER, 2016, THE
OAMARU BLUE PENGUIN COLONY
CONSTRUCTED AN UNDERPASS TO
ENSURE SAFE PASSAGE OF THEIR
CHARGES.
SINCE THEN, THEY'VE NEVER
LOOKED BACK.
THERE'S NO DOUBTING THAT THESE
BIRDS ARE GETTING SOME HELP
FROM HUMANKIND.
BUT YOU CAN'T HELP WONDERING IF
THERE ISN'T SOMETHING IN THEIR
OWN PSYCHE THAT GIVES THEM THE
UPPER HAND.
PROFESSOR JOHN COCKREM IS IN
PURSUIT OF THE PERFECT PENGUIN
PERSONALITY.

The caption changes to "John Cockrem."

John is in his fifties, balding and clean-shaven. He wears gray trousers, a white polo T-shirt and a blue zip-up jacket.

Neil says DO PENGUINS HAVE IDENTIFIABLE
PERSONALITIES, THEN?

John says PENGUINS, LIKE ALL BIRDS,
ARE INDIVIDUALS.
AND WE DO TALK ABOUT
PERSONALITY IN PENGUINS, YES.
SO, YOU CAN HAVE THE SHY, QUIET,
SENSITIVE ONES THAT ARE VERY
AWARE OF WHAT'S HAPPENING AROUND
THEM.
OR THE BOLD, AGGRESSIVE,
DOMINANT ONES THAT ACTUALLY ARE
LESS AWARE OF WHAT'S GOING ON.

Neil says HOW CAN YOU TELL?

John says SO, PERSONALITY IS ABOUT
THE BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSES OF
BIRDS TO THEIR ENVIRONMENT AND
ALSO THEIR PHYSIOLOGICAL...
THEIR HORMONE RESPONSES.
AND WE MEASURE HORMONE
RESPONSES, WHICH WE CALL STRESS
RESPONSES.
AND SOME BIRDS WILL HAVE A BIG
RESPONSE.
THEY'RE THE SHY, SENSITIVE,
HIGH-STRESS BIRDS.
AND OTHERS HAVE A LOW RESPONSE.
THEY'RE THE LOW-STRESS,
DOMINANT, BOLD BIRDS.
AND WE CAN USE THAT RESPONSE AS
A MEASURE OF THEIR BEHAVIOURAL
PERSONALITY.

Neil says THE CHEMICAL REACTIONS
TO HORMONE RESPONSES ARE SHOWN
IN SIMPLE BLOOD TESTS,
REVEALING HOW SHY THE PENGUINS
ARE OR HOW SHAMELESS.
RETICENT BIRDS TAKE MORE NOTICE
AND ADAPT TO CHANGING
SURROUNDINGS MORE SUCCESSFULLY
THAN THEIR BELLIGERENT BUDDIES.
SO, MAYBE THE MEEK REALLY SHALL
INHERIT THE EARTH.
RESIDENT MARINE BIOLOGIST AND
RESEARCH SCIENTIST DR. PHILIPPA
AGNEW HAS BEEN STUDYING THE
PENGUINS FOR 20 YEARS.
AND THE HIGH LEVELS OF SCRUTINY
ARE WORKING.
THE POPULATION IS THRIVING.
THE 2017 BREEDING SEASON SAW
THE HIGHEST-EVER NUMBER OF
PENGUINS COMING ASHORE:
SOME 324.

The caption changes to "Philippa Agnew."

Philippa is in her forties, with long straight brown hair with bangs in a ponytail. She wears gray trousers and a black jacket.

Neil says HOW CAN YOU TELL IF THERE'S A
BIRD AT HOME?

Philippa says SEE ALL THIS...

Neil says AH, THE FRESH...

Philippa says --POOP OUTSIDE?

Neil says THE FRESH POO.

Philippa says YEP, YEP, THEY LIKE TO TRY
AND AIM IT OUT THE DOOR.

Neil says OH, DO THEY?

Philippa says YEAH, THEY DO.

Neil says WELL, THAT'S VERY TIDY OF
THEM.

Philippa says YEAH.
SO, WE'LL GRAB OUT ONE OF THE
CHICKS.

Neil says UH-HUH.

Philippa says AND I'LL PASS THEM TO YOU TO
POP IN THE BAG.

Neil says LOOK AT THAT.
OH, IT'S ALL MUSCLE, ISN'T IT?

Philippa says YEAH, YEAH, THEY ARE.
THEY'RE SOLID LITTLE BIRDS,
ALRIGHT.

Neil weighs the chick and says AND IT'S 118 AND... 121.

Philippa says THAT'S GREAT.

Neil says SO, WHY ARE THEY DOING WELL?

Philippa says SO, WE LOOK AFTER THEM HERE.
WE PROTECT THEM FROM INTRODUCED
MAMMALIAN PREDATORS.
IN NEW ZEALAND, WE HAVE STOATS,
FERRETS, AND WEASELS THAT WILL
TRY AND ATTACK THE PENGUINS.
AND WE ALSO PROTECT THEM FROM
DOMESTIC DOGS.
WE LIMIT DISTURBANCE TO THE
PENGUINS HERE FROM PEOPLE.
YEP, GREAT.
AND THE THIRD THING IS, AS YOU
CAN SEE, WE PROVIDE NESTING
HABITAT FOR THEM IN THE FORM OF
THESE NESTING BOXES.

(music plays)

Neil says BETWEEN PERSONALITY
PROFILING AND CONTINUED CAREFUL
INTERVENTION, THE FUTURE LOOKS
ROSY FOR OUR LITTLE FLIPPERED
FRIENDS.

He sits on the stands with a group of tourists and says WHETHER BOLSHIE OR BASHFUL,
FORWARD OR FRETFUL, IT MAKES NO
DIFFERENCE TO THE 75,000
TOURISTS WHO MAKE THE TREK TO
OAMARU EVERY YEAR FOR THE
NIGHTLY PENGUIN PARADE.
WITH THESE PLUCKY LITTLE GUYS,
YOU JUST HAVE TO TAKE THEM AS
YOU FIND THEM.

(music plays)

He holds a pavlova and says SOME THINGS ARE JUST SO
QUINTESSENTIALLY KIWI THAT AS AN
OUTSIDER, I HAVE NO POINT OF
REFERENCE.
FIRST OF ALL, THERE'S A PAVLOVA.

He shows a pair of flip-flops and says NOW, IS THAT NOT JUST A
MERINGUE, OR AM I WRONG?
THERE ARE THESE, JANDALS.
WELL, IF YOU SAY SO.
THERE'S NUMBER EIGHT FENCING
WIRE, APPARENTLY.
AND THERE'S ONE OTHER ICON OF
WHICH NO LESS THAN 90 PERCENT OF
KIWIS CAN CLAIM OWNERSHIP.
A LITTLE SOMETHING CALLED A
PLUNKET BOOK.
HISTORIAN MICHAEL STEVENS OPENS
HIS.

The caption changes to "Michael Stevens."

Michael is in his thirties, with short wavy brown hair and a stubble. He wears jeans and a patterned black jacket.

Michael reads a book and says "SPEECH, FLUENT AND
CLEAR.
TALKS NONSTOP.
VISION NORMAL.
ENJOYS BOOKS.
TAKE TO LIBRARY."
THAT'S MY PLUNKET BOOK FROM THE
31ST OF JANUARY, 1984.
AND TO BE FAIR, NOT A LOT HAS
CHANGED.
I WONDER IF THAT'S THE SAME FOR
THE PLUNKET SOCIETY?
IT WAS ONE OF THE MOST
FAR-REACHING HEALTH INNOVATIONS
TO COME OUT OF NEW ZEALAND AND
WAS SEEDED HERE IN THIS
CLIFFTOP KARITANE HOME OVER 100
YEARS AGO BY VISIONARY DR.
TRUBY KING.
HIS CREED WAS BEAUTIFUL IN ITS
SIMPLICITY: TO HELP THE MOTHERS
AND SAVE THE CHILDREN.
MEDICAL HISTORIAN AND AUTHOR
LINDA BRYDER EXPLAINS.
SO, LINDA, HERE WE ARE IN THIS
BEAUTIFUL STRETCH OF NEW
ZEALAND COAST, OUTSIDE QUITE A
GRAND OLD HOUSE.
WHY ARE WE HERE?

The caption changes to "Linda Bryder."

Linda is in her sixties, with straight white hair in a bob cut with bangs. She wears a striped sweater and a lavender jacket.

Linda says YES, THAT'S RIGHT.
WELL, THIS IS THE HOUSE WHERE
THE PLUNKET SOCIETY REALLY
BEGAN.
THIS WAS THE HOLIDAY HOUSE OF
DR. FREDERICK TRUBY KING.
AND HE WAS REALLY VERY AWARE OF
AN IMPORTANT PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE
IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY, WHICH
WAS THE HIGH INFANT DEATH RATE.

Michael says RIGHT, SO, IT'S
TRUBY KING, BUT IT'S NOT CALLED
THE KING SOCIETY.

Linda says NO.

Michael says HOW DID WE END UP
WITH PLUNKET?
WHERE DOES THAT COME FROM?

Linda says IT WAS INITIALLY
CALLED THE SOCIETY FOR THE
PROMOTION OF HEALTH OF WOMEN AND
CHILDREN.
AND IT WAS REALLY THE PATRONAGE
OF LADY PLUNKET, WHO WAS THE
WIFE OF THE GOVERNOR, THAT THEY
EVENTUALLY CALLED THEM PLUNKET
NURSES AND THEN, EVENTUALLY,
THE PLUNKET SOCIETY.

Michael says SO, WHAT WERE SOME
OF TRUBY KING'S GUIDING
PRINCIPLES AND THOSE OF THE
WIDER PLUNKET SOCIETY?

Linda says WELL, BREASTFEEDING WAS
OBVIOUSLY THE VERY FIRST ONE
AND THE MOST IMPORTANT THING,
IF WOMEN COULD BREASTFEED.
BECAUSE THAT HAD BEEN SHOWN BY
STUDIES TO BE ABSOLUTELY A
PREVENTATIVE OF THE MAJOR CAUSE
OF INFANT DEATH: INFANT
DIARRHEA.

Michael says DR. KING WAS ALSO A
FRESH-AIR FANATIC AND A STAUNCH
ADVOCATE OF THAT WHICH STRIKES
FEAR INTO THE HEART OF EVERY
NEW PARENT: ROUTINE.

Linda says HE WAS FOLLOWING
INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE BY DOING
THAT.
AND THE IDEA WAS THAT BABIES
WOULD BE HUNGRIER.
THEY WOULD EMPTY THE BREAST, AND
THEY WOULD BE MORE RESTFUL IF
THEY GOT REST IN BETWEEN FEEDS.
SO, IT WASN'T JUST SOME CRAZY
IDEA THAT YOU HAVE TO DISCIPLINE
THEM INTO JUST BEING FED EVERY
THREE OR FOUR HOURS.

Michael says DR. KING WAS
DETERMINED THAT THE PLUNKET
SOCIETY WOULD BE AN
ORGANIZATION FOR WOMEN, RUN BY
WOMEN.
AND THAT ITS SERVICES WOULD BE
AVAILABLE TO ALL, REGARDLESS OF
INCOME OR SOCIAL STANDING.
SO, INFANT MORTALITY RATES DO
COME DOWN.
PLUNKET WAS SUCCESSFUL.

Linda says YES, BUT IT WASN'T
JUST ABOUT MORTALITY.
IT WAS ABOUT PROMOTING HEALTH OF
INFANTS.
AND IT WAS ABOUT A SUPPORT
SYSTEM FOR MOTHERS OF NEWBORN
INFANTS.

(music plays)

Michael says DR. KING'S
INNOVATIONS DIDN'T STOP WITH
PLUNKET.
IN THE EARLY 1900S, THERE WAS
NO INSTITUTIONAL PROVISION FOR
SICK BABIES.
SO HE SET UP NEW ZEALAND'S
FIRST INFANT HOSPITAL AT
KARITANE.
IT WAS HERE THAT HE TRAINED
PLUNKET NURSES AND TESTED HIS
NOW-FAMOUS INFANT FORMULA ON
BABIES THAT FAILED TO THRIVE ON
BREASTMILK.
ONE SUCH INFANT WAS MUTU
ELLISON.
HIS SON, DAVID, IS JOINING ME
TODAY AT KARITANE.
SO, HOW DID YOUR DAD, MUTU,
COME TO BE IN TRUBY KING'S CARE?

The caption changes to "David Ellison."

David is in his late seventies, with short thinning gray hair and wears gray trousers, a blue shirt and suspenders.

He says SIR TRUBY KING BECAME
FRIENDS WITH OUR LOCAL LEADER,
TAME PARATA, MY
GREAT-GRANDFATHER.

Michael says SO, TRUBY KING AND TAME
PARATA, THEY'RE MATES?

David says EXACTLY.
HE WOULD CALL IN FOR A VISIT,
AND HE'D PROBABLY SAY, "HI,
JOHNNY.
HOW'S THE BABY GOING?"
AND THEN WHEN IT CAME TO DAD,
"NOT VERY WELL."
HE SAID, "WELL, LOOK, WHAT SAY
I TAKE MUTU DOWN TO MY HOME AT
KARITANE" --WHICH IS THIS PLACE
HERE.
"AND WE'LL WORK ON HIM AND SEE
IF WE CAN BUILD HIM UP A BIT."
AND DAD WAS PROBABLY THE FIRST
ONE THAT HE WAS PRACTISING HIS
BABY FORMULAS.
I HAVE A COPY OF THE ORIGINAL
CASEBOOK OF SIR TRUBY KING.
AND OF COURSE, IT INCLUDES MY
FATHER.
"HISTORY AND NATURE OF FEEDING.
BREASTMILK FAILED.
FEEDING ON MILK AND WATER."

Michael says SO, HE'S THE FIRST PLUNKET
BABY, AND THESE ARE HIS NOTES.
THIS IS, EFFECTIVELY, THE FIRST
PLUNKET BOOK, RIGHT?

David says EXACTLY.

(music plays)

Michael says THE PLUNKET
SOCIETY'S DEDICATION TO
PROVIDING AN UP-TO-DATE HEALTH
SERVICE HAS SEEN ITS METHODS
EVOLVE OVER THE LAST CENTURY.
BUT ONE THING HASN'T CHANGED:
ITS FOCUS ON CREATING A FREE
AND ACCESSIBLE COMMUNITY OF
SUPPORT FOR YOUNG KIWI
FAMILIES.
I WAS A PLUNKET BABY.
MY WIFE WAS A PLUNKET BABY.
OUR CHILDREN, ALL PLUNKET
BABIES.
THE PLUNKET MOVEMENT BEGAN OVER
A CENTURY AGO WITH TRUBY KING'S
MISSION TO IMPROVE THE LIVES OF
NEW ZEALAND CHILDREN.
AND HE WAS ON TO A GOOD THING.

(music plays)

Neil says SOUTH OF OAMARU,
KARITANE HUDDLES AT THE MOUTH
OF A RIVER THAT DIVIDES THIS
STRETCH OF COASTLINE INTO TWO
GOLDEN SICKLE-SHAPED BAYS
CROWNED BY A PROMINENT
PENINSULA, HURIAWA.

The satellite map shows the location of Karitane.

Neil says WITH ABUNDANT FOOD AND
STRATEGIC SHELTER, THIS
SPECTACULAR SETTING IS
SPIRITUALLY SIGNIFICANT FOR
SOUTH ISLAND IWI NGAI TAHU.
JACKY GEURTS VISITS A COMMUNITY
COMMITTED TO HONOURING CULTURES
PAST.

The caption changes to "Jacky Geurts."

Jacky says I'M AT THE MOUTH OF THE
WAIKOUAITI RIVER.
KARITANE TO THE LEFT.
AND THAT'S OHINE POUWERA
SAND SPIT.
I'M HOPING TO TAKE PART IN SOME
OF THE ACTIVITIES THAT ARE
HAPPENING ON AND OFF THE WATER
TODAY, TO FIND OUT HOW THE
LOCALS CONNECT CULTURE TO
COASTLINE.
HI, BRENDAN.

Brendan says HELLO.

Jacky says AT A WAKA CLUB IN
KARITANE, BRENDAN FLACK IS
HOLDING AN AFTERNOON WORKSHOP
FOR THE YOUNG AND OLD OF HIS
HAPU, KATI HUIRAPA.

The caption changes to "Brendan Flack."

Brendan is in his forties, with short wavy gray hair and wears a black hooded sweatshirt.

Brendan says THE YOUNG ONES, OUR
RANGATAHI, WANTED TO LEARN HOW
TO BUILD A CANOE.
OUR ELDERS, IF YOU LIKE, ARE
TEACHING THE YOUNG ONES HOW TO
DO THIS.

Jacky says WHAT'S THE PROCESS
THAT YOU GO THROUGH TO BUILD A
WAKA?

Brendan says WE'VE GOT A BOOK.
AND WE'VE GOT MODERN MACHINERY,
BUT WE'RE USING NATIVE TIMBERS
TO CREATE THIS WAKA.
BUT WE'RE USING GLUE,
FIBREGLASS, TO CREATE SOMETHING
THAT'S GOING TO LAST.
WE DON'T HAVE THE SKILLS TO USE
TRADITIONAL TOOLS AND METHODS,
SO WE'RE GOING WITH A BIT OF
THE OLD AND A BIT OF THE NEW.

A young woman says WELL, MY JOB'S SORT OF BEEN
PICKING THE PLANKS AND CUTTING
THEM TO SIZE.
THAT'S BEEN MY MAIN FOCUS.

Jacky says WHO SHOWED YOU HOW TO
DO THAT?

The woman says MY GRAND-DAD, GEORGE, DOWN
THE END THERE, AND MY FATHER,
BRENDAN.
YEAH.
TO BE ABLE TO PHYSICALLY MAKE
THE WAKA YOURSELF, IT'S JUST A
LOT MORE MEANINGFUL.

Jacky shoots staples to the base of a canoe.

A man says GOOD SHOT.

Jacky says WHOO-HOO!
YEAH.
(LAUGHING)
AND THANK GOODNESS.
(LAUGHING)
WHEW.
OKAY, AND THIS ONE?
LEAVING BEHIND THE CLASSROOM,
THE NEXT DAY, IT'S ALL ACTION
ON THE WATER.
THE WAKA CLUB HAVE INVITED
PUPILS FROM THE KARITANE
PRIMARY SCHOOL TO BOAT ACROSS
THE INLET.
LEADING THE WAY, A
DOUBLE-HULLED WAKA THAT TOOK A
YEAR TO BUILD.
IT'S A LESSON IN WAKA AMA,
NAVIGATING AND SAILING THEIR
OUTRIGGER CANOES, TAPPING INTO
AN ENDURING ANCESTRAL
RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SEA.

On a canoe with 4 people on, Jacky says WHOO-HOO!
WHOO.
WE'RE ACTUALLY GOING REALLY
FAST.

A boy says YEAH.

A woman says ALL OUR TUPUNA VOYAGED
THROUGH THE PACIFIC TO GET HERE.
SO, FOR US TO BE ABLE TO
RECONNECT TO OUR TUPUNA THROUGH
NAVIGATION, THROUGH THE WATER...
BECAUSE WE'RE ALL FROM THE
WATER-- IS A HUGE SIGNIFICANCE
TO US.

Jacky says TODAY'S EXCURSION HAS
A FURTHER AND VERY IMPORTANT
PURPOSE.
THE PLANTING OF HARAKEKE OR
NATIVE FLAX IS DESIGNED TO
COMBAT SOIL EROSION, WHICH IS
THREATENING THE FRAGILE DUNES.

Brendan says SPREAD OUT, GUYS.
WE'VE GOT 30 SQUARE METRES HERE.
WE'RE PLANTING THEM QUITE CLOSE
TOGETHER.
THE REASON BEING IS THAT THE
LUPINS AND THAT TAKE OVER AGAIN.
SO THE MARRAM GRASS, ALL THIS
INTRODUCED VEGETATION STOPS
THESE PLANTS GROWING.
BUT THE CLOSER YOU GET THEM
TOGETHER, THE QUICKER THEY WILL
GROW.
THEY GET SUPPORT OFF EACH OTHER.

Jacky says HOW'S THE PLANTING GOING?

A kid says GOOD.

Jacky says IS THERE A SPECIAL
TECHNIQUE TO THIS?

The kid says NOT REALLY.

Another kid says YOU PUT IT IN,
AND THEN PUT ONE FOOT ON IT AND
DIG IT IN.

A girl says DIG IT REALLY HARD.

Jacky says DO YOU THINK
YOU'LL SEE A BIG CHANGE IN,
LIKE, FIVE YEARS?

A boy says YES, PROBABLY.

Jacky says WHAT ABOUT 10 YEARS?

The boy says YEAH.

A girl says MUCH MORE.

(music plays)

Jacky says REGARDLESS OF THE
TIMELINE, WITH EVERY STROKE OF
THE OAR AND WITH EVERY PLANT
THAT TAKES ROOT IN THE DUNES,
THE CHILDREN OF KARITANE ARE
INCHING FURTHER TOWARDS A
FUTURE THAT PAYS CAREFUL HOMAGE
TO THE PAST.

(music plays)

Neil says THE CHILDREN OF
KARITANE ARE NOT THE ONLY
BOAT-BUILDERS IN THE BOROUGH.
IF TIME TRAVELLERS FROM THE
DARK AGES WERE TO STUMBLE INTO
OAMARU TODAY, THEY WOULD FIND
LITTLE TO RECOGNIZE.
THE HORSELESS CARRIAGE.
THE SHINY RECTANGLE THAT SPEAKS.
BUT THERE IS ONE THING THAT
WOULD CARRY, FOR THEM, THE
UNMISTAKABLE WHIFF OF
FAMILIARITY.
THESE SMALL WALNUT-SHAPED BOATS
HAVE BEEN AROUND, UNCHANGED,
FOR CENTURIES.
ORIGINATING FROM WALES AND USED
PRIMARILY FOR FISHING,
BOATS OF SIMILAR DESIGN ARE
FOUND IN INDIA, VIETNAM, IRAQ,
TIBET, AND OAMARU.
I'M ABOUT TO MEET JOHN BASTER,
SELF-CONFESSED CORACLE ORACLE.

John is in his forties, with short gray hair and wears cropped jeans, a white shirt and a hat.

Neil says SO, HERE YOU ARE.

John says THIS IS OUR CORACLE.

Neil says IN THE ACT OF CREATION.

John shows him a frame for a boat and says YEP, AND HOW WOULD YOU LIKE
TO LASH THIS ON HERE?

Neil says ALRIGHT.
OH, STRAIGHT INTO IT, OKAY.

John says STRAIGHT INTO IT.
SO, THIS IS OUR LASHING.
IT'S ACTUALLY FROM A PIECE OF
CAR INNER TUBE.

Neil says UH-HUH.

John says SO, JUST SEE WHAT YOU CAN DO
WITH THAT.
MAYBE A FIGURE EIGHT AND A REEF
KNOT.

Neil says OKAY, YEAH, OKAY.

John says OR YOU CAN JUST COPY ME.
I'M GOING TO DO THE SAME THING,
SO...

Neil says YEAH.

John says AND YOU PULL IT REALLY TIGHT.

Neil says MM-HMM.

John says AND YOU'LL FIND IT'S
ACTUALLY QUITE FIRM.

Neil says OKAY.
HOW DID YOU GET INTO THIS?
HOW DID YOU BECOME A MAKER OF
CORACLES?

John says WELL, I THOUGHT THEY WERE
INTRIGUING, BECAUSE THE CORACLE
IS ACTUALLY A WINDOW INTO
CULTURE.
IT'S A WINDOW INTO PLACES ON THE
OTHER SIDE OF THE WORLD.
AND DIFFERENT CORACLES HAVE
DIFFERENT CONSTRUCTIONS.
AND THEY TALK ABOUT THE PEOPLE
AND THE COMMUNITIES WHERE THEY
CAME FROM.

Neil says WHY DO YOU THINK THESE
HAVE BEEN AROUND AS LONG AS THEY
HAVE?
YOU KNOW, WHY HAVE THEY PROVEN
SO USEFUL?

John says OH, IT'S ECONOMICAL.
IT'S THE SMARTEST USE OF
MATERIALS TO CREATE A TOOL TO DO
A JOB.
AND THE JOB IS CALLED SURVIVING
AND FEEDING YOURSELF.
IT'S HUMAN INTELLIGENCE IN ITS
HIGHEST FORM.

Neil says WHAT'S THE NEXT STAGE,
HAVING DONE ALL THE KNOTS?

John says OH, THE NEXT STAGE IS THE
MOST EXCITING PART.
WE'RE GOING TO ACTUALLY...
THIS CORACLE IS GOING TO BE
BORN.

Neil says BORN?

John says SO, JUST GRAB THESE.
WE'RE GOING TO PULL IT OUT OF
THE GROUND, AND YOU'LL SEE THAT
THIS IS...

Neil says OH, SO THESE AREN'T SITTING
ON THE GROUND, RIGHT.

John says YEAH, JUST PULL IT.

Neil says YEP, RIGHT.

John says AH, LOOK AT THAT.

Neil says OH, LOOK.
RIGHT, OKAY, YOU'VE ALMOST
PLANTED-- YOU'VE ALMOST GROWN
THIS THING.

John says TURN IT OVER.
AND THERE YOU HAVE IT.

Neil says OH, THAT'S LOVELY.
SO, NOW THAT WE'VE GOT A FRAME...

John says YEAH?

Neil says --HOW DO YOU TURN IT INTO A
BOAT?

John says THE NEXT STEP IS THAT WE
WILL PUT THE TARPAULIN, WHICH
COMES FROM CHINA...
(JOHN CHUCKLING)

Neil says BUT IN AGES PAST, BEFORE THE
COMING OF PLASTICS?

John says IT WOULD HAVE BEEN A COW
HIDE.

Neil says A COW HIDE.

John says SO, WHAT I'M GOING TO DO
IS JUST LAY THIS OUT.

Neil says YEAH.
RIGHT.

John says THIS IS MAN THE TOOLMAKER.
THERE YOU GO.

Neil says OKAY.

John says YOU'RE GOING TO USE THAT
TO POKE HOLES IN THE TARPAULIN.

Neil says RIGHT.

John says AND THEN PUT YOUR CABLE TIE
THROUGH.

Neil says OKAY.
IS IT A PRETTY FAIL-SAFE DESIGN?

They tie the tarpaulin to the frame.

John says WELL, I WAS READING IN MY
CLASSIC BOAT MAGAZINE THAT THEY
DID A... THEY DID A WATER SAFETY
TEST ON THE CORACLE.
AND IT WAS PRONOUNCED TO BE
INHERENTLY DANGEROUS.
BUT YOU KNOW, IT ACTUALLY COMES
DOWN TO THE INTELLIGENCE OF THE
PERSON USING IT, ACTUALLY, LIKE
EVERYTHING ELSE IN THIS LIFE.

Neil says AND THAT'S IT, FINISHED?

John says APART FROM THE SEAT.

He puts a wooden crane as a seat and says SO, THIS IS...
LOOK AT THIS.
THIS IS PERFECT.
OKAY.

Neil says OH, THAT LOOKS THE PART.
YOU COULD HAVE MADE THAT
ESPECIALLY FOR IT.

John says SHALL WE GO?

Neil says YEAH.
OH, THIS IS TOO COOL.

They take two boats to the beach.

Neil says RIGHT, JOHN.
I REMAIN TO BE CONVINCED THAT
THAT ONE WE MADE TOGETHER IS
100 PERCENT SEA-WORTHY.
SO, YOU HAVE THAT ONE, AND I'LL
HAVE THIS BEAUTY.

John says OKAY, WE'LL SEE WHICH ONE
LEAKS.
(NEIL LAUGHING)

They get on the boats.

Neil says HOW DEEP SHOULD WE GO
IN, JOHN?

John says OH, JUST KNEE-DEEP.

Neil says OKAY.

John says AND THEN YOU'LL BE RIGHT.

Neil says YEP, THERE WE GO.

John says GOOD AS GOLD.
JUST PUT YOUR BOTTOM IN THE
MIDDLE, AND YOU'RE AS GOOD AS
GOLD.
IT'S VERY STABLE, ISN'T IT?

Neil says HEY.

John says HOW'S YOUR WATER LEVELS IN
THERE?

Neil says I DO HAVE SOME SEEPAGE, JOHN.
IT MIGHT JUST BE SPLASH.

John says I'M PRETTY SURE IT'S A SLOW
LEAK.

Neil says RIGHT, OH, RIGHT.
WELL, THANKS FOR THAT.

John says BUT DON'T WORRY.
(LAUGHING)

Neil says JOHN SAYS THAT IT IS
VIRTUALLY IMPOSSIBLE TO IMPROVE
UPON THE ELEGANT, DECEPTIVELY
SIMPLE, FIT-FOR-PURPOSE DESIGN
OF THE CORACLE.
AND I AGREE WITH HIM.
EVERY HOME SHOULD HAVE ONE.
AU REVOIR.

(music plays)

Neil says IT'S EASY TO GET
SIDETRACKED BY THE OBVIOUS ON
THE NORTH OTAGO COAST.
THE MOERAKI BOULDERS ARE
UNDENIABLY PHOTOGENIC.
THE VICTORIAN STEAMPUNK
MOVEMENT IN OAMARU IS
SHAMELESSLY ATTENTION-SEEKING.
BUT BEHIND THE WHITE STONE
FAÇADE OF THE REGION'S GLOSSY,
TOURIST-FRIENDLY PERSONA LIE
MYSTERIES APLENTY.
A FERTILE HISTORY.
A COAST THAT KEEPS ON GIVING.

The theme music plays as the end credits roll.

Host: Neil Oliver.

Presenters: Hamish Campbell, Jacqueline Geurts, Ocean Mercier, Dave Murray, and Michael Stevens.

Directors: Pria Viswallingam, Kim Webby, and John Wild.

Executive Producers: Carmen J. Leonard and Philip Smith.

Series Producer: Anna Lynch.

Great Southern Film and Television.

BBC Worldwide Sales and Distribution.

Watch: Ep. 4 - Northotago