Transcript: Ep. 3 - The Peaceful Path | Aug 26, 2018

(music plays)

A clip shows farmers working in a field.

The narrator says ERNIE ALWAYS WANTED
TO BE A FARMER.
IN THE EARLY 1950S,
HE CONVINCES HIS DAD
TO HELP HIM BUY
A PIECE OF LAND.

Ernie gets off the plough and tries to fix it.

[COUGHING]

The narrator says IT ISN'T QUITE
WHAT HE IMAGINED.

He gets a burn.

[PAINED GRUNTS]

The narrator says BUT SOMETHING
UNEXPECTED HAPPENS.

Ernie walks in a meeting room.

At the meeting, a scientist says to the crowd TODAY WE'RE HERE TO ANNOUNCE
A MAJOR NEW CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
THAT'S ABOUT TO BEGIN,
ON THE SHORES OF LAKE HURON,
AT DOUGLAS POINT.

The narrator says ONTARIO HYDRO ANNOUNCES
THAT CANADA'S FIRST COMMERCIAL
NUCLEAR POWER STATION
WOULD BE BUILT
JUST DOWN THE ROAD.
NUCLEAR POWER
WAS ABOUT TO CHANGE
JUST ABOUT
EVERYTHING HERE.

(music plays)

In animation, a series of pictures show images of settlers, boats, coasts, river banks, and old maps.

The name of the show reads "The Bruce. The Peaceful Path."

The narrator says BY THE EARLY 1900S,
THE FUTURE OF 'THE BRUCE'
IS UNCERTAIN.
THE EXCITEMENT OF THE EARLY
SETTLEMENT PERIOD HAS FADED.
THE POPULATION HAS DROPPED
BY NEARLY HALF,
AS SONS AND DAUGHTERS
LEAVE FOR THE WEST.
THE PROBLEM
IS EXACERBATED
BY THE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION
AND WIDESPREAD
MIGRATION TO CITIES.
FARMLAND,
SO COVETED IN THE 1850S
BY SCOTTISH, IRISH
AND GERMAN SETTLERS,
DWINDLES IN VALUE.
LUMBER OPERATIONS DISAPPEAR,
ALONG WITH THE FORESTS,
AND UNSUSTAINABLE
FISHING PRACTICES
GREATLY REDUCE
THE FISHING INDUSTRY.
THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY
ARE STRUGGLING TO ADAPT
TO THEIR NEW REALITY,
BUT FIND THEIR ATTEMPTS
AT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
REPEATEDLY QUASHED
BY PATERNALISTIC
GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS.
THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY IS
A DEPRESSING TIME FOR MANY HERE.
BUT THERE IS
SOMETHING ELSE GOING ON,
THAT WILL HAVE A PROFOUND
IMPACT ON THE REGION:
TOURISTS ARE BEGINNING
TO DISCOVER THE BRUCE.

(music plays)

The narrator says WE KNOW THAT PEOPLE ARE SAILING
UP THE HURON SHORE FOR PLEASURE
AT LEAST
AS EARLY AS 1870,
THANKS TO AN ACCOUNT
RECORDED BY HARRY POTTS.
HARRY AND HIS FRIENDS
SPEND THREE DAYS
TRAVELLING
BETWEEN SOUTHAMPTON
AND THE FISHING ISLANDS.

An animated map shows the route from Southampton and the Fishing Islands.

The narrator says THEY PARTAKE IN NON-STOP
ACTIVITIES, LIKE:
SHOOTING PASSENGER PIGEONS,
FISHING FOR BLACK BASS...

A re-enactment shows a man and 3 women shooting pigeons.

The man says HEY, HEY, I THINK
I CAUGHT SOMETHING.

The narrator says LEARNING ABOUT
"THE SCIENCE OF SELF-DEFENSE."
AND PLAYING
VARIOUS SPORTS,
SUCH AS "TARGET PRACTICE."
ON THEIR WAY BACK,
THEY STOP IN ON THE CHANTRY
ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE KEEPER,
WHO HAPPILY GIVES
THEM A TOUR.
ONE THING THE GROUP
DOESN'T DO IS GO SWIMMING.
THEY DON'T
EVEN BOTHER STOPPING
AT THE MASSIVE
SAUBLE BEACH.
THEY HEAD RIGHT PAST IT
TO CHECK OUT
SAUBLE FALLS INSTEAD.
HARRY CAN BE FORGIVEN
FOR NOT TAKING HIS FRIENDS
TO SAUBLE BEACH.
AT THE TIME, CHRISTIANITY
SUPPRESSES SWIMMING -
AND BATHING
FOR THAT MATTER.
BUT THAT CHANGES
IN THE EARLY 1900S,
AND IT SEEMS
JUST ABOUT EVERYONE
WANTS TO GO FOR A SWIM.
AT THE SAME TIME,
THE GROWTH OF ONTARIO'S CITIES
LEADS TO A GROWING
NUMBER OF PEOPLE
LOOKING TO GET AWAY FROM THEM
IN THE SUMMER.
THE BRUCE IS IN
AN EXCELLENT POSITION
TO TAKE ADVANTAGE
OF THESE TRENDS,
WITH 850 KILOMETRES
OF SHORELINE
NOT FAR FROM
ONTARIO'S BIGGEST CITIES.
PEOPLE START
BY CAMPING ON THE BEACH,
AND WHEN THEY WANT
SOMETHING MORE PERMANENT,
THEY BUY A SMALL PIECE OF LAND,
AND BUILD A COTTAGE.
PLACES THAT HAD PREVIOUSLY
BEEN CONSIDERED "WORTHLESS" -
BECAUSE THEY WEREN'T
USEFUL FOR FARMING -
SUDDENLY BECOME VALUABLE.
ONCE THEY SAW
THE DEMAND WAS THERE,
LOCALS FROM PLACES
LIKE SOUTHAMPTON, PORT ELGIN
AND KINCARDINE
START BUILDING COTTAGES
ALONG THE BEACH
FOR RENT.
THESE ENTERPRISES
SOMETIMES GROW
INTO LODGES AND HOTELS.
GOLF COURSES, RESTAURANTS
AND OTHER AMUSEMENTS
ARE BUILT TO GIVE
SUMMER RESIDENTS AND TOURISTS
SOMETHING TO DO
WHEN THEY AREN'T AT THE BEACH.
TOURISM AT TOBERMORY
TAKES OFF IN THE 30S,
WHEN A FERRY SERVICE
BEGINS BETWEEN THE TOWN
AND MANITOULIN ISLAND.
THE FERRY CREATES
AN ALTERNATE ROUTE FOR TRAVELERS
HEADING TO NORTHERN ONTARIO
AND WESTERN CANADA -
AND INTRODUCES A LOT MORE
PEOPLE TO THE BRUCE.
AT THE URGING
OF AN OWEN SOUND LAWYER,
FLOWERPOT ISLAND
BECOMES PART
OF GEORGIAN BAY ISLANDS
NATIONAL PARK IN 1930.

The animated map shows the location of Flowerpot Island.

Old pictures of the island's sea stacks.

The narrator says ONE OF THE FAMOUS "FLOWERPOTS."
HAD RECENTLY FALLEN OVER,
SO TO PRESERVE
THE TWO REMAINING SEASTACKS
AS TOURIST ATTRACTIONS,
THE LIMESTONE PILLARS
ARE REINFORCED WITH CONCRETE.

(music plays)

Clips show tourists engaged in different activities in the area.

The narrator says AFTER WORLD WAR TWO,
BETTER ROADS,
THE GROWTH
OF AUTOMOBILE CULTURE,
AND A GROWING MIDDLE CLASS
WITH HOLIDAYS,
MEANS THAT TOURISM
ON THE BRUCE EXPANDS RAPIDLY.
THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY
ALSO GET IN ON THE ACT.
BOTH THE SAUGEEN
AND CAPE CROKER COMMUNITIES
LEASE LAND TO COTTAGERS,
AND OPEN PARKS WITH
SPECTACULAR LAKEFRONT VIEWS.
IN THE EARLY 1950S,
DEVELOPMENTS
IN DIVING TECHNOLOGY,
GIVE RISE TO
RECREATIONAL SCUBA DIVING.
IT DOESN'T TAKE LONG
FOR DIVERS
TO DISCOVER THE BRUCE,
AND FOR TOBERMORY TO
TO BECOME ONE OF THE MOST
POPULAR DIVE SITES
ON THE GREAT LAKES.
THE BIG DRAW
IS THE MANY SHIPWRECKS
SCATTERED AROUND
THE PENINSULA,
PRESERVED IN THE COLD,
CLEAR WATERS OF LAKE HURON.
PERHAPS THE MOST FAMOUS WRECK
IN THE DIVING COMMUNITY
IS THE BEAUTIFULLY
PRESERVED ARABIA.
THE ARABIA IS TRANSPORTING
20,000 BUSHELS OF CORN
WHEN IT FOUNDERS IN A GALE
IN OCTOBER OF 1884,
ITS EXACT
LOCATION, UNKNOWN.
WHEN RECREATIONAL
DIVING STARTS TO TAKE OFF,
THE ARABIA IS THE TREASURE
EVERYONE IS LOOKING FOR.
BUT IT WOULD
TAKE THE INSIGHT
OF LOCAL FISHERMAN-TURNED
TOURIST BOAT OPERATOR,
ALBERT SMITH,
TO ACTUALLY FIND HER.

A caption reads "Albert Smith. Former Tour Boat Operator, Tobermory."

Albert is in his eighties, bald and clean-shaven. He wears glasses, a light blue shirt, a blue padded vest and a bolo tie.

Albert says WHEN I WAS A YOUNGSTER,
I WOULD SOMETIMES BE
STEERING THE BOAT
WHILE THEY WERE
SETTING THE NETS.
EVERY ONCE IN A WHILE,
I'D GET SHOUTED AT,
'DON'T GO IN THERE.
DON'T GO IN THERE.
YOU'RE TOO CLOSE
TO THAT DAMN WRECK.
YOU'LL GET TANGLED UP
IN THAT DAMN WRECK',
WHICH WE DID MANY TIMES.
CONSEQUENTLY,
YEARS LATER,
THERE WAS THIS
BIG DESIRE TO FIND
THAT MYSTERIOUS SHIP,
THE ARABIA.
I DIDN'T KNOW EXACTLY
WHERE IT WAS,
BUT I WAS WELL AWARE
THAT IT WAS
WHERE I WAS NOT
SUPPOSED TO GO.

The narrator says IN 1971 ALBERT
TEAMS UP WITH A DIVE GROUP
CALLED THE "AQUATIERS,"
AND TAKES THEM TO THE SPOT
HE WAS FORBIDDEN TO GO
AS A FISHERMAN.

Albert says I RECALL THAT
DAY VERY WELL.
WE JUST PUT THEM DOWN,
AND FIVE MINUTES LATER,
THEY WERE BACK
ON THE SURFACE.
I SAID, 'WHAT'S WRONG?
WHAT HAPPENED?'
THEY SAID,
'WELL, WE WENT OVER THE WRECK.'
SO, YOU KNOW, IT WAS
WITHIN A FEW FEET OF IT.

(music plays)

The narrator says LIFE ON THE BRUCE
AT THE BEGINNING
OF THE 20TH CENTURY
IS DIFFICULT.
THE CALL OF THE WEST,
WITH ITS PROMISE
OF AN EASIER LIFE,
IS POWERFUL,
AND MANY
ARE ENTICED TO LEAVE.
BUT PEOPLE LIKE
THE SMITH FAMILY,
DECIDE THE BRUCE
IS THEIR HOME,
AND FIND WAYS TO STAY.
THEY TURN THEIR
KNOWLEDGE OF THE LAKE,
GAINED OVER GENERATIONS
AS FISHERMEN,
INTO SUCCESSFUL
TOURISM BUSINESSES,
TAKING PEOPLE ON TOURS
OF THE REGION'S SHIPWRECKS
AND NATURAL FEATURES.
TODAY, ALBERT SMITH
IS LONG RETIRED.
BUT THE BUSINESSES
HE AND OTHERS LIKE HIM STARTED,
ARE STILL THRIVING,
FORMING THE BACKBONE
OF THE TOBERMORY ECONOMY.
THE COMING OF TOURISM
IS A BOON TO BRUCE COMMUNITIES.
BUT AS AN ECONOMIC
STRATEGY,
IT HAS ONE BIG PROBLEM:
IT'S SEASONAL.
BUSINESSES NEED TO MAKE
ALL THEIR MONEY IN THE SUMMER
A DIFFICULT PROPOSITION FOR
EVEN THE SAVVIEST ENTREPRENEUR.
BUT IN THE LATE 50S,
SOMETHING BEGINS TO HAPPEN
ON THE SHORES
OF LAKE HURON,
NEAR THE ABANDONED
INVERHURON TOWN SITE,
THAT CHANGES THE EQUATION
FOR THOSE LIVING
IN SOUTHERN BRUCE.
ERNIE YOUNG'S FAMILY
HAD A COTTAGE AT INVERHURON.
HIS FATHER WANTS HIM
TO BE A PROFESSIONAL,
BUT ERNIE FALLS IN LOVE
WITH FARMING,
AND IN THE 50S
HE CONVINCES HIS DAD
TO HELP HIM PUT
A DOWN-PAYMENT ON A FARM
NOT FAR
FROM THE COTTAGE.
ERNIE WORKS HARD,
BUT IT IS PROVING DIFFICULT
TO MAKE A LIVING.
SO, WHEN A MEETING IS HELD
AT THE LOCAL SCHOOLHOUSE
ABOUT A NEW POWER PLANT
COMING IN DOWN THE ROAD,
ERNIE GOES
TO CHECK IT OUT.

A scientist at the meeting says BECAUSE OF ITS STABLE BEDROCK,
AND EASY ACCESS TO WATER,
DOUGLAS POINT HAS BEEN CHOSEN,
AS THE SITE OF THE FIRST...

The caption changes to "Ernie Young. Former Employee, Bruce Nuclear Power Development."

Ernie is in his eighties, bald and clean-shaven. He wears a white shirt with fine black stripes and a blue blazer.

Ernie says THEY ANNOUNCED
THAT THERE WAS GOING TO BE
A NUCLEAR STATION
BUILT AT THE LAKE
ON THE SAME ROAD
THAT WE LIVED ON.

The scientist says SINCE THE END OF THE WAR...

Ernie says I THINK IT WAS
A FAIRLY CALM MEETING.
IT WAS SOMETHING
PRETTY NEW,
AND PEOPLE EXPLAINED
HOW COMPLETELY SAFE IT WAS
BECAUSE THE TYPE
OF NUCLEAR REACTOR
THAT WE HAVE IN CANADA
WAS NOT NEAR AS DANGEROUS
AS SOME IN THE OTHER COUNTRIES,
AND PEOPLE
UNDERSTOOD THAT.
BUT THERE WAS A FEW
THAT DIDN'T
LIKE THE IDEA.

A man at the meeting says I HAVE A QUESTION.
YOU ARE BUILDING
THIS POWER PLANT,
RIGHT WHERE MANY OF US FARMERS
GET OUR CEDAR FENCE POSTS.
WHERE DO YOU PROPOSE
WE GET OUR FENCE POSTS FROM...

Ernie says MOST OF THE LOCAL
FARMERS OWNED LOTS DOWN THERE,
AND THAT'S WHERE THEY GOT THEIR
CEDAR POSTS FOR THEIR FENCES
ON THE FARM.
SO SOME FARMERS WERE CONCERNED
THAT THEY WERE GOING TO
LOSE THEIR FENCE POSTS.
BUT I THINK WHEN THEY HEARD
THE PRICE THAT ONTARIO HYDRO
WAS GOING TO PAY
FOR THEIR LAND,
THAT KIND OF OFFSET THE CONCERN
ABOUT THEIR POSTS, I THINK!

The scientist says THIS PROJECT WILL CREATE
HUNDREDS OF LOCAL JOBS...

Ernie says THE MAJORITY, ESPECIALLY
THE YOUNG GUYS LIKE ME,
THOUGHT IT WAS
KIND OF EXCITING.

The narrator says IN THE 1950S,
ONTARIO IS
RUNNING OUT OF POWER.
THE BOOMING ECONOMY,
GROWING POPULATION,
AND FLOOD OF NOVEL
ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES
IS QUICKLY USING UP ALL
AVAILABLE ELECTRICAL CAPACITY.
UP UNTIL THIS POINT,
MOST OF ONTARIO'S
ELECTRICITY
IS GENERATED BY
WATER POWER,
THE BIGGEST SOURCE
BEING NIAGARA FALLS.
WATER POWER
IS INEXPENSIVE,
BUT THE PROVINCE
IS RUNNING OUT OF RIVERS.
THE ANSWER APPEARED
TO BE COAL,
AND THE PROVINCE
STARTS BUILDING
COAL-FIRED
GENERATING STATIONS.
BUT COAL HAS
ONE BIG PROBLEM -
ONTARIO DOESN'T
HAVE ANY OF IT.
THE PURCHASE OF MILLIONS
OF TONNES OF COAL PER YEAR
FROM THE US IS BOTH EXPENSIVE
AND BAD FOR PR.
SO ONTARIO IS OPEN TO
ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY -
PROVIDED THEY'RE NOT
MORE EXPENSIVE THAN COAL.

A clip shows a nuclear bomb explosion.

The narrator says AFTER HELPING THE ALLIES
DEVELOP THE NUCLEAR BOMB
DURING WORLD WAR 2,
CANADA DECIDES TO FOCUS
ON PEACEFUL USES
OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY.
BY THE EARLY 50S,
CANADIAN RESEARCHERS
ARE CONFIDENT
THEY CAN BUILD
A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
USING "HEAVY WATER."
AS A MODERATOR,
ALLOWING IT TO BE
POWERED WITH NATURAL,
UNENRICHED URANIUM,
MINED IN ONTARIO.
ONTARIO HYDRO
IS INTERESTED.
BUT THE QUESTION IS,
CAN IT BE DONE
ON A COMMERCIAL SCALE,
CHEAP ENOUGH
TO COMPETE WITH COAL?
ONTARIO HYDRO COMES UP
WITH A THREE-STEP PLAN:
THEY WOULD BUILD A 20 MEGAWATT
DEMONSTRATOR PLANT
AT CHALK RIVER,
A 200 MEGAWATT
PROTOTYPE REACTOR
AT DOUGLAS POINT IN BRUCE,
FOLLOWED BY A FULL-SCALE
COMMERCIAL POWER PLANT
AT PICKERING.
THE DOUGLAS POINT SITE
NEAR INVERHURON,
IS CHOSEN BECAUSE OF ITS
STABLE LIMESTONE BEDROCK,
AND EASY-TO-ACCESS
WATER SUPPLY FROM LAKE HURON.
NO ONE REMEMBERS
MUCH CONSULTATION
WITH AREA RESIDENTS.
EVEN THE LOCAL MAYOR
FIRST LEARNS ABOUT IT
IN THE PAPER.
BUT THERE IS A GREAT DEAL
OF EXCITEMENT
ABOUT THE POTENTIAL
FOR JOBS.
FEW PEOPLE ARE MORE ENTHUSIASTIC
THAN ERNIE YOUNG,
WHO VOLUNTEERS
FOR ANY JOB HE CAN GET.

Ernie says BEFORE THEY
EXCAVATED THE GROUND,
THEY DO WHAT YOU CALL
GROUTING IT.
AND THAT WAS
TO SEAL IT OFF,
BECAUSE AT
THE BRUCE SITE,
IT'S KINDA POROUS -
LAYERS OF LIMESTONE.
AND SO WHAT YOU DO
IS YOU DRILL HOLES,
YOU PUT CEMENT AND WATER,
YOU MIX IT TOGETHER,
AND YOU PUMP IT
DOWN THESE HOLES,
AND IT SEEPS THE CEMENT
AND WATER UNDER THE GROUND,
AND SEALS IT,
SO WHEN YOU EXCAVATE THE GROUND
WATER WON'T COME
IN FROM THE LAKE.
AND SO,
THE SUPERINTENDENT SAID TO ME
HAVE YOU EVER DONE GROUTING,
I SAID
"I DON'T HAVE A CLUE,"
AND HE SAID
"YOU'RE THE GUY I WANT,
BECAUSE THEN I CAN TEACH YOU
HOW TO DO IT PROPERLY!"

The narrator says TURNS OUT, ERNIE
IS PRETTY GOOD AT GROUTING,
EVENTUALLY BECOMING
CONCRETE FOREMAN
FOR THE ENTIRE DOUGLAS POINT
CONSTRUCTION PROJECT.
INSTEAD OF MOVING ON
TO ANOTHER CONSTRUCTION SITE
WHEN DOUGLAS POINT
IS COMPLETE,
ERNIE TAKES A JOB
AS A HANDYMAN
AT THE PROTOTYPE
POWER PLANT,
WHICH COMES
ONLINE IN 1967.

Old clips show images of people working at the plant.

The narrator says ONTARIO HYDRO'S THREE-STEP
PROGRAM IS SUCCESSFUL.
BY THE TIME
THE FULL-SCALE PICKERING PLANT
IS OPERATIONAL IN 1973,
THE TOTAL COST
TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY
USING NUCLEAR POWER
IS CHEAPER THAN USING COAL.
THIS USHERS IN A MASSIVE
ERA OF NUCLEAR POWER
DEVELOPMENT IN ONTARIO,
AND A LOT OF IT
TAKES PLACE IN BRUCE.
ONTARIO HYDRO BUILDS
A 4-REACTOR PLANT
CALLED "BRUCE A,"
AS WELL AS A HEAVY WATER PLANT,
ON THE DOUGLAS POINT SITE,
DWARFING
THE PROTOTYPE REACTOR.
BRUCE A IS FOLLOWED BY
ANOTHER PLANT
CALLED "BRUCE B,"
ANOTHER HEAVY WATER PLANT,
AND A NUCLEAR WASTE
MANAGEMENT FACILITY.
THE SITE BECOMES
ONE OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST
NUCLEAR POWER COMPLEXES,
GENERATING MORE THAN
6000 MEGAWATTS OF ELECTRICITY -
30 percent OF ONTARIO'S POWER.
AT ITS PEAK, BRUCE NUCLEAR
EMPLOYS ABOUT 7000 WORKERS,
NOT INCLUDING THOUSANDS
OF CONSTRUCTION JOBS.
IT IS ARGUABLY THE BIGGEST
CHANGE TO THE REGION
SINCE THE SETTLEMENT
PERIOD OF THE 1850S.
ONE PERSON WHO'S SEEN ALL
THE CHANGES IS BARRY EBY,
WHO HAS CUT HAIR
AT EBY'S BARBERSHOP
IN NEARBY PORT ELGIN
FOR 65 YEARS.
BARRY REMEMBERS A HIGH-LEVEL
ONTARIO HYDRO EMPLOYEE
COMING IN TO GET HIS
HAIRCUT IN THE 1960S.

A clip shows a barber cutting a client's hair.

The caption changes to "Barrie Eby. Barber."

Barrie is in his sixties, with short receding gray hair and wears glasses, a striped shirt and black trousers.

Barrie says THIS GUY COME IN
AFTER THE HYDRO STARTED
AND SAID GIVE IT 10 YEARS,
YOU'LL NEVER
RECOGNIZE THE PLACE.
I SAID,
"THAT'LL NEVER HAPPEN."
WELL HE CAME BACK
IN 10 YEARS.
I SAID TO HIM, I SAID,
"I DIDN'T BELIEVE YOU
10 YEARS AGO,
BUT I CERTAINLY
BELIEVE YOU NOW."

The narrator says THE POPULATION OF PORT ELGIN
AND KINCARDINE
DOUBLES IN JUST A FEW YEARS,
REQUIRING MASSIVE INVESTMENTS
IN INFRASTRUCTURE.
AND FOR THE FIRST TIME
IN MORE THAN 50 YEARS,
CHILDREN IN SOUTHERN BRUCE
HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY
TO STAY IN THEIR
COMMUNITIES.

The caption changes to "Ross Lamont. Former Manager of Community Relations, Bruce Power."

Ross is in his fifties, clean-shaven and with short wavy gray hair and wears a blue shirt.

Ross says BEFORE THE MID-70S, MOST KIDS,
TO GET A GOOD JOB
OR TO GET AN EDUCATION
YOU LEFT BRUCE COUNTY
AND PROBABLY
YOU DIDN'T COME BACK.
IN THE MID-70S,
THAT STARTED TO CHANGE.
WHEN I WAS GRADUATING
FROM HIGH SCHOOL,
IF YOU DIDN'T WANT TO
GO TO POST-SECONDARY,
YOU COULD GET A JOB,
EITHER ON THE CONSTRUCTION SITE
OR THE OPERATIONS SIDE.
OR YOU COULD GO AWAY TO
SCHOOL AND COME BACK.
WHEN I LEFT TO GO AWAY
TO UNIVERSITY IN '75,
IT NEVER OCCURRED TO ME
THAT I WOULD COME BACK,
TO WORK HERE,
BUT I DID, I CAME BACK,
AND YOU KNOW IN '79,
I HAD A FULL TIME JOB
WITH ONTARIO HYDRO,
I WAS MARRIED,
AND THOUGHT I WAS ALL GROWN UP.

The narrator says THE HIGH WAGES OFFERED
AT THE BRUCE NUCLEAR
POWER DEVELOPMENT
CREATE AN ECONOMIC BUBBLE
IN THE RURAL LANDSCAPE,
ALLOWING SERVICE INDUSTRIES
OF ALL KINDS TO THRIVE.
AT EBY'S BARBERSHOP,
BARRY FIGURES
HE'S STILL OPEN TODAY
BECAUSE OF
NUCLEAR POWER.

Barrie points at his shoulder and says THAT'S WHEN EVERYBODY
HAD HAIR DOWN TO HERE.
BARBER SHOPS CLOSING
UP ALL OVER THE PLACE.
IT WAS JUST THE OLDER
WORKERS THAT CAME IN,
IN THOSE DAYS
THAT KEPT US GOING.
THEY GOT A HAIRCUT
MAYBE THREE TIMES A MONTH
INSTEAD OF ONCE
EVERY THREE YEARS.

The narrator says AS FOR ERNIE YOUNG,
HIS CAREER GROWS
ALONGSIDE THE REST OF THE SITE,
GOING FROM HANDYMAN
TO SUPERINTENDENT
OF MAINTENANCE,
WITH 750 PEOPLE
REPORTING TO HIM.

Ernie says I CAN STILL REMEMBER
THE FIRST DAY I WAS HIRED.
THE FOREMAN TOOK ME
TO THE BUSINESS ADMINISTRATOR,
HIS NAME WAS ACE BAILEY,
AND HE SAID TO ME
BEFORE WE HIRE YOU,
WE WANT TO MAKE
ONE THING REALLY CLEAR.
HE SAID TO
GET ANYWHERE IN HERE,
YOU MUST BE AN ENGINEER.
HE SAID YOU WITH GRADE 10,
HE SAID IF YOU'RE PREPARED,
AND THE ACTUAL WORDS
WERE "TO SCRUB TOILET BOWLS
UNTIL YOUR WHISKERS
ARE DOWN TO YOUR KNEES,"
WE WILL HIRE YOU
AS A HANDYMAN.
AND I SAID, FINE,
I ACCEPT THE JOB, AND I DID,
AND THE INTERESTING THING
WAS BEFORE HE RETIRED
I WAS HIGHER
IN THE ORGANIZATION THAN HE WAS.
[LAUGHTER]

The narrator says ERNIE BELIEVED THAT LIKE HIM,
LOCAL FARMERS
WERE EXCELLENT WORKERS,
SO HE OFTEN HIRES THEM
IN THE MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT.
MANY OF THEM,
INCLUDING ERNIE,
USE THE MONEY
TO HOLD ON TO THEIR FARMS.

Ernie says OVER THE YEARS
I ALWAYS FARMED,
EVEN WHEN I HAD
MY JOBS AT ONTARIO HYDRO.
I FARMED BECAUSE
FARMING IS KIND OF A DISEASE.
ONCE YOU GET IT,
IT'S REALLY HARD TO STOP.

The narrator says THE NUCLEAR POWER DEVELOPMENT
HELPS MANY LOCAL FAMILIES
KEEP THEIR FARMS.
IT ALSO BRINGS IN MANY NEW
FAMILIES FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD
MAKING SOUTHERN BRUCE
MORE CULTURALLY DIVERSE
THAN MANY RURAL
REGIONS IN ONTARIO.

Ross says IT BROUGHT IN
A LOT OF DIFFERENT CULTURES
AND BACKGROUNDS BECAUSE
THE HIRING WAS DONE
ON A GLOBAL BASIS,
AND SO YOU'VE GOT ENGINEERS
AND OTHER PROFESSIONALS
THAT HAVE COME IN FROM
JUST ABOUT ANY CORNER
OF THE WORLD THAT
YOU CAN IMAGINE.
IN SOME WAYS, IT'S NOT UNLIKE
IT WAS BACK IN THE 1850S.
PEOPLE WERE COMING TO MAKE
A BETTER LIFE
FOR THEIR FAMILIES.

(music plays)

The narrator says TODAY, THE CULTURAL DIVERSITY
THAT NUCLEAR POWER
BRINGS TO THE REGION
IS REFLECTED IN THE KINCARDINE
MULTICULTURAL FESTIVAL.
THE ANNUAL EVENT
INCLUDES REPRESENTATIVES
FROM MORE THAN 25 CULTURES
WHO NOW LIVE IN THE AREA.
THE EVENT
IS ALWAYS A HIT,
AND A COLOURFUL REMINDER
OF THE CULTURAL IMPACT
OF THE BRUCE NUCLEAR POWER
DEVELOPMENT.
MOST BELIEVE NUCLEAR POWER
CHANGES THINGS
FOR THE BETTER IN BRUCE.
BUT IT ALSO CREATES
SOME CHALLENGES.
THE WAGES OFFERED
AT DOUGLAS POINT
ARE ABOUT FOUR TIMES HIGHER
THAN THE GOING RATE,
MAKING IT DIFFICULT
FOR OTHER INDUSTRIES TO COMPETE.
ERNIE REMEMBERS THE OWNER
OF THE MALCOLM FURNITURE FACTORY
IN KINCARDINE COMING
TO DOUGLAS POINT IN FRUSTRATION.

Ernie says HE SAID YOU GUYS ARE GOING
TO BE THE RUINATION
OF THIS COMMUNITY BECAUSE
OF THE HUGE MONEY YOU'RE PAYING.

Ross says IT WAS A TIME WHEN
FACTORIES ALL ACROSS ONTARIO
WERE HAVING DIFFICULTIES
AND SHUTTING DOWN,
IN ANY EVENT.
BUT THIS REALLY
HASTENED THAT PROCESS,
SO A LOT OF THE FACTORIES
THAT YOU SAW IN SOUTHAMPTON,
AND PORT ELGIN,
AND KINCARDINE,
JUST SHUT THEIR DOORS
BECAUSE THEY COULDN'T GET
THE WORKERS THEY NEEDED.

The narrator says HOWARD KRUG
OF THE KRUG FURNITURE COMPANY
IN CHESLEY
BELIEVED THE COMING
OF NUCLEAR POWER
PUT THE FINAL NAIL
IN THE COFFIN
OF BRUCE COUNTY'S
LONGEST-OPERATING
FURNITURE FACTORY.
KRUG FURNITURE
CLOSES THEIR DOORS
FOR GOOD IN 1987,
ENDING 100 YEARS
IN BUSINESS
AND MARKING THE END
OF AN ERA IN BRUCE.
THE COMING OF NUCLEAR POWER
ALSO CREATES A MAJOR DILEMMA
FOR THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY.
THE OJIBWAY
ARE NOT CONSULTED
BEFORE THE NUCLEAR POWER
DEVELOPMENT IS BUILT,
DESPITE THE POTENTIAL
FOR NUCLEAR POWER
TO IMPACT
THE REGIONAL ECOSYSTEM,
AND THE TREATY-PROTECTED
RELATIONSHIP
TO THEIR TRADITIONAL
TERRITORY.

The caption changes to "Randall Kahgee. Legal Advisor and Former Chief, Saugeen Ojibway Nation."

Randall is in his late forties, clean-shaven and with short graying hair. He wears a white shirt.

Randall says THAT, LIKE SO MANY DECISIONS
THAT WE SEE OVER TIME
WAS LARGELY DONE
AT THE EXCLUSION OF OUR PEOPLE
WHERE WE ARE LEFT
ON THE OUTSIDE LOOKING IN.
WE CERTAINLY
DON'T DERIVE
THE ECONOMIC
OPPORTUNITIES
THAT PERHAPS OTHER
COMMUNITIES HAVE
WITH THE EXISTENCE
OF THAT FACILITY.
BUT MORE IMPORTANTLY
WHAT'S COME
FROM THAT FACILITY
OPERATING IN OUR TERRITORY
FOR THE LAST 50 YEARS
IS A LONG LIST
OF CONCERNS AND FEARS
ABOUT HOW THAT
FACILITY HAS IMPACTED
OUR RELATIONSHIP
TO THE TERRITORY,
THE LANDS
AND THE WATERS
AND OUR INTERACTION
WITH IT.
I THINK IT'S
A VERY SCARY THING
FOR A LOT OF OUR PEOPLE
BECAUSE WHEN YOU
TALK ABOUT NUCLEAR,
INEVITABLY YOU HAVE TO
ADDRESS THE WASTE
THAT COMES WITH NUCLEAR.
THERE'S A REAL DISTRUST
WHEN YOU'VE BEEN EXCLUDED
AND YOU COMBINE THAT WITH
A LONG LIST OF BROKEN PROMISES,
WHETHER IT BE THROUGH TREATY
OR OTHER COMMITMENTS OVER TIME.
IT'S BEEN A LONG JOURNEY
TO TRY AND GET THEM
TO START HAVING THE RIGHT
CONVERSATION WITH US.

The narrator says TODAY, THERE ARE SIGNS
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
THE NUCLEAR INDUSTRY
AND THE OJIBWAY
MAY BE CHANGING.
ONTARIO POWER GENERATION
HAS AGREED
THAT A NEW UNDERGROUND
NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE FACILITY,
KNOWN AS THE DEEP
GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY,
WILL NOT BE BUILT
WITHOUT THE CONSENT
OF THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY.

Randall says IT'S A HUGE DEPARTURE
FOR A COMPANY LIKE TO OPG
TO SAY ONE,
WE ACKNOWLEDGE THAT HISTORY,
AND WE WANT TO WORK
TO RECONCILE THAT,
AND WE ACKNOWLEDGE
AND RECOGNIZE
THAT YOUR COMMUNITIES
AND YOUR PEOPLE NEED
TO HAVE A VOICE IN THE FUTURE
ON THESE ISSUES,
AND IT SHOWS, I THINK,
REALLY WHAT WAS
FUNDAMENTALLY PROMISED TO US
IN THOSE TREATIES,
WHICH WAS THAT
WE WOULD
CONTINUE TO BE ABLE TO MAINTAIN
A RELATIONSHIP TO OUR TERRITORY,
OUR LANDS AND OUR WATERS
AND ENSURE THAT RELATIONSHIP
WAS SUSTAINABLE.

(music plays)

The narrator says TAKEN TOGETHER,
TOURISM AND NUCLEAR POWER
TRANSFORM BRUCE.
PREVIOUSLY VACANT
FARMHOUSES
FILL WITH WORKERS,
NEW SUBDIVISIONS
AND SHOPPING CENTRES SPRING UP,
AND COTTAGES ARE CONTINUALLY
APPEARING ON THE SHORE.
THE CHANGE IS LARGELY
A WELCOME ONE,
BUT IT DOES INTRODUCE
A NEW PROBLEM:
DEVELOPMENT PRESSURE.
AROUND THE SAME TIME AS
DOUGLAS POINT IS BEING BUILT,
PEOPLE BEGIN TO REALIZE
SOMETHING INTERESTING.
THE REGION'S
DEPRESSED ECONOMY
HAS LEFT
AN UNEXPECTED LEGACY.
UNLIKE MOST
OF SOUTHERN ONTARIO,
HUGE TRACTS OF THE BRUCE
HAVE RETURNED TO
A NATURAL STATE
AFTER BEING LOGGED.
IN THE EARLY 1900S,
"COUNTY VALUATORS" WERE TASKED
WITH ASSESSING THE WORTH
OF EACH TOWNSHIP IN BRUCE.

The animated map shows all the townships in Bruce, highlighting Saint Edmunds and Lindsay.

The narrator says WHEN THEY REACH THE TWO
NORTHERNMOST TOWNSHIPS,
THEY DECIDE NOT TO EVEN
BOTHER WITH AN ASSESSMENT,
CALLING ST. EDMUNDS
"LARGELY A WASTE."

(music plays)

The narrator says BUT IN THE 1960S, PEOPLE
LOOK AT THE SAME LANDSCAPE
AND SEE SOMETHING
DIFFERENT:
THEY SEE THOUSANDS
OF ACRES OF FORESTS,
PRISTINE RIVERS,
AND HUNDREDS OF KILOMETERS
OF INTACT SHORELINE.
THEY SEE A MOSAIC
OF ENVIRONMENTS
FILLED WITH A GREAT DIVERSITY
OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS;
LIKE THE OLDEST TREES
IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA,
THE RARE MASSASAUGA
RATTLESNAKE,
AND 44 DIFFERENT
SPECIES OF ORCHIDS.
WHAT THEY SEE BEFORE THEM
IS ONE OF THE MOST VALUABLE
NATURAL LANDSCAPES
IN ONTARIO.
THEY SEE SOMETHING
WORTH PROTECTING.
TWO PEOPLE
WHO RECOGNIZE THIS -
AND START DOING
SOMETHING ABOUT IT -
ARE HOWARD
AND BRUCE KRUG,
OF THE KRUG
FURNITURE COMPANY.

Black and white pictures of the Krug brothers appear.

The narrator says AMONG THE KRUG BROTHERS
MANY DUTIES
WAS MANAGING THE WOODLOTS
THE COMPANY OWNED
TO PROVIDE HARDWOOD
FOR MAKING FURNITURE.
IN 1963, THEY PURCHASE
2200 ACRES OF FOREST
AROUND THE CRANE RIVER
ON THE NORTHERN PENINSULA -
LANDS THAT WERE RECOVERING
NICELY FROM CLEAR-CUTTING.
BUT HOWARD AND BRUCE
CAN NEVER BRING THEMSELVES
TO LOG THIS FOREST.
IT IS ESSENTIALLY
A PRIVATE NATURE RESERVE,
AND, IN 2015,
SHORTLY AFTER
BRUCE KRUG PASSES AWAY,
THE CRANE RIVER TRACT
IS OFFICIALLY PROTECTED
BY THE NATURE
CONSERVANCY OF CANADA.
HOWARD DEVELOPS A PASSION
FOR NATURE IN HIS YOUTH,
AND PASSES THAT ON
TO HIS YOUNGER BROTHER, BRUCE.
AT AN EARLY AGE,
HOWARD COMES TO REALIZE
HOW IMPORTANT
THE BRUCE IS FOR BIRDS.
IT'S A CONVENIENT PATHWAY
FOR BIRDS HEADING NORTH OR SOUTH
DURING MIGRATION,
AND ITS FORESTS
AND ISLANDS
PROVIDE EXCELLENT
BREEDING HABITAT.

(music plays)

The narrator says TO LEARN MORE
ABOUT WHERE THE BIRDS
ARE COMING FROM
AND GOING TO,
HOWARD GETS HIS BIRD
BANDING LICENSE IN 1935,
WITH BRUCE ACTING
AS HIS ASSISTANT
ON BANDING
EXPEDITIONS.
HOWARD AND BRUCE'S NEPHEW,
JAMES SIEGRIST,
REMEMBERS BANDING SEAGULLS
WITH HIS UNCLES
ON ISLANDS
AROUND THE PENINSULA.

The caption changes to "James Siegrist. Nephew of Bruce and Howard Krug."

James is in his sixties, with short white hair and wears glasses and a green shirt.

James says WELL THAT WAS
QUITE AN EXPERIENCE.
THE BIRDS ARE IN COLONIES,
AND THEY ALL GET EXCITED
AND IF YOU DON'T
HAVE A BIG HAT
AND AN OLD COAT
AND RUBBER BOOTS,
YOU'LL GET BOMBED.
THE BIRDS NEST
ON THE GROUND
AND WE HAVE TO GO
AT THE RIGHT TIME
SO THAT THEY'RE
JUST HATCHED
AND THEY'RE RUNNING AROUND
AND YOU HAVE TO CATCH THEM,
AND YOU CATCH THE BIRD,
GIVE IT TO UNCLE HOWARD
AND HE PUTS THE BAND ON,
AND THEN YOU GO
AND CATCH SOME MORE.
WE LOOKED FORWARD TO IT.
IT WAS JUST FUN.

The narrator says HOWARD BANDS
MORE THAN 100,000 BIRDS
IN HIS LIFETIME,
AND SCIENTISTS AS FAR AWAY
AS SOUTH AMERICA
HAVE RECOVERED BANDS
HE PUT ON BIRDS IN BRUCE.
TODAY HOWARD'S
BIRD BANDING LEGACY LIVES ON
AT THE BRUCE PENINSULA
BIRD OBSERVATORY
AT CABOT HEAD.
THOUSANDS OF
BIRDS ARE BANDED
AND MONITORED
HERE EVERY YEAR,
MAKING AN IMPORTANT
CONTRIBUTION
TO THE KNOWLEDGE
OF MIGRATORY BIRDS
IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.
THE KRUGS
NOT ONLY BANDED BIRDS,
THEY ALSO LOBBIED
FOR THE PROTECTION
OF THEIR BREEDING HABITAT.
IN 1957, HOWARD CONVINCES
THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
TO DECLARE CHANTRY ISLAND,
AT THE MOUTH
OF THE SAUGEEN RIVER,
A NATIONAL MIGRATORY
BIRD SANCTUARY.
THE ISLAND REMAINS
A SAFE NESTING GROUND
FOR THE 50,000 OR SO BIRDS
THAT USE IT EACH YEAR.
AS THE KRUG'S ARE WORKING
TO PROTECT CHANTRY ISLAND,
THERE IS A BATTLE OF SORTS
BEING WAGED FURTHER NORTH,
OVER THE PENINSULA'S LAST
BIG UNDEVELOPED BEACH
AT DORCAS BAY.
THE BEACH IS SCHEDULED
FOR DEVELOPMENT,
BUT WHEN THE DEVELOPER
GOES BANKRUPT IN 1962,
AN OWEN SOUND NATURALIST,
MALCOLM KIRK,
PAYS THE LAND OWNER A VISIT.
KIRK EXPLAINS HOW
IMPORTANT THE PROPERTY
IS FOR ORCHIDS
AND RARE WILDFLOWERS,
AND THE OWNER AGREES TO GIVE
KIRK A THREE MONTH OPTION
TO PURCHASE THE PROPERTY
FOR ONE DOLLAR.
KIRK THEN TEAMS UP
WITH THE FEDERATION
OF ONTARIO NATURALISTS,
WHO LAUNCH
A MEDIA CAMPAIGN
KNOWN AS
THE "BATTLE OF THE BULLDOZER."
THE CAMPAIGN QUICKLY RAISES
20,000 DOLLARS IN DONATIONS
TO BUY THE LAND -
SOMETHING UNHEARD OF
AT THE TIME.
THE 200-ACRE
DORCAS BAY NATURE RESERVE
MAY HAVE BEEN SMALL,
BUT IT PROVES THAT PEOPLE
ARE WILLING TO CONTRIBUTE
TIME AND MONEY TO HELP CONSERVE
IMPORTANT NATURAL AREAS
THAT ARE UNDER THREAT.

(music plays)

The narrator says THE FEDERATION
OF ONTARIO NATURALISTS
THEN TURN THEIR ATTENTION
TO WHAT IS ARGUABLY
THE HIGHEST PRIORITY
FOR CONSERVATION IN BRUCE:
THE NIAGARA ESCARPMENT.

(music plays)

Aerial views show images of the Niagara Escarpment.

The narrator says THE ESCARPMENT
HAD BEEN LARGELY LEFT ALONE
BY THE TRANSFORMATIVE
COLONIZATION PROCESS:
NO ONE HAD MUCH USE
FOR LIMESTONE CLIFFS
COVERED WITH
SCRUBBY CEDAR TREES.
IN THE LATE 1980S,
RESEARCHERS FROM
THE UNIVERSITY OF GUELPH
DISCOVER THOSE
SCRUBBY TREES
FORM THE OLDEST FOREST
IN EASTERN CANADA.
THE OLDEST OF THE OLD TREES
HAS BEEN GROWING
FOR OVER 1300 YEARS
AT LION'S HEAD
ON THE PENINSULA.
ONTARIO'S
CONSERVATIONISTS
DON'T KNOW THIS
IN THE EARLY 60S,
BUT THEY DO KNOW
THE ESCARPMENT
IS AN IMPORTANT REFUGE
FOR WILDLIFE -
A RIBBON OF WILDERNESS
IN AN OTHERWISE HEAVILY
DEVELOPED SOUTHERN ONTARIO.

The animated map shows the location of the ribbon of wilderness, going from Tobermory to Niagara Falls.

The narrator says UNFORTUNATELY,
IT IS ALSO UNDER GROWING THREAT
FROM QUARRY DEVELOPMENT
AND SUBURBAN EXPANSION.
CONSERVATIONISTS KNOW
THAT FOR PEOPLE TO CARE
ABOUT THE ESCARPMENT,
THEY NEED TO EXPERIENCE IT.
AND ONE OF THE BEST
WAYS TO DO THAT
IS TO BUILD A TRAIL.
IN 1960 THE FEDERATION
OF ONTARIO NATURALISTS
SPEARHEAD THE BUILDING
OF THE BRUCE TRAIL:
A 900 KILOMETRE PATH
ALONG THE ESCARPMENT
FROM THE NIAGARA RIVER TO
THE TIP OF THE BRUCE PENINSULA.

The animated map shows the route of the Bruce Trail.

The narrator says FEDERATION MEMBER,
PHILIP GOSLING,
TAKES A YEAR OFF WORK
TO TRY AND MAKE IT HAPPEN.
THE SUCCESS OF
THE TRAIL HINGES
ON "HANDSHAKE AGREEMENTS."
WITH LAND OWNERS
WILLING TO LET PEOPLE
WALK ACROSS THEIR LAND,
AND VOLUNTEERS WILLING
TO HELP BUILD THE TRAIL.
PHILIP FINDS BOTH
IN ABUNDANCE IN BRUCE.
AMONG THE EARLY
SUPPORTERS OF THE TRAIL
ARE THE MAYOR
OF ST. EDMUND'S TOWNSHIP,
J.P. JOHNSTONE,
AND HIS WIFE SHIRLEY.

The caption changes to "Shirley Johnstone. Early Bruce Trail supporter."

Shirley is in her seventies, with short wavy gray hair and wears glasses, a blue turtleneck sweater and a burgundy leather jacket.

Shirley says WELL, PHIL CALLED.
HE WANTED TO COME
AND TALK TO JACK
AND SEE IF HE WAS INTERESTED
IN HELPING OUT WITH THIS.
I THINK JACK THOUGHT THAT
WAS PROBABLY THE LAST THING
HE NEEDED TO DO,
WAS GO OUT AND BUILD A TRAIL!
BUT AFTER PHIL CAME UP,
AND THEY SPENT
THE AFTERNOON TOGETHER,
JACK REALIZED THAT
THIS WAS PROBABLY
AN OPPORTUNITY
FOR TOURISM.
I THINK ONE
OF THE CONCERNS PEOPLE HAD,
NOBODY HAD EVER
WALKED THE SHORE
FROM LAKE EMMETT
TO CABOT HEAD.
VARIOUS PEOPLE SAID
"THEY DIDN'T EVEN THINK
YOU COULD HAVE AT TRAIL
IN THERE BECAUSE
IT WAS SO RUGGED."
BUT JACK DID WALK IT ONE DAY
AND FOUND THAT YES,
IT IS POSSIBLE,
ALTHOUGH IT WAS
PRETTY RUGGED IN PLACES.
THE NEXT THING YOU HAD TO DO
WAS TRY AND FIND OUT
WHO THE LANDOWNERS WERE,
AND CONTACT THEM FOR PERMISSION
TO CROSS THEIR PROPERTY.

The narrator says SHIRLEY
AND OTHER LOCAL SUPPORTERS,
LIKE THE GATIS FAMILY,
HAVE NO PROBLEM
GETTING HANDSHAKE AGREEMENTS
FROM LANDOWNERS.

The caption changes to "Ronald Gatis. Early Bruce Trail supporter."

Ronald is in his seventies, balding and clean-shaven. He wears a blue suit, pale blue shirt and blue tie.

Ron says I WAS ABLE TO GET THEM
AND SO WERE EVERYONE ELSE,
BECAUSE IF YOU HAVE
SOMETHING THAT YOU CAN SHARE
THAT MIGHT
GIVE PEOPLE ENJOYMENT,
WHY NOT DO IT
IF IT'S NOT GOING TO
COST YOU MONEY
AND HURT YOU?

The narrator says HOWARD AND BRUCE KRUG
ARE EAGER TO SUPPORT
THE BRUCE TRAIL.
THEY ORGANIZE VOLUNTEER
GROUPS FROM CHESLEY
TO HELP THE JOHNSTONES
BLAZE AND CLEAR THE TRAIL
THROUGH THE RUGGED LANDSCAPE
AROUND CABOT HEAD.
A LITTLE FURTHER SOUTH,
ONE OF THE MOST BEAUTIFUL
PARTS OF THE ESCARPMENT
GOES THROUGH THE SAUGEEN
OJIBWAY TERRITORY
OF NEEASHINGAMIING,
OR CAPE CROKER.

The animated map shows the extension of the trail from Cabot Head to Neyaashiinigmiig.

The narrator says THE OJIBWAY COMMUNITY
NOT ONLY GIVES PERMISSION
FOR THE TRAIL TO GO
THROUGH THEIR TERRITORY,
BUT JOHN NADJIWON
VOLUNTEERS TO ENLIST
HIS BOY SCOUT TROOP
TO HANDLE TRAIL CONSTRUCTION.

(music plays)

A picture of the invitation to the opening of the trail appears.

The narrator says ON JUNE 10TH, 1967,
THE TRAIL OPENS WITH
A CEREMONY AT TOBERMORY.
THE TRAIL DRAWS
INTERNATIONAL ATTENTION
A FEW MONTHS LATER,
WHEN LORD AND LADY HUNT
BRING YOUNG PEOPLE
FROM THROUGHOUT
THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH
ON AN "EXPEDITION."
TO HIKE THE TRAIL
FROM TOBERMORY
TO OWEN SOUND.
[APPLAUSE]

At a present day celebration, a woman behind a lectern says 50 YEARS AGO TODAY,
SOMETHING MAGICAL HAPPENED HERE.

The narrator says TODAY THE BRUCE TRAIL
IS 50 YEARS OLD
AND IS CONSIDERED
ONE OF ONTARIO'S BIGGEST
CONSERVATION SUCCESS STORIES.
SOME 400,000 HIKERS
USE PART OF THE TRAIL
EVERY YEAR.
TRUE TO THE INTENTIONS
OF THE TRAIL'S FOUNDERS,
THE AWARENESS CREATED
BY THE TRAIL
DOES HELP PROTECT
THE ESCARPMENT.
NOT LONG AFTER
THE TRAIL'S OPENING,
THE BRUCE TRAIL ASSOCIATION
STARTS RAISING FUNDS
TO PURCHASE KEY PROPERTIES
ALONG THE ESCARPMENT.
TO DATE - MORE THAN 10,000
ACRES HAVE BEEN PRESERVED
BY WHAT'S NOW
THE BRUCE TRAIL CONSERVANCY.
THE PROVINCIAL
GOVERNMENT TAKES NOTE
OF THE GRASSROOTS EFFORTS
TO CONSERVE THE BRUCE
IN THE EARLY 1960S,
AND DECIDES TO GET INVOLVED.
IN 1968,
CYPRESS LAKE PROVINCIAL PARK
IS CREATED ALONG ONE OF THE MOST
SPECTACULAR STRETCHES
OF THE BRUCE SHORELINE.

The animated map shows the location of the parks near Tobermory.

The narrator says AND IN 1972,
FATHOM FIVE MARINE PARK
IS FORMED
TO PROTECT THE REGION'S
MANY SHIPWRECKS
FROM PILLAGING
BY TREASURE HUNTERS.
BUT THEN,
THE PROVINCE CREATES
THE NIAGARA ESCARPMENT
COMMISSION...
THE COMMISSION IS TASKED
WITH CREATING ONTARIO'S
FIRST LAND USE PLAN
TO BETTER PROTECT
THE ESCARPMENT.
BUT WHEN A DRAFT
OF THE PROPOSED PLAN
IS RELEASED IN 1978,
THE BACKLASH
IS INTENSE.

Old newspaper headlines reads "Protesters flood Queens Park" "Escarpment lands caught in crossfire."

The narrator says THE PLAN WOULD
LIMIT WHAT LANDOWNERS
COULD DO TO THEIR PROPERTY
IN CERTAIN AREAS,
AND EVEN ALLOWS
FOR THE POSSIBILITY
OF LAND EXPROPRIATION.
MEETINGS ARE HELD
IN LION'S HEAD AND WIARTON,
ATTRACTING 1000
CONCERNED LANDOWNERS
TO DENOUNCE
THE PROPOSALS.

The caption changes to "Donald Scott. Chair, Niagara Escarpment Commission. Former Bruce County Planner."

Donald is in his sixties, with short straight white hair and wears a blue suit, pale blue shirt and striped blue and gray tie.

Donald says UNFORTUNATELY
FOR THE BRUCE TRAIL,
THEY BECAME
VERY ASSOCIATED
WITH THE NIAGARA
ESCARPMENT COMMISSION
AND THEY'RE DEFINITELY
TWO DISTINCT ENTITIES.
BUT, IN PEOPLE'S MINDS
THEY WERE THE SAME.
SO, AS A RESULT,
SOME OF THE GOODWILL
TOWARDS THE BRUCE TRAIL
JUST VANISHED.

Other headlines read "Bruce Trail to close?" and "Bruce Trail in jeopardy."

Ronald says WELL, PEOPLE PUT
THE BRUCE TRAIL
OFF THEIR PROPERTY,
THAT'S WHAT HAPPENED.
IT TOOK A LONG TIME TO
GET IT BACK MORE OR LESS
ON THE RIGHT SPOT AGAIN.
AND I DON'T BLAME PEOPLE
YOU KNOW?

The narrator says ALL ALONG THE BRUCE TRAIL,
PROPERTY OWNERS WITHDRAW
THEIR HANDSHAKE AGREEMENTS,
EFFECTIVELY
CLOSING THE TRAIL.
THINGS EVENTUALLY CALM DOWN,
AND THE TRAIL RE-OPENS.
BUT THERE ARE
SOME AREAS -
LIKE THE ROUTE
THROUGH CABOT HEAD,
BLAZED BY THE JOHNSTONES
AND THE KRUGS -
THAT ARE STILL
OFF-LIMITS TODAY.

(music plays)

The narrator says IT'S IN THE EARLY 1980S,
WITH THE CONTROVERSY AROUND
THE NIAGARA ESCARPMENT
COMMISSION STILL SWIRLING,
THAT PARKS CANADA DECIDES
IT WANTS TO TURN
THE NORTHERN BRUCE PENINSULA
INTO A NATIONAL PARK.
THE NEW PARK
WOULD COMBINE
AND ENLARGE THE PARKS
AND NATURE RESERVES
THAT ALREADY EXIST,
AND PROTECT AND SHOWCASE
THE NATURAL HISTORY
OF SOUTHWESTERN ONTARIO.
UP UNTIL TEN YEARS BEFORE,
PARKS CANADA
WAS EXPROPRIATING LAND
TO CREATE PARKS.
BUT BY THIS TIME,
THEY DECIDE THAT PRIVATE LAND
WILL ONLY BE INCLUDED,
IF THE LANDOWNER
IS WILLING TO SELL.
WHAT'S MORE,
THE LOCAL COMMUNITY
NEEDS TO BE ON BOARD.

A re-enactment shows a man knocking at a woman's door.

The narrator says GETTING BRUCE RESIDENTS
TO SUPPORT THE PARK
IS NOT AN EASY TASK,
BUT PARKS CANADA
HAS A SECRET WEAPON:

The man says BOB.
BOB DAY NICE TO MEET YOU!
THIS IS MY ASSISTANT, GARRY.
AND WE'RE FROM
PARKS CANADA.
NOW YOU MAY HAVE HEARD...

The caption changes to "Holly Dunham. Historian and daughter of Albert Smith."

Holly is in her sixties, with short wavy gray hair and wears a coral shirt.

Holly says HE WAS TO MEET THE COMMUNITY
AND ALLAY FEARS
AND EXPLAIN WHAT THE NATIONAL
PARKS WERE ALL ABOUT.
THAT WAS HIS JOB, AND HE WAS
VERY, VERY GOOD AT IT.

Bob says to a couple of neighbours WELL TO BE HONEST,
PEOPLE ARE GOING TO COME
WHETHER OR NOT
THERE IS A PARK.

Donald says HE HAD GOOD PERSONAL SKILLS.
THAT ADDS A LOT.
IF PEOPLE LIKE YOU,
THEY'RE MORE INCLINED
TO LISTEN TO YOU,
AND SOMETIMES DO WHAT
YOU WANT THEM TO DO.

One of the neighbours says IS THERE ANY CHANCE
OF EXPROPRIATION?

Albert says HE ALWAYS
WANTED TO DEVELOP HIS PLANS
IN A COOPERATIVE MANNER.
THAT WAS THE MAIN
THING ABOUT BOB DAY
THAT STANDS IN MY MIND.

The narrator says BOB DEVELOPS
A LOVE FOR THE BRUCE
PADDLING THE GEORGIAN BAY
SHORELINE WITH HIS WIFE, JOAN.

A picture of the real Bob with his wife appears.

He has short wavy brown hair and a thick beard.

The narrator says IN 1981 HE IS APPOINTED
SUPERINTENDENT
OF GEORGIAN BAY
ISLANDS NATIONAL PARK,
WHICH INCLUDES
FLOWERPOT ISLAND.
SOON AFTER,
HE IS GIVEN THE JOB
OF CONVINCING PEOPLE
IN NORTHERN BRUCE,
THAT BECOMING
A NATIONAL PARK
IS A GOOD IDEA.
BOB BELIEVES IT IS
THE ONLY WAY TO CONTROL
INCREASING NUMBERS
OF VISITORS,
AND TO PRESERVE
THE REGION'S UNIQUE FEATURES
FROM DEVELOPMENT
PRESSURE.
BUT BOB WOULD NEED TO PUT
ALL OF HIS FRIENDLY,
COOPERATIVE INTERPERSONAL
SKILLS TO USE
TO GET OTHERS
TO AGREE WITH HIM.

Bob's voice says ON ONE
OCCASION A GENTLEMAN INVITED ME
TO HIS PROPERTY
NEAR DYER'S BAY
TO ANSWER HIS QUESTIONS.
UPON ARRIVAL I FOUND
HIS YARD PACKED WITH TRUCKS,
MANY SPORTING RIFLES MOUNTED
IN THEIR REAR WINDOWS.

He enters the property and people with untrusting faces were waiting inside.

(music plays)

Bob sits at a table and says WELL, FOR STARTERS,
LET ME JUST SAY THAT...
I PREFACED MY REMARKS
BY OBSERVING
THAT BOTH MY SECRETARY
AND MY WIFE KNEW WHERE I WAS!
[ALL LAUGH]

A bearded man says DON'T WORRY, BOB.
WE'VE JUST GOT
A FEW QUESTIONS FOR YOU.

Bob's voice says A FREE
WHEELING DISCUSSION ENSUED.

The narrator says DESPITE BOB'S BEST EFFORTS,
OPPOSITION TO THE PARK
IS FIERCE.
PEOPLE ARE PARTICULARLY
UPSET THAT HUNTING,
AN IMPORTANT PART
OF LOCAL CULTURE,
WOULD NOT BE ALLOWED
IN THE PARK.

THERE ARE PARADES
OF PROTEST.
A PETITION AGAINST THE PARK
IS SIGNED BY 600 PEOPLE.
ON THE MORNING
OF AN OPEN HOUSE,
SMOKE CAN BE SEEN
IN THE DISTANCE:
SOMEONE IS LIGHTING
FOREST FIRES.

Holly says PEOPLE REALLY
AND TRULY BELIEVED
THAT THEIR DAY-TO-DAY LIVES
WOULD BE CONTROLLED
BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,
THAT THEY
WOULDN'T BE ALLOWED
TO DO THINGS
ON THEIR PROPERTY.
THAT IF THEY OWNED
A CHUNK OF PROPERTY
THAT WAS IN
THE PARK'S STUDY AREA,
THAT IT WOULD BE
TAKEN FROM THEM.
WE'D ALREADY HAD
THE NIAGARA ESCARPMENT
COMMISSION THERE,
AND THEY WERE ALREADY
CONTROLLING LAND USAGE.
THEY DIDN'T WANT
THE GOVERNMENT
TELLING THEM
WHAT TO DO.

The narrator says THE MOST DARING
ACT AGAINST THE PARK
IS KEPT SECRET
UNTIL MANY YEARS LATER.

(music plays)

In the re-enactment, Bob stands by a body of water when a bullet is directed at him and misses.

[GUNSHOT]

Bob says I STILL REMEMBER VIVIDLY
THE STALE TASTE OF THE BLACK
ORGANIC BRUCE TRAIL DUST
COATING THE BACK
OF MY THROAT
AS I BELLY-FLOPPED
HUGGING THE GROUND
AWAITING MY FATE.

The narrator says BOB DOESN'T GO PUBLIC
WITH THIS INCIDENT
FOR 25 YEARS,
FEARING IT WOULD
DERAIL THE PROCESS.

Donald says HE DIDN'T WANT TO THROW
GASOLINE ON THE FIRE,
IF YOU KNOW WHAT I MEAN.

The narrator says IN THE END,
BOB AND HIS TEAM
ARE ABLE TO ALLAY
MANY OF THE RESIDENTS' CONCERNS.
ST. EDMUND'S TOWNSHIP VOTES
IN FAVOUR OF THE PARK,
WITH LINDSAY TOWNSHIP
VOTING AGAINST IT.
TRUE TO THE OPEN PROCESS,
LANDS IN LINDSAY
ARE EXCLUDED FROM THE PARK.
AS FOR
THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY,
THEY AGREE NOT TO OPPOSE
THE PARK'S CREATION,
ALTHOUGH
A FINAL AGREEMENT
WITH THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
IS STILL PENDING.

The caption changes to "Vernon Roote. Elder and Former Chief, Saugeen First Nation."

Vernon is in his sixties, clean-shaven and with short wavy gray hair. He wears a gray shirt and a beaded necklace.

Vernon says THE BENEFITS OF HAVING A PARK
WAS CALLED CONSERVATION.
IF YOU HAVE A CONSERVATION
APPROACH TO IT,
THERE WOULD BE
THE NON-EXISTENCE
OF RESIDENTIAL LOTS
FOR HUMAN BEINGS.
AND SO,
IT WOULD BE PRESERVED
IN A WAY WHERE CONSERVATION
WOULD BE GOOD
FOR US
AND PERHAPS EVEN OTHERS.

[APPLAUSE]

The narrator says IN 1987, A CEREMONY IS HELD
TO ANNOUNCE THE CREATION
OF BRUCE PENINSULA
NATIONAL PARK,
AND FATHOM FIVE
NATIONAL MARINE PARK,
WITH BOB DAY
AS THE FIRST SUPERINTENDENT
OF BOTH PARKS.
SHORTLY AFTERWARDS,
THE NIAGARA ESCARPMENT
EARNS A WORLD BIOSPHERE RESERVE
DESIGNATION
FROM THE UNITED NATIONS,
WITH THE NEW PARKS
FORMING A KEY PART
OF THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE.
TODAY, THE PARK'S DUAL ROLE
AS PROTECTOR AND PRESENTER
OF THE BRUCE ENVIRONMENT
IS BEING PUT TO THE TEST.

The caption changes to "John Haselmayer. Superintendent, Bruce Peninsula National Park and Fathom Five National Marine Park."

John is in his late forties, with short wavy brown hair and a shadow of a beard. He wears a blue shirt.

John says OVER THE LAST EIGHT YEARS,
THE NUMBER OF VISITORS
ENTERING BRUCE PENINSULA
NATIONAL PARK HAS DOUBLED
BUT WHAT HAS INCREASED
EVEN MORE QUICKLY
IS THE NUMBER
OF PEOPLE ARRIVING
WHEN OUR PLACE
IS ALREADY AT CAPACITY.
SO THAT'S THE CHALLENGE
WE'RE DEALING WITH NOW;
HOW TO MANAGE
THAT EXCESS DEMAND,
HOW TO GET THE MESSAGE
TO THE GTA:
'WE'D LOVE TO SEE YOU.
PLEASE COME DURING
THE SHOULDER SEASONS.'
IT'S A CHALLENGE,
AND IT'S A GREAT
PROBLEM TO HAVE.
PARKS CANADA'S MANDATE
IS TO CONNECT HEARTS AND MINDS
TO THE VERY ESSENCE
OF CANADA.
SO, WHEN WE SEE
CANADIANS COME TO US
IN THE NUMBERS
THAT THEY ARE,
LOOKING FOR THOSE
EXPERIENCES
AND LOOKING TO CONNECT
WITH THEIR NATURAL HISTORY,
WE SEE AMAZING OPPORTUNITY
TO FULFILL OUR MANDATE.

(music plays)

The narrator says IN THE EARLY 1960S,
THE FUTURE OF NATURE
IN BRUCE WAS UNCERTAIN.
BUT MORE THAN 50 YEARS
OF CONSERVATION EFFORTS
PROTECTED NEARLY
A QUARTER MILLION ACRES,
WITH MANY MORE STEWARDED
BY PRIVATE LAND OWNERS
AND THE OJIBWAY.
IT'S A FITTING LEGACY
FOR A REGION WHOSE RESIDENTS
BELIEVE THAT HISTORY,
BOTH NATURAL AND CULTURAL,
IS ESSENTIAL
TO THEIR FUTURE.

A caption reads "Patrick Kelly. Bruce County Historical Society."

Patrick is in his fifties, with short straight graying hair and a beard. He wears a gray shirt.

Patrick says I THINK, FOR A LOT OF PEOPLE,
THEY HAVE DIFFICULTY SOMETIMES
WHERE THEY'RE SAYING,
"I CAN'T DO THIS.
IT'S TOO HARD."
OR "LIFE IS REALLY GIVING ME
A HARD GO OF IT HERE."
"OKAY, BUT YOU'RE THE SAME
GENETIC MAKEUP OF THESE PEOPLE
WHO HAVE ACHIEVED
THESE MARVELS.
CHANCES ARE YOU
CAN DO IT TOO."

The caption changes to "Jenna McGuire. Artist and Educator, Historic Saugeen Metis."

Jenna is in her thirties, with long straight light brown hair and wears a green sweater and a choker necklace.

Jenna says IT'S BEEN ALMOST 200 YEARS
OF MÉTIS CULTURE BEING
KIND OF SHOVED UNDER THE RUG,
SO IT'S REALLY NICE
TO BE ABLE TO BRING IT BACK OUT
AND SHARE IT
WITH EVERYONE.
THERE'S SOMETHING REALLY
BEAUTIFUL ABOUT MÉTIS IDENTITY.
IT'S THE STORY OF TWO EXTREMELY
DIFFERENT HUMAN CULTURES
COMING TOGETHER TO CREATE
A BRAND NEW CULTURE
THAT IS UNIQUE
AND DISTINCT
AND HAS
THE STRENGTHS OF BOTH,
AND I THINK THAT THAT'S A REALLY
INSPIRATIONAL PAST TO HAVE
AND REALLY HAS A POWERFUL
MESSAGE FOR THE FUTURE.

The caption changes to "Doctor John Borrows. Canada Research Chair in Indigenous Law, University of Victoria. Member, Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation."

John is in his late forties, clean-shaven and with short straight gray hair and wears a blue gingham shirt.

John says TREATIES ARE A PATH
OF HOPE AND PEACE
FOR THE FUTURE,
BECAUSE IN THIS
TERRITORY, OF COURSE,
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES CAN
TRACE THEIR RIGHTS TO THE LAND,
AND THE USE OF
THE RESOURCES
IN THAT TREATY PROCESS,
BUT LIKEWISE,
WE INVITED OTHERS
TO BE ABLE TO LIVE IN ACCORDANCE
WITH ANISHINABE LAW
SO NON-INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
ALSO DRAW THE RIGHT
TO LIVE PEACEFULLY HERE,
TO THE TREATIES.
WHEN WE CAN SEE OURSELVES
AS ALL BEING ROOTED
AND SETTLED HERE,
WE CAN ALSO FIND
THERE ISN'T JUST DISCORD.
WE CAN LOOK BACK
IN OUR HISTORY
AND DRAW ON SOME
OF THOSE BETTER MOMENTS,
AND SEE THOSE
AS GUIDING LIGHTS
FOR HOW WE RELATE
TO ONE ANOTHER
IN THE FUTURE.

Music plays as the end credits roll.

Director and writer, Zach Melnick.

A caption reads "Major funding for this series has been provided by the Ontario Trillium Foundation, the Bruce County and Bruce Power."

Produced in association with TVO.

The caption changes to "This series is part of the Ontario Visual Heritage Project. Visit thebrucemovie.ca to learn more."

Copyright 2018, Living History Multimedia Association.

Watch: Ep. 3 - The Peaceful Path