Transcript: Ep. 2 - The Last Frontier | Aug 19, 2018

[CROWD CLAMOURING]

A clip shows settlers crowded at a window to buy something.

A man at a GRANTED. THANK YOU.
NEXT, PLEASE!

The narrator says IT'S AUGUST OF 1854.
THOUSANDS OF
WOULD-BE SETTLERS
HAVE DESCENDED UPON
THE TINY VILLAGE
OF SOUTHAMPTON.
THEY'VE COME
FOR A PIECE OF LAND
TO CALL THEIR OWN.
MOST HAVE BEEN THROUGH HELL
TO GET HERE.

A clip shows settlers carrying children on their back across a wintery forest.

The narrator says FOR MANY OTHERS, THEIR HELL
IS JUST BEGINNING.
THIS IS SOUTHERN ONTARIO'S
"LAST FRONTIER."

A clip shows a fight at a bar.

A man says DON'T TOUCH IT!

Another man punches him.

In animation, a series of pictures show images of settlers, boats, coasts, river banks, and old maps.

The name of the show reads "The Bruce. The last frontier."
[CRICKETS CHIRPING]

The narrator says TODAY, MANY
RURAL AREAS IN ONTARIO
ARE FACING DE-POPULATION.
BUT IN THE MID-1800S,
FARMLAND IS WEALTH,
AND UPPER CANADA -
WHAT'S NOW ONTARIO -
IS BURSTING AT THE SEAMS.
THE POTATO FAMINE
IN IRELAND
AND THE HIGHLAND CLEARANCES
IN SCOTLAND
CREATE MASSIVE NUMBERS
OF ECONOMIC REFUGEES
THAT SET THEIR SIGHTS
ON CANADA.
ADD TO THIS THE
ESTABLISHED COLONISTS,
WHO NEED MORE SPACE
FOR THEIR EXPANDING FAMILIES,
AND THE DEMAND
FOR LAND IS HUGE.
BUT GOOD FARMLAND
IS BECOMING SCARCE.
IN THE 1830S,
SOME OF THE MOST PROMISING
UNCULTIVATED LAND
IN UPPER CANADA
IS THE TWO-MILLION-ACRE
ANCESTRAL HOMELAND
OF THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY.

A map shows the location of the Saugeen Ojibway territory.

A re-enactment shows Lieutenant Governor Sir Francis Bond Head say MY CHILDREN...

The narrator says LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR
SIR FRANCIS BOND HEAD
KNOWS THIS.
HE TRIES TO CONVINCE ALL THE
FIRST NATIONS IN UPPER CANADA,
INCLUDING THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY,
TO MOVE TO MANITOULIN ISLAND
TO MAKE WAY FOR SETTLEMENT.

The map shows the location of the Manitoulin Island.

The narrator says THE SAUGEEN REFUSE TO MOVE,
BUT BOND HEAD CONVINCES
A FEW SAUGEEN CHIEFS
TO SIGN TREATY 45 AND A HALF.
THEY AGREE TO ALLOW
SETTLEMENT TO TAKE PLACE
ON 1.5 MILLION ACRES
BELOW THE SAUGEEN PENINSULA,
IN EXCHANGE
FOR THE PROTECTION
OF THEIR REMAINING
LANDS AND WATERS.

The map shows the location of the settlement area.

The narrator says IN 1847,
SURVEYORS GET TO WORK
ON THE LAND
MADE AVAILABLE FOR SETTLEMENT
BY THE BOND HEAD TREATY
THAT WOULD BECOME
SOUTHERN BRUCE COUNTY.

A surveyor says SET!

The narrator says THEY LAY OUT ROADS,
REPORT ON THE QUALITY
OF LAND FOR FARMING,
AND START DIVIDING
THE LAND INTO LOTS.
BUT THE NEED FOR LAND
IS SO GREAT
THAT, EVEN BEFORE THE FIRST
SURVEYS ARE COMPLETE
AND A SINGLE LOT SOLD,
SQUATTERS POUR
IN TO STAKE OUT THE BEST
LAND FOR THEMSELVES.
THE WATERWAYS
ARE THE HIGHWAYS,
SO THE FIRST SQUATTERS
CHOOSE LAND
NEAR WHERE MAJOR RIVERS
EMPTY INTO LAKE HURON,
SUCH AS THE SAUGEEN
AND PENETANGORE -
PLACES THAT WOULD LATER
BECOME SOUTHAMPTON
AND KINCARDINE.
SMELLING OPPORTUNITY,
ENTREPRENEURS OPEN
RUSTIC HOTELS
TO SERVE SETTLERS
HEADING INTO THE INTERIOR,
INCLUDING THE WALKER HOUSE
IN WHAT'S NOW KINCARDINE.
[OVERLAPPING CHATTER]

A scene at a hotel bar rolls.

A woman brings a settler a drink.

The settler says THANK YOU.

Paddy Walker says HEY, LADS!
HOW'S IT GOING?

The narrator says PADDY WALKER ARRIVES IN 1850
AND BUILDS A HOTEL
NEAR THE LAKESHORE,
LOOKING TO CASH IN
ON THE SETTLEMENT CRAZE.

Paddy says BECKY! ANOTHER DRINK
FOR THIS MAN HERE!

The narrator says BUT PADDY SOON REALIZES
HIS HOTEL IS TOO FAR
FROM THE RIVER MOUTH
TO CATCH THE EYE
OF WEARY TRAVELERS.
SO HE GATHERS TOGETHER
AS MANY MEN AS HE CAN,
ALONG WITH AN APPROPRIATE
AMOUNT OF WHISKY,
AND CONVINCES THEM TO CUT
A NEW PATH FOR THE RIVER,
MUCH CLOSER TO HIS HOTEL.

Paddy says AND I'LL EVEN PROVIDE YOU
WITH THE SHOVELS!
[CROWD MURMURS]

The narrator says EVEN MORE BRAZEN ARE BUSINESSMEN
LIKE JOSEPH WALKER -
NO RELATION TO PADDY -
WHO DECIDE TO SET UP SHOP
DEEP IN THE FORESTS
OF THE INTERIOR.
IN 1850,
JOSEPH GOES SEARCHING
FOR A GOOD MILL SITE,
AND HE FINDS ONE
WHERE THE SAUGEEN RIVER
CROSSES ONE OF
BRUCE'S FIRST ROADS,
THE "DURHAM SETTLEMENT ROAD,"
THAT IS STILL BEING CLEARED.
JOSEPH WALKER BUILDS
A DAM ACROSS THE RIVER,
AND CONSTRUCTS A SAWMILL,
GRISTMILL, AND WOODEN WHARF.
WALKER'S LANDING -
KNOWN TODAY AS WALKERTON -
IS A PLACE WHERE SETTLERS
CAN BUILD A RAFT
AND STOCK UP ON SUPPLIES,
BEFORE VENTURING DOWN
THE SAUGEEN RIVER
TO START A NEW LIFE.

A family of settlers load up raft.

A man says EVERYONE READY?

A girl says YES, FATHER.

The narrator says BUSINESSMEN LIKE JOSEPH
AND PADDY CHOOSE WISELY.
THE LAST FRONTIER
IN WHAT WOULD SOON BECOME
SOUTHERN ONTARIO
IS OPENING UP AROUND THEM,
AND THOUSANDS ARE DESPERATE
FOR A PIECE OF IT.

A caption reads "Patrick Kelly. Bruce County Historical Society."

Patrick is in his fifties, with short straight graying hair and a beard. He wears a gray shirt.

Patrick says THE SCOTS,
THE GERMANS, THE IRISH,
ALL HAD THE SAME EXPERIENCE.
FOR MOST OF THEM,
THEY WERE TENANT FARMERS.
THE LANDLORDS WOULD OWN
VAST TRACTS OF LAND
YOU WOULD RENT FROM THEM.
THE LANDLORDS WOULD
MOVE PEOPLE OUT
BEFORE HARVEST TIME.
THEY WOULD DO
UNCONSCIONABLE THINGS
AND THE ANSWER SIMPLY WAS,
"I'M THE OWNER.
I CAN DO THAT."
THERE WAS A GREAT SENSE
FOR EVERYBODY,
ALL THREE OF THOSE GROUPS,
THAT NOT ONLY DID HE
OWN THE LAND,
HE OWNED YOU.
SO THE PROSPECT OF SAYING,
"THIS IS MY OWN LAND,"
THEY WERE PREPARED
TO DO ANYTHING.
THEY HAD NOTHING TO LOSE.
THEY WEREN'T GOING BACK.
SO FOR THEM,
WHATEVER IT TOOK,
THAT'S WHAT WE'RE
GOING TO DO.

The narrator says SETTLING THE BRUCE
IS NOT FOR
THE FAINT OF HEART.
TO SURVIVE THE WINTER,
EARLY SETTLERS
ARE LARGELY RELIANT
ON FOOD SHIPPED IN FROM
MORE ESTABLISHED COMMUNITIES.
THIS MAKES THE TRAGEDY
OF THE SCHOONER
CALLED "THE SAUCY JACK."
ESPECIALLY DEVASTATING.
IN DECEMBER OF 1851,
THE SAUCY JACK
IS HEADING TO SOUTHAMPTON,
FILLED WITH WINTER SUPPLIES,
WHEN IT IS LOST
IN A GALE
JUST SHORT OF
THE TINY SETTLEMENT.
THE EVENTS ARE RECALLED
BY DAVID KENNEDY,
WHO ARRIVED EARLIER THAT YEAR
FROM GUELPH:

An actor impersonating David Kennedy says WE HEARD THE SAD RUMOUR
OF THE LOSS
OF THE "SAUCY JACK,"
AND THAT CAPTAIN MCDONALD
AND ALL ON BOARD OF HER
WERE DROWNED.
WHEN WE REACHED
THE LAKESHORE,
WE FOUND THE WIND
INTENSELY COLD AND PIERCING.
THERE WE SAW A HAND-SLEIGH,
WHICH WE SOON DISCOVERED
WAS TAKING THE REMAINS
OF YOUNG MARTINDALE,
WHO WAS FOUND DROWNED
IN THE HOLD OF THE VESSEL.
ALL THE OTHERS SEEMED
TO HAVE BEEN WASHED OVERBOARD.
YOU MAY IMAGINE
THE CONSTERNATION AND ALARM
CAUSED BY THIS
SAD CATASTROPHE.
EVERYTHING ABOARD OF HER
WAS WASHED AWAY.

The narrator says WITH WINTER SUPPLIES LOST,
NEARLY HALF THE COMMUNITY
OF SOUTHAMPTON
DECIDES TO LEAVE
FOR THE WINTER.
THEY SET OUT ON A HARROWING,
35-KILOMETRE JOURNEY
TO OWEN SOUND,
THROUGH BITTER COLD
AND DEEP SNOW.

An animated map shows the trajectory of the journey from Southampton to Owen Sound.

The narrator says DESPITE THE HARDSHIP,
MOST OF THOSE
WHO LEAVE FOR THE WINTER
EAGERLY RETURN
THE FOLLOWING SPRING.
AMONG THEM ARE
THE GOVERNMENT LAND AGENT,
ALEXANDER MCNABB,
AND HIS SON, JOHN.

Alexander opens a package with posters and says JOHN!

The narrator says AS THE CROWN LANDS AGENT,
ALEXANDER MCNABB
IS A BUSY MAN.
SETTLERS START POURING
INTO THE REGION IN 1850,
BUT UNTIL THE LAND
IS SURVEYED,
OFFERED FOR SALE,
AND PAID FOR,
THEY ARE ALL SQUATTERS.
THEY RISK LOSING EVERYTHING
IF THEY DON'T START
PAYING FOR THEIR LAND.
MCNABB STARTS OFFERING
FARMLAND FOR SALE IN 1852,
BUT IT'S THE MASSIVE
SALE OF 1854
WHICH WILL LIVE
IN INFAMY.

John starts nailing the posters around town.

The narrator says ALEXANDER'S SON, JOHN,
WHO IS 18 AT THE TIME
OF THE LAND SALE,
RECALLS THE EVENT
YEARS LATER:

John says TWO THOUSAND PEOPLE
DESCENDED UPON SOUTHAMPTON.
IT WAS LIKE A CONGRESS
OF NATIONS -
HIGHLANDERS, ENGLISHMEN,
AND GERMANS INTERMINGLED.

The narrator says IT IS FAR MORE
THAN THE TINY VILLAGE
CAN HANDLE.

John says THERE WAS ONLY ONE BAKER,
HUGH MCLAREN, AND HE WAS
KEPT BUSY DAY AND NIGHT.
IN MANY INSTANCES,
HIS BREAD WAS SNATCHED
FROM THE OVEN
AND EATEN HALF RAW.

The narrator says IT'S SAID THAT HUGH
HAS TO CLOSE HIS SHOP DOOR
AND HAND BREAD
OUT THE WINDOW.
HE DOES, HOWEVER,
MAKE A KILLING.

[CROWD CLAMOURING]

The narrator says AS FOR ALEXANDER MCNABB,
THE EVENT NEARLY KILLS HIM:

John says MY DAD STOOD
AT THE WINDOW OF HIS OFFICE,
AND THE MONEY WAS
HANDED TO HIM.
SO QUICKLY DID
THE DOLLAR BILLS ROLL IN
THAT HE DID NOT HAVE TIME
TO COUNT THEM,
BUT THREW THEM INTO
A LARGE CLOTHES BASKET.
UPWARDS OF 50,000 IN CASH
WAS TAKEN IN.

Patrick says FOR SOUTHWESTERN ONTARIO,
BRUCE COUNTY WAS
THE LAST COUNTY DEVELOPED.
FOR ANYBODY
WHO WANTED TO FARM,
THIS WAS THE LAST SHOT.

The caption changes to "Ross Lamont. Bruce County Historical Society."

Ross is in his fifties, clean-shaven and with short wavy gray hair and wears a blue shirt.

Ross says YOU KNOW, IF SOMEBODY
CAME ALONG
AND SCOOPED YOUR FARM OUT
FROM UNDERNEATH YOU,
THEN YOU WERE STUCK.
THERE MAY HAVE BEEN
NO PLACE TO GO.
IT WOULD HAVE
ENDED YOUR DREAMS.

A man at Alexander's office window says I'VE BEEN WAITING HERE ALL DAY!
The caption changes to "Ann-Marie Collins. Archivist, Bruce County Museum and Cultural Centre."

Ann-Marie is in her forties, with long straight light brown hair in a half ponytail and wears a blue top.

Ann-Marie says IT WAS QUITE AN ASSORTMENT
OF CHARACTERS,
I THINK, THAT CAME.
SOMETIMES, YOU KNOW,
THOSE KINDS OF PEOPLE
CAN CLASH.

The narrator says WHILE SOUTHAMPTON
QUICKLY RUNS OUT OF BREAD,
IT APPARENTLY DOES NOT
RUN OUT OF WHISKY.
TALES ARE TOLD
OF A HUGE BRAWL
THAT BREAKS OUT BETWEEN
THE GAELIC HIGHLANDERS
AND EVERYONE ELSE.

A clip shows a fight at a hotel bar.

[GASPS AND SCREAMS]

A man says "If they don't speak Gaelic, hit them!"

[BAGPIPE MUSIC,
YELLING AND SHOUTING]

The narrator says IT'S SAID THAT
MANY BRUCE SETTLERS
LEARN TO SPEAK GAELIC
IN A HURRY THAT NIGHT.

[SCREAMS]
[BAGPIPES AND SHOUTING
CONTINUE]

Ann-Marie says THE SALE
CONTINUED FOR THREE DAYS.
THERE'S ONLY SO MUCH
ONE MAN OR, A FEW MEN,
CAN DO WITH SO MUCH
IN FRONT OF THEM.

John says THE STRAIN
ON MY FATHER WAS SO GREAT
THAT THE DOCTOR
WOULD NOT ALLOW HIM
TO DO ANY MORE BUSINESS
FOR A WEEK!

Ross says THE GREAT LAND SALE
IN THE FALL OF '54
WAS A REAL GAME-CHANGER.
UP UNTIL THAT POINT,
THERE WERE SETTLERS
AND THEY WERE SETTLING ON LAND
THAT THEY HOPED TO OWN,
BUT IT WASN'T THEIRS.
AND IN '54, THEY ACTUALLY
GOT A CHANCE
TO GO AND PUT
WHAT LITTLE HARD-EARNED CASH
THAT THEY HAD DOWN
AND OWN THE PROPERTY
THAT THEY WERE ON.
AND BY DOING THAT, THEY REALLY
TRANSFORMED BRUCE COUNTY
FROM A SETTLEMENT
TO A COMMUNITY.

Patrick says I WOULD SAY,
IN MY HIGH-SCHOOL CLASS,
PROBABLY 85 PERCENT
OF THE PEOPLE
CONNECTED BACK
TO THAT 1854 SALE.
IT WAS A BIG DEAL.

The narrator says THE BIG SOUTHAMPTON SALE
IS FOR LANDS
SOUTH OF THE PENINSULA,
MADE AVAILABLE BY
THE BOND HEAD TREATY OF 1836.

The animated map shows the lands sold in the area.

The narrator says BUT LESS THAN A MONTH AFTER
THE SOUTHAMPTON SALE IN 1854,
THE SUPERINTENDENT
OF INDIAN AFFAIRS,
LAWRENCE OLIPHANT,
CONVINCES MANY
OF THE SAUGEEN CHIEFS
TO SIGN TREATY 72.
THE OJIBWAY AGREE TO PUT
MOST OF THE PENINSULA
UP FOR SALE TO SETTLERS,
WITH THE EXPECTATION
THAT ANY INCOME
WOULD SUPPORT
THEIR COMMUNITIES.
BUT THE PENINSULA
LAND SALES
AREN'T AS VIGOROUSLY ATTENDED
AS THE ONE
IN SOUTHAMPTON.
A SALE IN 1856 ATTRACTS
ABOUT 1,000 PEOPLE,
BUT ONE A FEW YEARS LATER
ATTRACTS LESS THAN 300.
THE LAND SIMPLY ISN'T
AS GOOD FOR FARMING
AS LAND IN SOUTHERN BRUCE.
THE UPPER PENINSULA
IS CONSIDERED "WASTE LAND,"
USEFUL ONLY FOR LOGGING.
STILL, PEOPLE DO
MAKE THEIR HOMES HERE,
BECOMING VERY RESOURCEFUL
TO SURVIVE.
THEY FARM WHERE THEY CAN,
WORK IN LUMBER CAMPS
OR FOR ONE OF
THE AMERICAN COMPANIES
THAT OWN FISHING LEASES
AROUND THE PENINSULA.
BY THE END OF 1856,
VIRTUALLY ALL THE LAND
SOUTH OF THE PENINSULA
HAS BEEN PURCHASED,
EXCEPT FOR THE MASSIVE
GREENOCK SWAMP.
PEOPLE FROM DIFFERENT
BACKGROUNDS,
SKILL-SETS,
AND NATIONALITIES
SETTLE TOGETHER,
ASSISTING EACH OTHER
WITH THE TASK OF
RE-CREATING PASTORAL ENGLAND
FROM THE FORESTS
OF CANADA.
PERHAPS THE MOST FAMOUS GROUP
TO SETTLE IN BRUCE
ARE THE 109 FAMILIES
FROM THE
SCOTTISH ISLE OF LEWIS.
EVICTED BY THEIR LANDLORD
AND SQUEEZED
ONTO FREIGHT BOATS
ALREADY HEADING FOR CANADA,
THEY SETTLE AROUND RIPLEY
IN THE SUMMER OF 1852.

The animated map shows the location of Ripley, by Lake Huron.

The narrator says THE LEWIS SETTLERS ARE BOTH
PHYSICALLY STRONG
AND STRONG-WILLED,
BUT THEY COME FROM
A COMMERCIAL FISHING CULTURE.
THEY ARE NOT WELL-VERSED
IN THE SKILLS REQUIRED
TO CLEAR LAND AND FARM.
BECAUSE MANY ONLY SPEAK GAELIC,
IT'S DIFFICULT FOR THEM
TO LEARN FROM NEARBY SETTLERS.
A NEIGHBOUR RECALLS
THE STRUGGLES
EXPERIENCED BY
THE LEWIS FAMILIES:

The neighbour says I OFTEN SAW THE LEWIS WOMEN
TRUDGING ALL THE WAY
TO KINCARDINE,
TEN TO FIFTEEN MILES,
IN THE HOT SUMMERTIME,
EACH CARRYING
A TWO-BUSHEL BAG
OF HARDWOOD ASHES
ON HER BACK TO SELL...
ALL TO GET A LITTLE SALT
TO EAT WITH THEIR POTATOES.

The narrator says BRUCE SETTLERS
CAN MAKE A TINY BIT OF MONEY
IF THEY CAN CARRY ASHES
TO KINCARDINE,
WHERE THEY'RE TURNED
INTO POTASH FERTILIZER.
SO, WHILE BRUCE OFFERS
HOPE AND OPPORTUNITY
TO THOUSANDS OF NEW SETTLERS
IN THE 1850S,
THEIR LIVES OFTEN HANG
BY A THREAD.
SUCH IS THE CASE IN 1858.
REMEMBERED AS THE
"STARVATION YEAR,"
NO RAIN FALLS BETWEEN
MID-JUNE AND MID-AUGUST,
RESULTING IN
A TOTAL CROP FAILURE.
JANE WHITE WRITES
OF THE CALAMITY
TO RELATIVES IN IRELAND:

Jane White says THE PEOPLE IN BRUCE
ARE STARVING IN HUNDREDS.
SOME OF THE HIGHLAND SCOTS
ARE SUBSISTING ON ROOTS
GATHERED IN THE BUSH.
THEY COULD HARDLY
BE WORSE AT HOME THAN THIS.

Patrick says WHEN YOU ARE HOMESTEADING,
YOU'RE ON A KNIFE EDGE.
YOU HAVE NO ROOM
FOR ANYTHING GOING WRONG.
ALL THE LITTLE BITS
THAT WOULD HAVE INSULATED YOU
FROM THAT CALAMITY
DIDN'T EXIST IN A BRAND-NEW
FRONTIER AREA.

The narrator says IN EARLY 1859,
ONE OF THE FIRST ACTS
OF THE NEWLY FORMED
BRUCE COUNTY COUNCIL
IS TO AID THOSE
HIT BY CROP FAILURE.
THE COUNTY TAKES OUT
A LOAN OF 8,500 POUNDS -
AN ENORMOUS SUM
AT THE TIME -
TO PURCHASE SEED GRAIN
AND BREAD.
THOSE MOST DESTITUTE
RECEIVE SUPPORT FREE OF CHARGE,
BUT MOST AGREE
TO WORK ON ROADS
IN EXCHANGE FOR RELIEF.

A woman says TWO LOAVES OF BREAD FOR YOU.

The narrator says DESPITE HARDSHIPS
LIKE THE STARVATION YEAR,
THE REGION'S
COLONIZATION PERIOD
IS RAPID.
BETWEEN 1850 AND 1880,
MOST OF THE FOREST
IS CLEARED,
A ROAD SYSTEM CONSTRUCTED,
FOUR RAILWAY LINES BEGUN,
AND THE POPULATION
SWELLS TO 65,000.
THE OPTIMISM OF THIS PERIOD
IS EPITOMIZED
BY THE IMPRESSIVE
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH
IN FORMOSA.
THE COMMUNITY
THAT SETTLES HERE
CAME ORIGINALLY
FROM GERMANY,
AND THEY CLEARLY
HAD BIG AMBITIONS
FOR THEIR NEW HOME.
BY THE EARLY 1870S,
FORMOSA'S WOODEN CHURCH
IS BURSTING AT THE SEAMS.
THE PRIEST PETITIONS
THE FORMER KING OF BAVARIA,
LUDWIG I, FOR MONEY
TO HELP BUILD A NEW ONE -
AND HE GETS IT.
THE MASSIVE NEW STONE CHURCH,
BUILT WITH VOLUNTEER LABOUR
USING LOCAL MATERIALS,
IS LITERALLY CONSTRUCTED
OVERTOP OF
THE OLD WOODEN ONE.
RESTORED IN 1974,
THE CHURCH STANDS
AS A REMINDER
OF WHAT BRUCE SETTLERS
ARE ABLE TO ACHIEVE
IN A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME.

A clip shows images of the inside of the church.

The narrator says THE COMMUNITIES
THAT GROW HERE
ARE FIERCELY INDEPENDENT -
SO MUCH SO THAT THE REGION
SQUABBLED FOR A DECADE
OVER WHERE THE "COUNTY TOWN."
SHOULD BE.
THEY FINALLY CHOOSE
WALKERTON,
AND BRUCE COUNTY
IS INCORPORATED IN 1867 -
A FEW MONTHS BEFORE
CANADIAN CONFEDERATION.
THE COUNTY IS NAMED
AFTER JAMES BRUCE,
A FORMER CANADIAN
GOVERNOR GENERAL.
JAMES LIKELY NEVER
STEPPED FOOT IN THE PLACE,
BUT HIS NAME ALSO
BECOMES ATTACHED
TO THE "BRUCE" PENINSULA,
KNOWN AS THE SAUGEEN PENINSULA
FOR CENTURIES
BY THE OJIBWAY.

LIKE MOST PLACES
IN ONTARIO,
THE FIRST MAJOR INDUSTRY
TO ARRIVE IN BRUCE
IS LOGGING.
MUCH OF THE REGION IS FORESTED,
WITH THE SAUGEEN PENINSULA
COVERED IN STANDS
OF HIGHLY-SOUGHT-AFTER
WHITE PINE.
THE BRUCE IS THE LAST REGION
IN SOUTHERN ONTARIO
TO BE SETTLED,
SO BY THIS TIME,
LUMBER COMPANIES
ARE WELL-OILED MACHINES,
AND THEY MAKE QUICK WORK
OF THE FORESTS IN BRUCE.
BY THE LATE 1800S,
THE REGION IS HOME
TO MORE THAN 100 SAWMILLS
OF EVERY SIZE AND SHAPE,
WITH LOGS AND SAWN BOARD
BEING SHIPPED TO MARKET
BY BOAT AND RAIL.
BUT THERE ARE
A FEW AREAS
WHERE THE BRUCE'S
UNIQUE GEOLOGY
MAKES IT DIFFICULT
FOR EVEN SEASONED LUMBERMEN
TO ACCESS THE TREES.
ONE OF THE BIGGEST CHALLENGES
ARE THE ESCARPMENT CLIFFS
THAT RISE OUT
OF GEORGIAN BAY
ALONG THE EASTERN SIDE
OF THE PENINSULA.
BUT WHERE MOST PEOPLE
SAW A PROBLEM,
HIRAM LYMBURNER
SEES AN OPPORTUNITY.
HIRAM FINDS WHAT'S KNOWN
AS A "DISAPPEARING STREAM."
GUSHING OUT OF THE SIDE
OF THE POROUS ESCARPMENT ROCK
NEAR CABOT HEAD.
IN 1881, HIRAM DECIDES
TO BUILD A SAWMILL
POWERED BY THE CREEK,
GIVING HIM EASY ACCESS
TO THOUSANDS OF ACRES
OF OLD-GROWTH FOREST.
BUT THERE ARE SOME ISSUES.
THE STREAM DOESN'T HAVE
ENOUGH CONSTANT POWER
TO RUN THE MILL,
SO HIRAM FINDS WHERE THE STREAM
"DISAPPEARS" UNDERGROUND
ON TOP OF THE ESCARPMENT,
AND INSTALLS A DAM TO BUILD UP
THE WATER PRESSURE.
IT WAS SOMEBODY'S JOB
EARLY EVERY MORNING
TO CLIMB THE ESCARPMENT
AND OPEN THE DAM GATES.
IT TAKES AN HOUR AND A HALF
FOR THE WATER TO TRAVEL
THE UNDERGROUND PASSAGE
TO THE MILL,
BUT IT HAS PLENTY OF POWER
WHEN IT ARRIVES!
ANOTHER PROBLEM IS THAT
THE LOGS SENT DOWN TO THE MILL
FROM THE TOP
OF THE ESCARPMENT CLIFF
SMASH AND TANGLE
WHEN THEY HIT THE BOTTOM.
SO HIRAM TRIES AN EXPERIMENT.
USING A LOG FLUME
LIKE A BIG FIRE HOSE,
HE HITS THE EDGE
OF THE ESCARPMENT
WITH A HUGE RUSH OF WATER.
IT TOOK ONLY TWO HOURS
TO ERODE 2,000 TONES OF ROCK,
TURNING THE CLIFF
INTO A GENTLE SLOPE.
THE TREES COULD NOW SLIDE DOWN
TO THE MILLPOND UNHARMED.
HIRAM ESTIMATED
THERE WERE ENOUGH TREES
TO KEEP THE MILL RUNNING
FOR ABOUT 25 YEARS,
AND HE WAS RIGHT.
FOR A GENERATION,
THE LYMBURNER MILL
AND ASSOCIATED LUMBER CAMPS
PROVIDE MUCH-NEEDED EMPLOYMENT
FOR SETTLERS WHO FOUND
FARMING ON THE PENINSULA
A DIFFICULT PROPOSITION.

Black and white pictures show different images of settlers' families.

The narrator says THE LYMBURNER MILL
CLOSES IN 1905,
WHEN THERE ARE NO MORE
OLD-GROWTH TREES TO BE FOUND.
TODAY, THE TREES
HAVE LARGELY GROWN BACK,
AND THE LYMBURNER MILL SITE
IS PART OF A PRIVATELY-OWNED
NATURE PRESERVE,
OFF-LIMITS TO THE PUBLIC.
FURTHER SOUTH, THE FINAL AREA
TO BE LOGGED
IS THE LARGEST FORESTED
WETLAND IN ONTARIO,
THE GREENOCK SWAMP.

Aerial views show images of the swamp.

The narrator says THIS GIANT WETLAND
HAS ALWAYS BEEN REVERED
AS AN EXCELLENT
HUNTING GROUND
AND SOURCE OF MEDICINES
BY THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY.
BUT STARTING WITH
THE FIRST SURVEYS IN 1847,
IT IS CONSIDERED
AN IMPEDIMENT TO SETTLEMENT.

Patrick says FOR THE MOST PART,
ANYBODY THAT WAS
SETTLING PROPERTY,
THE BUSH WAS YOUR ENEMY.
YOU GOT IT DOWN
AS QUICKLY AS YOU COULD.
YOU BURNED THINGS.
THE STUMPS YOU PULLED OUT.
EVERYTHING WAS A CONSTANT
PALL OF SMOKE
BECAUSE WHAT YOU WERE DOING
WAS CLEARING.
FOR THE GREENOCK SWAMP,
THAT WASN'T POSSIBLE.
IT'S BASICALLY
TWO DROWNED RIVERS,
TWENTY-FIVE THOUSAND
ACRES OF LAND
THAT CANNOT BE CLEARED,
CANNOT BE DRAINED.
BUT WHAT WAS POSSIBLE WAS,
EVERY FALL, IT FROZE.
AND THERE WERE
THESE ENORMOUS TRACTS
OF WHITE PINE IN THERE.

The narrator says TO GET AT THE WHITE PINE,
BUSINESSMAN HENRY CARGILL
PURCHASES MOST OF THE SWAMP
IN THE 1870S.
HE GOES ON TO BUILD
AN EMPIRE,
AT TIMES EMPLOYING
SOME 300 MEN.
THEY CUT LOGS IN THE WINTER,
DIG DRAINAGE CANALS
IN THE SUMMER
TO GET THE LOGS OUT,
AND WORK IN ONE
OF SEVERAL MILLS
PROCESSING THE TIMBER
INTO VARIOUS PRODUCTS.

The caption changes to "Shannon Wood. Manager of Communications, Saugeen Conservation."

Shannon is in his sixties, with short light brown hair and wears a midnight blue shirt, a white vest and a pair of silver earrings.

Shannon says FROM THE TOP OF THE COUNTY
TO THE VERY SOUTHERN POINT,
YOU'RE GOING TO FIND
SOMEBODY WHO SAYS,
"OH, YEAH, YEAH.
YOU KNOW,
I'VE GOT A RELATIVE
WHO HAS ROOTS
IN THE GREENOCK SWAMP."

The narrator says AS ONE OF THE BIGGEST
EMPLOYERS IN BRUCE,
CARGILL'S ENTERPRISES
GIVE SETTLERS -
AND THEIR CHILDREN -
THE ABILITY TO SUPPLEMENT
THEIR OFTEN-MODEST
FARMING INCOMES.
IN THE PROCESS,
HE HELPS BUILD
MANY OF THE COMMUNITIES
IN SOUTHERN BRUCE -
ESPECIALLY THE TOWN
OF CARGILL,
NAMED AFTER HENRY.
THE GREENOCK SWAMP
CONTAINED ENOUGH TREES
TO ALLOW HENRY AND HIS SON
WELLINGTON DAVID
TO OPERATE THEIR MILLS
FOR ABOUT 50 YEARS.
TODAY, THE SAUGEEN VALLEY
CONSERVATION AUTHORITY
OWNS 8,500 ACRES
OF THE SWAMP.
A HANDFUL OF
OLD-GROWTH TREES REMAIN,
HIDDEN DEEP IN THE WETLAND.

Shannon says THE TREES WERE HUGE,
BUT IT WOULD HAVE TAKEN
HUNDREDS OF YEARS
TO GET THEM TO BE
THAT SIZE, LITERALLY.
THERE'S ABOUT
HALF A DOZEN WHITE PINE
THAT STILL EXIST
IN THE SWAMP,
AND THEY'RE WAY BACK
INTO THE BOWELS
OF THE SWAMP.
AND IT'S MAGNIFICENT
JUST TO SEE THEM
AND KNOW THAT
THEY WERE SO FAR IN
THAT EVEN HENRY CARGILL
COULDN'T REACH THEM.

The narrator says THE HIGHEST-VALUE
LOGS ARE THE SOFTWOODS -
MASSIVE PINES
SUITABLE FOR SHIP MASTS.
BUT THE HARDWOOD TREES
THAT REMAINE
ARE USEFUL IN
BRUCE COUNTY'S NEXT WAVE
OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT:
FURNITURE MANUFACTURING.
THERE'S A BIG DEMAND
FOR FURNITURE
AS THE CANADIAN WEST
IS SETTLED.
BRUCE IS UNIQUELY POSITIONED
TO MEET THE SETTLERS' NEEDS,
WITH A GOOD SUPPLY
OF HARDWOOD
AND NEW RAILWAY CONNECTIONS
THAT ALLOW FURNITURE
TO BE EASILY TRANSPORTED WEST.
SOME 45 FURNITURE SHOPS
OR FACTORIES
POP UP BY
THE LATE 1800S.

The animated map shows the location of some of the factories in different cities in the area.

The narrator says THE LONGEST LASTING
OF THESE
IS THE KRUG BROTHERS
FURNITURE COMPANY,
STARTED BY TWINS CONRAD
AND CHRISTIAN KRUG
IN 1886.

A black and white picture of the twins appears.

The narrator says THE TWINS ARE
IN THEIR 20S
WHEN THEY HEAR ABOUT
A GOOD MILL SITE FOR SALE
WHILE VISITING RELATIVES
NEAR CHESLEY.
THEY DECIDE
TO CHECK IT OUT,
AND PURCHASE THE SITE
ON THE SPOT.
ON THEIR WAY HOME,
THEY REGRET THE IMPULSE BUY,
BUT ARE DETERMINED
TO MAKE A GO OF IT.
LIKE MANY OF BRUCE'S
EARLY FURNITURE COMPANIES,
THE KRUGS SPECIALIZE
IN MASS-PRODUCED,
VICTORIAN-STYLE FURNITURE,
POPULAR AT THE TIME.
THEY ARE WILDLY SUCCESSFUL,
AT ONE TIME EMPLOYING
SOME 600 PEOPLE
IN FURNITURE MAKING
AND SPIN-OFF BUSINESSES
LIKE SAWMILLS AND WOODLOTS.
TODAY, ONE OF
THE LAST REMAINING
FURNITURE COMPANIES IN BRUCE
IS CRATE DESIGNS.
CRATE OPERATES OUT OF
WHAT WAS ORIGINALLY
THE CHESLEY CHAIR COMPANY -
ANOTHER CHESLEY
FURNITURE COMPANY
WITH CONNECTIONS TO THE KRUGS.
SO, ALTHOUGH THE INDUSTRY
IS NOTHING LIKE IT WAS
IN THE LATE 1800S,
FURNITURE MANUFACTURING
CONTINUES
TO PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE
IN THE LOCAL ECONOMY.

A clip shows people working at the factory in the present.

The narrator says RAILWAYS REACH THE BRUCE
IN THE 1870S.
THEY GIVE INDUSTRIALISTS
LIKE THE KRUGS
THE ABILITY TO
SHIP THEIR PRODUCTS
TO DISTANT MARKETS,
HELPING INLAND COMMUNITIES
GROW AND THRIVE.
BUT WITH 850 KILOMETRES
OF SHORELINE,
LAKE HURON AND GEORGIAN BAY
CONTINUE TO BE IMPORTANT
FOR BOTH FISHING
AND TRANSPORTATION.
THE SHORELINE
IS A BUSY PLACE,
DESPITE BOAT TRAVEL
AROUND THE BRUCE
BEING NOTORIOUSLY DANGEROUS.

The caption changes to "Holly Dunham. Historian and daughter of Albert Smith."

Holly is in her sixties, with short wavy gray hair and wears a coral shirt.

Holly says THE PENINSULA
JUTS RIGHT OUT
INTO THE MIDDLE
OF LAKE HURON.
THERE ARE QUITE A FEW
SMALL ISLANDS,
AND QUITE A FEW PLACES
WHERE THE ROCKS ARE
JUST UNDER THE WATER.
VERY, VERY DANGEROUS.
THE WEATHER, STARTING ABOUT
THE END OF OCTOBER,
IN THROUGH NOVEMBER,
IS NOTORIOUSLY BAD:
WIND, WIND, WIND, WIND.
THEY WERE ALWAYS TRYING
TO GET ONE MORE
TRIP IN EVERY FALL,
ONE MORE TRIP,
AND IF YOU LOOK
AT THE SHIPWRECKS,
YOU'LL SEE MOST OF THEM
CAME INTO PERIL
IN THE FALL,
IN THAT BAD WEATHER.

(music plays)

The narrator says DISASTERS LIKE THOSE
OF THE SAUCY JACK
ARE, SADLY,
A REGULAR OCCURRENCE,
SO SETTLERS IN BRUCE'S
SHORELINE COMMUNITIES
GO TO GREAT LENGTHS
TO MAKE LAKE TRAVEL SAFER.
THEY WORK WITH GOVERNMENT
TO CONSTRUCT A NETWORK
OF LIGHTHOUSES.
THEY CREATE ELABORATE
"SAFE HARBOURS."
WITH LONG PIERS
TO STOP THE WAVES.
THEY ERECT A SERIES
OF STORM WARNING SIGNALS.

[MORSE CODE BEEPING]

The narrator says AND, AT THE TIP
OF THE PENINSULA,
THEY HOST
A "WIRELESS STATION."
THAT USES WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY
AND MORSE CODE
TO WARN GREAT LAKES SHIPS
ABOUT WEATHER CONDITIONS.
TALES ABOUND
OF THE MEN AND WOMEN
WHO TIRELESSLY MAN
LIGHTHOUSES
AND WARNING SIGNALS...
SUCH AS SOUTHAMPTON'S
CATHERINE MCNABB,
DAUGHTER OF ALEXANDER MCNABB,
THE LAND AGENT IN CHARGE
OF THE BIG LAND SALE IN 1854.
IN 1872,
CATHERINE BECOMES
A METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVER,
SENDING WEATHER REPORTS
TO TORONTO.

Catherine sits at a desk and starts sending messages in Morse code.

[TAPPING, MORSE CODE BEEPING]

The animated map shows the trajectory of the messages from the meteorological office around the lakes.

The narrator says THE METEOROLOGICAL OFFICE THERE
WOULD THEN SEND MESSAGES
TO THE OPERATORS
OF STORM WARNING SIGNALS
AROUND THE GREAT LAKES.

Catherine says to an assistant YOU TRANSLATE
THE WEATHER INFORMATION
INTO MORSE CODE...

The narrator says IN 1876,
CATHERINE FINDS
AN EAGER HELPER
IN 15-YEAR-OLD
AGNES TOLMIE.
AGNES GOES ON
TO SEND WEATHER REPORTS
THREE TIMES A DAY
FOR THE NEXT SEVENTY-FIVE YEARS,
THE LONGEST CONTINUOUS RECORD
FOR A WEATHER OBSERVER
IN THE HISTORY OF
THE CANADIAN WEATHER SERVICE.

(music plays)

Clips show images of different lighthouses.

The narrator says WITH MODERN NAVIGATIONAL AIDS
LIKE GPS AND SONAR,
LIGHTHOUSES AND STORM SIGNALS
ARE NO LONGER CRITICAL
FOR NAVIGATION...
BUT THESE LANDMARKS
ARE SO IMPORTANT
TO THE CULTURE
AND HISTORY OF BRUCE
THAT VOLUNTEERS
WORK TIRELESSLY
TO SAVE AND RESTORE THEM.
ONE OF THE MOST ACTIVE
VOLUNTEER GROUPS
IS THE PROPELLER CLUB
OF SOUTHAMPTON.
IN 1993,
THE GROUP ERECTED A REPLICA
OF THE STORM SIGNALS
AGNES TOLMIE HELPED RUN.
THE CLUB THEN
SET THEIR SIGHTS
ON A BIGGER PRIZE:
THE CHANTRY ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE.
BUILT IN 1859,
BY THE 1990S,
THE LIGHTHOUSE GROUNDS
HAD FALLEN INTO DISREPAIR,
AND THE PROPELLER CLUB DECIDES
TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT.

The caption changes to "Jane Kramer. Volunteer, Propeller Club of Southampton."

Jane is in her seventies, with short wavy white hair and wears glasses, a pale blue turtleneck sweater, a deep blue embroidered vest, blue pendant earrings, and a pendant necklace.

Jane says THE LIGHT WAS STILL FINE
BECAUSE THE COAST GUARD
LOOKED AFTER THE LIGHT,
BUT THEY DIDN'T CARE ABOUT
THE LIGHTHOUSE KEEPER'S HOME,
SO IT WAS VANDALIZED,
AND EVERYTHING
WAS TAKEN FROM IT,
AND IT WAS LEFT IN RUINS.
SO A GROUP OF US GOT TOGETHER
AND DECIDED TO REBUILD
THE LIGHTHOUSE KEEPER'S HOME
AND DO TOURS.

The narrator says THE PROPELLER CLUB
SPENDS SOME 100,000
VOLUNTEER HOURS
REMOVING 60 TONNES OF JUNK,
AND REBUILDS THE LIGHTHOUSE
KEEPER'S COTTAGE AND BOATHOUSE
WITH LOCAL STONE AND WOOD.
IT IS JANE WHO FURNISHES
THE RESTORED KEEPER'S COTTAGE.
SHE KNEW EXACTLY
HOW IT USED TO LOOK.

Jane says THE LAST LIGHTHOUSE KEEPER
WAS RONNIE SPENCE.
HE WAS A VETERAN,
AND HAD BEEN INJURED,
AND THEY GAVE HIM THE JOB
AS A LIGHTHOUSE KEEPER.
AND HIS FAMILY
USED TO RUN THE LOCAL HOTEL.
IN THE MORNINGS,
HE WOULD ROW OVER TO TOWN
AND SPEND THE DAY
AT THE HOTEL.
WHEN I WAS IN GRADE 12,
I GOT A JOB
AS A SWIMMING TEACHER
IN SOUTHAMPTON.
SO WHEN HE'D COME BACK,
ABOUT FIVE O' CLOCK,
I WAS FINISHED MY LESSONS.
HE WOULD GET IN HIS ROWBOAT
AND HE'D SAY,
"JANE, I'M HAVING TROUBLE.
I CAN'T GET GOING."
AND SO I WOULD ROW HIM HOME -
THREE QUARTERS OF A MILE.

A re-enactment shows young Jane pouring Ronnie some coffee.

Young Jane says I'LL GET YOU SOME COFFEE.
THERE YOU GO.

Jane says AND THEN WE HAD TO SOBER HIM UP,
BECAUSE HE HAD TO WALK
UP 106 STEPS,
UP TO LIGHT
THE LIGHTHOUSE LIGHT.
AND THEN I HAD TO SWIM BACK.
I COULDN'T TAKE HIS BOAT.
IN THOSE DAYS,
THERE WERE WATER SNAKES
ALL AROUND THE ISLAND.
I'D THROW A COUPLE
OF ROCKS IN
AND THEN DIVE IN
AND GET OUT
BEYOND THE SNAKES.
AND OH, I CAN STILL FEEL
THOSE SLIMY THINGS.
OVER THE YEARS,
WE'VE GOT A RECORD
OF 53 SHIPWRECKS
AROUND THAT AREA.
SO IT WAS IMPORTANT
THAT THE LIGHT BE PUT ON.
I FELT IT WAS
MY DUTY TO DO IT.

The narrator says SINCE 2001,
VOLUNTEERS HAVE LED
DAILY TOURS
TO THE RESTORED LIGHTHOUSE,
WHERE IT'S EASY
TO IMAGINE
WHAT IT WAS LIKE
IN THE 1850S AND 60S,
WATCHING THE NEARBY MAINLAND
BEING TRANSFORMED
BY EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT.
BRUCE COUNTY'S
COLONIZATION PERIOD
IS A TIME OF OPTIMISM
AND OPPORTUNITY
FOR MANY WHO FIND HOME
ON ITS ROLLING FARMLAND,
OR SAFE HARBOUR
ALONG THE BRUCE COAST.
BUT FOR THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY,
IT IS UNDOUBTEDLY
A CHALLENGING TIME.
SOME OF THOSE CHALLENGES
STEM FROM PROBLEMS
WITH THE TRUST FUND
THAT WAS SUPPOSED
TO HAVE BEEN CREATED
AFTER THE SIGNING
OF TREATY 72.

The caption changes to "Vernon Roote. Elder and Former Chief, Saugeen First Nation."

Vernon is in his sixties, clean-shaven and with short wavy gray hair. He wears a gray shirt and a beaded necklace.

Vernon says THE DAYS OF
HUNTING, FISHING
SURVIVAL METHODS
WERE STARTING TO FADE,
AND THE NEED FOR MONEY
TO PURCHASE GOODS
WERE UPON OUR PEOPLE.
THE SAUGEEN PENINSULA
WAS SURRENDERED FOR SALE,
SO THAT OUR COMMUNITIES
WOULD BE ABLE TO HAVE
THEIR START IN MONEY,
SO THAT THEY COULD
SUSTAIN THEMSELVES
TO LIVE IN A MODERN WAY.
UNFORTUNATELY,
THE MONEY THAT WAS
PUT INTO A POT
WAS CONTROLLED
BY THE GOVERNMENT
OF THE DAY.
THOSE DOLLARS
WERE NEVER RECEIVED
BY THE PEOPLE.

The caption changes to "Greg Nadjiwon. Chief, Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First nation."

Greg is in his sixties, with long wavy gray hair in a ponytail and wears a gray shirt and a beaded necklace.

Greg says THE ONLY WORRIES
THAT THE MEMBERSHIP OF SON
SHOULD HAVE,
MUCH LIKE WARREN BUFFETT,
IS WHERE WE'RE INVESTING
OUR NEXT BILLION DOLLARS.
CANADA'S A VERY RICH COUNTRY.
A LOT OF THAT WEALTH
CAME AT THE EXPENSE
OF FIRST NATIONS BEING
PUT ON SMALL SETTLEMENTS
THAT THEY CALL "RESERVES."

The narrator says THE LACK OF TRUST FUND MONEY
MAKES ADAPTING
TO COLONIZATION
MORE DIFFICULT
FOR THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY.

The caption changes to "Wendall Nadjiwon. Band member, Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation."

Wendall is in his fifties, clean-shaven and with short gray hair. He wears a gray shirt.

Wendall says MY AUNT VERNA
WAS TEACHING ME MEDICINES.
SHE SAID BEFORE
THE SETTLERS CAME,
WE HAD GREAT ABUNDANCE
AND THE STARVATION MEDICINES
WEREN'T USED VERY MUCH
AND THEY WEREN'T
REALLY IMPORTANT.
BUT THEN,
AFTER THE SETTLERS CAME
AND BECAUSE YOU WERE
PUSHED OUT OF YOUR AREA,
AND YOUR FOOD SUPPLY,
AND, YOU KNOW, YOUR
WATER SUPPLY AND EVERYTHING,
MANY, MANY PEOPLE
WERE STARVING,
SO THE MEDICINE MEN
HAD TO WORK VERY HARD
TO FIGURE OUT WAYS
TO KEEP PEOPLE ALIVE
IF THEY'D BEEN
STARVING A LONG TIME,
BECAUSE IF YOU STARVE
FOR MORE THAN TWO WEEKS,
YOU CAN'T JUST EAT
AND THEN COME BACK.

The narrator says DESPITE THE CHALLENGES,
THE OJIBWAY FIND WAYS TO ADAPT
TO THEIR NEW CIRCUMSTANCE,
WHILE AT THE SAME TIME
HOLDING ONTO THEIR LANGUAGE
AND CULTURE.
AND ALTHOUGH
THERE ARE CONFLICTS
BETWEEN THE OJIBWAY
AND THE SETTLERS,
THAT MAY BE THE EXCEPTION
AND NOT THE RULE.

The caption changes to "Doctor John Borrows. Canada Research Chair in Indigenous Law, University of Victoria. Member, Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation."

John is in his late forties, clean-shaven and with short straight gray hair and wears a blue gingham shirt.

John says OF COURSE, THERE ARE MANY
HARSH AND UNFAIR
CHAPTERS IN OUR HISTORY,
BUT THERE'S ALSO
ANOTHER HISTORY
THAT'S EXISTING
ALONGSIDE THIS.
THERE ARE INSTANCES
WHERE THERE ARE SETTLERS
THAT ARE IN DANGER
ON THE WATERS,
AND ANISHINABE PEOPLE COME
AND PREVENT THEM
FROM DROWNING.
THERE ARE INSTANCES WHERE
SETTLERS ARE STARVING
AND ANISHINABE PEOPLE
COME ALONG
AND POINT OUT TO THEM
WHERE THE GAME MIGHT BE.
LIKEWISE, THERE ARE MOMENTS
WHEN WE FACE REAL CHALLENGES
WITH STARVATION,
AND THERE'S INDIVIDUALS
WHO WILL STEP FORWARD
AND HELP.
SOMETIMES THAT'S
THROUGH THE CHURCHES
THAT THAT WOULD OCCUR,
SOMETIMES IT'S THROUGH
THE MÉTIS COMMUNITIES,
BUT SOMETIMES
IT'S JUST FROM FOLKS
COMING FROM
ACROSS THE OCEAN,
AND TRYING TO MAKE THEIR WAY,
AND JUST BEING HUMAN.
NOT ALL IS DARK,
AND WE HAVE,
IN OUR HISTORY,
WAYS OF RELATING
TO ONE ANOTHER
THAT ARE RESPECTFUL,
THAT AREN'T JUST, YOU KNOW,
FROM QUEEN VICTORIA
TO INDIGENOUS PEOPLES,
BUT ALSO JUST
NEIGHBOUR TO NEIGHBOUR,
HELPING OUT ONE ANOTHER.

The narrator says THE SAUGEEN MÉTIS
ALSO FACE CHALLENGES
DURING COLONIZATION.
THE MÉTIS STARTED
MOVING INTO THE REGION
AS FUR TRADERS
AFTER THE WAR OF 1812.
THEY WORKED CLOSELY
WITH THE OJIBWAY -
SOME EVEN HAD
WAMPUM AGREEMENTS.
BUT AFTER THE TREATIES,
THEY ARE IN THE WAY
OF EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT -
MUCH TO THE CHAGRIN
OF COLONIAL OFFICIALS.

The caption changes to "Jenna McGuire. Artist and Educator, Historic Saugeen Metis."

Jenna is in her thirties, with long straight light brown hair and wears a green sweater and a choker necklace.

Jenna says I'VE CERTAINLY SEEN EVIDENCE
THAT THE LAND THE MÉTIS PEOPLE
WERE LIVING ON
WAS TAKEN FROM THEM
IN KIND OF STRANGE
AND UNUSUAL WAYS.
AND THERE'S ACTUALLY
A REALLY INTERESTING STORY
ABOUT HOW A SURVEYOR
WAS SENT TO THE AREA
TO KICK MÉTIS PEOPLE
OFF A LOT OF THEIR PROPERTY
SO THAT THEY COULD
TURN IT INTO
THEIR TOWN PLOT
THAT THEY HAD DREAMED OF,
AND HE WAS SUCCESSFUL
IN ALL EXCEPT FOR ONE,
WHICH IS, OF COURSE,
ONE OF MY ANCESTORS.
AND SO I CAN IMAGINE
WHAT HE WOULD HAVE PROBABLY
COME AGAINST, AS SOMEONE
WHO WAS JUST LIKE, "NO,"
YOU KNOW, "GO AWAY!"

The narrator says JENNA'S STUBBORN ANCESTORS
ARE THE LONGE FAMILY,
WHO MOVE TO WHAT'S NOW
SOUTHAMPTON IN 1837.
AND THIS IS THE HOUSE
THEY REFUSE TO LEAVE.

A clip shows a white house with a black saddle roof.

The narrator says IT'S KNOWN AS
AUNT ANNIE'S CABIN,
NAMED AFTER ANGELIC LONGE,
WHO LIVED IN THE HOUSE
MOST OF HER 94 YEARS.
TODAY, JENNA IS THE OWNER
OF THIS RARE PIECE
OF MÉTIS HISTORY.

Jenna says IT'S REALLY
THE LAST STRUCTURE
THAT IS STILL OWNED
BY A MÉTIS PERSON
THAT CARRIES THE STORY
OF THAT HERITAGE
RIGHT THROUGH
FROM THE BEGINNING.
AND IT'S BEEN
IN THE LONGE FAMILY
FOR OVER 160 YEARS,
AND SO MANY LONGES
WOULD HAVE
LIVED AND LOVED
AND LAUGHED
AND PASSED AWAY
IN THAT HOUSE,
SO IT'S ALSO KIND OF
A SACRED SPACE
IN THAT SENSE THAT
IT'S HELD A LOT OF LIFE.

The narrator says DESPITE ATTEMPTS TO REMOVE THEM
TO MAKE WAY
FOR EUROPEAN SETTLERS,
A COMMUNITY OF MÉTIS
REMAINED ALONG
THE LAKE HURON SHORE
IN WHAT'S NOW SOUTHAMPTON.

The caption changes to "Patsy McArthur. Historian. Historic Saugeen Metis."

Patsy is in her sixties, with short wavy light brown hair and wears glasses, a black and white printed shirt, a blue blazer and a tribal patterned scarf.

Patsy says WE THINK THEY WERE
THE QUINTESSENTIAL
MÉTIS COMMUNITY.
THEY STOOD APART.
THEY HAD THEIR SEPARATE
RELIGION.
THEY HAD THEIR
SEPARATE LANGUAGE.
THEY HAD THEIR SEPARATE
CULTURE.
SOME PEOPLE BELIEVE,
"WELL, THAT DIDN'T SURVIVE,"
BUT IT DID SURVIVE.
IT'S JUST NOW THAT
WE HAVE OUR VOICE
AND WE'RE TELLING THE STORY.

(music plays)

The narrator says FOR MORE THAN A CENTURY,
THE HISTORY OF
THE SAUGEEN MÉTIS
WAS LARGELY
FORGOTTEN OR IGNORED.
BUT TODAY, THAT'S CHANGING.
THE MÉTIS HAVE AN INTERPRETIVE
CENTRE IN SOUTHAMPTON,
AND HOST AN ANNUAL EVENT
CALLED THE "MÉTIS RENDEZVOUS."
AS PART OF THE RENDEZVOUS,
JENNA GIVES TOURS
OF AUNT ANNIE'S.

Jenna says to the visitors SHE SPOKE FOUR
DIFFERENT LANGUAGES,
SO SHE SPOKE ENGLISH, FRENCH,
GAELIC, AND OJIBWAY,
AND SO A LOT OF PEOPLE LOVED
TO VISIT AUNT ANNIE
BECAUSE THEY COULD SPEAK
IN THEIR OWN LANGUAGE
AND FEEL COMFORTABLE.

Jenna says THE GENERAL PUBLIC
SEEMS VERY, VERY INTERESTED
AND KEEN TO LEARN
AND VERY SUPPORTIVE
OF THE REWRITING OF THE PAST
THAT WAS LARGELY WRITTEN
BY EUROPEAN SCHOLARS.
AND WE WELCOME EVERYONE,
NOT JUST MÉTIS PEOPLE,
TO COME TO OUR EVENTS
AND LEARN FROM OUR CULTURE.

[ENGINE CHUGGING]

Black and white footage shows construction workers digging with machinery.

The narrator says THE RAPID
SETTLEMENT OF THE BRUCE
HAS A HUGE IMPACT
ON THE PEOPLE
ALREADY LIVING HERE.
IT ALSO HAS A MAJOR IMPACT
ON THE ENVIRONMENT.
COLONIZATION ALTERS
LOCAL ECOSYSTEMS MORE QUICKLY
THAN ANY OTHER FORCE
IN THE LAST 10,000 YEARS...
SOMETIMES WITH
DIRE CONSEQUENCES.

A picture of a big wood fire appears.

The narrator says OVER-FISHING REDUCES
FISH STOCKS
TO ONE TENTH
OF PREVIOUS LEVELS
BY THE MID 1860S.
THE REGION SUFFERS
FROM OVER-HUNTING.
AN ARTICLE FROM 1876
TELLS OF THE ENTIRE
TOWNSHIP OF AMABEL
BEING COVERED WITH
COUNTLESS PASSENGER PIGEONS.
THE ARTICLE PLEADS
FOR "MORE AMMO,"
AS "ALL THE SHOT
IN OWEN SOUND AND SOUTHAMPTON
SEEMS TO HAVE BEEN FIRED AWAY."
SWAMPS AND WETLANDS
ARE DRAINED FOR FARMLAND,
SUCH AS THE BIG "EASTNOR" SWAMP
ON THE PENINSULA.
REPEATED ATTEMPTS TO DRAIN
THE HUGE GREENOCK SWAMP
PROVE LESS SUCCESSFUL.
EXPLOSIVES ARE USED
TO BLOW A HOLE
IN A LITTLE ESCARPMENT
ON THE SWAMP'S EDGE,
WITH THE HOPE
THAT THE CRATER
WOULD DRAIN THE WETLAND.

[EXPLOSION]

The narrator says IT DIDN'T,
BUT LOCAL WELLS
GO DRY AS A RESULT.
SETTLERS ARE REQUIRED
TO CLEAR THEIR LAND OF TREES,
WHICH LOWERS WATER TABLES,
AND IN SOME CASES
LEADS TO EROSION
AND ALMOST
DESERT-LIKE CONDITIONS.
FEW SETTLERS SUFFER MORE
FROM THE IMPACTS OF LOGGING
THAN THOSE WHO TRY
TO FARM ON THE PENINSULA.
CLEAR-CUTTING
LEFT THE PENINSULA
COVERED WITH DRIED-OUT STUMPS,
DISCARDED TREES,
AND SCRUB BRUSH,
MAKING IT A TINDERBOX.
A MASSIVE FIRE IN 1908
IS REMEMBERED
BY GORDON HEPBURN,
WHO WAS A CHILD
AT THE TIME.

A re-enactment shows young Gordon standing on a stump watching the big fire from afar.

Gordon's mother grabs his hand and says GORDON! GORDON, COME QUICKLY!
BUT, MOM, LOOK!

Gordon says AT ABOUT TEN O'CLOCK,
I NOTICED SMOKE
IN THE DISTANCE,
AND IT WAS GETTING
CLOSER AND CLOSER!
MY PARENTS COULD SEE
THIS WAS GOING
TO BE A BAD FIRE,
SO THEY GOT READY
TO FIGHT IT
AND SAVE WHAT THEY COULD.
OUR HOME ON
THE BRUCE PENINSULA
WAS OUR WHOLE WORLD,
AND IT WAS BEING
SWALLOWED UP
BY A WALL
OF BLINDING SMOKE!
MOTHER PUT WET CLOTHS
OVER OUR FACES
AND HAD US LIE FLAT
ON THE GROUND.
WE COULD HEAR
TREES CRASHING
AND FRIGHTENED ANIMALS
RUSHING MADLY BY
IN THE SMOKE.
THE HEAT AND SMOKE
GOT WORSE
UNTIL I ALMOST
COULDN'T TAKE IT!
IT WAS VERY HARD TO BREATHE.

[PEOPLE COUGTHING]

Gordon says THERE WAS AN EXPLOSION,
AND THE FIRE SEEMED
TO JUMP OVER US.

[WHOOSH]
[FIRE CRACKLING FAINTLY]

Gordon says WE WERE LUCKY,
BUT THERE WAS LOTS OF DAMAGE:
THE FENCES AND
HAYSTACKS WERE GONE,
AS WERE SOME BUILDINGS.
THE PASTURE WAS BLACK,
WHICH MEANT NO FOOD
FOR THE SURVIVING ANIMALS.

[FIRE CRACKLING FAINTLY]

Gordon says IT TOOK MANY YEARS
TO RECOVER.

Black and white pictures of villagers appear.

The narrator says BRUCE COUNTY'S
SETTLEMENT PERIOD IS EXPLOSIVE -
WITH THE POPULATION GROWING
FROM A COUPLE THOUSAND IN 1850
TO 65,000 IN 1881.
BUT AFTER THAT,
THE SAME TRAINS
THAT TAKE BRUCE FURNITURE
TO THE CANADIAN WEST
ALSO TAKE ITS
SONS AND DAUGHTERS.
BRUCE COULDN'T ACCOMMODATE
THE LARGE NUMBERS OF CHILDREN
THE FIRST-GENERATION
SETTLERS HAD,
AND FARMLAND
ON THE PRAIRIES
WAS CHEAP AND ALLURING.

Ross says FOR A LOT OF PEOPLE,
IT WAS CHASING THEIR DREAM.
THEY WANTED THEIR
ORIGINAL HOMESTEAD.
THEY WANTED
THEIR PIECE OF HISTORY.
SO IT WAS AN ADVENTURE.

Patrick says THE DEVELOPMENT OF CANADA
SORT OF LED TO A LOT OF THIS
BECAUSE A LOT OF THE PEOPLE
WHO HAD FARM BACKGROUNDS
ARE ALL SAYING,
"WELL, GREAT.
FREE LAND OUT THERE.
THE TRAINS ARE RUNNING.
WHAT'S KEEPING US HERE?"

(music plays)

The narrator says BY 1901,
THE POPULATION
OF BRUCE COUNTY
HAD DROPPED
BY 30,000 PEOPLE.
THE COMMUNITY
OF PAISLEY ALONE
LOSES MORE THAN 1,200 -
NEARLY HALF
ITS POPULATION.

[BAGPIPE MUSIC,
GROWING LOUDER]

The narrator says BUT THOSE WHO GO WEST
NEVER FORGET THEIR CONNECTION
TO "THE BRUCE."
[TRAIN WHISTLE BLOWS]

The narrator says MANY RETURN HOME
EVERY FEW YEARS
FOR MASSIVE REUNIONS.

A black and white picture shows a pipe band at the train station.

Ann-Marie says THEY'D START A TRAIN
OUT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
AND JUST KEEP
ADDING CARS TO IT
AS THEY GOT CLOSER
AND CLOSER TO ONTARIO.
AND BY THE TIME
THEY GOT TO TORONTO,
I THINK IT WAS 14 CARS.
AND THEN THEY'D HAVE TO
ADD MORE ON
FOR THE PEOPLE
FROM TORONTO COMING UP.

The narrator says ONE OF THE REUNION'S
CHIEF FORMS OF ENTERTAINMENT -
THE KINCARDINE
SCOTTISH PIPE BAND -
IS STILL GOING STRONG.
THE BAND WAS FORMED IN 1908,
MAKING IT THE OLDEST
STREET PIPE BAND IN ONTARIO.

A clip shows a band marching and playing on the streets today.

The narrator says EVERY SATURDAY EVENING
DURING THE SUMMER,
THE BAND CAN BE FOUND
LEADING A PARADE
DOWN QUEEN STREET
IN KINCARDINE.
THE EVENT IS
A BIG TOURIST DRAW
AND A NOT-SO-SUBTLE REMINDER
OF BRUCE'S DEEP
SCOTTISH HISTORY.

(music plays)

The narrator says BY THE EARLY 1900S,
THE EXCITEMENT
OF THE "FRONTIER."
HAS MOVED ON.
IN 1903, LOUISE TURNER,
A TORONTO GLOBE JOURNALIST,
WRITES ABOUT THE CHANGE
AFTER VISITING
A DESERTED PORT TOWN
ON BRUCE'S WESTERN SHORE -
INVERHURON.

Louise Turner FOR MANY YEARS NOW,
RIVER, LAKE,
EVERGREENS, AND SANDS
HAVE REIGNED ALONE
IN THEIR GRAND SOLITUDE.
THE RUINS OF A PIER,
THE WRECKED REMAINS
OF AN OLD VILLAGE,
HALF COVERED WITH SANDS,
TOLD OF A BUSY HUMAN LIFE
IN A PRE-RAILWAY AGE.
THE MEN FROM BRUCE
MIGHT BE FOUND
IN WHOLE COMMUNITIES
IN THE NORTHWEST.
ON OUR INLAND WATERS,
THEY ARE UBIQUITOUS.
UNCLE, COUSIN,
FATHER, OR BROTHER
MAY HAVE FOUND AN EARLY GRAVE
BENEATH THE WATERS,
BUT THE SON
REACHES MANHOOD,
THE LAKE CALLS,
AND HE GOES.
BUT WHILE BRUCE MEN HAVE BEEN
SO BUSY ON THE LAKES,
THE FARMING INTERESTS
OF THE COUNTRY HAVE SUFFERED.
ENOUGH RAILWAYS
HAVE GOT IN
TO DRAW TRAFFIC
FROM THE SHORE
AND LEAVE MORE THAN ONE
DESERTED VILLAGE OR RUINED PIER,
BUT NOT ENOUGH
TO CREATE A GOOD MARKET
OR STIR UP A BUSY
COMMERCIAL LIFE INWARDS.
INVERHURON, THE MAKING OF
THE BEST HARBOUR ON THE LAKES -
SO THE SAILORS SAY -
LIES DESOLATE.

The narrator says TURNER HAD NO WAY OF KNOWING,
BUT THINGS WOULD
BEGIN TO CHANGE
SHORTLY AFTER SHE WROTE
THOSE WORDS IN 1903.
SMALL SUMMER COTTAGES
WOULD SOON SPRING UP
ALONG BRUCE COUNTY'S
WESTERN SHORE,
BREATHING NEW LIFE
INTO STRUGGLING
SHORELINE COMMUNITIES.
AND IN THE LATE 1950S,
SOMETHING LOUISE CERTAINLY
COULD NEVER HAVE PREDICTED,
NUCLEAR POWER,
WAS COMING TO BRUCE'S SHORES,
AND FEW THINGS
WOULD BE THE SAME AGAIN.

Music plays as the end credits roll.

Director and writer, Zach Melnick.

A caption reads "Major funding for this series has been provided by the Ontario Trillium Foundation, the Bruce County and Bruce Power."

Produced in association with TVO.

The caption changes to "This series is part of the Ontario Visual Heritage Project. Visit thebrucemovie.ca to learn more."

Copyright 2018, Living History Multimedia Association.

Watch: Ep. 2 - The Last Frontier