Transcript: Ep. 1 - The Fishing Chiefs | Aug 12, 2018

A clip shows a crew on a boat seine fishing.

[SEAGULLS CAWING]

The narrator says SINCE TIME IMMEMORIAL,
THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY
HAVE FISHED THE WATERS
OF LAKE HURON
FOR FOOD AND TRADE.
FOR 150 YEARS,
COLONIAL GOVERNMENTS
DID EVERYTHING THEY COULD
TO GET THEM TO STOP -
AND THEY NEARLY SUCCEEDED.
BUT TODAY, THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY
ARE STILL HERE,
THANKS TO GENERATIONS
OF CHIEFS AND FISHERMEN
WHO REFUSED TO GIVE UP.
THIS IS THEIR STORY.

(music plays)

In animation, a series of pictures show images of settlers, boats, coasts, river banks, and old maps.

The name of the show reads "The Bruce. The fishing chiefs."

[CRICKETS CHIRPING]

[SEAGULLS CAWING]

The narrator says BRUCE COUNTY
IS A RURAL AREA
IN SOUTHERN ONTARIO
THAT MANY SIMPLY CALL
"THE BRUCE."

A map shows the location of Bruce County, by Lake Huron.

The narrator says AT 4,000 SQUARE KILOMETRES,
THE BRUCE IS HOME
TO A GREAT DIVERSITY
OF NATURAL FEATURES
THAT HAVE ATTRACTED PEOPLE
FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS.
SOUTHERN BRUCE IS A PLACE
OF ROLLING FARMLAND
AND HARDWOOD FORESTS,
ALL TIED TOGETHER
BY THE MASSIVE
SAUGEEN RIVER SYSTEM
THAT FLOWS INTO LAKE HURON.
AS YOU HEAD NORTH,
THE FARMLAND DISAPPEARS
AS THE LIMESTONE CLIFFS
OF THE NIAGARA ESCARPMENT
FORM A 90-KILOMETRE-LONG
PENINSULA
SEPARATING LAKE HURON
FROM GEORGIAN BAY.
IT'S KNOWN MOST COMMONLY
AS THE BRUCE PENINSULA,
BUT TODAY,
MANY ARE ONCE AGAIN CALLING IT
THE SAUGEEN PENINSULA,
THE NAME IT WAS GIVEN
LONG AGO
BY THIS REGION'S
INDIGENOUS PEOPLE,
THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY.
ON THE PENINSULA'S
EASTERN SIDE,
THE ESCARPMENT RISES
HUNDREDS OF FEET
OUT OF THE DEEP WATERS
OF GEORGIAN BAY.
FROM THERE,
IT SLOPES GENTLY
TOWARDS THE WEST,
DISAPPEARING SLOWLY
UNDER THE SHALLOW WATERS
OF LAKE HURON.
IN BRUCE, YOU'RE NEVER
FAR FROM THE COAST -
ALL 850 KILOMETRES OF IT.
THE BRUCE COAST DRAWS
HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS
OF VISITORS EVERY YEAR.
THEY COME TO SWIM
ON THE BEACHES
THAT DOT ITS
WESTERN COASTLINE,
TO VISIT THE FLOWERPOT
ROCK FORMATIONS
OFF ITS NORTHERN TIP,
OR TO HIKE THE BRUCE TRAIL
ALONG ITS JAGGED
EASTERN SHORE.

Clips show a team of archaeologist digging in the woods.

Clips of a re-enactment shows settlers dealing with native people.

The narrator says BUT THE BRUCE IS FAR MORE
THAN JUST A NATURAL
PLAYGROUND.
THERE'S MUCH
TO BE LEARNED HERE.
THIS THREE-PART SERIES
WILL INVESTIGATE
THE ANCIENT RELATIONSHIP
THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY HAVE
WITH THIS TERRITORY,
AND THE INCREDIBLE
LENGTHS THEY GO TO
TO HOLD ON
TO THAT RELATIONSHIP -
ESPECIALLY THEIR RIGHT
TO FISH.
WE'LL LEARN ABOUT
THE REGION'S
RAPID AND RAUCOUS
COLONIZATION PERIOD
AND THE AREA'S
EQUALLY RAPID DEPOPULATION,
AS SONS AND DAUGHTERS
LEAVE FOR GREENER PASTURES
IN WESTERN CANADA.
WE'LL DISCOVER HOW TOURISM
AND THE SURPRISING ARRIVAL
OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST
NUCLEAR POWER STATION
CHANGE THINGS FOREVER HERE.
AND WE'LL UNCOVER
THE DRAMATIC STORY
OF HOW THE BRUCE BECOMES
ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT
NATURAL AREAS
IN ONTARIO.

A clip shows people walking across a wooded area on fire.

[ALL COUGHING]

The narrator says GET READY FOR THE UNEXPECTED,
AS WE EXPLORE
STORIES FROM BRUCE
AND THE PEOPLE
WHO CALL IT HOME.

[SEAGULLS CAWING]

A clip shows images of a rocky coast.

[BIRDS CAWING AND TWEETING]
[BIRDS CAWING AND TWEETING]

The narrator says AT FIRST GLANCE,
THE BRUCE'S ROCKY COAST
APPEARS STATIC.
BUT AS THE GLACIERS STARTED
TO RECEDE FROM ONTARIO
ABOUT 13,000 YEARS AGO,
THIS COAST WAS
CONSTANTLY CHANGING.
FOR ABOUT 8,000 YEARS,
WATER LEVELS
FLUCTUATED WILDLY.

An animated map shows the water levels rising and falling.

The narrator says AT TIMES, THE WATER
WAS SO LOW,
LAND BRIDGES WITH MICHIGAN
AND MANITOULIN ISLAND
WERE EXPOSED.
AT OTHER TIMES,
THE WATER WAS SO HIGH
THAT THE SAUGEEN PENINSULA
WAS AN ARCHIPELAGO
OF SMALL ISLANDS.
HUMANS HAVE BEEN AROUND
FOR ALL OF THIS CHANGE.
WE KNOW THIS
BECAUSE THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY
HAVE ANCIENT STORIES
DESCRIBING GREAT CHANGES
IN WATER LEVELS,
AND BECAUSE OF THE REGION'S
LONG AND CONTINUOUS
ARCHEOLOGICAL RECORD.

Pictures show different archeological objects.

A caption reads "Doctor Bill Fitzgerald. Archaeologist."

Bill is in his sixties, with short thinning gray hair and a beard. He wears glasses and a black T-shirt under a beige shirt.

He says PEOPLE HAVE
BEEN HERE CONTINUOUSLY
FOR 12,000 YEARS.
LONGER THAN THE PYRAMIDS.
LONGER THAN THE CAVE
PAINTINGS IN EUROPE.
THERE IS A VERY LONG
AND CONTINUOUS HISTORY HERE.

A clip shows Bill and a team of archaeologists digging in a wooded area.

The narrator says THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY
WORK CLOSELY WITH ARCHEOLOGISTS
LIKE DR. WILLIAM FITZGERALD
TO IDENTIFY AND PROTECT
THEIR CULTURAL RESOURCES.
THIS SITE, DATING FROM
ABOUT 500 YEARS AGO,
IS BELIEVED TO HOLD
SPIRITUAL IMPORTANCE.

The caption changes to "Emma McLaren. Archaeology Monitor."

Emma is in her thirties, with long brown hair in a low bun. She wears glasses, jeans, an orange T-shirt, an orange cap hat and a safety vest.

Emma says EVEN THOUGH WE'VE HAD A PRESENCE
ON THIS PENINSULA FOR...
TIME IMMEMORIAL,
A LOT OF THE EVIDENCE
HAS SORT OF DECOMPOSED
OR GONE BACK INTO THE EARTH.
SO WE DON'T HAVE THESE,
LIKE, GIGANTIC CASTLES
OR, LIKE, THE STONEHENGE,
FOR INSTANCE,
TO REALLY PROVE
TO PEOPLE THESE DAYS
THAT WE USED TO LIVE HERE.
BUT WE HAVE SMALLER OBJECTS.
THIS SITE, WE'VE FOUND
A LOT OF POTTERY PIECES,
WE'VE FOUND A LOT
OF FIRE-CRACKED ROCK,
WHICH INDICATES
A PLACE OF FIRE.
WHEN YOU COME TO
A SITE LIKE THIS,
YOU LOOK AT
THE WHOLE PICTURE,
AND IT TOOK A VISIT FROM
ONE OF THE COMMUNITY ELDERS
TO COME TO IDENTIFY THAT
THIS SITE WAS
A SWEAT LODGE.
AND HE COULD
TELL THAT BECAUSE
WE STILL SORT OF DO A LOT
OF THE SAME CEREMONIES,
THE SAME WAY
AS WE DID BACK THEN.
EVEN JUST HAVING A LITTLE
BIT OF THAT HISTORY
I FIND INCREDIBLY SACRED.

Bill says IT'S IMPORTANT TO NOT JUST
KNOW THE PAST
FOR THE SAKE OF IT -
THAT, YEAH, THERE ARE
SOME INTERESTING ARTIFACTS -
BUT IT'S THE PEOPLE
THAT MADE THE ARTIFACTS
AND THEIR CONNECTION TO PEOPLE
THAT STILL LIVE IN THE AREA
THAT CAN ENLIGHTEN EVERYBODY,
THAT PEOPLE HAVE
BEEN HERE CONTINUOUSLY
FOR 12,000 YEARS.

A map shows the location of Saugeen Ojibway.

The narrator says THEY MAY NOT HAVE
BUILT CASTLES OR MONUMENTS,
BUT THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY
DID CREATE
A SOPHISTICATED SOCIETY
BASED ON THE SUSTAINABLE USE
OF THEIR TWO-MILLION-ACRE
TERRITORY.
THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY
ARE PART OF THE ANISHINABE
GROUP OF NATIONS
THAT GOVERNED MUCH
OF THE GREAT LAKES REGION,
WITH WHOM THEY HAD CLOSE
CULTURAL AND MILITARY TIES.

A map shows the territories occupied by the Anishinabek nations: the Ojibway, the Odawa, the Algonquin, and the Potawatomi, as well as the Saugeen Ojibway.

A The narrator says ANISHINABE NATIONS
WERE DIVIDED INTO CLANS,
EACH WITH DIFFERENT
RESPONSIBILITIES,
WHOSE LEADERS MADE UP
A GOVERNING COUNCIL.

The caption changes to "Vernon Roote. Elder and Former Chief, Saugeen First Nation."

Vernon is in his sixties, clean-shaven and with short wavy gray hair. He wears a gray shirt and a beaded necklace.

Vernon says OUR GOVERNING SYSTEM
WAS INCLUSIVE
WITH ALL PEOPLE.
FOR EXAMPLE,
THE YOUTH, THE WOMEN,
THE ELDERS
WOULD ALL GIVE DIRECTION
TO THE CHIEFS.
AND THEN, WHEN REGIONAL
OR GLOBAL MEETINGS
TOOK PLACE,
EVERYONE WENT
TO THOSE MEETINGS
WITH SOME FORM
OF DIRECTION,
AND SOME FORM
OF DECISION-MAKING POWERS
THEY HAD FROM
THEIR COMMUNITY.

The caption changes to "Doctor John Borrows. Canada Research Chair in Indigenous Law, University of Victoria. Member, Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation."

John is in his late forties, clean-shaven and with short straight gray hair and wears a blue gingham shirt.

John says PART OF ANISHINABE GOVERNANCE
WAS OUR SEVEN GRANDMOTHER
AND GRANDFATHER TEACHINGS.
THESE ARE SUCH THINGS LIKE
LOVE, KINDNESS,
RESPECT, WISDOM,
COURAGE, HUMILITY, AND TRUTH.
AND THEY'RE REALLY
POWERFUL TEACHINGS,
BECAUSE THEY'RE FOUND
FROM THE LAND.
FOR INSTANCE, OUR WORD
FOR "LOVE" IS "ZAGIH,"
AND THAT IS ALSO
THE SIMILAR WORD
FOR THE MOUTH OF A RIVER -
SO "SAUGEEN" IS RIVER-MOUTH.
THAT'S WHERE THERE'S
THE GATHERING OF THE DUCKS,
AND THE BIRDS,
AND THE FISH,
AND WE THINK
LOVE SHOULD BE
THAT KIND OF FLOW
OF ENERGY
WHICH GATHERS TOGETHER
A RICH ABUNDANCE,
AND ALLOWS FOR THE SUSTAINING
AND THE SUPPORTING OF LIFE.

The narrator says FAMILIES WOULD FOLLOW
THE SEVEN GRANDMOTHER
AND GRANDFATHER TEACHINGS
AS THEY MOVED AROUND
THEIR TERRITORY
AS PART OF AN INTEGRATED,
DIVERSIFIED,
LAND-AND-WATER-USE
ECONOMIC SYSTEM.

John says ANISHINABE PEOPLE TRIED
TO DIVERSIFY THEIR PORTFOLIO,
WHICH MEANS THAT YOU CAN'T PUT
ALL YOUR EGGS IN ONE BASKET.
THERE WAS A SEASON
WHEN WE WOULD GO FISHING,
THERE WAS A SEASON WHEN
WE'D GATHER EGGS,
ANOTHER SEASON
WHEN WE WOULD GO HUNTING,
ANOTHER SEASON WHEN
WE WOULD ACCESS
THE PLANTS AROUND
THE TERRITORY,
AND ANOTHER SEASON
WHEN WE WOULD
ENGAGE IN MAPLE SUGARING,
ET CETERA.
SO THE IDEA IS THAT
YOU WOULD ROTATE
THROUGH THE TERRITORY
SO THAT YOU WOULD HAVE
A VARIETY OF THINGS TO EAT,
BUT YOU WOULD ALSO
ENSURE THAT
YOU HAD THE LIGHTER FOOTPRINT
ON THE GROUND
SO THAT YOU
USE IT SUSTAINABLY.

The narrator says CONSIDERING THE LONG COASTLINE
IN SAUGEEN OJIBWAY TERRITORY,
IT'S NOT SURPRISING
THE OJIBWAY'S PORTFOLIO
INCLUDED MANY IMPORTANT
FISHING SITES
AND THAT FISHING BECAME
A CRITICAL PART
OF LOCAL CULTURE.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE
OF FISHING
CAN BE FOUND
THROUGHOUT THE REGION.

Archaeological fishing hooks and harpoons appear on screen.

Bill says WE HAVE DIRECT EVIDENCE
OF NET FISHING
WHICH IS GOING BACK
THREE, FOUR,
FIVE THOUSAND YEARS.
YOU'RE GETTING NET SINKERS,
LITTLE LIMESTONE PEBBLES
THAT WOULD BE NOTCHED
AROUND THE MIDDLE -
SO CLEARLY MODIFIED
AS WEIGHTS FOR NETS.
AND WE'RE GETTING
ANTLER HARPOON FRAGMENTS
AND ALSO BARBS
FROM HARPOONS.
AND WE EVEN GET HOOKS.
SOMETIMES WE GET BONE HOOKS
OR COPPER HOOKS.

The narrator says THE MOST IMPORTANT FISHING AREA
IN SAUGEEN TERRITORY
WAS THE FISHING ISLANDS
ON THE WESTERN SIDE
OF THE PENINSULA.

The western side of the peninsula appears highlighted in the animated map.

The narrator says THE SHALLOW WATERS
AROUND THESE ISLANDS
WERE ONE OF THE BEST
WHITEFISH SPAWNING GROUNDS
ON THE GREAT LAKES.

Vernon says THE FISHING ISLANDS
HAD SO MUCH FISH.
WE HEAR STORIES WHERE
PEOPLE WOULD WALK
ON THE BACKS OF THE FISH,
THAT'S HOW THICK THEY WERE.

The narrator says TO CATCH WHITEFISH
AT THE FISHING ISLANDS,
THE OJIBWAY OFTEN USED
A NEAR-SHORE
NET-FISHING TECHNIQUE
KNOWN AS "SEINING."
IT'S A TECHNOLOGY THAT'S BEEN
USED ON THE UPPER GREAT LAKES
FOR MORE THAN 2000 YEARS.

An animation shows two fishers holding a net across a river to catch a school of fish.

The caption changes to "Wendall Nadjiwon. Band member, Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation."

Wendall is in his fifties, clean-shaven and with short gray hair. He wears a gray shirt.

Wendall says A SEINE IS A LARGE NET.
IT IS FORMED OF TWO WINGS
THAT COME IN TOGETHER
LIKE THAT,
AND THEN A BIG POCKET
IN THE BACK.
YOU PULL THE NET TOWARD YOU
UNTIL YOU'VE PULLED IT
RIGHT UP ON SHORE,
YOU PULL THE BOTTOM UP,
AND NOW YOU HAVE
ALL THE FISH
AVAILABLE TO YOU.
AND THEN, IF THERE WAS
FISH SPECIES
WITHIN THAT NET
THAT YOU WANTED
YOU WOULD KEEP THOSE ONES.
IF THERE WAS ONES
THAT YOU DIDN'T WANT,
YOU WOULD JUST BE ABLE
TO PUT THEM RIGHT BACK.

The narrator says FISH WEREN'T ONLY
A FORM OF SUSTENANCE.
THEY WERE ALSO
A KEY TRADE ITEM.

Vernon says FOR THOSE COMMUNITIES
WHO WERE INLAND,
HOW WOULD THEY
GET A FISH DIET?
THEN THAT'S WHERE OUR PEOPLE
CAME INTO PLAY.

The caption changes to "Lenore Keeshig. Storyteller, Poet, Teacher Advocate."

Lenore is in her sixties, with straight brown hair and wears a gray cape.

Lenore says OUR PEOPLE TRADED THE FISH
FOR CORN AND TOBACCO
FROM OTHER FIRST NATIONS.
THEN, WHEN THE NEWCOMERS
CAME ALONG,
THEY TRADED FISH
WITH THE BRITISH.
SO THAT WAS KIND OF LIKE
OUR ECONOMY.

The narrator says ANISHINABE PEOPLE
HAD A VARIETY
OF TECHNIQUES
FOR MAINTAINING
HEALTHY FISH STOCKS.
THERE WERE "FISHING CHIEFS."
RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FISHERY.

John says RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT FOR THE ANISHINABE
WAS BASED ON THE RELATIONSHIPS
THAT WE HAD
WITH THE TERRITORY
AROUND US,
AND WE WOULD
REGARD OUR RELATIVES
AS BEING THE DEER,
AND THE FISH,
AND THE BIRDS, AND THE OTHER
BEINGS THAT ARE AROUND US.
AND SO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
WAS ACTUALLY
RELATIONAL MANAGEMENT.
FOR INSTANCE, THERE WERE
FISHING CHIEFS
RESPONSIBLE FOR
THAT FISHERIES RELATIONSHIP
OR MANAGEMENT
IN A PARTICULAR REGION.

Vernon says THE SURVIVAL
OF LIFE FOR OUR PEOPLE
DEPENDED ON HOW CONSERVATION
WAS REALLY MANAGED
IN THE AREA.
IF YOU FISH A CREEK
OUT OF FISH,
YOU'RE NOT GOING TO HAVE
ANY MORE FISH
IN THE FOLLOWING YEAR
AND THE YEAR AFTER THAT.
SO IT'S COMMON SENSE
THAT YOU LEAVE SOME
FOR THE FOLLOWING YEAR
TO SUSTAIN YOURSELF.

The narrator says IF FISH WERE CAUGHT
THAT WERE READY TO SPAWN,
THE SAUGEEN EMPLOYED A PRACTICE
KNOWN AS "MILKING."

Lenore says THEY WOULD TAKE THE SPERM
OR THE "MILK."
FROM THE MALE FISH
AND SQUEEZE THAT
INTO A CONTAINER.
AND THEN, WHEN THEY GOT
THE FEMALE FISH,
THEN THEY WOULD
TAKE THE ROE
OR THE EGGS
OUT OF THE FISH,
PUT THAT INTO
THE SAME CONTAINER,
AND THEN THEY WOULD TAKE IT
BACK OUT INTO THE WATER
AND POUR IT IN
THOSE SPAWNING AREAS,
TO MAKE SURE THAT
THERE WOULD BE FISH
FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS.

The narrator says WHEN FRENCH EXPLORERS
START COMING TO THIS REGION
IN THE EARLY 1600S,
THEY FIND
A FLOURISHING SOCIETY
LIVING ALONGSIDE
AN ENVIRONMENT
BURSTING WITH ABUNDANCE.
TO ENSURE CONTINUED CONTROL
OVER THEIR TERRITORY
AS THE INFLUENCE OF
THE FRENCH AND THE BRITISH
GROWS AROUND THE GREAT LAKES,
THE OJIBWAY FORM
STRATEGIC ALLIANCES.
THE MOST IMPORTANT AGREEMENT
IS MADE WITH THE BRITISH
IN 1764.
KNOWN AS THE SILVER
COVENANT CHAIN,
THE AGREEMENT IS REPRESENTED
BY AN ACCOMPANYING
WAMPUM BELT.

John says THE ANISHINABE HAVE LONG HAD
THOSE KINDS OF RELATIONS
WITH OTHER INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
IN WHAT'S NOW ONTARIO.
AND WE INVITED THE CROWN
INTO THAT TREATY TRADITION.
SO IN 1764,
WE MET AT NIAGARA,
AND THERE WERE
2,000 PEOPLE THERE,
REPRESENTING 22
DIFFERENT NATIONS
AROUND THE GREAT LAKES,
ENTERING INTO
AN AGREEMENT OF PEACE
AND FRIENDSHIP AND RESPECT
WITH THE CROWN.
AND THEY AGREED THAT
WE WOULD HAVE THE RIGHT
TO BE ABLE TO
CONTINUE TO TRADE
AS WE'VE ALWAYS DONE.
WE'D HAVE THE RIGHT
TO HAVE OUR LANDS PROTECTED
AND NOT TAKEN FROM US
WITHOUT OUR AGREEMENT.
THERE WAS PROMISES
TO RESPECT OUR PROTOCOLS
AND THE WAY THAT WE WOULD
CONTINUE TO OPERATE
IN OUR MANAGEMENT
AND GOVERNANCE REGIMES.
NOW, FOR OVER 250 YEARS,
THAT AGREEMENT HAS
FORMED THE BEDROCK
FOR HOW WE WOULD
RELATE TO THE CROWN,
FOLLOWING THOSE PROMISES.
[GUNFIRE, A MAN CRIES OUT]

Illustrations show images of war between the conquerors and the native people.

The narrator says THE OJIBWAY UPHOLD
THE SILVER COVENANT CHAIN
WHEN THEY FIGHT WITH THE BRITISH
AGAINST THE AMERICANS
IN THE WAR OF 1812,
HELPING WIN THE WAR.
THE WAR RESULTS IN AN INFLUX
OF ANISHINABE WARRIORS
AND REFUGEES FROM THE AMERICAN
SIDE OF THE BORDER
COMING TO LIVE
ON SAUGEEN OJIBWAY TERRITORY.
THEY COME HERE
BECAUSE THIS IS A PLACE
WHERE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE
CAN STILL MAINTAIN
THEIR SOVEREIGNTY
AND WAY OF LIFE,
THANKS TO THE SILVER
COVENANT CHAIN AGREEMENT
WITH THE BRITISH.

A re-enactment shows native people on a shore speaking Ojibwe.

[SPEAKING OJIBWE]

The narrator says AFTER THE WAR OF 1812,
THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY CONTINUE
TO GOVERN THEIR TERRITORY
AS THEY ALWAYS HAD.
WHEN TRADERS WANT
TO SET UP SHOP IN THE REGION,
IT'S THE OJIBWAY
THEY SEEK PERMISSION FROM.
THE FIRST KNOWN TRADER
IS A FRENCHMAN, PIERRE PICHÉ,
WHO MOVES TO THE SOUTH SHORE
OF THE SAUGEEN RIVER
AROUND 1818.
HE COMES WITH HIS WIFE,
AN ANISHINABE WOMAN
FROM MICHILIMACKINAC,
MONIQUE DESAULNIERS.

John says WHEN THE FIRST FRENCH TRADERS
CAME AMONGST THE ANISHINABE,
THERE WAS AN EXPECTATION
THAT THESE PEOPLE
WOULD ABIDE BY OUR WAYS
OF RELATING TO THE LAND,
AND SO THERE WAS AN ATTEMPT
TO TRY TO TAKE THEM
INTO OUR KINSHIP NETWORKS.
THERE'S EVEN
WAMPUM AGREEMENTS
THAT THE MÉTIS PEOPLE
ENTERED INTO
WITH THE ANISHINABE
TO TRY TO SMOOTH OUT
RELATIONS BETWEEN US.

The narrator says NOT LONG AFTER HE ARRIVES,
PICHÉ RECEIVES
12 WAUMPUM STRINGS
FROM THE OJIBWAY -
EVIDENCE OF AN AGREEMENT
BETWEEN THEM.

The caption changes to "Jenna McGuire. Artist and Educator, Historic Saugeen Metis."

Jenna is in her thirties, with long straight light brown hair and wears a green sweater and a choker necklace.

Jenna says IT'S AN OPEN STRINGED WAMPUM,
SO THE STRINGS ARE LOOSE
RATHER THAN BEING
WOVEN IN A BELT,
AND THAT PARTICULAR
TYPE OF WAMPUM
IS SIGNIFICANT
OF ONE THAT'S GIVEN
BETWEEN TWO
INDIGENOUS GROUPS.

The narrator says IN THE EARLY 1900S,
THE ORIGINAL WAMPUM STRINGS
WERE DONATED
TO WHAT'S NOW
THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM,
AND SUBSEQUENTLY LOST.
BUT TO THIS REGION'S
MÉTIS COMMUNITY,
THE MEANING OF THESE
WAMPUM STRINGS
IS STILL VERY MUCH ALIVE.

The caption changes to "Patsy McArthur. Historian. Historic Saugeen Metis."

Patsy is in her sixties, with short wavy light brown hair and wears glasses, a black and white printed shirt, a blue blazer and a tribal patterned scarf.

She says THE SIGNIFICANCE IS
THE MESSAGE THAT IT GIVES:
IT WAS OF TOLERANCE,
OF LIVING TOGETHER
PEACEFULLY,
OF SHARING
AND OF BEING ONE HEART
WITH ALL INDIGENOUS PEOPLE
IN THE SAUGEEN TERRITORY.

The narrator says IN THE 1820S,
MORE MÉTIS FUR TRADERS
FOLLOW PICHÉ
INTO SAUGEEN TERRITORY.
MANY WORKED FOR
THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY
IN WHAT'S NOW MANITOBA
AND NORTHERN ONTARIO.
THEY ARE MOVED INTO
THE LAKE HURON DISTRICT
TO MAKE SURE THAT
THE SO CALLED "PETTY TRADERS,"
WHO DIDN'T WORK FOR
THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY,
ARE OUT-COMPETED.

Jenna says THEY WOULD HAVE
TRAVELED THROUGHOUT THE LAKE
IN SAILING VESSELS,
COLLECTING, HARVESTING,
AND TRADING FURS.
IT'S ACTUALLY KIND OF UNIQUE
BECAUSE, I THINK, WHEN PEOPLE
THINK OF THE FUR TRADE,
THEY THINK OF CANOES,
AND RIVERS,
AND VOYAGEURS,
AND THAT KIND OF THING,
BUT THE MÉTIS PEOPLE
IN SAUGEEN WERE MARINERS,
SO THEY SAILED SHIPS.
AFTER THE FUR TRADE DECLINED,
THEY SWITCHED OVER
TO FISHING
AND OTHER SORT OF
MARINER-TYPE ACTIVITIES.
AND SOME, OF COURSE,
TOOK UP TRADES
LIKE COOPERING,
OR SHIPBUILDING,
OR LIGHTHOUSE KEEPING, BUT ALL
VERY ASSOCIATED WITH THE LAKE.

John says THE FRENCH BECAME,
IN SOME WAYS,
OUR BROTHERS
AND OUR SISTERS.
WE COULD CONTINUE
TO LIVE OUR WAY OF LIFE,
AND THERE WAS ROOM
FOR THEM TO LIVE,
AS LONG AS THEY
RECOGNIZED OUR LAWS.

The narrator says THE 1830S BRING A NEW CHALLENGE
TO THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY:
HOW TO PROTECT
THEIR FISHING GROUNDS.
INCREASING NUMBERS
OF EUROPEAN SETTLERS
IN THE UNITED STATES
AND UPPER CANADA
CREATE A THRIVING
MARKET FOR FISH
NOT FAR FROM
SAUGEEN TERRITORY.
WORD OF THE SEEMINGLY
ENDLESS ABUNDANCE
OF THE SAUGEEN FISHERY
REACHES UPPER CANADIAN
BUSINESSMEN.
INDUSTRIAL-SCALE
FISHING COMPANIES
SET THEIR SIGHTS -
AND THEIR NETS -
ON THE FISHING ISLANDS.

A re-enactment shows native chiefs speaking to a white fisherman.

[MEN SPEAKING OJIBWE]
[SPEAKING OJIBWE]

The narrator says THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY
ARE AWARE OF THE THREAT
TO THEIR FISHERY,
AND THE FISHING CHIEFS,
JACOB METIGWAB
AND ALEXANDER MADWAYOSH,
OFFER A LIMITED
NUMBER OF LICENSES
TO WHITE FISHERMEN.
THEY HOPE THAT BY DOING SO,
THEY CAN PREVENT
OVER-EXPLOITATION.

The white fisherman says LET'S MAKE SOME MONEY,
GENTLEMEN.

The narrator says THE FIRST FISHERMAN
TO GET A LICENSE
FROM THE OJIBWAY
TO FISH AT
THE FISHING ISLANDS
IS A FUR TRADER,
ALEXANDER MCGREGGOR.
MCGREGGOR'S LICENSE GIVES HIM
THE RIGHT TO FISH
FROM WHAT WOULD
BECOME KNOWN AS
"MAIN STATION ISLAND."

An actor impersonating McGreggor says SO... IT'S AGREED, THEN:
600,000 POUNDS OF FISH
AT A DOLLAR A BARREL.

The white fisherman says YES, IT IS!

The narrator says MCGREGGOR THEN SIGNS A CONTRACT
WITH A DETROIT COMPANY
TO DELIVER 600,000 POUNDS
OF SALTED FISH -
3,000 BARRELS -
AND GOES TO WORK
FULFILLING THE CONTRACT.
MCGREGGOR USES SIMILAR
NEAR-SHORE FISHING TECHNIQUES
TO THE OJIBWAY,
BUT ON A MUCH LARGER SCALE.
UPWARDS OF 500 BARRELS
ARE HARVESTED
IN A SINGLE HAUL.
MEN WORK FRANTICALLY
TO PRESERVE THE FISH
WITH SALT
AND PUT THEM IN BARRELS
FOR TRANSPORT
ON MCGREGGOR'S SCHOONER.
MCGREGGOR QUICKLY OVERSTEPS
HIS AGREEMENT
WITH THE OJIBWAY.
IN 1835,
THEY PETITION THE GOVERNMENT
FOR HIS REMOVAL.
HE IS HARVESTING
TOO MANY FISH.

An actor says I'M SORRY TO HEAR ABOUT
THE TROUBLE YOU'VE BEEN HAVING
WITH MY OLD FRIEND,
MCGREGGOR.

The narrator says THE OJIBWAY CHIEFS
THEN NEGOTIATE
A LEASE AGREEMENT
WITH A NEW COMPANY,
THE HURON FISHING COMPANY.
THEY AGREE TO PAY 25 POUNDS
PER YEAR TO THE OJIBWAY
FOR THE RIGHT TO FISH
IN OJIBWAY TERRITORY.
BUT THE OJIBWAY ARE SOON SHOCKED
BY THE SCALE OF THE
COMMERCIAL FISHING OPERATIONS
OF THE HURON
FISHING COMPANY.
AFTER ONLY ONE FALL
OF FISHING,
CHIEF METIGWAB WRITES
TO THE COLONIAL GOVERNMENT:

A male voice reading Chief Metigwab's words says THE COMPANY HAS TAKEN
VAST QUANTITIES OF FISH
THIS LAST FALL -
MORE THAN WHAT
THE STEAM BOAT
COULD CONVEY IN TWO TRIPS.
THEY GO FURTHER
THAN WE INTENDED,
SO AS TO INJURE US
IN OUR FISHING.
OUR LIVING IN GREAT PART
DEPENDS ON OUR FISHING.

John says ANISHINABE PEOPLE
WOULD HAVE SEEN
THAT INDUSTRIAL FISHING
AS BREAKING THE LAW,
BEING INCONSISTENT
WITH THE MANAGEMENT REGIMES
THAT WERE PRESENT
HERE ON THE TERRITORY
FROM TIME OF MEMORY.
AND IT WAS ALSO
NOT RESPECTFUL
OF THE RELATIONS
OF THE FISH.
SOME ANISHINABE PEOPLE
HAVE FISH AS THEIR CLANS,
AND AS THEIR CLANS,
YOU KNOW, THAT'S THEIR
BROTHERS AND SISTERS,
AND SO TO TAKE THEIR
BROTHERS AND SISTERS
OUT OF THE WATERS
IN GREAT NUMBERS
WAS DISRESPECTFUL.

The narrator says TO ADD INSULT TO INJURY,
THE BOATLOADS OF FISH
THAT LEAVE THE FISHING ISLANDS
IN THE FALL OF 1834
NEVER BECOME FOOD.
MANY EAGER BUYERS!
THE FISH MAKE IT
TO DETROIT FOR SALE...
BUT UPON INSPECTION,
THEY ARE FOUND
TO BE ROTTEN,
AND DUMPED IN THE LAKE.
AS THE OJIBWAY ARE TRYING
TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO MANAGE
THEIR FISHING GROUNDS
UNDER INCREASING PRESSURE
FROM COMMERCIAL
FISHING COMPANIES,
THE COLONIAL GOVERNMENT
THROWS THEM A CURVEBALL.
IN 1836,
AT A TREATY GATHERING
ON MANITOULIN ISLAND
TO RENEW THE SILVER COVENANT
CHAIN ALLIANCE,
THE SUPERINTENDENT
OF INDIAN AFFAIRS,
SIR FRANCIS BOND HEAD,
MAKES AN UNEXPECTED PROPOSAL.

An actor impersonating Sir Francis Bond Head says MY CHILDREN,
70 SNOW SEASONS
HAVE NOW PASSED AWAY
SINCE WE MET IN COUNCIL
AT THE CROOKED PLACE,
AT WHICH TIME AND PLACE
YOUR GREAT FATHER, THE KING,
AND THE INDIANS
OF NORTH AMERICA
TIED THEIR HANDS TOGETHER
BY THE WAMPUM OF FRIENDSHIP...

The narrator says BOND HEAD PROPOSES
TO TURN MANITOULIN ISLAND
INTO A BIG RESERVE,
WHERE ALL THE FIRST NATIONS
IN UPPER CANADA
CAN LIVE TOGETHER.
ONCE THERE,
THEY WOULD BE ABLE
TO PRACTICE THEIR
TRADITIONAL WAYS
SEPARATE FROM THE "WHITES."
BOND HEAD ALSO HAS
A SURPRISE TREATY
FOR THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY
TO SIGN:
TREATY 45 AND A HALF.
HE HOPES THE SAUGEEN
WILL GIVE UP THEIR
TWO-MILLION-ACRE TERRITORY
TO LIVE ON MANITOULIN,
THUS MAKING
THAT LAND AVAILABLE
FOR EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT.
MANY OF THE SAUGEEN CHIEFS
ARE NOT AT
THIS TREATY GATHERING,
BUT THE ONES WHO ARE -
SUCH AS CHIEFS METIGWAB
AND MADWAYOSH -
ARE MORTIFIED BY
BOND HEAD'S PROPOSAL.

The native chiefs meet with Bond Head and his soldiers.

[SPEAKING OJIBWE]
[SPEAKING OJIBWE]

The narrator says THEY REFUSE TO SIGN THE TREATY.

One of the chiefs approaches him infuriated and the soldiers step in front of Bond Head.

Bond Head says ALRIGHT!
ALRIGHT...
LET ME SEE IF THERE'S
SOMETHING I CAN DO.

The narrator says BOND HEAD IS
UNDER TREMENDOUS PRESSURE
TO MAKE MORE LAND AVAILABLE
FOR EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT,
SO HE MODIFIES
HIS TREATY PROPOSAL.
BOND HEAD PROMISES
TO FOREVER PROTECT
THE SAUGEEN PENINSULA
FROM WHITE ENCROACHMENT...
IF THE SAUGEEN
WILL ALLOW SETTLEMENT
ON THEIR LANDS
SOUTH OF OWEN SOUND -
1.5 MILLION ACRES OF LAND
GOOD FOR FARMING.
ACCORDING TO CHIEF METIGWAB,
BOND HEAD ALSO PROMISES
TO PROTECT THEIR
FISHING GROUNDS:

Chief Metigwab says BOND HEAD
AGREED THAT THE SAUGEEN INDIANS
OWNED ALL OF THE ISLANDS
IN THE VICINITY
OF THE PENINSULA
HE WAS ABOUT TO
RESERVE FOR US,
AND THAT HE WOULD REMOVE
ALL THE WHITE PEOPLE
WHO WERE IN THE HABIT
OF FISHING ON OUR GROUNDS.

The narrator says THE SAUGEEN CHIEFS
RELUCTANTLY SIGN
THE MODIFIED TREATY.
THEY BELIEVE THEY ARE
SECURING THEIR FUTURE,
ENSURING THE PENINSULA -
AND FISHERY -
FOREVER STAY
IN SAUGEEN HANDS.
BOND HEAD'S CONCEPT
OF "FOREVER."
TURNS OUT TO BE
PRETTY SHORT.
SOON AFTER THE TREATY
IS SIGNED,
THE OJIBWAY APPEAL
TO BOND HEAD
TO REMOVE THE OVER-EXPLOITING
HURON FISHING COMPANY
FROM THEIR TERRITORY.
HE REFUSES TO DO SO.
THE OJIBWAY GET A BREAK
WHEN THE HURON FISHING COMPANY
STARTS TO FLOUNDER.
THE COMPANY'S PLANS TO RAISE
CAPITAL FOR A BIG EXPANSION
FAIL,
AND THE COMPANY
CEASES OPERATIONS IN 1840.

(music plays)

The narrator says WITH THE HURON
FISHING COMPANY GONE,
THE OJIBWAY CAN
MANAGE THE FISHERY
ON THEIR OWN TERMS,
JUST LIKE BOND HEAD
PROMISED IN HIS TREATY.

An actor impersonating William Cayley says GENTLEMEN,
LET'S GET RIGHT TO IT.

The narrator says WILLIAM CAYLEY HAS OTHER IDEAS.
THE PROMINENT BUSINESSMAN
AND LAWYER
PURCHASES THE ASSETS OF
THE HURON FISHING COMPANY,
AND STARTS FISHING -
WITHOUT THE PERMISSION
OF THE OJIBWAY.
BOTH THE GOVERNMENT
AND THE OJIBWAY
REFUSE TO ACKNOWLEDGE
CAYLEY'S RIGHT TO FISH,
BUT THE GOVERNMENT
ALSO REFUSES
TO DO ANYTHING
TO REMOVE HIM.
SO, IN THE FALL OF 1843,
THE OJIBWAY TAKE MATTERS
INTO THEIR OWN HANDS.

One of the chiefs says YOU WILL GATHER
YOUR THINGS
AND YOU WILL LEAVE -
NOW.

Cayley says LET'S GO, BOYS.

The narrator says CAYLEY IS REMOVED
FROM THE FISHING ISLANDS.
THE OJIBWAY
MAKE AN AGREEMENT
WITH SOME EUROPEAN
FISHERMEN THEY TRUST
AND HELP THEM GET SET UP
ON THE ISLANDS.
BUT CAYLEY'S MEN
SOON RETURN
AND FORCE THE OJIBWAY-SANCTIONED
FISHERMEN TO LEAVE.

The narrator says THE OJIBWAY ARE OUTRAGED.
CHIEF METIGWAB TRAVELS
TO KINGSTON WITH A PETITION
DEMANDING THE GOVERNMENT
TAKE MEASURES
TO RECOGNIZE THEIR RIGHTS
TO THE FISHING ISLANDS.
HE MEETS WITH THE SUPERINTENDENT
OF INDIAN AFFAIRS,
SAMUEL PETERS JARVIS.
JARVIS REVIEWS THE MATTER
AND AGREES
THAT CHIEF METIGWAB'S
CLAIMS ARE JUST.

Jarvis says WOULD YOU BE WILLING
TO TALK TO CAYLEY
DIRECTLY ABOUT THIS?

The narrator says BUT INSTEAD OF
KICKING CAYLEY OFF THE ISLANDS,
JARVIS CONVINCES CAYLEY
AND THE OJIBWAY CHIEFS
TO MEET AND TRY TO
COME TO AN AGREEMENT.

The narrator says THE OJIBWAY RELUCTANTLY AGREE
TO GIVE CAYLEY A LICENSE,
BELIEVING THAT HIS
WEALTH AND INFLUENCE
WILL DISCOURAGE OTHERS FROM
OVER-EXPLOITING THE FISHERY.

Jarvis says THANK YOU.

The narrator says DESPITE THE AGREEMENT
WITH CAYLEY,
THE OJIBWAY CHIEFS
ARE NERVOUS.
MORE AND MORE
EUROPEAN FISHERMEN
ARE TRYING TO FISH
IN THEIR TERRITORY.
EUROPEAN AGRICULTURAL SETTLEMENT
IS INCHING EVER CLOSER
TO THE PENINSULA.
THEY NO LONGER TRUST
BOND HEAD'S PROMISE
THAT THE PENINSULA WILL BE
PROTECTED AS THEIRS FOREVER.
THE OJIBWAY DECIDE TO GO
OVER THE HEAD
OF THE COLONIAL GOVERNMENT
AND PETITION
QUEEN VICTORIA DIRECTLY
TO UPHOLD THE COVENANT
CHAIN OF FRIENDSHIP
BETWEEN THE TWO NATIONS.

Vernon says IT'S VERY SIMPLE.
BECAUSE THE EARS
IN UPPER CANADA
WERE DEAF,
THEY HAD TO GO TO
THE QUEEN IN ENGLAND
TO HEAR THEIR VOICE
AT THAT LEVEL.

The narrator says THE COLONIAL
GOVERNMENT IN UPPER CANADA
IS FURIOUS.
THE INDIAN DEPARTMENT AGENT
ASSIGNED TO THE SAUGEEN,
THOMAS GUMMERSALL ANDERSON,
TELLS THE OJIBWAY:

Anderson says YOU MUST STOP
GATHERING IN GENERAL COUNCIL,
AND ALL LETTERS
MUST GO THROUGH ME!

The narrator says BUT IN 1847,
QUEEN VICTORIA
SIGNS A DECLARATION
IN FAVOUR OF THE OJIBWAY:

Queen Victoria says IT IS OUR
ROYAL WILL AND PLEASURE
THAT THE SAID
OJIBWAY INDIANS
AND THEIR POSTERITY
FOR EVER SHALL
POSSESS AND ENJOY
AND AT ALL TIMES HEREAFTER
CONTINUE TO POSSESS
AND ENJOY
THE TRACT OF LAND
DESCRIBED ABOVE.

The narrator says THE TRACT OF LAND
DESCRIBED IN THE DECLARATION
INCLUDES ALL OF THE ISLANDS
WITHIN SEVEN MILES
OF THE PENINSULA -
CLEARLY INDICATING
THE OJIBWAY ARE THE OWNERS
OF THE FISHING ISLANDS.
FOR THE OJIBWAY,
THE DECLARATION
IS A MAJOR VICTORY.

A group of Ojibway chiefs read the declaration, smile and hug.

[ALL SPEAKING OJIBWE
AND LAUGHING]

John says THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT
WOULD HAVE NOT BEEN HAPPY
TO BE CUT OUT OF THIS,
BECAUSE THEIR ABILITY
TO ACQUIRE
ANISHINABE LAND
AND RESOURCES
WOULD BE ATTENUATED,
WHICH WAS THE CROWN'S PURPOSE,
BUT PEOPLE ON THE GROUND
WEREN'T ALWAYS HAPPY WITH
THE CROWN PROCEEDING
IN THAT WAY.

The narrator says BUOYED BY
THE QUEEN'S DECLARATION,
THE OJIBWAY TRY
TO RE-ESTABLISH CONTROL
OF THEIR FISHING GROUNDS.
WITH CAYLEY GOING BANKRUPT
IN 1848,
THE OJIBWAY DECIDE
TO SET UP
THEIR OWN PERMANENT
COMMERCIAL FISHING OPERATION
ON THE ISLANDS.
IN 1850, CHIEF METIGWAB
WRITES TO THE GOVERNMENT:

Chief Metigwab says AT A COUNCIL HELD
BY THE CHIEFS AND WARRIORS
OF SAUGEEN,
IT WAS UNANIMOUSLY AGREED
THAT FOR THE BENEFIT
OF THE TRIBE
IT IS NECESSARY THAT
WE RE-OBTAIN POSSESSION
OF OUR FISHING ISLANDS
AS THE PROCEEDS
OF THE FISHERIES
WOULD BE FAR IN ADVANCE
OF THE AMOUNT
PAID FOR THEM
WHEN RENTED BY
OUR WHITE FRIENDS.
WE ARE NOW IN POSSESSION
OF THE MEANS
FOR CARRYING ON THE BUSINESS
WITH SUCCESS:
WE HAVE YOUNG MEN
IN OUR TRIBE
WHO HAVE LEARNED
THE SKILL OF COOPERING
AND WE CAN THUS BE
SUPPLIED WITH BARRELS
WITHOUT ANY
ADDITIONAL EXPENSE.

The narrator says THE OJIBWAY FISHING COMPANY
ENJOYS SOME SUCCESS.
BUT BY THE EARLY 1850S,
IT IS BECOMING CLEAR
THAT EVEN A DECLARATION
SIGNED BY QUEEN VICTORIA
CAN'T PROTECT
THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY
FROM EUROPEAN ENCROACHMENT
ON SAUGEEN LANDS AND WATERS.
THE GOVERNMENT DECIDES
TO GRANT FISHING LICENSES
ON BEHALF OF THE OJIBWAY -
WITHOUT THEIR KNOWLEDGE
OR CONSENT.
ALTHOUGH THIS IS
IN CONTRAVENTION
OF TREATY 45 AND A HALF
AND THE QUEEN'S DECLARATION,
THE INDIAN DEPARTMENT
TELLS THE CHIEFS,
"IT IS FOR YOUR OWN GOOD."
THE COLONIAL GOVERNMENT
ALSO BELIEVES IT'S
IN THE BEST INTEREST
OF THE SAUGEEN
FOR THEM TO SELL
THEIR PENINSULA
TO MAKE WAY
FOR EUROPEAN SETTLERS.
THE FIRST PERSON TO TRY
TO GET A NEW TREATY
SIGNED WITH THE SAUGEEN
IS THOMAS GUMMERSALL
ANDERSON,
A VETERAN INDIAN
DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE
ONCE STATIONED
ON MANITOULIN ISLAND.

Anderson says I TOOK OCCASION
TO REPRESENT TO THEM
THE EVIL AND FOLLY
OF KEEPING SO MUCH
WILD LAND
WHICH ONLY SERVED
AS A HARBOUR
FOR MOSQUITOES AND SNAKES
WITHOUT YIELDING
TO THE OWNERS
ONE PENNY OF PROFIT!
THEY DID NOT ADVANCE
ONE GOOD ARGUMENT
WHY THE RESERVE
SHOULD NOT BE SOLD
BEYOND, 'WE DON'T WANT
TO SELL OUR LAND,
WE WANT TO KEEP IT
FOR OUR CHILDREN.'

The narrator says ANDERSON'S BOSS,
THE NEWLY APPOINTED
SUPERINTENDENT GENERAL
OF INDIAN AFFAIRS,
LAWRENCE OLIPHANT,
IS NOT IMPRESSED
BY ANDERSON'S INABILITY
TO GET THE SAUGEEN
TO SIGN A TREATY.
SO, IN OCTOBER OF 1854,
OLIPHANT TRAVELS
TO THE SAUGEEN PENINSULA
TO TAKE MATTERS
INTO HIS OWN HANDS.
OLIPHANT IS
THE 25-YEAR-OLD SON
OF A HIGH-RANKING
BRITISH OFFICIAL.
HE IS ESSENTIALLY
A TRAVEL WRITER,
WITH LIMITED KNOWLEDGE
OF THE OFFICIAL
TREATY PROCESS.
CHEERS.
WHEN HE ARRIVES
AT THE SAUGEEN RIVER,
HE FINDS THE CHIEFS
AWAY AT THEIR FISHING GROUNDS.
HE CALLS FOR REPRESENTATIVES
FROM THROUGHOUT
THE SAUGEEN PENINSULA
TO JOIN HIM IN COUNCIL.
CHIEF ALEXANDER MADWAYOSH
IS AMONG THE FIRST
TO ARRIVE.
MADWAYOSH HAD SIGNED
BOND HEAD'S TREATY

Chief Madwayosh says 18 YEARS BEFORE.
I WILL NOT SIGN.

The narrator says HE IS NOT
ABOUT TO SIGN ANOTHER.

Oliphant speak to the chiefs and says THANK YOU.
ESTEEMED CHIEFS,
THE TIME HAS COME
TO NEGOTIATE A NEW TREATY.

The narrator says OLIPHANT TELLS THE CHIEFS
THE CROWN CAN NO LONGER
PROTECT THEIR LANDS
FROM SQUATTERS.
HE PROMISES
THEY WILL BE MADE RICH
BY THE SALE OF THEIR LANDS,
ABLE TO BUILD SCHOOLS
AND BUY FARM EQUIPMENT
FOR THEIR COMMUNITIES.

Madwayosh says MY BROTHERS,
MY SISTERS,
I SIGNED THE BOND HEAD TREATY
18 YEARS AGO.
AFTER SO MANY
BROKEN PROMISES,
I LOATHE TO SIGN ANOTHER.
BUT I FEAR WE ARE
LOSING OPTIONS
FOR OUR PEOPLE.

The narrator says AFTER SIX HOURS
OF DELIBERATIONS,
TREATY 72 IS SIGNED.
CHIEF MADWAYOSH
IS THE BIGGEST DETRACTOR,
BUT EVEN HE SIGNS
EVENTUALLY.
THE OJIBWAY RETAIN
FIVE SMALL RESERVES,
TOTALLING ABOUT
45,000 ACRES.
THE OTHER 450,000 ACRES
ARE TO BE SOLD
FOR THEIR BENEFIT.

An animated map shows the division of the territory under Treaty 72.

Vernon says SAUGEEN PENINSULA
WAS SURRENDERED FOR SALE
OF THOSE LOTS,
BUT IT DID NOT SELL
ABORIGINAL RIGHTS
TO SUSTAIN OURSELVES.

The caption changes to "Randall Kahgee. Legal Advisor and Former Chief, Saugeen Ojibway Nation."

Randall is in his late forties, clean-shaven and with short graying hair. He wears a white shirt.

Randall says TYPICALLY, HISTORY
TRIES TO TAKE
A VERY IMPOVERISHED VIEW
OF THE TREATIES,
THAT THEY WERE ONLY MEANT
TO BE LAND SURRENDERS,
BUT THAT'S NOT
THE CASE AT ALL.
WE LOOK AT IT IN
A COMPLETELY
DIFFERENT CONTEXT,
THAT THESE TREATIES
WERE FUNDAMENTALLY
ABOUT SHARING AND PROTECTING
WHAT MATTERED MOST TO US.
AND FIRST AND FOREMOST
WAS MAINTAINING
THAT RELATIONSHIP
TO THAT TERRITORY
AND MAKING SURE THAT
WE WOULD BE ABLE TO CONTINUE
TO HAVE THAT RELATIONSHIP.

The narrator says ONE THING IS CLEAR
FROM THE LAST LINE
OF TREATY 72:
"IT IS UNDERSTOOD
THAT NO ISLANDS
ARE INCLUDED
IN THIS SURRENDER."
DESPITE SIGNIFICANT PRESSURE
FROM THE COLONIAL GOVERNMENT,
THE OJIBWAY CHIEFS
HAVE ONCE AGAIN
ENSURED THAT THE FISHERY -
THEIR PRIMARY SOURCE
OF SUSTENANCE AND INCOME -
IS STILL THEIRS.
IN FACT, IT IS NOW PROTECTED
BY TWO TREATIES
AND ONE ROYAL DECLARATION
SIGNED BY QUEEN VICTORIA.
THAT IS NOT ENOUGH
FOR THE COLONIAL GOVERNMENT.
IN 1856,
IN AN ATTEMPT TO CONTROL
COMMERCIAL FISHING
ON THE GREAT LAKES,
THE GOVERNMENT CREATES
THE FISHERIES ACT.
THE ACT TRIES TO REGULATE
COMMERCIAL FISHING
BY CREATING
A SYSTEM OF LEASES
TO BE BID ON
BY FISHERMEN.
WILLIAM GIBBARD IS APPOINTED
FISHERIES OVERSEER.
HIS JOB IS TO SOLICIT BIDS
FROM FISHERMEN
WANTING TO FISH
IN THE REGION.
WHEN THE OJIBWAY REALIZE
THEY ARE ABOUT TO BE CUT OFF
FROM THEIR OWN ISLANDS,
THEY TRY TO BID
FOR THE RIGHT TO FISH
FROM THEIR OWN PROPERTY.

Chief Madwayosh walks in Gibbard's office.

Gibbard says AH, CHIEF,
WHAT BRINGS YOU IN HERE?

Madwayosh says THE COUNCIL HAS PREPARED
A BID FOR A FISHING LEASE.

Gibbard says THANK YOU, CHIEF.
WE'LL LOOK OVER THIS
AND GET BACK TO YOU SOON.

The narrator says THEIR OFFER IS REJECTED.
SIX LEASES ARE GRANTED
FOR THE FISHING ISLANDS -
NONE TO THE OJIBWAY.
THE GOVERNMENT'S ATTEMPT
TO MANAGE THE SAUGEEN FISHERY
IS A DISASTER.
IN 1861,
FIVE YEARS AFTER
THE GOVERNMENT TOOK CONTROL,
GIBBARD ADMITS THAT
OVER 90 PERCENT OF THE FISH
ARE GONE.
THE OJIBWAYS' FEARS
OF THE IMPACTS OF OVER-FISHING
ARE SOON REALIZED:
ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS,
THEY ARE FORCED
TO ASK THE GOVERNMENT
FOR EMERGENCY PROVISIONS
TO PREVENT STARVATION.
MEANWHILE, BACK ON LAND,
MORE TROUBLE IS BREWING.
SHORTLY AFTER
TREATY 72 IS SIGNED,
THE GOVERNMENT
SENDS SURVEYORS
TO DIVIDE UP THE
SAUGEEN PENINSULA FOR SALE.
BUT THE SURVEYORS
MAKE A MISTAKE:
THEY START SURVEYING
INSIDE THE REMAINING
SAUGEEN RESERVE.
IF THIS PIECE OF LAND
WERE SOLD,
IT WOULD CUT
THE SAUGEEN VILLAGE OFF
FROM LAKE HURON.

A group of Ojibway people approach the surveyors.

[SPEAKING OJIBWE]

The narrator says THE OJIBWAY ARE FURIOUS.
THEY KICK THE SURVEYORS
OFF THEIR RESERVE.
A DELEGATION OF CHIEFS
THEN TRAVELS SOME
900 KILOMETRES TO QUEBEC
TO MEET WITH THE SUPERINTENDENT
GENERAL OF INDIAN AFFAIRS,
LORD BURY.

[KNOCKING AT DOOR]

A man walks in Lord Bury's office and says MY LORD, A DELEGATION
OF CHIEFS HAVE ARRIVED
FROM THE SAUGEEN PENINSULA.

The narrator says HE REFUSES TO MEET WITH THEM.

The man says VERY WELL.

The narrator says LORD BURY'S SNUB
GREATLY ANGERS THE OJIBWAY.
THE EUROPEAN SETTLERS
IN OWEN SOUND
FEAR VIOLENCE COULD BREAK OUT
AT ANY MOMENT.

The man knocks on Bury's office door again.

The narrator says WHEN LORD BURY HEARS OF
THE POTENTIAL FOR HOSTILITIES,
HE REALIZES HIS MISTAKE
AND LEAVES IMMEDIATELY TO MEET
WITH THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY.
AT FIRST, THE CHIEFS REFUSE
TO MEET WITH HIM IN PROTEST.
BUT EVENTUALLY,
A GRAND COUNCIL IS CALLED
AT "FLOOD WOOD CROSSING."
NEAR PRESENT-DAY ALLENFORD.
[DRUMMING AND CHANTING]

The narrator says AN ACCOUNT OF THIS GATHERING
IS RECORDED YEARS LATER
BY A GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL:

A government official says A POW-WOW WAS HELD
IN FULL INDIAN STYLE,
COMMENCING WITH A FEAST.
AFTER THIS,
CAPTAIN TG ANDERSON
BEGAN DANCING IN A CIRCLE
AROUND THE COUNCIL FIRE.
THE CONFERENCE BEGAN,
AND A PIPE OF PEACE
WAS SMOKED BY EVERYONE.

[DRUMMING AND CHANTING
FADES OUT]

The narrator says LORD BURY AGREES
THE DISPUTED LAND
BELONGS TO THE OJIBWAY.
THE SURVEYORS ARE ALLOWED
TO CONTINUE
THEIR WORK ELSEWHERE,
AND PEACE RETURNS
TO THE REGION.
BUT IT SOON BECOMES APPARENT
THAT TREATY 72 ISN'T ENOUGH
TO SATISFY THE DESIRE FOR LAND
BY EUROPEAN SETTLERS.
THE GOVERNMENT
PRESSES THE OJIBWAY
TO GIVE UP THEIR RICH
AGRICULTURAL LAND
NEAR OWEN SOUND
AND MOVE TO CAPE CROKER,
KNOWN TODAY AS
NEYAASHIINIGMIING.
FROM THEIR NEW COMMUNITY,
THE CHIEFS AGAIN PETITION
QUEEN VICTORIA:

Chief Metigwab says IF WE COULD ONLY HAVE
THE SOLE MANAGEMENT
OF OUR LANDS,
OUR FISHERIES,
OUR HUNTING, OUR TIMBERS,
OUR MONIES,
WE WOULD BE SATISFIED.
WE DO NOT SEE WHY
WE CANNOT BE ABLE TO DO SO,
WHILE WE HAVE PERSONS
OF OUR OWN BLOOD
WHO CAN DO ALL THIS,
IN ANY RESPECT,
EXACTLY THE SAME
AS A WHITE MAN.

(music plays)

The narrator says COLONIZATION WOULD CONTINUE
TO CHANGE THE WORLD
AROUND THEM,
BUT OVER THE NEXT
150 YEARS,
THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY
NEVER GIVE UP FIGHTING
TO HAVE THEIR
FISHING RIGHTS RECOGNIZED.

John says WHAT YOU FIND IS MEN AND WOMEN
WITHIN THE COMMUNITY
BEING VERY RESOLUTE,
RESILIENT, ACTIVIST
IN INSISTING THAT
THEY HAVE THAT RIGHT
TO BE ABLE TO CONTINUE
TO ABIDE BY THE TREATY,
AND SO PEOPLE GO OUT AND FISH,
AND THEY GET CHARGED.

The caption changes to "Howard Jones. Former Chief, Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation."

Howard is in his sixties, with short wavy white hair and wears glasses, a striped green, blue and yellow shirt and suspenders.

Howard says IT WAS SO SAD
FOR SO MANY YEARS HERE
TO SEE SOME OF OUR OLDER PEOPLE
AND OUR OLDER FISHERMEN
HAVE TO BE MADE TO STAND
IN A COURTROOM
JUST BECAUSE THE JUDGE
WANTED TO DISCIPLINE PEOPLE.
IT WAS TOTALLY AND
ABSOLUTELY APPALLING.

The narrator says IN 1991,
WHEN CHIEF HOWARD JONES AND
FISHERMAN FRANCIS NADJIWON
ARE CHARGED WITH FISHING
OVER THE TINY QUOTA
IMPOSED ON THEM BY
THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT,
THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY DECIDE
TO FIGHT THE CHARGES IN COURT.

The caption changes to "Greg Nadjiwon. Chief, Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First nation."

Greg is in his sixties, with long wavy gray hair in a ponytail and wears a gray shirt and a beaded necklace.

Greg says I WAS ALWAYS WORRIED,
"WHAT ARE WE GETTING INTO?
HAVE WE BITTEN OFF
A LITTLE BIT TOO MUCH?"
AND THEN I'D BE
REINVIGORATED
READING THE HISTORY,
AND SITTING WITH THE OTHERS,
AND SHARING THE INFORMATION.

The narrator says AFTER AN EXHAUSTIVE
REVIEW OF THE HISTORY -
INCLUDING THE TREATIES
AND PROCLAMATIONS -
JUDGE FAIRGRIEVE FINDS
JONES AND NADJIWON NOT GUILTY.
THE QUOTAS IMPOSED
ON THE OJIBWAY WERE UNLAWFUL.
THEY HAD NEVER GIVEN UP
THE RIGHTS TO THEIR FISHERY.

Greg says WHEN I LEFT THAT COURTROOM,
THAT IS THE CLOSEST
I EVER CAME TO FLOATING.
GROWN MEN HUGGING EACH OTHER,
HUGGING OUR LAWYER,
COMMUNITY MEMBERS.
IT WAS A BIG WIN,
AND WE KNEW IT.

Howard says IT WAS REVOLUTIONARY.
I CAN REMEMBER
WALKING ONTO THE DOCK
AND SEEING HOW
AMAZING THIS IS
TO SEE MY PEOPLE AGAIN
THAT HAVE A PURPOSE
BECAUSE THEY NOW
HAVE SOMETHING
THAT IS THEIRS,
THEIR OWN.
THEY COULD GO OUT
AND MAKE A LIVING
FROM DOING SOMETHING
THAT THEY LOVED.
IT WAS VERY, VERY
UPLIFTING TO ME.

The caption changes to "Francis Lavalley. Fisherman, Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation."

Francis is in his forties, clean-shaven and with short brown hair. He wears sunglasses, a black T-shirt and a gray hat.

Francis says A LOT OF THINGS
THAT HAVE BEEN DONE TO US
IS WRONG,
AND I SEE THIS AS
JUST A FRAGMENT OF RIGHT.
MY DAD WAS A FISHERMAN,
HIS DAD WAS A FISHERMAN,
AND EVER SINCE
I COULD PULL AN OAR
AND HELP THE OLD MAN OUT,
THAT'S WHAT I WAS DOING,
WAS HELPING HIM.
IT'S JUST IN MY BLOOD,
I GUESS.
I THINK MY FOREFATHERS
HAD VERY GOOD FORESIGHT
TO SEE THAT
IT WAS SOMETHING THAT
WE NEEDED TO KEEP.
AND THEY FOUGHT HARD,
SO I THINK THEY WERE
VERY SMART PEOPLE.

The narrator says TODAY, THE SAUGEEN OJIBWAY
ARE ONCE AGAIN THE OWNERS
OF THE COMMERCIAL FISHERY
AROUND THE SAUGEEN PENINSULA.
THE OJIBWAY CO-MANAGE
THE FISHERY
WITH THE ONTARIO GOVERNMENT,
USING TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE
AND WESTERN SCIENCE
TO SUSTAIN THEMSELVES -
AND THEIR RELATIVES,
THE FISH -
FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS.

Music plays as the end credits roll.

Director and writer, Zach Melnick.

A caption reads "Major funding for this series has been provided by the Ontario Trillium Foundation, the Bruce County and Bruce Power."

Produced in association with TVO.

The caption changes to "This series is part of the Ontario Visual Heritage Project. Visit thebrucemovie.ca to learn more."

Copyright 2018, Living History Multimedia Association.

Watch: Ep. 1 - The Fishing Chiefs