Transcript: Ep. 5 - Crossrail - UK | Mar 13, 2019

(music plays)

Fast clips show images of massive modern engineering structures around the world.

The narrator says FROM THE PLANET'S
MOST STUNNING STATE-OF-THE-ART
STRUCTURES...

A man standing next to a huge steel dish-like structure says IT'S ASTOUNDING
THIS HUGE DISH WAS ABLE TO BE
CONSTRUCTED.

A man says THE FAST TELESCOPE
IS THE LARGEST EVER BUILT.

The narrator says TO ITS MIGHTIEST
MODERN MACHINES...

A ship captain says WE'RE THE
LARGEST, THE HEAVIEST VESSEL
IN THE WORLD.

The narrator says NONE WOULD'VE
BEEN POSSIBLE WITHOUT THE
GROUNDBREAKING INNOVATORS OF
THE PAST.

[whistle blowing]

A man blows the whistle on a steam log hauler and says WHAT AN
AMAZING MACHINE, INCREDIBLE.

A woman drives a vintage car and THIS IS A TRUE
ICON OF FRENCH MOTORING, A
THING OF ABSOLUTE BEAUTY.

A woman stands in front of a vessel-shaped floating gate and IT REALLY IS
MASSIVE.
I'M REALLY EXCITED.
[chuckling]

The narrator says IN THIS EPISODE...
AN INCREDIBLE RAIL NETWORK
DRIVEN THROUGH LONDON'S
HISTORIC HEART.

A woman in safety gear says THE NEW
CROSSRAIL TRAINS WILL CARRY
200 MILLION PASSENGERS IN AND
OUT OF LONDON EVERY YEAR.
IT'S VERY EXCITING.

The narrator says PUSHING URBAN
CONSTRUCTION TO ITS LIMITS.

A man in safety gear says THESE MACHINES
ALLOW YOU TO PUMP 60 TONS AN
HOUR.
IT'S QUITE AN ART TO SEE.

The narrator says AND THE INNOVATIVE
PIONEERS OF THE PAST...

On a rafting boat, a man says IT'S AMAZING
THAT THEY'RE ABLE TO BUILD THIS
BRIDGE IN THIS TORRENT.
AHHH!
[whistle blowing]

On a vintage train, says I LOVE THE
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION.

The narrator says THAT MADE THE
IMPOSSIBLE POSSIBLE.

(music plays)

The title slate appears. It looks like a piece of graphing paper full of equations and sketches of an airplane, skyscraper, and monorail. The title reads "Impossible Engineering."

The narrator says LONDON, ONE OF
THE WORLD'S MOST POPULATED AND
DENSELY BUILT MEGA CITIES.
THIS MIGHTY METROPOLIS COVERS
AN AREA OF NEARLY 1600 SQUARE
KILOMETRES.
BUT NOW HOME TO ALMOST
9 MILLION PEOPLE WITH A
FURTHER 31 MILLION VISITORS
EACH YEAR, THIS COSMOPOLITAN
CAPITAL IS GRINDING TO A HALT.

Fast clips show images of traffic jams and overcrowded streets.

[horns honking]

The narrator says IT'S A PROBLEM THAT ENGINEER
AND COMMUTER CAMILLA BARROW
EXPERIENCES EVERY DAY.

A caption reads "Camilla Barrow. Deputy Project Manager."

Camilla is in her thirties, with long straight brown hair in a bun. She wears an orange safety overall.

Camilla says LONDON'S
A FANTASTIC PLACE TO LIVE.
EVERYONE WANTS TO BE HERE.
THERE'S A LOT GOING ON.
HOWEVER, CATERING FOR THESE
PEOPLE IN TERMS OF
TRANSPORTATION IS CRITICAL AND,
AS YOU CAN SEE RIGHT NOW, IT'S
BURSTING AT THE SEAMS.

The narrator says EVERY DAY MORE
THAN 11 MILLION JOURNEYS ARE
MADE ON LONDON'S TRANSPORT
NETWORK.
INCLUDING 3.5 MILLION ON
THE LONDON UNDERGROUND ALONE.

Camilla says THE CURRENT
LONDON UNDERGROUND IS ABOUT
150 YEARS OLD, AND IT'S A
FANTASTIC SYSTEM AND CATERS
FOR A LARGE CAPACITY.
HOWEVER IT WAS NEVER
ANTICIPATED THAT IT WOULD
CATER FOR THIS AMOUNT OF
PEOPLE.

The narrator says TO SOLVE THIS
SEEMINGLY INSURMOUNTABLE
PROBLEM ENGINEERS HAVE EMBARKED
UPON EUROPE'S BIGGEST
CONSTRUCTION PROJECT.
10,000 WORKERS SPREAD ACROSS
40 DIFFERENT CONSTRUCTION
SITES ARE CREATING A BRAND
NEW RAIL NETWORK STRAIGHT
THROUGH THE CAPITAL'S HEART.
FOR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE
MICHAEL BRYANT THIS PROJECT
PRESENTS A SERIES OF COMPLEX
CHALLENGES.

The caption changes to "Michael Bryant. Operations Executive."

Michael is in his fifties, with short wavy brown hair and wears jeans, a blue shirt, a neon yellow safety jacket and a safety vest.

Michael says LONDON'S
INFRASTRUCTURE IS 300 YEARS
OLD, AND UNDERNEATH LONDON
IS A VERITABLE LABYRINTH OF
TUNNELS FOR ALL SORTS OF
PURPOSES.
IT LITERALLY LOOKS LIKE A HAIR
NET THAT'S BEEN SCREWED UP.
IT'S EXTREMELY COMPLEX.
LOTS OF THE BUILDINGS NOW,
PARTICULARLY THE LARGE
BUILDINGS LIKE THE SHARD,
HAVE PILES THAT GO DOWN
TWENTY, THIRTY OR EVEN FORTY
METRES DOWN INTO THE CHALK
LEVEL SO IT REALLY IS LIKE,
LIKE THREADING A NEEDLE.

The narrator says STRETCHING 118
KILOMETRES, THE NETWORK WILL
PASS THROUGH 40 STATIONS FROM
READING AND HEATHROW IN THE
WEST TO SHENFIELD AND ABBY
WOOD IN THE EAST.
FEATURING AN ASTONISHING
42 KILOMETRES OF FRESHLY DUG
TUNNELS INTRICATELY WOVEN
THROUGH THE EXISTING
UNDERGROUND RAIL SYSTEM AND
DEEP BUILDING FOUNDATIONS OF
THIS COMPLEX SUBTERRANEAN
WORLD.
IN 2012, 8 GIGANTIC 1000-TON
TUNNEL BORING MACHINES
OPERATING 24 HOURS A DAY
7 DAYS A WEEK BEGIN CREATING
THIS NEW NETWORK.

Camilla says RIGHT NOW
CROSSRAIL IS A MEGA PROJECT.
ITS VERY COMPLEX.
IT'S COSTING APPROXIMATELY
15 BILLION POUNDS.

Michael says IT'S PROBABLY
THE TYPE OF CHALLENGE THAT A
CIVIL ENGINEER WOULD DREAM OF
THROUGH MOST OF HIS OR HER
CAREER.

The narrator says AND NOT ONLY DO
THESE ENGINEERS NEED TO FIND
ROOM FOR 42 KILOMETRES OF NEW
TUNNELS BUT ALSO CREATE SPACE
TO ACCOMMODATE 10 BRAND NEW
STATIONS.
THE MOST VITAL OF ALL WILL
SERVE ONE OF THE WORLD'S
LEADING FINICAL DISTRICTS...
CANARY WHARF.

Michael says ONE OF THE
BIGGEST PROBLEMS WHEN WE WANTED
TO BRING CROSSRAIL TO CANARY
WHARF WAS FINDING THE SPACE TO
DO IT.
ALL OF THE LAND IS FULL, AS YOU
CAN SEE UP THERE, SO THE ONLY
PLACE TO DO IT WAS IN THE
WATER.
THE CHALLENGE WAS TO DELIVER
A CONCRETE BOX 28 METRES BELOW
WATER LEVEL.
THE OPTION OF FAILURE JUST DID
NOT EXIST.

The narrator says SO HOW DO YOU
CREATE A BRAND NEW STATION
DEEP IN THE WATER OF THE
RIVER THAMES?
TO REALIZE THAT SEEMINGLY
IMPOSSIBLE CHALLENGE ENGINEERS
WOULD TAKE INSPIRATION FROM
SOME OF THE GREATEST
INNOVATORS OF THE PAST.

(music plays)

The narrator says TRAVELLING ALONG ROME'S
RIVER TIBER PROFESSOR RHYS
MORGAN IS IN SEARCH OF AN
ANCIENT STRUCTURE THAT HAS
WITHSTOOD THE POWER OF NATURE
FOR MILLENNIA.

Rhys is in his forties and wears jeans, a blue shirt, a life vest and a hard hat.

On a rafting boat, Rhys says OH, WOW.
IT'S AMAZING THAT THEY'RE ABLE
TO BUILD THIS BRIDGE THOUSANDS
OF YEARS AGO IN THIS TORRENT.
AHH!

The narrator says CONSTRUCTED IN
62 BC, THE PONS FABRICIUS,
THE OLDEST ROMAN BRIDGE
STILL STANDING.

Rhys says OH, WOW, THAT
WAS FANTASTIC!
I'M TOTALLY SOAKED.
THAT'S A REAL STRONG CURRENT
THERE.
THE FOUNDATIONS MUST BE
EXTRAORDINARY TO DEAL WITH
THAT RIVER.

The narrator says THOUSANDS OF
FLOODS, EARTHQUAKES, COUNTLESS
WARS AND MILLIONS AND MILLIONS
OF HORSES, CARRIAGES AND PEOPLE
HAVE ALL PUT PRESSURE ON THE
FOUNDATIONS OF THIS BRIDGE BUT
STILL IT ENDURES.
IT WAS COMMISSIONED BY
LUCIUS FABRICIUS THE CURATOR
OF ROADS.
AFTER THE PREVIOUS WOODEN
BRIDGE HAD BURNT DOWN.

The caption changes to "Doctor Rhys Morgan. Director of Education. Royal Academy of Engineering."

Rhys says THE VERY CORE
OF THE BRIDGE THE FOUNDATION IN
THE CENTRE IS WHERE THE CLEVER
BIT HAPPENED ALMOST 2000 YEARS
AGO.
UNABLE TO SIMPLY STOP THE
RIVER AND DRAIN THE WATER OUT
SO THEY HAD A DRY ENVIRONMENT
TO BUILD ON, THE ROMAN ENGINEERS
HAD TO COME UP WITH A
REVOLUTIONARY METHOD OF
BUILDING WHILE THE WATER WAS
IN FULL FLOW.

The narrator says WHAT THEY DESIGNED
WAS INGENIOUS.
IT'S KNOWN AS A COFFERDAM.

Rhys demonstrates putting two concentric rings made out of pencils inside a water tank.

Rhys says THE COFFERDAM
FIRST REQUIRED A RING OF TIMBER
PILES THAT WERE BOUND TOGETHER
DRIVEN INTO THE RIVER BED.
A SECOND LARGER DIAMETER PILE
OF POSTS WAS THEN ADDED TO
ENCIRCLE THE FIRST.
THE GAPS BETWEEN THE PILES
WOULD BE FILED WITH CLAY TO
WATERPROOF THE CENTRAL
ENCLOSURE.
SO THEY HAD TO PACK THE CLAY
ALL AROUND REALLY DENSELY AND
THEN WHEN THEY WERE HAPPY,
THEY WOULD REMOVE THE WATER
FROM INSIDE THE INNER RING.

He uses the sponge to remove the water from the inner ring.

He says LOOK AT THAT.
IT'S REALLY WORKING.
AND NOW I'M DOWN TO THE
RIVER BED.
WHEN ALL THE WATER WAS REMOVED
FROM THE INNER RING THE
BUILDERS COULD START WORKING
ON THE FOUNDATIONS.
I'M GOING TO USE THIS STICK AS
THE CENTRAL PIER.
AND THERE YOU GO.
FANTASTIC.
ONCE THE FOUNDATIONS WERE
BUILT THE PIER COULD BE PUT IN
PLACE, THE COFFERDAM COULD BE
REMOVED AND THE REST OF THE
BRIDGE COULD BE BUILT AROUND
IT.
AND THERE WE ARE... ROMAN
ENGINEERING AT ITS BEST.

The narrator says THE INGENIOUS USE
OF A COFFERDAM AT THE PONS
FABRICIUS MEANS THIS 62-METRE
BRIDGE STILL STANDS AS A
TESTAMENT TO ROMAN INNOVATION.

Rhys says WHEN IT CAME TO
BUILDING SOLID STRUCTURES IN THE
WATER ROMAN ENGINEERS REALLY DID
MAKE THE IMPOSSIBLE POSSIBLE.

(music plays)

The narrator says THE ENGINEERS AT
CANARY WHARF IN LONDON TAKE THE
ROMANS' COFFERDAM AND EMPLOY
IT ON A GIGANTIC SCALE.
TO BUILD A BRAND NEW 250-METRE
LONG STATION IN WATER,
ENGINEERS DRIVE NEARLY 418.5
METRE LONG TUBULAR STEEL PILES
INTO THE DOCK FLOOR TO CREATE
A STATE OF THE ART COFFERDAM
VASTLY BIGGER THAN THAT USED
AT THE PONS FABRICIUS.
BUT CONSTRUCTING IT ISN'T
WITHOUT ITS CHALLENGES.
ESPECIALLY WHEN LEADING
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS WITH
SENSITIVE TRADING FLOORS ARE
YOUR NEIGHBOURS.

Michael says THE
TRADITIONAL METHOD OF
CREATING A COFFERDAM IS
ACTUALLY TO HAMMER STEEL
MEMBERS INTO THE GROUND.
AND AS YOU CAN IMAGINE THAT
MAKES A LOT OF NOISE, A LOT
OF VIBRATION, CREATES A LOT
OF DUST.
MAJOR DISRUPTION SO WE HAD TO
COME UP WITH SOMETHING THAT
WAS BETTER.

The narrator says THE ANSWER TO
THEIR PROBLEM IS A BRAND NEW
TECHNIQUE OF SILENT PILING.
INSTEAD OF HAMMERING THE PILES
A STATE-OF-THE-ART JAPANESE
MACHINE CALLED A GIKEN IS
USED.
WEIGHTED TO THE DOCK BED AND
USING POWERFUL HYDRAULICS, IT
SILENTLY TWISTS AND PUSHES THE
FIRST 3 PILES INTO THE GROUND.
IT THEN CRAWLS ACROSS AND
SECURES ITSELF TO THOSE PILES
USING THEM AS ANCHORS BEFORE
PUSHING IN THE NEXT ONE.
THIS PROCESS IS REPEATED UNTIL
THE COFFERDAM WALL IS
COMPLETE.

Michael says WE WENT FOR
THE FIRST 3 YEARS OF THE PROJECT
WITHOUT A SINGLE COMPLAINT FROM
ANY OF THE NEIGHBOURS.

The narrator says ONCE THE COFFERDAM
WALLS ARE IN PLACE ENGINEERS
CAN BEGIN THE MAMMOTH TASK OF
REMOVING THE WATER.

Michael says OVER THE NEXT
5 WEEKS WE PROGRESSIVELY TOOK
OUT 98 MILLION CUBIC METRES OF
WATER FROM THE COFFERDAM.
AND THAT'S EQUIVALENT TO
40 OLYMPIC SWIMMING POOLS.

The narrator says 300,000 TONS OF
MATERIAL ARE THEN EXCAVATED,
UNTIL FINALLY ENGINEERS REACH
A SOLID FOUNDATION 18 METRES
BELOW FROM WHICH TO BEGIN
CONSTRUCTION.
WHEN FULLY OPERATIONAL THIS
500 MILLION POUND STATION WILL
BE ONE OF THE LARGEST AND
BUSIEST ON THE NEW NETWORK.

Michael says SO WE HAVE
FOUR FLOORS BELOW WATER, A
FLOOR AT WATER LEVEL THAT WE
CALL 'PROMENADE', AND THEN
THERE'S TWO FLOORS ABOVE AND
THE ROOF GARDEN.

The narrator says AT MAXIMUM
CAPACITY 24 TRAINS AN HOUR
WILL CARRY A STAGGERING
68,000 PASSENGERS A DAY
ACROSS THE NETWORK QUICKER
THAN EVER BEFORE.

Michael says TO DELIVER
THIS STATION AHEAD OF TIME AND
WITHIN BUDGET IS A MONUMENTAL
ACHIEVEMENT, AND WE'RE HELPING
LONDON TAKE THE NEXT STEP
FORWARD.

The narrator says BUT CREATING THIS
MEGA STATION IS JUST PART OF
THE 15 BILLION POUND PROJECT.
TO COMPLETE THE NETWORK
ENGINEERS WILL NEED THE
INNOVATIVE TRAILBLAZERS OF
THE PAST.

Rhys says FOR CENTURIES
DIEPPE'S HAD SIGNIFICANT
MARITIME IMPORTANCE.
FRENCH EXPLORERS HAVE LEFT
HERE TO TRAVEL THE GLOBE.

The narrator says TO HELP CREATE
MORE IMPOSSIBLE ENGINEERING.

(music plays)

The narrator says DEEP BELOW THE
SURFACE OF THE UK's CAPITAL
CITY, EUROPE'S BIGGEST
CONSTRUCTION PROJECT IS
UNDERWAY.
42 KILOMETRES OF TUNNELS AND
10 BRAND NEW STATIONS THREADED
THROUGH A COMPLICATED AND BUSY
SUBTERRANEAN WORLD.

Camilla says CROSSRAIL
WILL ENABLE AN EXTRA 1.5
MILLION PEOPLE TO ENTER OR
BE WITHIN 45 MINUTES OF
CENTRAL LONDON.
IT'S A FANTASTIC PROJECT.
YOU'RE WORKING WITH SOME OF
THE TOP, TOP EXPERTISE IN THE
INDUSTRY.
IT'S VERY EXCITING.

The narrator says BUT CREATING A
COLOSSAL NEW RAILWAY ABOVE AND
BELOW ONE OF THE PLANET'S MOST
DENSELY PACKED CITIES THROWS
UP SIGNIFICANT ENGINEERING
CHALLENGES.

Camilla says THE MOST
OBVIOUS ISSUES WITH BUILDING
A PROJECT AS LARGE AS
CROSSRAIL WITHIN CENTRAL LONDON
IS WORKING AROUND THIS MASSIVE
INFRASTRUCTURE THAT'S ALREADY
IN PLACE.
YOU'VE GOT PEOPLE LIVING HERE,
PEOPLE WORKING HERE.
SO WE AIM TO REALLY MINIMIZE
THE AMOUNT OF DISRUPTION TO
THE PEOPLE, THE NOISE,
VIBRATIONS.

The narrator says CARVING OUT THIS
LABYRINTH 40 METRES UNDERGROUND
REQUIRES 8-10 MILLION POUND
SUPERSIZED TUNNEL BORING
MACHINES.
EACH 23 FEET IN DIAMETER AND
AS LONG AS 14 LONDON
DOUBLE-DECKER BUSES.
[rumbling]
FOR PROJECT MANAGER JULES BOYD
MAKING SURE LONDON'S
INFRASTRUCTURE AND RESIDENTS
REMAIN UN-IMPACTED BY THESE
ENORMOUS EXCAVATIONS ARE TOP
PRIORITIES.

The caption changes to "Jules Boyd. Project Manager."

Jules is in his forties with short red hair and a beard and wears protective gear.

Jules says ONE OF THE
CONSTRAINTS ON THE CROSSRAIL
OPERATION WHICH IS A MASSIVE
OPERATION IS TO VIRTUALLY
PASS BY UNNOTICED TO OUR
NEIGHBOURS.
THIS IS FINSBURY CIRCUS, A
LITTLE OASIS WITHIN THE CITY
OF LONDON.
THE BUILDINGS AROUND US ARE OLD,
THEY'RE SENSITIVE SOME OF THEM
ARE LISTED.

The narrator says WHEN THE TUNNELS
ARE DUG PROBLEMS CAN OCCUR AS
THE SURROUNDING EARTH RESETTLES
CAUSING CAVITIES OR SETTLEMENT
TROUGHS TO APPEAR.
IF THE SETTLEMENT TROUGH
INCREASES A BUILDING'S
FOUNDATIONS COULD SHIFT
CAUSING STRUCTURAL DAMAGE.

Jules says THIS IS A REAL
HISTORICAL CENTRE OF LONDON,
AND IT HAS TO BE PROTECTED.

The narrator says SO HOW CAN
ENGINEERS KEEP THESE ANCIENT
BUILDINGS SAFE?
IT'S A CHALLENGE THAT WOULD
REQUIRE SOME INSPIRATION FROM
THE GREAT INNOVATORS OF THE
PAST.
TUNNELLING UNDER CITIES ISN'T
NEW.
IN THE 6th CENTURY BC TO
HAVE A SUPPLY OF FRESH WATER
THAT COULDN'T BE CUT OFF BY
ENEMIES THE RESIDENTS OF THE
GREEK CITY SAMOS DUG
UNDERGROUND AQUEDUCTS.

In animation, a man at the beach says to a man caving a tunnel MUST BE GETTING THIRSTY
BY NOW.

The man gets to a fountain and says CHEERS!
[glasses clinking]

The narrator says THE SOFT VOLCANIC
ROCK BENEATH NAPLES MEANT
HUGE NETWORKS COULD BE DUG
FOR BUSINESSES, CHURCHES AND
EVEN A THEATRE WHERE EMPEROR
NERO IS SAID TO HAVE PERFORMED.

A man watching a man perform says OOH, HE'S ON FIRE TONIGHT.

The narrator says LIMESTONE MINING
UNDER PARIS CREATED TUNNELS FOR
WHAT WOULD BECOME THE WORLD
FAMOUS CATACOMBS WHERE THE
BONES OF 6 MILLION FORMER
INHABITANTS NOW RESIDE.

The skeletons try to hold the city from collapsing over them.

A skeleton says UH-OH.

Another one says HOLD ON, PUSH!

The narrator says BUT ANY CITY
EXCAVATION COMES WITH A RISK.

A third one helps and says AH, THAT IS BETTER.

On a fishing boat, Rhys sings and says FAREWELL AND
ADIEU TO YOU OLD SPANISH LADY
FAREWELL AND ADIEU TO
YOU LADIES OF SPAIN

The narrator says Dr. RHYS MORGAN
IS HEADING OFFSHORE FOR A
SEAMAN'S VIEW OF A PORT WITH
A SURPRISING HISTORY.

Rhys says THAT IS ONE
OPTIMISTIC SEAGULL.
THERE'S NOTHING FOR YOU,
MY FRIEND.
[laughing]
BEHIND ME ON THIS LOVELY
WINTER MORNING IS DIEPPE
HARBOUR ON THE NORTHERN COAST
OF FRANCE.
FOR CENTURIES IT'S HAD
SIGNIFICANT MARITIME
IMPORTANCE, FRENCH EXPLORERS
HAVE LEFT HERE TO TRAVEL THE
GLOBE, BUT SINCE ABOUT THE 11th
CENTURY ALMOST A THOUSAND
YEARS IT'S BEEN A MAJOR
FISHING PORT.

The narrator says BUT IN THE EARLY
1800s ACCESS TO THE HARBOUR
WAS UNDER THREAT.

Rhys says I'VE GOT
A COUPLE OF MAPS HERE OF THE
OLD HARBOUR, AND IT'S CHANGED
SIGNIFICANTLY OVER TIME,
BUT WHAT I'M LOOKING FOR IS
A PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT
SLUICE GATE THAT HELPED THE
BIG SHIPS COME INTO THE PORT
BEHIND ME.
IT MUST'VE BEEN JUST ABOUT
HERE BECAUSE AS I WALK AROUND
I CAN SEE FROM THE OLD
BUILDINGS WE COME TO MUCH MORE
MODERN BUILDINGS.
AND IT'S REALLY OPEN, AND I
IMAGINE IT WOULD'VE BEEN JUST
AROUND HERE.
THIS LARGE SLUICE GATE
WOULD'VE OPENED ALLOWING THE
SHIPS TO COME IN AND OUT OF
THE HARBOUR.

The narrator says THE GATE HAD BEEN
CONSTRUCTED TO STOP THE
BUILD-UP OF SILT AND PEBBLE
DEPOSITS AND WAS A VITAL TOOL
IN KEEPING THE HARBOUR
ENTRANCE CLEAR.

Rhys says IT WAS AROUND
ABOUT THE END OF THE 18th
CENTURY THAT THE SLUICE GATE
STOPPED WORKING.
AND THIS HAD A REAL IMPACT
ON THE ECONOMY.

The narrator says THE GATE'S
FOUNDATIONS NO LONGER HELD
THEIR WEIGHT CAUSING THEM TO
STOP WORKING.
LUCKILY IN 1802 FRENCH CIVIL
ENGINEER CHARLES BERIGNY
EMPLOYED TO MANAGE THE HARBOUR
HAD AN INSPIRED IDEA.

Rhys shows a plastic container and says SO THIS IS MY
DEMONSTRATION OF THE SLUICE
GATE AND THE PROBLEM THAT WAS
HAPPENING UNDERNEATH.
FIRST OF ALL, WE HAD THE ROCKS
ON THE BOTTOM OF THE SEABED.
ON TOP OF THE ROCK WAS
A SOFTER TOP LAYER.
AND IT WAS ON TOP OF THIS
SOFTER TOP LAYER THAT THE
FOUNDATIONS OF THE SLUICE GATES
SAT.
NOW THE PROBLEM WAS THAT THE
WATER COMING IN THROUGH THE
HARBOUR WAS GOING UNDERNEATH
THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE SLUICE
GATE, AND IT STARTED WASHING
AWAY AND ERODING THE SOFTER
PARTICLES OF THE TOP LAYER.
AND THAT MEANT THAT THE
FOUNDATIONS OF THE SLUICE GATE
WOULD BE DESTABILIZED, AND
ULTIMATELY THE SLUICE GATE
STOPPED WORKING.
BERIGNY'S SOLUTION TO THE
PROBLEM WAS BRILLIANT.
FIRST OF ALL BERIGNY DRILLED A
SERIES OF HOLES 5 FOOT DEEP
THROUGH THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE
SLUICE GATE DOWN INTO THE SOIL
WHERE IT HAD ERODED AWAY.
AND THEN THIS WAS THE REALLY
INGENIOUS BIT.
HE GOT A PISTON PUMP WHAT HE
CALLED A BLOW PUMP, AND HE
FILLED THAT WITH CLAY GROUT.
AND WITH A SERIES OF HAMMER
BLOWS HE FORCED THE CEMENT
DOWN INTO THE SOIL BELOW.

He pushes clay through the holes using a large syringe.

He says THIS IS GETTING A BIT MESSY SO
I'M JUST GOING TO SQUEEZE IT.
DOWN YOU GO, IN YOU GO.
THE CEMENT'S POURING THROUGH
THE HOLES FILLING UP THE
SUBSOIL BELOW AND MAKING THOSE
FOUNDATIONS NICE AND STABLE.

The narrator says AS BERIGNY'S CLAY
GROUT WAS HAMMERED THROUGH THE
PREDRILLED HOLES IT SPREAD OUT
BENEATH THE MASONRY
FOUNDATIONS, SQUEEZING INTO
AND FILLING THE GAPS CREATED
BY THE EROSION.
AFTER A PERIOD OF TIME THE
GROUT SET HARD.

Rhys says OKAY, WE'VE
LEFT IT A WHILE.
WE'RE GOING TO SEE HOW IT'S
SET.
WELL, IT ACTUALLY HAS WORKED.
GOD, I REALLY DIDN'T THINK IT
WAS GOING TO WORK, BUT THAT'S
FANTASTIC.
AND UNLIKE THE SOIL WHICH WAS
WASHED AWAY BECAUSE IT'S
SOLIDIFIED IT JUST STAYS IN
PLACE.
AND THAT WOULD'VE REALLY
HELPED THE FOUNDATIONS OF
THE SLUICE GATE.

The narrator says AFTER MINOR
TWEAKS TO THE TECHNIQUE,
THE GROUTING WAS COMPLETED AND
THE WORK PROVED A RESOUNDING
SUCCESS.

Rhys says THIS WAS THE
VERY FIRST EXAMPLE FROM
CHARLES BERIGNY OF INJECTION
GROUTING, AND IT'S USED IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING PROJECTS ALL
OVER THE WORLD TODAY.
FANTASTIC.

The narrator says ENGINEERS AT
CROSSRAIL HAVE TAKEN THOSE
EARLY INJECTION TECHNIQUES AND
DEVELOPED ONE OF THE MOST
SOPHISTICATED SYSTEMS IN THE
WORLD.
ONE WHICH BEGINS ABOVE GROUND.

Jules says UP ON THE CORNER
OF THIS BUILDING THERE IS ONE
OF THE MANY ATS's.
THERE'S ANOTHER ONE UP HERE.
AND YOU'LL SEE TARGETS.
THESE ARE ESSENTIALLY PRISMS.

The narrator says HIGH TECH
SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS, KNOWN
AS AUTOMATIC THEODOLITE SYSTEMS
OR ATSs, ARE PLACED
STRATEGICALLY ACROSS THE CITY.
THE ATS FIRES A BEAM OF LIGHT
AT ITS RECIPROCAL PRISM.
ENGINEERS USE SPECIALIZED
COMPUTER SOFTWARE TO
CONTINUOUSLY MEASURE THE ANGLE
OF THE BEAM.
IF THE ANGLE CHANGES TOO MUCH
THIS CAN INDICATE A SHIFT IN
THE FOUNDATIONS.

Jules says IF ANY OF
THESE POINTS STARTS MOVING
THEN THE GROUTING PROGRAM
CAN BE TUNED TO ACTUALLY
COMPENSATE FOR ANY SETTLEMENT.

The narrator says BELOW THE GROUND,
IN A PURPOSE-BUILT GROUTING
TUNNEL, THE TEAM ARE BUSY
REACTING TO RECENT INFORMATION
RECEIVED FROM THE ATS's ABOVE.
AT 3-METRE INTERVALS ALONG THE
LENGTH OF THE GROUTING TUNNEL
ARE A SERIES OF INJECTION
PIPES THAT FAN OUT ABOVE THE
CONSTRUCTION WORK AND BELOW
THE DELICATE BUILDINGS.
GETTING THE GROUT TO WHERE
IT'S NEEDED IS THE JOB OF
PRINCIPAL ENGINEER CLIFF
KETTLE.

Cliff is in his fifties, with short gray hair and wears safety gear.

Cliff says SO GROUT COMES
VIA THE INJECTION LINE FROM
THE PILOTED PUMP, WILL COME UP
THIS BOREHOLE, WILL ISOLATE
THE INDIVIDUAL SLEEVE, THIS
RUBBER SLEEVE WILL PUSH OPEN,
THE GROUT WILL EXIT HERE,
FRACTURE THE GROUND AND IT
WILL GO INTO THE GROUND.

The narrator says AS THE INJECTION
RODS ARE PUSHED INTO POSITION
UP TO 25 LITRES OF GROUT AT
A TIME ARE FORCED OUT THROUGH
THE ROD AND IN TO THE FISSURES
OF THE GROUND, ULTIMATELY
LEVELLING THE FOUNDATIONS AND
LIFTING THE BUILDING BACK INTO
PLACE.

Cliff says SOME OF THE
FACADES OF THESE BUILDINGS HERE
ARE 70,000 TONS.
WE SEE ON A DAILY BASIS THAT
JUST THE INJECTION OF MAYBE
THREE OR FOUR CUBIC METRES OF
GROUT CAN MOVE THAT BUILDING
SEVERAL MILLIMETRES.

The narrator says SPANNING 5 YEARS
IT'S THE BIGGEST COMPENSATION
PROJECT THE WORLD HAS EVER
SEEN.

Cliff says COMPENSATION
GROUTING IS ABSOLUTELY VITAL
FOR THE PROJECT BECAUSE IT DOES
SOMETHING THAT THERE IS NO
OTHER PROCESS FOR.
THERE ARE MANY LOCATIONS
ACROSS CROSSRAIL WHERE THE
EXCAVATION COULDN'T HAVE BEEN
COMPLETED WITHOUT THE
PROTECTION PROVIDED BY
COMPENSATION GROUTING.

The narrator says EXCAVATING TUNNELS
SAFELY IS ONE THING, CONVERTING
THEM INTO A HIGH-TECH RAIL
NETWORK PROVIDES A GREATER
CHALLENGE...
FOR WHICH ENGINEERS WOULD NEED
TO DRAW ON INNOVATIONS OF THE
PAST.

A woman on a train says WHAT AN
INCREDIBLE PIECE OF
ENGINEERING!

The narrator says TO PRODUCE MORE
IMPOSSIBLE ENGINEERING.
IN LONDON ENGINEERS ARE
ACHIEVING THE SEEMINGLY
IMPOSSIBLE... WEAVING A BRAND
NEW RAIL NETWORK OVER AND
UNDER THIS CITY'S CONGESTED
CORE.

Camilla says CROSSRAIL
IS A FANTASTIC PROJECT.
EVERY DAY THERE'S A NEW
CHALLENGE, THERE'S A LOT GOING
ON, A LOT TO KEEP YOU
STRETCHED, A LOT TO KEEP YOU
INTERESTED, AND A LOT OF BIG
PROBLEMS TO SOLVE.

The narrator says AND ONE PROBLEM
IN PARTICULAR IS KEEPING
PROJECT MANAGER JULES BOYD
ESPECIALLY BUSY.
THROUGHOUT THE NETWORK A LARGE
PROPORTION OF THE RUNNING
TUNNELS HAVE BEEN EXCAVATED BY
THE PURPOSE-BUILT TUNNEL
BORING MACHINES.

Jules says THE TBM's
OBVIOUSLY A BIG MACHINE, IT'S
A FACTORY, IT BUILDS SEGMENTS
OF ONE SIZE, IT BUILDS THEM
VERY FAST.

The narrator says AS TBMs DIG THEY
AUTOMATICALLY LINE THE FRESHLY
EXPOSED CLAY WITH
PREFABRICATED CONCRETE SLABS
QUICKLY SHORING UP AND SEALING
THE WALLS.
BUT WHEN THEY ARRIVE AT A
STATION, THESE MASSIVE
MACHINES HAVE THEIR
LIMITATIONS.

Jules says IT'S NOT VERY
FLEXIBLE IN TERMS OF SIZE.
IT WILL BUILD ONE SIZE TUNNEL
ONLY WHICH IS WHAT IT'S MADE
TO DO.
THE PLATFORMS TUNNELS HERE, FOR
EXAMPLE, TEN METRES IN
DIAMETER, YOU WOULD NEVER DO
THOSE.
THEY ARE 250 METRES LONG
WITH THE TBM.

The narrator says TO DIG THESE
VARIED CATHEDRAL-LIKE SPACES
ENGINEERS HAVE TURNED TO THE
MORE CONVENTIONAL EXCAVATING
MACHINES, BUT IF THE FRESHLY
EXPOSED CLAY IS LEFT UNLINED
FOR TOO LONG IT COULD
COLLAPSE.
SO HOW DO YOU QUICKLY SHORE UP
THE MORE COMPLEX AND CAVERNOUS
SPACES ACROSS THE NETWORK THAT
AREN'T AUTOMATICALLY LINED?
TO DO THAT, ENGINEERS WOULD
NEED TO DRAW ON THE WORK OF
AN UNLIKELY INNOVATOR.

(music plays)

The narrator says AT THE FAMED
NATURAL HISTORY FIELD MUSEUM
IN CHICAGO, SCIENCE
ADMINISTRATOR MARK ALVEY IS
DISCOVERING HOW ONE MAN'S
PASSION FOR PRESERVATION
HELPED CREATE A REVOLUTIONARY
ENGINEERING TOOL.

The caption changes to "Mark Alvey. Science Administrator."

Mark is in his late forties, with short graying hair and wears glasses, light gray trousers and a deep purple sweater.

Mark says THESE ARE THE
FIELD MUSEUM'S FAMOUS FIGHTING
BULL ELEPHANTS.
THEY WERE MOUNTED OVER A
HUNDRED YEARS AGO, AND THEY'RE
STILL ONE OF OUR MOST ICONIC
EXHIBITS.

The narrator says CREATED BY
EXPLORER AND SO CALLED 'FATHER
OF MODERN TAXIDERMY', CARL
AKELEY, THEY MARK A
MILESTONE IN NATURAL HISTORY
DISPLAY.

Mark says CARL AKELEY WAS
THE MUSEUM'S CHIEF TAXIDERMIST
FROM 1896 TO 1909, AND HE
EXPERIMENTED WITH VARIOUS
SCULPTING TECHNIQUES INVOLVING
CLAY AND PLASTER.
HIS TECHNIQUES WERE REALLY
REVOLUTIONARY.

The narrator says NOT ONLY DID
AKELEY WANT TO DISPLAY THE
ANIMALS IN LIFELIKE DETAIL,
BUT THEIR SURROUNDING
ENVIRONMENT, TOO.

Mark says AND THE
TECHNIQUES THAT HE USED IN
CREATING ARTIFICIAL ROCKS LIKE
THE ONES YOU SEE HERE EVENTUALLY
LED TO AN INNOVATION THAT
WOULD REALLY HAVE A HUGE IMPACT
ON THE ENGINEERING WORLD.

The narrator says IT WAS DURING HIS
SEARCH FOR LIFE-LIKE PERFECTION
THAT AKELEY CAME UP WITH A NEW
WAY OF COVERING FAKE ROCKS WITH
PLASTER OF PARIS.

Mark stands next to a paper maché model rock with toy savannah animals.

Mark says SO HERE WE HAVE
A SMALL ROCK THAT YOU MIGHT
SEE USED IN A ZOO ENCLOSURE.
YOU CAN SEE THAT IF WE WERE
TO TRY TO PAINT IT BY HAND IT
WOULD BE VERY TIRING AND END
UP WITH VERY UNEVEN RESULTS.
NOW IF I USE MY GUN HERE YOU
CAN SEE YOU GET A MUCH MORE
EVEN CONSISTENCY, IT GOES ON
FASTER YOU CAN OVER YOUR
SURFACE MUCH MORE QUICKLY.

He sprays paint with the gun.

The narrator says THEN HOUSED IN
A DIFFERENT BUILDING, THE
MUSEUM'S DIRECTOR ASKED IF
AKELEY COULD MAKE SOMETHING
ON A BIGGER SCALE TO FIX THE
MUSEUM'S CRUMBLING WALLS.

Mark says AKELEY LOVED
A CHALLENGE SO HE SET ABOUT
CREATING A NEW PLASTERING
MACHINE.

The narrator says INITIAL ATTEMPTS
TO SHOOT OUT HYDRATED PLASTER
UNDER PRESSURE, AND OVER
DISTANCE, CLOGS THE HOSE.
THEN AKELEY CAME UP WITH A
GAME-CHANGING SOLUTION.
HE DEVISED A WAY OF SHOOTING
DRY PLASTER THROUGH ONE HOSE
THAT WOULD MEET A JET OF
WATER, UNDER GREAT PRESSURE IN
ANOTHER, MIXING AT THE NOZZLE.
AKELEY HAD CREATED THE WORLD'S
FIRST 'CEMENT GUN' AND HE WENT
ON TO PLASTER THE EXTERIOR OF
THE MUSEUM.

Mark says THE CEMENT GUN
WAS SOON MODIFIED, IMPROVED
AND ADAPTED FOR ALL KINDS OF
INDUSTRY.
AND TO CREATE ANIMAL
ENCLOSURES IN ZOOS.

The narrator says WHAT AKELEY
ACHIEVED WOULD BE A TEMPLATE
FOR ALL MODERN CEMENT GUNS
ACROSS THE WORLD, EMPHATICALLY
TRANSFORMING THE CONSTRUCTION
INDUSTRY.
IT'S BEEN USED FOR ANYTHING
FROM BESPOKE ARCHITECTURE TO
POOL LINING AND EVEN CLIFF
STABILIZATION.

Mark says CARL AKELEY WAS
A REAL PIONEER.
HIS CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE WORLD
OF ENGINEERING ARE TRULY
REMARKABLE.

(music plays)

The narrator says AT CROSSRAIL A
PRE-MIXED WET CONCRETE KNOWN
AS SHOTCRETE IS PUMPED THROUGH
A SPECIALLY ADAPTED SUPERSIZED
AUTOMATED VERSION OF AKELEY'S
MACHINE.
AT THE NOZZLE END, HIGH
PRESSURE AIR IS USED TO
ACCELERATE THE MIX TOWARDS
ITS TARGET.

Jules says THE MIXER TRUCK
WILL BRING IN THE CONCRETE
TO THIS SHOTCRETE ROBOT HERE,
WHICH IS BASICALLY A PUMP
AND A MANIPULATOR SO THAT THE
NOZZLE MAN, WHO IS THIS CHAP
HERE CAN PLACE THE SHOTCRETE
IN EXACTLY THE RIGHT PLACE.
HISTORICALLY PEOPLE USED TO
SPRAY BY HAND, BUT THESE
MACHINES ALLOW YOU TO PUMP UP
TO MAYBE SIXTY TONS AN HOUR.

The narrator says THE TECHNIQUE
INVOLVES RAPIDLY SPRAYING THE
FRESHLY EXCAVATED GROUND WITH
A SOPHISTICATED, FAST-CURING
MIX OF SHOTCRETE TO STABILIZE
IT AND FORM THE PERMANENT
TUNNEL LINING.

Jules says THIS IS THE
SHOTCRETE WHICH IS ESSENTIALLY
A CONCRETE MIX, WITH SMALL
AGGREGATE.
IT'S GOT THESE THINGS WHICH
ARE LIKE, SMALL HIGH TENSILE
STEEL FIBRES.
THEY ARE LIKE REINFORCING BAR
EFFECTIVELY ON A MICRO SCALE.
I'VE WORKED ON QUITE A LOT OF
TUNNELS, BUT THIS IS EXCITING.
THERE'S A LOT GOING ON, YOU'RE
ALWAYS UP AGAINST PRESSURE FOR
PROGRAM PRESSURES AGAINST
COSTS, AND WE'RE CHANGING THE
CULTURE FOR ONE THAT IS
INFINITELY MORE SAFE THAN IT
HAS BEEN HISTORICALLY.

The narrator says WITH A STAGGERING
42 KILOMETRES OF BRAND NEW
TUNNELS NOW CONSTRUCTED, THE
MOMENTOUS TASK OF CREATING A
HIGH-TECH RAILWAY IS UNDERWAY.

Camilla says WE'RE NOW
IN OUR TUNNEL FIT OUT PHASE.
WE ARE PUTTING IN OUR
VENTILATION, ALL OUR HIGH
VOLTAGE POWER AND SIGNALLING,
AND IT'S STARTING TO LOOK LIKE
HOW IT LOOKS WHEN TRAINS RUN
THROUGH IT.

The narrator says AND THE BIGGEST
JOBS IS LAYING THE TRACK
ITSELF.

Camilla says ON OUR
PROJECT WE HAVE FOUR
DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRACK.
THERE'S APPROXIMATELY 108
METRES IN EACH SECTION, AND
YOU'VE GOT ABOUT 47 KILOMETRES
OF THIS ACROSS THE PROJECT.

The narrator says SO HOW CAN THE
TEAM EFFICIENTLY INSTALL TENS
OF KILOMETRES OF RAIL TRACK
THROUGHOUT THE EXTENSIVE
TUNNELS?
TO ANSWER THAT SEEMINGLY
IMPOSSIBLE CHALLENGE ENGINEERS
DRAW INSPIRATION FROM SOME OF
HISTORY'S GREATEST INNOVATORS.

[whistle blowing]

The caption changes to "Jen Masengarb. Director of Interpretation and Research, Chicago Architecture Foundation."

Jen is in her thirties, with short brown hair and wears a dark gray coat and a light gray scarf.

Jen says WHAT AN
INCREDIBLE PIECE OF ENGINEERING!
I LOVE THE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION.

The narrator says ARCHITECTURAL
HISTORIAN JEN MASENGARB IS
IN CALIFORNIA DISCOVERING THE
SECRETS BEHIND ONE OF THE
USA'S MOST AUDACIOUS
CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS.

Jen says TODAY THERE
ARE OVER 150,000 MILES OF RAIL
TRACK ACROSS THE CONTINENT,
BUT IN THE EARLY 1800s IT WOULD
HAVE TAKEN MORE THAN 6 MONTHS
TO CROSS THE CONTINENT BY
HORSE.
BUT ALL THAT CHANGED ON
JULY 1st, 1862.

The narrator says THE SIGNING OF THE
PACIFIC RAILWAY ACT BY ABRAHAM
LINCOLN AUTHORIZED TWOCOMPANIES
TO BUILD AN 1800-MILE LONG
RAILROAD BETWEEN CALIFORNIA,
AND NEBRASKA.

An animated map shows the route that joins California with Nebraska.

Jen says THIS NEW
RAILROAD WOULD ALLOW PEOPLE TO
CROSS THE ENTIRE CONTINENT BY
TRAIN, A PROJECT OF STAGGERING
AMBITION.
AND THE TWO RAILROAD COMPANIES
HAD AN INCENTIVE TO MOVE FAST
BECAUSE THEY WERE PAYING BY
THE MILE.
32,000 DOLLARS PER MILE AND SO
THEY WERE OFF UNION PACIFIC
STARTING IN THE EAST AND
MOVING WEST, CENTRAL PACIFIC
STARTING IN THE WEST AND
MOVING EAST RACING ACROSS THE
CONTINENT TO EACH OTHER.

The narrator says DESPITE THE
CHALLENGING TERRAIN, UNION
PACIFIC WORKERS WERE SOON
LAYING 4.2 MILES OF TRACK A
DAY.
KEY TO THIS REMARKABLE
ACHIEVEMENT WAS A METHOD
DEVISED BY TWO BROTHERS...
JACK AND DAN CASEMENT.

Jen says THE CASEMENT
BROTHERS HAD JUST COME FROM
THE CIVIL WAR WHERE THEY SERVED
AS OFFICERS AND THEY WERE IN
CHARGE OF LAYING ALL THE TRACK
FOR UNION PACIFIC.
THEY RAN THIS TRACK OPERATION
WITH MILITARY PRECISION.

The narrator says THE CASEMENT
METHOD INVOLVED CREATING AN
ENTIRE MOVING CITY.
LOCOMOTIVES WOULD PULL
SLEEPING BERTHS, DINING CARS
AND KITCHENS PROVIDING
EVERYTHING FOR THOUSANDS OF
WORKERS.

Jen says THE KEY TO
THE CASEMENT BROTHERS' SUCCESS
WASN'T JUST IN THE EFFICIENCY
OF THE WORK FORCE BUT ALSO IN
THE REALLY SMART ENGINEERING
SYSTEMS THAT THEY DESIGNED.
THIS MIGHT LOOK LIKE JUST A
SIMPLE CART, BUT IT'S GOT A
COUPLE OF REALLY COOL FEATURES.
EACH CART HAD THESE TWO IRON
BARS ALONG THE FRONT AND BACK
WHICH MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR THE
IRON RAILS TO SLIDE TO THE
EDGE AND THEN THESE ROLLERS
POSITIONED THE RAIL RIGHT INTO
PLACE SO IT COULD BE SLID
RIGHT DOWN ON THE TIES.
IT SAVED VALUABLE SECONDS.
AND ALL THOSE SECONDS ADDED UP
ALONG THE PROJECT REALLY MADE
A DIFFERENCE.

The narrator says FOR THE INGENIOUS
CART TO BE EFFECTIVE THE
WORKERS WERE SPLIT INTO
TWO TEAMS.

Jen says I'VE GOT THIS
TEAM OF GUYS READY BEHIND ME,
AND WE'RE GOING TO GIVE IT
A SHOT.
ALRIGHT, TEAM, READY?

The narrator says THE FIRST TEAM
WOULD USE A HORSE AND WAGON
TO DELIVER THE SLEEPERS TO
THE FRONT OF THE LINE,
LAYING THEM IN PLACE WITH
A PAIR OF TONGS.

Jen says AT THE SAME
TIME ANOTHER CREW WOULD BE IN
THE BACK LIFTING THE RAILS
INTO POSITION ON THIS CART.
TWO MEN AT THE FRONT OF EACH
RAIL, TWO MEN AT THE BACK,
AND THEN THIS CART WOULD BE
PUSHED TO THE FRONT OF THE LINE.
AS THE CART MOVED INTO
POSITION IT WAS THE
RESPONSIBILITY OF TWO WORKERS
AT THE FRONT TO GRAB THE
RAIL WITH THEIR TONGS AND PULL
IT OFF THE CART, AND THEN
TWO WORKERS IN THE BACK TO
ALIGN THE TWO RAILS.
WE'D BE CALLED THE HEALERS.
AND WHEN THE TRACK WAS IN PLACE
THE FOREMAN WOULD YELL 'GOOD
IRON', AND THE CART WOULD
MOVE FORWARD.

A team member says GOOD IRON!

The narrator says BEHIND THE CART
WOULD BE OTHER MEN CALLED
STRAPPERS WHO'D SPLICE THE
RAILS TOGETHER AT THE JOINS.
BEHIND THE STRAPPERS, SPIKERS
SECURED THE RAILS TO THE
SLEEPERS WITH SPIKES.
[rumbling]

Jen says ONCE THE
RAILS HAD ALL BEEN LAID
THIS EMPTY CART WOULD BE
PUSHED TO THE END OF THE LINE
AND TIPPED UP ON ITS SIDE SO
THAT A NEW CAR COULD COME
BEHIND WITH ALL NEW FRESH RAILS.
ALRIGHT, ARE WE READY?
1, 2, 3.

The team lift up the cart.

The narrator says HEARING OF ITS
SUCCESS, CENTRAL PACIFIC ALSO
ADOPTED THE TECHNIQUE AND WORK
ON THE NEW LINE RACED AHEAD.
THE CASEMENT METHOD
REVOLUTIONIZED TRACK LAYING,
AND BY THE 10th OF MAY 1869,
JUST 5 YEARS AFTER WORK HAD
STARTED, THE TWO CONSTRUCTION
CREWS MET AND A GOLDEN SPIKE
WAS PLANTED TO MARK THE
COMPLETION OF THE
TRANS-CONTINENTAL RAILWAY.
ONE OF THE WORLD'S GREATEST
ENGINEERING ACHIEVEMENTS.

(music plays)

The narrator says AT CROSSRAIL THE TEAM ARE
TAKING THOSE EARLY PIONEERING
TRACK LAYING METHODS AND
GIVING THEM A 21st CENTURY
MAKEOVER.

Camilla says BEHIND ME IS
THE MULTI-PURPOSE GANTREE, AND
REALLY THE MPG IS A REAL-LIFE
TRANSFORMER.
WE HAVE FOUR OF THEM ON THIS
PROJECT THAT WERE DESIGNED
FOR CROSSRAIL.

The narrator says THESE MODERN DAY
VERSIONS OF THE CASEMENT
BROTHERS' TROLLEY CARS COST
1 MILLION POUNDS EACH AND ARE THE
TRACK LAYING WORKHORSES DURING
THE FITTING OUT STAGE.
TO BEGIN, THE MPG DRAGS 108
METRE LONG SECTIONS OF STEEL
RAIL INTO POSITION, PLACING
THEM ON EITHER SIDE OF THE
TUNNEL FLOOR.

Camilla says YOU'VE GOT
APPROXIMATELY 47 KILOMETRES OF
LONG WELDED RAIL SO A LARGE
AMOUNT OF TRACK WE NEED TO
INSTALL ALL THROUGH UTILIZATION
OF THE MPG.

The narrator says NEXT, SLEEPERS ARE
POSITIONED IN BETWEEN THE RAIL
SECTIONS.

Camilla says THIS MPG CAN
LIFT UP 28 SLEEPERS IN ONE GO
AND POSITION THEM IN EXACTLY THE
CORRECT LOCATION.
ACROSS THIS PROJECT WE HAVE
ABOUT 70,000 SLEEPERS WE TRYING
TO LAY.

The narrator says FINALLY THIS
VERSATILE MACHINE LIFTS THE
RAIL ONTO THE SLEEPERS, AND
CONCRETE IS POURED TO SECURE
IT IN POSITION.

Camilla says THE MPGs ARE
VERY VERSATILE.
THEY CAN GO UP AND DOWN, AND
THEY CAN MOVE IN AND OUT.
AS YOU CAN SEE HERE, WE'VE
GOT ONE WHEEL ON THE PLATFORM,
ONE ON THE UPSTAND SO THEY
ENABLE US TO WORK AROUND THIS
CHALLENGING ENVIRONMENT.

The narrator says THANKS TO THESE
21st CENTURY TOOLS THE TUNNEL
FIT OUT TEAM ARE WELL ON THEIR
WAY TO WELCOME THE FIRST TRAINS
THROUGH IN 2018.

Camilla says THE MPGs IS
A REAL SOLUTION TO ADDRESS THE
COMPLEXITIES AND THE MAGNITUDE
OF THE TASK WE HAVE WORKING IN
THIS ENVIRONMENT.

The narrator says BUT BUILDING A
NETWORK ON TIME AS COMPLICATED
AND AS VAST AS THIS IS ONE
THING.
TO MAKE SURE THE 200 MILLION
PASSENGERS EXPECTED EVERY YEAR
USE IT SAFELY WILL MEAN
ENGINEERS NEED TO ONCE AGAIN
LOOK TO THE PAST...

In a fair's ride, a man says THIS IS THE
WORLD FAMOUS CONEY ISLAND,
A PLACE THAT'S PROVIDED
ENTERTAINMENT AND THRILLS TO
NEW YORKERS FOR OVER 100 YEARS.

The narrator says TO PRODUCE MORE
IMPOSSIBLE ENGINEERING.

(music plays)

The narrator says CROSSRAIL, EUROPE'S
LARGEST INFRASTRUCTURE
PROJECT, IS GEARING UP TO
COMPLETELY CHANGE THE FACE OF
TRAVEL FOR MILLIONS ACROSS
LONDON.

Michael says MANY PARTS
OF LONDON'S PUBLIC TRANSPORT
SYSTEM ARE VIRTUALLY FULL
ALREADY.
ANY ADDITIONAL CAPACITY THAT
WE CAN ADD IS GOING TO HELP
HUGELY.

The narrator says THIS 15 BILLION POUND
NETWORK IS IN THE FINAL STAGES
OF CONSTRUCTION.

Camilla says THE NEW
CROSSRAIL TRAINS WILL CARRY
200 MILLION PASSENGERS IN
AND OUT OF LONDON EVERY YEAR.

The narrator says SO HOW WILL
ENGINEERS TRANSPORT AN EXTRA
200 MILLION PASSENGERS SAFELY
FROM STREET LEVEL TO STATIONS
AS MUCH AS 40 METRES BELOW
GROUND?
TO ANSWER THAT CHALLENGE THEY
WOULD LOOK TO THE UPLIFTING
WORK OF AN INNOVATOR OF THE
PAST.

The narrator says MECHANICAL ENGINEER MICHAEL
TOBIAS HAS COME TO A THRILL
SEEKERS PARADISE IN BROOKLYN,
NEW YORK, IN SEARCH OF THE
UNLIKELY ORIGINS OF AN
EVERYDAY PIECE OF
ENGINEERING.

The caption changes to "Michael Tobias. Mechanical Engineering."

Michael is in his twenties, with short brown hair and wears beige trousers and a pink gingham shirt.

Michael Tobias says THIS IS THE
WORLD FAMOUS CONEY ISLAND,
A PLACE THAT'S PROVIDED
ENTERTAINMENT AND THRILLS TO
NEW YORKERS FOR OVER A
HUNDRED YEARS.

The narrator says UP UNTIL THE
1930s, THIS ICONIC ATTRACTION
WAS THE LARGEST IN THE U.S.,
WITH THREE PARKS COMPETING TO
BUILD THE MOST DARING AND
CUTTING-EDGE RIDES.

Michael Tobias says INCREDIBLE.
THE RIDES THAT WERE SHOWCASED
HERE WERE TRULY REMARKABLE
PIECES OF ENGINEERING MADE
BY INGENIOUS INVENTORS OF
THEIR DAY.
BUT THERE'S ONE IN PARTICULAR
THAT WAS MORE THAN JUST A FUN
FAIR THRILL.

The narrator says IN 1891 AMERICAN
INVENTOR JESSE WILFRED RENO,
KEEN TO ATTRACT THE ATTENTION
OF THE NEW YORK RAILWAY
COMPANIES CAME UP WITH A
PUBLICITY STUNT TO DEMONSTRATE
HIS NEW RIDE.

Michael Tobias says RENO'S
INVENTION WAS A PROTOTYPE OF
THE WORLD'S FIRST WORKING
ESCALATOR.

The narrator says IT MAY NOT SOUND
EXCITING FOR TODAY'S THRILL
SEEKERS, BUT BACK THEN IT
CAUSED A SENSATION.
NAMED THE 'INCLINED ELEVATOR'
RENO'S ASCENDING MOVEABLE
WALKWAY IS REPUTED TO HAVE
CARRIED 75,000 PEOPLE IN JUST
THE FIRST FEW WEEKS.

Michael Tobias says RENO'S
DESIGN WAS A SLOPED WALKWAY
VERY SIMILAR TO HOW A CONVEYER
BELT WORKS.
THERE'S TWO GEARS AT THE TOP
AND THE BOTTOM.
A MOTOR ON THE TOP PULLING THE
WALKWAY UP, DOWN AND OVER
AGAIN.

The narrator says WITH ITS STEEP
INCLINE OF 25 DEGREES AND A
7-FOOT RISE, RENO ATTACHED
STRIPS OF WOOD, OR CLEATS TO
THE TREADS TO PROVIDE TRACTION.
AND MOST INGENIOUS OF ALL, AT
THE END OF THE ASCENT, THE
CLEATS DISAPPEARED THROUGH A
RECIPROCAL SET OF COMB LIKE
PRONGS THAT SAFELY LIFTED THE
PASSENGERS' FEET OFF THE
DISAPPEARING TREADS, ENABLING
CONTINUOUS MOTION.
RENO'S PLAN WORKED.
AND AS A RESULT OF THIS
PUBLICITY STUNT HIS INVENTION
WAS SOON INSTALLED IN
NEW YORK'S TRANSPORT SYSTEM.
ELSEWHERE IN NEW YORK OTHER
ENGINEERS WERE ALSO WORKING ON
THEIR OWN ESCALATOR DESIGNS.

Michael Tobias says IT WAS HERE
AT MACY'S FLAGSHIP STORE
WHERE ELISHA OTIS, INVENTOR
OF THE ELEVATOR INSTALLED
ONE OF HIS EARLIEST ESCALATORS.

The narrator says INSTEAD OF
RENO'S STEADY INCLINE DESIGN,
OTIS' PLANS INCORPORATED STEPS.
BY COMBINING THEM WITH RENO'S
CLEAT AND COMB DESIGN THE
ESCALATOR MADE FOR A SMOOTH
RIDE AND SAFE EXIT.

Michael Tobias says INSTALLED
IN 1927 THESE ARE THOUGHT TO
BE THE WORLD'S LAST REMAINING
WOODEN STEP ESCALATORS ANYWHERE
IN THE WORLD.

The narrator says EACH STEP IN THE
ESCALATOR HAS TWO SETS OF
WHEELS, WHICH ROLL ALONG TWO
SEPARATE TRACKS.
THE UPPER SET ARE PULLED BY
THE ROTATING CHAINS, WHILE
THE OTHER SET SIMPLY FOLLOW
BEHIND.
THE TRACKS ARE SPACED APART
SO THAT EACH STEP WILL ALWAYS
REMAIN LEVEL.
AT THE TOP AND BOTTOM OF THE
ESCALATOR, THE TRACKS LEVEL
OFF TO A HORIZONTAL POSITION,
FLATTENING THE STAIRWAY.

Michael Tobias says THE STEPS
WERE CENTRAL TO OTIS' DESIGN;
WHILE THE CLEATS ON THE
SURFACE OF THE STEPS AND
THE COMB PLATE THEY DISAPPEAR
INTO ARE CENTRAL TO RENO'S
DESIGN.
THESE ESCALATORS STAND AS A
TESTAMENT TO THE ENGINEERING
BRILLIANCE OF THE MEN
INVOLVED.
AND FORM THE BLUEPRINT FOR
ALL MODERN ESCALATORS.

(music plays)

The narrator says BACK IN LONDON
AND A WHOPPING 81 BRAND NEW
VERSIONS OF RENO AND OTIS'
DESIGN ARE SET TO MAKE THIS
NEW NETWORK A STEP FREE ZONE.
BUT TO FIT SO MANY, UP TO 65
METRES IN LENGTH AND WEIGHING
ALMOST 45 TONS, PROJECT
MANAGER JULES BOYD AND HIS
TEAM OF ENGINEERS HAVE HAD TO
CREATE SOME ENGINEERING FIRSTS
OF THEIR OWN.

Jules says HERE YOU SEE THIS
IS THE ESCALATOR THAT ALL OF THE
PASSENGERS THAT USE WHITECHAPEL
STATION WILL COME DOWN THIS.
IT'S ACTUALLY VERY STEEP,
AS YOU CAN SEE.

The narrator says HANGING FROM THE
RAILS EMBEDDED INTO THE TUNNEL
ROOF AN ESPECIALLY ADAPTED
MACHINE WAS USED TO EXCAVATE
THIS VAST CAVERN, BUT INSTEAD
OF DIGGING FROM THE TOP DOWN
IN THE USUAL WAY, LIMITED
ACCESS ABOVE GROUND MEANT
THE SPIDER-LIKE MACHINE CLAWED
ITS WAY UPWARDS.

Jules says THIS IS QUITE
UNIQUE.
THIS IS THE FIRST ESCALATOR
WHERE THE TUNNEL WAS DONE
UPHILL.
I'M AWARE OF THAT EVER BEING
DONE ANYWHERE IN THIS COUNTRY
BEFORE.

The narrator says BY CLEVERLY
ADAPTING EQUIPMENT TO SUIT
THEIR UNIQUE SITUATION, THE
MACHINE COULD BEAT THE EFFECTS
OF GRAVITY.

Jules says IT'S VERY
DIFFICULT TO DO BECAUSE
EVERYTHING IS AT 30 DEGREES.
NOW, AS YOU CAN SEE, IT'S VERY
AWKWARD TO DO ANYTHING ON HERE
BECAUSE EVERYTHING ROLLS AWAY.
FROM THERE TO THERE,
VERTICALLY, IS ABOUT 11 METRES
SO EVERYTHING ACCESS IS VERY
DIFFICULT.
SO IT'S QUITE AN ART TO SEE.

The narrator says THANKS TO THE
DEDICATION OF THOSE BUILDING
THEM THE 2500 METRES OF NEW
ESCALATORS WILL PLAY A PIVOTAL
ROLE IN DELIVERING THE
PASSENGERS TO THE PLATFORMS
BELOW.

(music plays)

The narrator says THE UNPRECEDENTED AND
AMBITIOUS CROSSRAIL PROJECT
RE-WRITES THE RULES OF
UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION.

Camilla says WHEN YOU
LOOK AT IT NOW IT'S AMAZING
TO THINK THAT IN A COUPLE OF
YEARS' TIME THIS WILL BE OPEN.
THE ELIZABETH LINE WILL BE
UP AND RUNNING AND OPERATIONAL.

The narrator says WITH OVER 100
MILLION WORKING HOURS ALREADY
COMPLETED, THE SUCCESS OF THE
LARGEST CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
IN EUROPE STANDS AS TESTAMENT
TO THE INSPIRATIONAL
INNOVATIONS OF THE PAST...
AND THE INGENUITY OF THOSE
BUILDING IT TODAY.

Michael says TO SEE
THE WHOLE PROCESS, FROM START
TO FINISH, HAS JUST BEEN
REMARKABLE.
I MEAN I'M GETTING TOWARDS THE
END OF MY CAREER, I DOUBT I'LL
DO ANOTHER ONE OF THESE BUT
YOU NEVER KNOW.

The narrator says ON THE BRINK OF
COMPLETION THE ENORMOUSLY
COMPLEX AND GROUND-BREAKING
CROSSRAIL REMAINS ON TRACK AND
HAS SUCCEEDED IN MAKING THE
IMPOSSIBLE POSSIBLE.

Camilla says IF YOU
THINK OF ALL THE THOUSANDS
OF PEOPLE THAT HAVE WORKED ON
THIS PROJECT, THE BILLIONS OF
POUNDS SPENT CONSTRUCTING IT,
THE CHALLENGES WE'VE MANAGED
TO OVERCOME, I THINK IT WILL
BE A FANTASTIC ACHIEVEMENT.
IT'S A REAL FEAT FOR THE UK
RAIL INDUSTRY.

Music plays as the end credits roll.

Narrated by Matthew Skilton.

Producer, Directors, Tim Williams, Matt Litchfield and Jonathan Profaska.

Executive producer, Neil Edwards.

Series Producer, Gill Hennessey.

Two Four Rights. Produced in association with Yesterday.

Copyright 2017, Two-four.

Watch: Ep. 5 - Crossrail - UK