Transcript: Ep. 4 -International Space Station | Mar 06, 2019

[dramatic music]

The narrator says FROM THE PLANET'S
MOST STUNNING STATE-OF-THE-ART
STRUCTURES...

A man stands next to a huge steel dish-like structure and says IT'S
ASTOUNDING THIS HUGE DISH WAS
ABLE TO BE CONSTRUCTED HERE.

A man on a ship says THIS IS
SOMETHING THAT WE SHOULD BE
PROUD AS ENGINEERS.

The narrator says TO ITS MIGHTIEST
MODERN MACHINES...

A ship captain says WE ARE THE
WIDEST, WE ARE THE HEAVIEST
VESSEL IN THE WORLD.

The narrator says NONE WOULD'VE BEEN
POSSIBLE WITHOUT THE
GROUND-BREAKING INNOVATORS OF
THE PAST.
[train whistle blowing]

A woman on a vintage train says WHAT AN
INCREDIBLE PIECE OF
ENGINEERING.

A man on an aircraft says "This is a special type of awesome to be flying this aircraft. I can not describe to you what this is like."

A man on a rafting boat says IT'S
AMAZING THAT THEY WERE ABLE
TO BUILD THIS BRIDGE IN THIS
TORRENT.
AHHH!

The narrator says IN THIS EPISODE...

A clip shows a space station orbiting in outer space.

The narrator says THE LARGEST STRUCTURE EVER
BUILT IN SPACE.

A man says THE
ENGINEERING THAT HAS GONE INTO
THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION
IT IS PHENOMENAL, AND IT'S A
HUGE PRIVILEGE TO BE PART OF
THAT.

The narrator says ENGINEERING THAT'S
OUT OF THIS WORLD.

Another man says TO GET TO SEE
THIS AMAZING INVENTION, FLY IT
TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE
STATION IS THE MOST INCREDIBLE
THING I COULD POSSIBLY HOPE
FOR.

The narrator says AND THE PIONEERING
HISTORIC INNOVATIONS.

A woman tows a model aircraft with a car and says YEAH!
OH, MY GOD, IT'S ACTUALLY
FLYING!

On top of the Eiffel Tower, a man says NORMALLY
YOU'D NEVER BE ABLE TO COME
HERE, AND THIS IS A BEAUTIFUL
VIEW OF PARIS.

The narrator says THAT MADE THE
IMPOSSIBLE POSSIBLE.

(music plays)

The title slate appears. It looks like a piece of graphing paper full of equations and sketches of an airplane, skyscraper, and monorail. The title reads "Impossible Engineering."

The narrator says SPACE EXPLORATION IS ENTERING
A NEW ERA.
AFTER DECADES OF INNOVATION,
AEROSPACE ENGINEERS ARE
PREPARING TO SEND THE FIRST
ASTRONAUTS TO MARS AND BEYOND.
WHAT THEY FIND MAY PROVIDE THE
KEY TO COLONIZING THE GALAXY.
AND CENTRAL TO MAKING THIS
POSSIBLE...
THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE
STATION.

A caption reads "Major Tim Peake. ESA astronaut."

Major Peake is in his forties, with short wavy red hair and wears a blue uniform.

Major Peake says THE
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION
IS HUGELY IMPORTANT IN THE
FUTURE OF HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT
AND EXPLORATION.
WE HAVE TO MASTER A NUMBER OF
THINGS SO THAT WE CAN GO
FURTHER INTO SPACE.

The narrator says FOR BRITISH
ASTRONAUT MAJOR TIM PEAKE, HIS
FIRST VISIT WAS CAREER
DEFINING.

Major Peake says I HAD A HUGE
WOW MOMENT WHEN YOU LOOK AND
SEE IT IN ALL ITS GLORY IN THE
SUNLIGHT.
IT IS A MARVEL OF HUMAN
ENGINEERING.

The narrator says ORBITING THE
PLANET EVERY 90 MINUTES, THIS
$100 BILLION COSMIC LABORATORY
IS THE LARGEST MANMADE OBJECT
IN SPACE.
MEASURING OVER 100 METRES END
TO END AND WEIGHING MORE THAN
400 TONS, IT HAS THE SAME
HABITABLE SPACE AS A BOEING
747.
POWERED BY OVER 3,000 SQUARE
METRES OF SOLAR ARRAYS, AND
PRODUCING ITS OWN AIR AND
WATER, THE ISS CAN HOST SIX
ASTRONAUTS IN A COMPLETELY
UNIQUE WORKING ENVIRONMENT.
AND THE WORK THAT'S CARRIED OUT
HERE HAS NEVER BEEN MORE
CRUCIAL.

Major Peake says WE'RE
CONDUCTING RESEARCH INTO HOW
HUMANS AND ROBOTS INTERACT.
THIS IS GOING TO BE VERY
IMPORTANT MOVING FORWARD FOR
LUNAR MISSIONS AND FOR OUR
MARTIAN MISSIONS.

A female astronaut says SO, FIVE PLANTS
FROM THE TOP.

Major Peake says WE'RE ALSO
GROWING FOOD IN SPACE; WE'RE
TRYING TO LEARN HOW CAN WE
MAKE A CLOSED LIFE-SUPPORT
CYCLE.
THIS IS THE KIND OF RESEARCH
THAT'S GOING TO HELP US WITH
THOSE FUTURE SPACE EXPLORATION
MISSIONS.

The narrator says BUT AS RESEARCH
INTENSIFIES, SO TOO MUST THE
JOURNEYS TO THE STATION.
AND BACK ON EARTH, AEROSPACE
ENGINEERS LIKE JOHN CURRY ARE
FACING A PROBLEM.
[jet engines roar]

John is in his forties, with short graying hair and wears jeans and a blue polo T-shirt.

John says THE SPACE
SHUTTLE WAS RETIRED IN 2011,
AND WHEN WE LOST THE SPACE
SHUTTLE CAPABILITY, WE LOST A
HUGE AMOUNT OF CAPABILITY TO
SERVICE THE SPACE STATION.

The narrator says TO MAKE THE
JOURNEY, ASTRONAUTS MUST NOW
TRAVEL TO KAZAKHSTAN FOR A
PRICEY SEAT ONBOARD THE
RUSSIAN SOYUZ ROCKET.
TO FIND A COST-EFFECTIVE
SOLUTION, NASA ARE TURNING TO
THE PRIVATE SPACEFLIGHT
INDUSTRY.
AND ALL OF THE COMPANIES
INVOLVED SHARE ONE VISION.

Major Peake says REUSABILITY
OF HARDWARE CAN PLAY A REALLY
IMPORTANT ROLE IN TRYING TO
REDUCE THE COST AND IMPROVE
ACCESS TO SPACE.

The narrator says SO, HOW DO YOU
BUILD AN INEXPENSIVE, REUSABLE
SPACECRAFT?
TO FIND THE ANSWER, ENGINEERS
WILL HAVE TO LOOK TO THE
INNOVATORS OF THE PAST.
SPACE HISTORIAN AMY
SHIRA-TEITEL HAS COME TO
EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, DEEP
IN CALIFORNIA'S MOJAVE DESERT,
TO DISCOVER A PIECE OF
ENGINEERING THAT SEEMINGLY
DEFIES THE LAWS OF PHYSICS.

The caption changes to "Amy Shira-Teitel. Spaceflight historian."

Amy is in her thirties, with short straight brown hair with bangs and wears jeans a blue T-shirt.

Amy says OH, WOW!
OKAY, THIS IS AWESOME.

The narrator says NICKNAMED THE
FLYING BATHTUB, THE M2-F1 WAS A
PROTOTYPE PLANE BUILT IN 1963
TO OVERCOME A PARTICULAR
PROBLEM.

Amy stands next to a very small triangular aircraft and says IF YOU
LOOK AT IT, IT DOESN'T LOOK
LIKE IT SHOULD BE ABLE TO FLY,
BUT IN REALITY IT ACTUALLY
PIONEERED A WHOLE NEW WAY OF
FLYING.
THE ENGINEERING BEHIND THIS
THING IS ACTUALLY PRETTY
GENIUS.

The narrator says THIS UNUSUAL
AIRCRAFT WAS THE BRAINCHILD OF
AMERICAN ENGINEER DALE REED.
BECAUSE OF THE HIGH COST OF
DISPOSABLE CAPSULES, NASA WAS
LOOKING FOR A REUSABLE VEHICLE
THAT COULD LAND ON A RUNWAY.
THE PROBLEM WAS THE WINGS OF
TRADITIONAL CRAFT COULDN'T
STAND THE HEAT OF RE-ENTRY.

Amy says SO,
ENGINEERS HAD TO COMPLETELY RIP
UP THE AERODYNAMICS HANDBOOK
AND START AGAIN.

The narrator says THE SHAPE OF A
CONVENTIONAL WING IS WHAT GIVES
AN AIRCRAFT ITS LIFT.
AS AIR FLOWS OVER THE CURVED
TOP, IT SPEEDS UP, CREATING AN
AREA OF LOW PRESSURE, WHILST
AIRFLOW UNDERNEATH REMAINS
CONSTANT.
THIS PRESSURE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN THE TWO AIRFLOWS
PRODUCES LIFT.
REED'S DESIGN GOT RID OF THE
WINGS ALTOGETHER AND RELIED ON
THE TURBULENT AIRFLOW
UNDERNEATH THE BODY TO GENERATE
LIFT.
AND IN APRIL 1963, HIS
PROTOTYPE LIFTING BODY DESIGN
WAS READY FOR TESTING.

Amy walks on a desert area and says NOW,
BECAUSE THE M2-F1 DIDN'T HAVE
ANY MOTOR, HE HAD TO FIND AN
ALTERNATE POWER SOURCE.
AND SO, HE ASKED HIS FRIEND
WALTER "WHITEY" WHITESIDE, WHO
WAS A HOT ROD ENTHUSIAST, TO
GET HIM ONE OF THESE.
A PONTIAC CATALINA.
THE PLAN WAS TO TOW THE LIFTING
BODY BEHIND THE CAR TO SEE IF
IT WOULD ACTUALLY GENERATE
LIFT.
SO, EVEN THOUGH THE VEHICLE
ITSELF DOESN'T HAVE WINGS, REED
HOPED THAT BECAUSE THE BODY IS
SHAPED LIKE A WING, IT WOULD
FLY UNDER THE SAME PRINCIPLES.
BUT SUCCESS WAS FAR FROM
CERTAIN, AND THAT'S WHAT WE'RE
GOING TO TEST RIGHT NOW, TOWING
OUR MODEL BEHIND A CAR TO SEE
IF IT WILL REALLY FLY.

[engine starting]

The narrator says ON THE MORNING OF
THE TEST, THE M2-F1 WAS TOWED
ACROSS A DRY LAKEBED WITH PILOT
MILTON THOMPSON AT THE
CONTROLS.

Amy says ALL RIGHT,
WE'RE ROLLING, AND IT'S
ROLLING, AND THAT'S EXCITING.
LOOKS LIKE IT'S TRYING TO NOSE
UP EVER SO SLIGHTLY.
OOH, COME ON, COME ON!
IT LOOKS LIKE IT MIGHT GET OFF
THE GROUND.
YEAH, IT'S FLYING!
OH, MY GOD, IT'S ACTUALLY
FLYING!
I CAN'T BELIEVE IT ACTUALLY GOT
OFF THE GROUND.

The narrator says JUST LIKE THE
MODEL, REED'S TEST WAS A
SUCCESS.
AS THE M2-F1 REACHED 86 MILES
PER HOUR, IT LIFTED OFF THE
GROUND.
ALTHOUGH ONLY BY A SMALL
AMOUNT, THE THEORY STOOD UP TO
THE TEST.

Amy says SO, IN THE
END, THE LIFTING BODY DESIGN
PROVED TO REALLY BE A PRETTY
INCREDIBLE PIECE OF
ENGINEERING.

The narrator says JOHN CURRY AND HIS
TEAM AT THE SIERRA NEVADA
CORPORATION IN COLORADO ARE
TAKING REED'S CONCEPT TO THE
NEXT LEVEL.

The caption changes to "John Curry. Dream Chaser Program Director."

John stands next to an aircraft and says THIS DESIGN IS
ONE OF THE MOST INCREDIBLE
PIECES OF ENGINEERING I'VE EVER
BEEN LUCKY ENOUGH TO BE PART
OF.
IT IS GOING TO CHANGE THE WORLD
OF SPACE TRANSPORTATION.

The narrator says THE ALL-NEW DREAM
CHASER IS AT THE VANGUARD OF
SPACECRAFT DESIGN.
BUILT IN TWO CONFIGURATIONS,
THIS REUSABLE LIFTING BODY
SPACEPLANE WILL CARRY BOTH
CARGO AND UP TO SEVEN CREW TO
THE SPACE STATION.
[rocket roaring]
TO MAKE THE JOURNEY, IT WILL
LAUNCH ON AN ATLAS V ROCKET;
BUT IN SPACE, IT WILL MAKE THE
TWO-DAY VOYAGE TO THE ISS USING
ITS OWN PROPULSION.

John says IN ORBIT WHEN
WE'RE NEEDING TO FLY, WE
DON'T HAVE AIR, SO WE USE OUR
THRUSTERS TO GET US THERE,
NITROUS AND PROPANE, 22 OF THEM
THAT CAN BOTH ORIENT THE
VEHICLE AND CAN ACTUALLY PUSH
THE VEHICLE THROUGH SPACE.
WONDERFUL CAPABILITY.

The narrator says ONCE DOCKED, DREAM
CHASER HAS THE POWER TO MOVE
THE SPACE STATION, TO HELP IT
MAINTAIN THE CORRECT ORBIT.
BUT IT'S THE RETURN JOURNEY
INTO EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE WHERE
REED'S LIFTING BODY CONCEPT
WILL EMPHATICALLY PROVE ITS
WORTH.
[spacecraft roaring]

John says WHEN YOU START
IN SPACE, YOU'RE MOVING AT
17,500 MILES AN HOUR.
AS YOU GO THROUGH THE
ATMOSPHERE NOW, THE DREAM
CHASER THEN IS ABLE TO TAKE
THAT 17,000 MILES PER HOUR AND
ABSORB ALL THAT HEAT THAT THE
ATMOSPHERE CREATES ONTO THE
SHAPE AND PROTECT THE CARGO AND
THE CREW INSIDE THE VEHICLE.
THE WINGS HERE, THEY'RE JUST ON
THE EDGES, AND THEY'RE JUST
PROVIDING THE CONTROL LIKE
SAILS ON A SAIL SHIP, WHEREAS
ALL OF THE LIFT IS BEING
PROVIDED BY THE BODY ITSELF.
[helicopter whirring]

The narrator says AND IN OCTOBER
2013, THAT THEORY IS PUT INTO
PRACTICE.
A SERIES OF DROP TESTS ARE
CONDUCTED HIGH ABOVE THE
CALIFORNIA DESERT...

Control says THREE, TWO, ONE.
RELEASE, RELEASE, RELEASE.

The narrator says PROVING ITS
AERODYNAMIC QUALITIES ONCE AND
FOR ALL.
WHEN IT RETURNS FROM ITS FIRST
MISSION IN 2020, THIS NEW SPACE
PLANE WILL TOUCH DOWN USING A
UNIQUE NOSE SKID LANDING
SYSTEM.

John says THE GREAT THING
ABOUT THE LIFTING BODY DESIGN
IS THAT IT DOES SO WELL AT THE
HIGH ALTITUDES AND THEN ALSO
DOES WELL AT THE LOW ALTITUDES
SUCH THAT WE CAN TOUCH DOWN AT
ABOUT 200 MILES AN HOUR AND
THEN ROLL OUT TO A WHEEL STOP
ON ANY CONVENTIONAL RUNWAY.

The narrator says BECAUSE OF ITS
DESIGN CAPABILITIES, EACH DREAM
CHASER WILL BE USED FOR AT
LEAST 15 MISSIONS.

John says THE OPPORTUNITY
FOR US TO GET TO SEE THIS
AMAZING INVENTION FLY INTO
SPACE TO THE INTERNATIONAL
SPACE STATION AND BACK AGAIN IS
THE MOST INCREDIBLE THING I
COULD POSSIBLY HOPE FOR.

The narrator says BUT TO ENSURE
REGULAR, COST-EFFECTIVE
MISSIONS, NASA NEED MORE THAN
ONE TYPE OF SPACECRAFT.
AND TO DESIGN THEM, ENGINEERS
WILL NEED TO LOOK TO THE
TRAILBLAZING INNOVATORS OF THE
PAST.
[loud bang]
[laughs]

A woman watches a test crash with a dummy and says OH, MY
GOD!
IT LOOKS LIKE IT COULD
POTENTIALLY BREAK HIS NECK.

The narrator says TO PRODUCE MORE
IMPOSSIBLE ENGINEERING.
THE INTERNATIONAL
SPACE STATION TRAVELS IN LOW
EARTH ORBIT 400 KILOMETRES
ABOVE THE PLANET.
MOVING AT OVER 17,000 MILES PER
HOUR, ORBITING THE WORLD EVERY
90 MINUTES, THIS COSMIC
LABORATORY IS PROVIDING
SCIENTISTS WITH A STAGING POST
FOR DEEP SPACE EXPLORATION.
FOR ASTRONAUT MAJOR TIM PEAKE,
GETTING THERE IS THE JOURNEY
OF A LIFETIME.

A newscaster says THE LIFTOFF OF
TIM KOPRA, YURI MALENCHENKO,
AND TIMOTHY PEAKE.

Major Peake says THAT
8-MINUTE, 48-SECOND RIDE INTO
SPACE IS JUST THE MOST
THRILLING RIDE YOU CAN POSSIBLY
IMAGINE.

The narrator says WITH DEMAND FOR
TRAVEL TO THE STATION EVER
INCREASING, DEVELOPING A FLEET
OF REUSABLE SPACECRAFT IS
ESSENTIAL.
AND AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURER
BOEING IS RISING TO THE
CHALLENGE.

The caption changes to "Melanie Weber. Boeing CST-100 Starliner Design Engineer."

Melanie is in her thirties, with long slightly wavy black hair and wears jeans and a magenta shirt.

Melanie says THIS IS GOING
TO BE INCREDIBLY DIFFICULT, SO
NOT ONLY DO WE HAVE TO DESIGN A
VEHICLE THAT CAN TAKE THE LOADS
EXPERIENCED ON LAUNCH, THE HIGH
TEMPERATURES ON ORBIT, THE HIGH
TEMPERATURES IN RE-ENTRY, AND
THE IMPACTS ON LANDING, WE'RE
GOING TO HAVE TO REFURBISH IT,
TURN IT AROUND, RE-CERTIFY IT,
AND THEN FLY IT ALL OVER AGAIN.

The narrator says AEROSPACE ENGINEER
MELANIE WEBER IS PART OF THE
TEAM DESIGNING THE COMPANY'S
FIRST REUSABLE SPACE CAPSULE.

Melanie says THE BOEING
CST-100 STARLINER IS A SPACE
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM WHICH IS
COMPRISED OF A PRESSURIZED CREW
MODULE AND A SERVICE MODULE.

The narrator says UNDERPINNED BY
DECADES OF NASA RESEARCH, THE
STARLINER HAS ONE INCREDIBLE
DESIGN CHANGE.
UNLIKE ALL PREVIOUS CAPSULES
THAT HAVE LANDED IN THE WATER,
IT WILL BE THE FIRST U.S.
CREW MODULE TO LAND ON SOLID
GROUND.

Melanie says IN THE PAST,
WATER LANDINGS WERE FAVOURED
BECAUSE WE HAD A LOT OF OCEAN
OUT THERE TO LAND ON, AND THE
WATER WAS GOOD AT ATTENUATING
THE IMPACT.
BUT UNFORTUNATELY, IT'S NOT
REALLY GOOD AT REUSABILITY OF
A VEHICLE.
LANDING ON LAND, OF COURSE,
PRESENTS A UNIQUE SET OF
CHALLENGES, AND THERE'S BEEN A
LOT OF ANALYSIS AND MODELS THAT
WE'VE HAD TO GO THROUGH.
THERE IS NO SECOND CHANCES WHEN
IT COMES TO LANDING ON LAND.

The narrator says SO, HOW DO YOU
DESIGN A MODULE THAT CAN
SURVIVE A GROUND IMPACT AFTER
TRAVELLING FROM SPACE?
TO ATTEMPT THIS FEAT, ENGINEERS
NEED TO LOOK TO THE INNOVATORS
OF THE PAST.
ONCE UPON A TIME, CRASHING
WASN'T REALLY A PROBLEM, AS
EVERYTHING MOVED SO SLOWLY.

In animation, a gentleman bumps into another on the street.

He says OOH!
TERRIBLY SORRY, OLD CHAP.

The other gentleman says NOT AT ALL, OLD BEAN!

The narrator says BUT AS TRANSPORT
BECAME FASTER...

A man riding a carriage says YEE-HAW!

The narrator says ACCIDENTS BECAME
MORE DANGEROUS.

Suddenly, the horses stop in front of a huge cactus and shoot the man off the carriage.

The man says AAAHH!
CONSARN IT!

The narrator says HOWEVER, IT WASN'T
UNTIL THE INVENTION OF THE
MOTOR CAR...

A car driver says WOO HOO!
HEY, GIRLS!

He crashes into a tree.
[car crashing]
[groaning]

The narrator says THAT SAFETY WAS
TAKEN SERIOUSLY.
AND IN 1959, SWEDISH INVENTOR
NILS BOHLIN RELEASED THE PATENT
FOR THE THREE-POINT SAFETY BELT
THAT WE KNOW TODAY.
[tires screeching]

A cart stops when he sees moose in the middle of the road.

[honking]
[moose grunting]

The narrator says BUT AS THE MOTOR CAR REALLY
TOOK OFF, IT BECAME CLEAR THAT
MORE WAS NEEDED.
AT THE THATCHAM VEHICLE TEST
CENTRE IN THE SOUTH OF ENGLAND,
PHYSICIST SUZIE SHEEHY IS
INVESTIGATING HOW THE NEED FOR
CAR SAFETY INSPIRED SOME SMART
ENGINEERING.

The caption changes to "Doctor Suzie Sheeny. Accelerator Physicist. University of Oxford."

Suzie is in her thirties, with shoulder-length slightly wavy red hair and wears jeans, a white top and a navy blue blazer.

Suzie says WE'RE
ABOUT TO RUN A TEST SIMULATING
A FRONTAL IMPACT AS IF THIS RIG
WAS BEING HIT FROM THE FRONT,
EXERTING A FORCE OF 16Gs ON OUR
DUMMY FRIEND HERE.

The narrator says UNLIKE HISTORICAL
METHODS OF CRASH TESTING,
INSTEAD OF MOVING TOWARDS AN
OBJECT, WHEN ACTIVATED, THE
PNEUMATICALLY POWERED SLED WILL
FIRE THE CAR BACKWARDS,
REPLICATING THE FORCES OF A
HEAD-ON IMPACT AT 31 MILES PER
HOUR IN JUST 125 MILLISECONDS.

Suzie says DO YOU
THINK HE KNOWS WHAT'S COMING?

The controller says THREE, TWO, ONE.
[loud bang]
[machine vibrates]

Suzie says THAT WENT
SO FAST!
ALMOST GAVE ME A HEART ATTACK.
[machine buzzing]
[machine hissing]

The narrator says PLAYING THE
FOOTAGE BACK IN SLOW MOTION
REVEALS THE TRUE FORCE OF THE
COLLISION.

Suzie says SO, I CAN
SEE HIM SLIDING FORWARDS REALLY
VIOLENTLY TOWARDS THE DASH.
IT'S QUITE DISTURBING.
OH, OH, HIS HEAD'S COME ALL THE
WAY DOWN, CRANING HIS NECK.
OKAY, THAT LOOKS PAINFUL.
IT LOOKS LIKE IT COULD
POTENTIALLY BREAK HIS NECK.

The narrator says EARLY ATTEMPTS TO
SOLVE THIS POSSIBLY FATAL
PROBLEM PRODUCED A DASHBOARD
AIRBAG, BUT IT HAD LITTLE
SUCCESS, RAPID INFLATION BEING
THE MAIN HURDLE.
BUT IN 1968, EXPLOSIVES EXPERT
ALLEN BREED FOUND A SOLUTION.

Suzie says BREED
REALIZED THAT AN EXPLOSION
COULD CREATE A LOT OF GAS
REALLY QUICKLY.
SO, WHAT HE USED WAS A TRIGGER
SENSOR AND A COMPOUND CALLED
SODIUM AZIDE, WHICH RELEASES A
LOT OF NITROGEN REALLY QUICKLY
WHEN IT'S HEATED.
AND THAT WAS ALL PACKED IN TO A
SECTION IN THE CENTRE OF THE
STEERING WHEEL, BUT THAT DIDN'T
SOLVE ALL THE PROBLEMS OF
THE AIRBAG.
THIS IS THE PROBLEM THAT BREED
HAD TO OVERCOME.
THIS ROASTING BAG HERE
REPRESENTS MY AIRBAG.
[blowing]

She blows into the bag.

[bag crinkling]

She says SO, IF I SQUEEZE IT, RATHER
THAN BEING SOFT, THE AIR
PRESSURE INSIDE MEANS IT'S
ACTUALLY QUITE HARD.
AND RATHER THAN ABSORBING THE
IMPACT OF THE CRASH, YOU WOULD
JUST BOUNCE STRAIGHT BACK OFF
IT, WHICH WILL POTENTIALLY MAKE
THE INJURIES MUCH WORSE.
WHAT ALLEN BREED CAME UP WITH
WAS A SYSTEM OF VENTS SPECIALLY
DESIGNED TO LET GAS ESCAPE
AFTER IT HAD BEEN INFLATED.
SO, IF I CUT SOME VENT HOLES IN
THIS ONE.

She cuts a corner of the bag.

[blowing]
[bag crinkling]

She says THIS TIME, THE BAG DEFLATES
SLOWLY, CUSHIONING THE BLOW AND
ABSORBING THE IMPACT.
IT'S A SIMPLE BUT INGENUOUS
SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM.

The narrator says TO DEMONSTRATE THE
BRILLIANCE OF BREED'S DESIGN,
THE TEST IS BEING RUN AGAIN.

Suzie says I FEEL
NERVOUS.
[laughs]

The narrator says BUT THIS TIME, THE
CAR HAS BEEN FITTED WITH A
MODERN AIRBAG SYSTEM.
[loud bang]

Suzie says OH, MY
GOD!
SO, THE BAG'S DEFINITELY GONE
OFF.
ACTUALLY, LET'S SEE IF WE CAN
FIND THE VENTS AROUND HERE.
YEAH, SO HERE'S THE VENTS THAT
ACTUALLY LET THE GAS OUT AGAIN.

The narrator says AND IN SLOW
MOTION, THE GENIUS OF BREED'S
CONCEPT IS EVEN CLEARER.

Suzie says JUST
THERE, JUST BEFORE HE HIT THE
BAG, IT WAS ACTUALLY ALREADY
DEFLATING BECAUSE THE VENTS IN
THE SIDE ARE DESIGNED TO
RELEASE JUST THE RIGHT AMOUNT
OF GAS AND THEN START DEFLATING
SO THAT AS HE HITS IT, THE
DEFLATION IS ABSORBING THE
IMPACT OF THE CRASH.

The narrator says IT'S ESTIMATED
THIS INCREDIBLE INNOVATION...
HAS SO FAR SAVED THE LIVES OF
OVER 40,000 PEOPLE IN THE USA
ALONE.

(music plays)

The narrator says BOEING ENGINEERS HAVE TAKEN THE
PRINCIPLE OF THE CAR AIRBAG AND
SUPERSIZED IT.

Melanie says WHAT WE HAVE
IN FRONT HERE IS A FLIGHT-LIKE,
FULL-SCALE OUTER AIRBAG
ASSEMBLY.
[module roaring]
AS WE'RE RE-ENTERING THE
ATMOSPHERE, WE'LL BE GOING
SUPERSONIC, AND THE PARACHUTES
WILL DECELERATE US TO ABOUT 10
TO 30 MILES PER HOUR ON
LANDING.

The narrator says AND THAT'S WHERE
THE CUSHIONING SYSTEM COMES
INTO PLAY.
POSITIONED UNDERNEATH THE
CAPSULE'S HEAT SHIELD, THE SIX
GIANT AIRBAGS ARE INFLATED AS
THE CAPSULE DRIFTS BACK DOWN TO
EARTH.

Melanie says THEY ARE
FILLED USING A SERIES OF
HIGH-PRESSURIZED GAS BOTTLES
THAT ARE FLOWED INTO THE AIRBAG
ASSEMBLIES THROUGH A SERIES OF
MANIFOLDS AND VALVES.

The narrator says AND JUST LIKE
BREED'S CAR AIRBAG INNOVATION,
ENSURING THE VENT SIZE IS
CORRECT IS CRUCIAL TO A SAFE
LANDING.

Melanie says AS WE LAND,
THE AIRBAGS WILL CUSHION THE
VEHICLE AND VENTS WILL OPEN UP
TO ALLOW THE GAS IN THE AIRBAGS
TO ESCAPE.
THAT'S IMPORTANT BECAUSE IF
THEY DIDN'T ESCAPE, THESE BAGS
WOULD BE RIGID AND YOU COULD
ACTUALLY BOUNCE OFF UPON
LANDING.

A clip shows the vehicle landing.

[loud poof sound]

The narrator says ALTHOUGH IT MAY
SEEM LIKE AN ABRUPT LANDING,
THE SYSTEM CUSHIONS THE CAPSULE
SO WELL, EACH STARLINER WILL BE
ABLE TO MAKE THE 400-KILOMETRE
JOURNEY TO THE ISS UP TO
TEN TIMES.

Melanie says IN MY
OPINION, THE AIRBAG INFLATION
SYSTEM IS ONE OF THE MOST
UNIQUE ENGINEERING MARVELS TO
COME OUT OF SPACEFLIGHT.

[loud impact]

The narrator says PROVIDING
COST-EFFECTIVE TRAVEL TO THE
SPACE STATION IS ONE CHALLENGE.
MAINTAINING ITS STRUCTURE ONCE
THERE IS QUITE ANOTHER, WHICH
REQUIRES MORE HELP FROM
HISTORY'S INNOVATORS.

A diver says "In many ways, the technology I'm using right now is exactly the same technology as divers have used about 150 years ago, when we were first starting to explore the sea floor."

The narrator says TO CREATE MORE
IMPOSSIBLE ENGINEERING.

(music plays)

The narrator says THE INTERNATIONAL
SPACE STATION, THE LARGEST
COSMIC LABORATORY EVER BUILT
AND A HOTBED OF CUTTING-EDGE
RESEARCH.

Major Peake says THE WORK
ONBOARD THE SPACE STATION
IS REALLY FOCUSED ON DOING AS
MUCH SCIENCE AS POSSIBLE.
IN ANY SIX-MONTH PERIOD, WE
WILL CONDUCT ABOUT 250 TO 300
EXPERIMENTS ONBOARD THE SPACE
STATION.

The narrator says ORBITING THE EARTH
FOR ALMOST TWO DECADES, THIS
MONUMENTAL PIECE OF SPACE
HARDWARE IS THE PROVING GROUND
FOR ALL FUTURE SPACE
TECHNOLOGY.
FOR NASA PROJECT MANAGER RAJIB
DASGUPTA, THAT MEANS FOCUSING
ON A VERY SPECIFIC CHALLENGE.

The caption changes to "Rajib Dasgupta. BEAM Project Manager."

Rajib is in his early forties, clean-shaven and with short brown hair. He wears glasses, gray trousers and a white shirt.

Rajib says EVENTUALLY,
WHEN WE GO TO MOON OR THE MARS,
WE WILL NEED LONG DURATION
HABITATS FOR THE ASTRONAUTS TO
LIVE.

The narrator says HABITATION
MODULES, LIKE THOSE ON ISS, ARE
EIGHT-BY-FOUR-METRE, HIGH-GRADE
ALUMINIUM, DELIVERED VIA THE
SPACE SHUTTLE.
[rocket boosters rumbling]
BUT, AS THE EMERGING FLEET OF
NEW SPACE VEHICLES HAVE A
FRACTION OF THE SHUTTLE'S
CAPACITY, ENGINEERS HAVE COME
UP WITH A MIND-BOGGLING
SOLUTION...
EXPANDABLE MODULES.

Rajib says WHAT YOU SEE
IS A FULL-SCALE MOCKUP OF THE
BIGELOW EXPANDABLE ACTIVITY
MODULE.
THE MAIN ADVANTAGE OF AN
EXPANDABLE MODULE IS TO PROVIDE
A PERMANENT HABITATION SYSTEM
THAT COULD BE LAUNCHED AT
FRACTION OF ITS FINAL VOLUME.
RIGHT NOW, THIS MODULE IS ON
THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE
STATION.

The narrator says PACKED FOR LAUNCH,
THIS MODULE MEASURES JUST
2.4 METRES IN DIAMETER.
BUT ONCE INFLATED, ITS INTERNAL
HABITABLE VOLUME IS 16 CUBIC
METRES.
COMPOSED OF TWO METAL BULKHEADS
AND MULTIPLE LAYERS OF FABRIC
INCLUDING KEVLAR-LIKE MATERIAL,
WHICH IS USED IN BULLETPROOF
VESTS, IT'S DESIGNED TO
WITHSTAND BOTH INTERNAL
PRESSURE AND SURVIVE THE
EXTREMES OF SPACE.

Rajib says WHEN YOU PUT
AIR IN THERE, IT'LL EXPAND AND
EXPAND AND EXPAND, BUT IT WON'T
BURST.
THAT EXACTLY HAPPENS BECAUSE OF
THE KEVLAR-LIKE STRUCTURAL
RESTRAINT IS PRESENT, BECAUSE
IT'S TAKING THE LOADS THAT
RESISTS THE ACTION TO BURST.

The narrator says IN APRIL 2016,
BEAM IS DELIVERED TO THE SPACE
STATION TO BEGIN A TWO-YEAR
TRIAL.
AFTER BERTHING, IT'S INFLATED
BY USING AIR FROM INSIDE THE
STATION.
ONCE IT'S REACHED FULL LENGTH,
EIGHT TANKS ARE THEN OPENED
INSIDE THE MODULE, FILLING IT
TO ITS FINAL PRESSURE.
FOR ASTRONAUT MAJOR TIM PEAKE,
IT WAS A MOMENT TO REMEMBER.

Major Peake says THE
EXPANDING PROCESS WAS VERY
INTERESTING TO SEE.
IT ACTUALLY SOUNDED LIKE
POPCORN GOING OFF...
AS SLOWLY THE AIR PRESSURE
EXPANDED THE MODULE, BREAKING
THE SMALL STRAPS THAT WERE
KEEPING IT COMPACTED.

The narrator says WHILST ON TRIAL,
ASTRONAUTS WILL COLLECT DATA
AND MONITOR BEAM'S PERFORMANCE.

Rajib says EXPANDABLES
CAN REALLY REVOLUTIONIZE
DEEP SPACE HABITATS.
IT SEEMS STRANGE THAT FABRICS
WILL OFFER THE STRUCTURAL
CAPABILITY AS A METAL MODULE,
BUT, IN FACT, THEY DO, AND THE
KEVLAR OR KEVLAR-LIKE RESTRAINT
MATERIALS, THEY ACTUALLY OFFER
HIGHER STRENGTH THAN ALUMINIUM
ON AN EQUAL-TO-EQUAL WEIGHT
BASIS.
SO, BECAUSE OF THAT, THE
STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF THESE
EXPANDABLE MODULES ARE
EXTREMELY GOOD.

The narrator says AS THE STATION
CONTINUES TO GROW IN THE HARSH
CONDITIONS OF SPACE,
MAINTAINING ITS STRUCTURAL
INTEGRITY IS VITAL FOR IT TO
SURVIVE.

Major Peake says WHEN YOU
THINK ABOUT HOW THE SPACE
STATION STARTED AND THE
DEMANDING, HARSH ENVIRONMENT
OF THE VACUUM, THE THERMAL
EXTREMES, THE RADIATION, THE
MICROMETEORITES, IT'S A TRULY
REMARKABLE FEAT OF
ENGINEERING.

The narrator says AS REMARKABLE AS
IT IS, THE EXTREME ENVIRONMENT
POSES A CONSTANT THREAT.

Major Peake says THERE'S
PLENTY OF EVIDENCE OF THE SPACE
STATION BEING STRUCK BY SPACE
DEBRIS.
YOU CAN SEE CHIPS IN THE
WINDOW; FOR EXAMPLE, IN THE
CUPOLA WINDOW, ONE OF THEM HAS
A SIGNIFICANT CHIP IN IT CAUSED
BY SPACE DEBRIS.

The narrator says WITH THE CHIP MADE
BY AN OBJECT NO BIGGER THAN A
FLECK OF PAINT, ISS IS
VULNERABLE TO DAMAGE FROM THE
SMALLEST PARTICLES.
AND TO CARRY OUT REPAIRS,
ASTRONAUTS MUST PERFORM REGULAR
SPACEWALKS.

The caption changes to "Rob Boyle. Environmental Control Systems."

Rob is in his fifties, clean-shaven and with short wavy gray hair. He wears glasses, jeans and a cream shirt.

Rob says IT'S NOT A PLACE
PEOPLE WERE MEANT TO BE.
IT TAKES HARDWARE TO BE IN
SPACE.

The narrator says TO ENTER AN
ENVIRONMENT SO COMPLETELY ALIEN
TO HUMAN LIFE REQUIRES SOME
EXTREMELY COMPLEX ENGINEERING.
AEROSPACE ENGINEER ROB BOYLE IS
WELL AWARE OF THE CHALLENGES.

Rob says THE SPACESUIT
HAS TO ALLOW YOU TO LOCOMOTE
AROUND THE SPACECRAFT, IT HAS
TO PROVIDE PRESSURE, IT HAS TO
KEEP YOU THERMALLY COMFORTABLE,
AND IT HAS TO ALLOW YOU TO
COMMUNICATE WITH YOUR OTHER
CREW MEMBERS.
SO, EVERY SUBSYSTEM YOU THINK
OF IN A NORMAL SPACECRAFT
EXISTS IN A SPACESUIT.

The narrator says ONE OF THE MOST
COMPLEX PROBLEMS IS HOW TO
PROVIDE ASTRONAUTS WITH ENOUGH
OXYGEN OVER A LONG PERIOD
OUTSIDE THE STATION.

Rob says YOU NEED AN
ENORMOUS AMOUNT OF AIR TO DO A
SIX-HOUR SPACEWALK WITH
STRAIGHT TANKAGE.
SO, SINCE OXYGEN IS SUCH A
CRITICAL RESOURCE IN SPACE, WE
WANT TO USE IT AS EFFICIENTLY
AS POSSIBLE.

The narrator says SO, WITH OXYGEN IN
LIMITED SUPPLY, HOW CAN
ENGINEERS PROVIDE LIFE SUPPORT
FOR ASTRONAUTS ON A SIX- TO
EIGHT-HOUR SPACEWALK?
TO FIND AN ANSWER, THEY CALL
UPON YET ANOTHER GREAT
INNOVATOR FROM THE PAST.

A clip shows a diver exploring the bottom of the sea with a caption that reads "Luke Bisby. Professor of Engineering."

He says "Wow it's really amazing down here, I can see sharks, sea turtles, all sorts of sea life."

The narrator says ENGINEER LUKE
BISBY HAS COME TO AN AQUARIUM
IN MANCHESTER IN THE U.K. TO
DISCOVER HOW SCIENCE MASTERED
THE ART OF BREATHING UNDER
WATER.

Luke says "In many ways, the technology I'm using right now is exactly the same technology as divers have used about 150 years ago, when we were first starting to explore the sea floor. My air is being supplied through this tube at the side of my helmet and the weight of this apparatus that' sitting on my shoulders is actually pushing me down onto the sea floor. Now of course there are limitations to this system. With the tube attached to my helmet, I can only go so far, and in this well-lit open tank, it's no problem, but in a confined space it could be really problematic. The tube could get caught or snagged on something, and could even break and obviously that would spell disaster."

The narrator says BUT IN 1878,
PIONEERING DIVE ENGINEER HENRY
FLEUSS, WHO'D EXPERIENCED THESE
PROBLEMS FIRSTHAND, CAME UP
WITH AN INGENIOUS SOLUTION.
DRAWING ON HIS KNOWLEDGE OF
CHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY, HE
BUILT A DEVICE WHICH HAD THE
POTENTIAL TO REVOLUTIONIZE
BREATHING UNDER WATER.

Luke is in his forties, with short gray hair and a shadow of a beard. He wears jeans and a gray shirt.

Luke says WHEN WE BREATHE,
WE CONVERT OXYGEN INTO CARBON
DIOXIDE, BUT NOT ALL OF THE
OXYGEN THAT WE BREATHE IN IS
CONVERTED.
IN FACT, ABOUT 75 PERCENT OF
THAT OXYGEN REMAINS IN THE AIR
THAT WE EXHALE.
NOW, FLEUSS'S IDEA WAS TO
RECYCLE OUR BREATH, FILTERING
OUT THE CARBON DIOXIDE AND
TOPPING UP THE OXYGEN.

The narrator says THE BASIC
PRINCIPLE OF HIS DESIGN CAN BE
SEEN ON THIS FLEUSS-INSPIRED
BREATHING APPARATUS, ONCE USED
BY FIREFIGHTERS.

He straps on a vest with the breathing apparatus inside.

Luke says WHEN THEY
EXHALE, THE GAS WOULD PASS
THROUGH THIS TUBE AND DOWN INTO
THIS SCRUBBER BAG HERE, AND
THIS IS WHERE THE CARBON
DIOXIDE IS REMOVED.
THE GAS WOULD THEN PASS UP
THROUGH THIS VALVE WHERE THE
OXYGEN LEVELS ARE TOPPED UP
USING THIS TANK OF OXYGEN
THAT'S ON MY BACK, AND THE AIR
THEN PASSES INTO THIS CHAMBER
WHERE IT MIXES BEFORE THEN
PASSING BACK UP TO THE
MOUTHPIECE TO GIVE THE MAKEUP
AIR FOR THE DIVER.
AND THIS IS CALLED A
REBREATHER, AND IT ALLOWS
DIVERS TO SAFELY USE ALL OF THE
OXYGEN IN THE AIR RATHER THAN
JUST A SMALL PROPORTION OF IT.

The narrator says FLEUSS TRIED TO
INTEREST THE ROYAL NAVY IN HIS
REBREATHER, BUT WITH LITTLE
SUCCESS.
HOWEVER, HE WOULD SOON GET THE
OPPORTUNITY TO PROVE ITS
BRILLIANCE ON THE BIGGEST
ENGINEERING PROJECT OF THE DAY.

Luke says NOW, THIS IS A
PLACE THAT VERY FEW PEOPLE GET
TO SEE FIRSTHAND.
I'M INSIDE THE SEVERN TUNNEL
UNDERNEATH THE SEVERN RIVER.
AND THIS WAS A PROJECT OF
ASTRONOMICAL PROPORTIONS WHEN
IT WAS FIRST CONCEIVED.

The narrator says BEGUN IN 1873,
THIS RAIL TUNNEL, MORE THAN
FOUR MILES LONG, WAS DESIGNED
TO CONNECT ENGLAND AND WALES.
BUT SOON, DISASTER STRUCK, WHEN
WORKERS ON THE WELSH SIDE HIT
AN UNDERGROUND SPRING, FLOODING
THE WORKS COMPLETELY.

Luke says A SERIES OF
WATERTIGHT DOORS HAD BEEN
INSTALLED TO ISOLATE ANY
SERIOUS LEAKS, BUT IN THE RUSH
TO ESCAPE THE FLOOD, THE
WORKERS DIDN'T MANAGE TO GET
THEM SHUT.
ENGINEERS COULDN'T BEGIN
PUMPING OUT THE WATER WITHOUT
CLOSING THE DOORS.

The narrator says USING A
TRADITIONAL SURFACE-FED
BREATHING SYSTEM, ONE OF THE
PROJECT'S PROFESSIONAL DIVERS,
ALEXANDER LAMBERT, MANAGED TO
GET WITHIN 30 METRES BEFORE HIS
AIR HOSE SNAGGED.
DESPERATE FOR A SOLUTION,
FLEUSS AND HIS EXPERIMENTAL
SYSTEM WERE SUMMONED.

Luke says USING FLEUSS'S
REBREATHER WAS INCREDIBLY
DANGEROUS.
IT WAS LARGELY UNTRIED AND
LAMBERT HAD NO IDEA HOW LONG
HE'D BEEN UNDER OR HOW MUCH
OXYGEN HE HAD REMAINING.

The narrator says LAMBERT HAD TO
MAKE THE JOURNEY TWICE BEFORE
HE WAS SUCCESSFUL, AND SPENT A
TOTAL OF ALMOST THREE HOURS
UNDER WATER.

Luke says TODAY, THE GREAT
SPRING IS SAFELY SEALED BEHIND
THE TUNNEL WALLS, BUT BACK THEN
LAMBERT HAD TO FORCE SHUT A
HEAVY METAL DOOR IN ORDER FOR
IT TO BE CONTAINED.

The narrator says WITH THE TUNNEL
SECURE, IT COULD BE PUMPED OUT
AND THE WORK COMPLETED.
ONE PORTABLE PIECE OF
ENGINEERING HAD MADE A
RECORD-BREAKING PIECE OF
ENGINEERING POSSIBLE.

Luke says FOR 100 YEARS,
THIS REMAINED THE LONGEST
UNDERWATER TUNNEL ANYWHERE IN
THE WORLD, AND THIS INCREDIBLE
ENGINEERING ACHIEVEMENT
COULDN'T HAVE BEEN POSSIBLE
WITHOUT HENRY FLEUSS AND HIS
AMAZING REBREATHER.

(music plays)

The narrator says BACK AT NASA, THE
TEAM HAVE USED THE ENGINEERING
BEHIND FLEUSS'S INVENTION TO
CREATE A ONE-PERSON SPACECRAFT.

Rob says THIS IS THE NASA
E.M.U., OR EXTRAVEHICULAR
MOBILITY UNIT.
IT'S WHAT ASTRONAUTS USE ON THE
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION
WHEN THEY DO A SPACEWALK.
THE NASA SPACESUIT HAS LIFE
SUPPORT BACKPACK THAT'S ON THE
BACK.
IT HAS A HELMET; THE HELMET HAS
VARIOUS VISORS AND VARIOUS
SUNSCREENS TO ALLOW USE IN ALL
ENVIRONMENTS, DARK OR BRIGHT.
THE CREW MEMBER HAS A DISPLAY
AND CONTROL MODULE HERE; THIS
IS WHERE THE CREW MEMBER
INTERFACES WITH THE SPACESUIT.

The narrator says LIKE FLEUSS'S
REBREATHER, THE PRIMARY LIFE
SUPPORT SYSTEM WORN ON THE BACK
PROVIDES BREATHABLE AIR.
A CENTRIFUGAL FAN DRAWS EXHALED
BREATH INTO THE UNIT.
CARBON DIOXIDE IS FILTERED;
HUMIDITY IS REMOVED BEFORE MORE
OXYGEN IS ADDED AND FED BACK
INTO THE HELMET.
IN ALL, A SUPPLEMENT OF ONLY
1.2 POUNDS OF OXYGEN IS NEEDED
FOR AN EIGHT-HOUR SPACEWALK.

Rob says THE OXYGEN
TANKAGE, AS FAR AS EFFICIENCY
IN THIS SUIT, IS VERY STATE OF
THE ART.
YOU CAN'T BUILD A SMALLER
OXYGEN SYSTEM THAT WOULD
PROVIDE WHAT WE NEED.
IT'S AN INCREDIBLE PIECE OF
ENGINEERING.

The narrator says AND ONCE INSIDE,
THE E.M.U. PROVIDES THE PERFECT
BARRIER BETWEEN MAN AND SPACE.

Major Peake says THE
SPACESUIT IS NOT THE MOST
COMFORTABLE THING TO WEAR.
YOU HAVE TO PUT THE LEGS ON
FIRST AND THEN YOU KIND OF HAVE
TO GET INTO THE UPPER TORSO.
IT'S A BIT LIKE A CAVING
EXPEDITION; YOU HAVE TO GO
UNDERNEATH IT, BOTH ARMS UP,
AND THEN YOUR ARMS COME OUT.
THE MOST IMPORTANT THING THOUGH
ARE THE GLOVES.
YOU'VE GOT TO TRY AND GET AS
MUCH DEXTERITY IN YOUR FINGERS
SO THAT YOU CAN DO THE
IMPORTANT WORK OUTSIDE.
TO PUT THAT INTO PERSPECTIVE,
WE HAVE TWO SIZES OF BOOT, BUT
THERE ARE 47 SIZES OF GLOVE.
THAT'S HOW IMPORTANT THEY ARE.

The narrator says ALSO CRUCIAL TO
MAINTAINING DEXTERITY IS
WORKING AT LOW PRESSURE INSIDE
THE SUIT.
BEFORE EACH SPACEWALK,
ASTRONAUTS MUST BREATHE PURE
OXYGEN FOR SEVERAL HOURS,
RIDDING THEIR BODIES OF
NITROGEN THAT ALTERS AT LOW
PRESSURE.
ONCE CONDITIONED, THEY'RE READY
TO DEPRESSURIZE AND GO OUTSIDE.

Rob says IT FEELS VERY
GOOD TO BE PART OF THE FUTURE
OF ISS AND THE FUTURE OF
SPACEWALKS AND THE FUTURE OF
NASA.
WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE ADVANCED
SPACESUIT TEAMS, THEY COME TO
US FOR STATE OF THE ART.
THEY SAY, WHAT ARE YOU GUYS
DOING AND HOW CAN WE ADAPT THAT
TO GO BACK TO THE MOON, TO GO
TO MARS, GO WHEREVER THEY WANT
TO GO?
IT'S FANTASTIC TO BE PART OF
IT.

The narrator says BUT BEING EQUIPPED
WITH THE MOST TECHNICALLY
ADVANCED SPACESUIT IS ONLY ONE
PART OF THE CHALLENGE.
TAKING THE LEAP OUTSIDE
REQUIRES MORE INSPIRATION FROM
THE TRAILBLAZING INNOVATORS OF
THE PAST.

Up on the Eiffel Tower, Andrew says WOW, THIS
IS COOL, A TESTAMENT TO THE
BRILLIANCE OF THE MEN AND WOMEN
INVOLVED IN THIS INCREDIBLE
PIECE OF ENGINEERING.

Andrew is in his thirties, with short curly brown hair and a beard and wears jeans and a blue jacket.

The narrator says TO CREATE MORE
IMPOSSIBLE ENGINEERING.

(music plays)

The narrator says CONSTRUCTED OVER
13 YEARS, ACROSS 40 MISSIONS,
THE ISS IS THE LARGEST MANMADE
OBJECT IN SPACE.
CONSISTING OF 15 PRESSURIZED
MODULES INCLUDING THREE
LABORATORIES, ISS HAS THE
INTERNAL VOLUME OF A
SIX-BEDROOM HOUSE.
BUT NOT ALL OF THE ASTRONAUTS'
WORK IS CARRIED OUT INSIDE.

Major Peake says ASTRONAUTS
NEED TO GO OUTSIDE THE SPACE
STATION PRIMARILY TO REPAIR IT
AND TO DO MAINTENANCE
ACTIVITY, BUT ALSO TO DO
SCIENCE ACTIVITY AS WELL.

The narrator says BUT LEAVING THE
STATION, AS FLIGHT OPERATIONS
ENGINEER AARON DECKER KNOWS
ONLY TOO WELL, IS FAR FROM
STRAIGHTFORWARD.

The caption changes to Aaron Becker. EVA Systems Engineer."

Aaron is in his late thirties, clean-shaven and with very short brown hair. He wears gray trousers and a striped blue shirt.

Aaron says YOU CAN
IMAGINE IF YOU JUST OPENED UP A
HATCH, ALL THE ATMOSPHERE IN
THE SPACE STATION IS GOING TO
GO OUT INTO SPACE.
SO, WE NEED THE ABILITY TO
BREAK OFF JUST A SMALL VOLUME
SO THE ASTRONAUTS CAN GO
OUTSIDE AND WE DON'T WASTE ALL
OF THE ATMOSPHERE THAT'S IN THE
REST OF THE SPACE STATION.

The narrator says SO, HOW DO YOU
MAINTAIN THE PRESSURE INSIDE
THE STATION, BUT ALLOW THE
ASTRONAUTS TO WALK OUTSIDE?
THE TEAM AT NASA NEED TO CALL
ON ANOTHER GREAT INNOVATOR FROM
THE PAST.

Andrew says THIS IS
AMAZING.

The narrator says PHYSICIST ANDREW
STEELE HAS COME TO THE TOP OF
THE EIFFEL TOWER TO DISCOVER
THE ENGINEERING SECRET BEHIND
THIS ICONIC MARVEL.

The caption changes to "Doctor Andrew Steele. Physicist."

Andrew says WOW,
THIS IS COOL.
NORMALLY YOU'D NEVER BE ABLE TO
COME HERE, AND THIS IS A
BEAUTIFUL VIEW OF PARIS.

The narrator says BUILT BY RENOWNED
FRENCH ENGINEER GUSTAVE EIFFEL
AND STANDING OVER 300 METRES
TALL, THE EIFFEL TOWER IS ONE
OF THE MOST WELL-KNOWN
STRUCTURES IN THE WORLD.

Andrew says BUT
ACTUALLY, ALTHOUGH THIS IS A
GREAT VIEW OF PARIS, IT'S NOT
WHAT'S UP HERE THAT WE'RE
INTERESTED IN LOOKING AT.
WORK ON THE TOWER'S FOUNDATIONS
BEGAN ON THE 28TH OF JANUARY
1887, AND FOR THE SOUTH AND THE
EAST TOWERS, THE CONDITIONS OF
THE GROUND WERE PERFECT.

The narrator says COMPACT CLAY AND
GRAVEL PROVIDED SOLID SUPPORT,
BUT THE GROUND UNDER THE NORTH
AND WEST TOWERS NEAREST THE
RIVER SEINE WAS FAR FROM IDEAL.

Andrew says THE SEINE
CAUSED EIFFEL PROBLEMS BECAUSE
IT MEANT THAT THE GROUND WHERE
THE FOUNDATIONS WERE GOING TO
BE DUG ON THIS SIDE OF THE
TOWER WAS WATERLOGGED.
IF EIFFEL'S TOWER WAS GOING TO
GET BUILT, THEY'D NEED TO FIND
A WAY TO DIG THROUGH THAT
WATERLOGGED SOIL TO THE SOLID
BEDROCK BENEATH.

The narrator says TO PREVENT WATER
FLOODING HIS EXCAVATIONS,
EIFFEL TURNED TO CELEBRATED
FRENCH MINING ENGINEER JACQUES
TRIGER.
WORKING FROM EARLIER PATENTS,
TRIGER HAD DESIGNED A CUNNING
PRESSURIZED TUBE SYSTEM THAT
STOPPED GROUNDWATER FLOODING
A WORKING MINE SHAFT.

Andrew shows a small container filled with water and a toy man in the bottom.

He says SO,
IMAGINE THAT THIS TANK
REPRESENTS THAT WATERLOGGED
GROUND.
OBVIOUSLY, WE CAN SEE IT'S NOT
REALLY WORKING OUT VERY WELL
HERE FOR OUR LITTLE WORKER
CLAUDE, SO WHAT WE NEED IS THIS
THING, WHICH REPRESENTS
TRIGER'S TUBE.

He covers the toy with a plastic bottle with a tube attached.

He says AND JUST POP THAT INTO THE
WATER THERE.
IT'S GOT A LITTLE HOLE IN THE
BOTTOM WHICH HE CAN POKE
THROUGH, BUT YOU CAN SEE SO
FAR, NOT MUCH USE; HE'S STILL
VERY MUCH UNDER THE WATER.
SO, WHAT WE NEED TO DO IS
INCREASE THE PRESSURE INSIDE
THAT BOTTLE AND FORCE THE WATER
OUT.
I'M JUST GOING TO DO THAT BY
BLOWING.
OH, THERE WE GO.
AND AS LONG AS I KEEP MY THUMB
SAFELY OVER THE END HERE, THEN
THAT PRESSURIZED AIR STAYS IN
THERE AND FORCES THAT WATER TO
STAY OUTSIDE THE BOTTLE.
BUT WE VERY QUICKLY ENCOUNTER A
PROBLEM BECAUSE ONCE HE'S
FINISHED WITH THAT PICKAXE AND
WANTS TO GO HOME AND HAVE HIS
DINNER, HOW IS HE GOING TO GET
OUT OF THIS BOTTLE?
WELL, LET'S IMAGINE THAT HE
WANTS TO COME OUT OF THE TUBE.
THEN WE OPEN IT UP.
OH, NO, POOR LITTLE GUY.
THE WATER LEVEL JUST COMES BACK
UP TO WHERE IT WAS, AND I THINK
HE'S DROWNED.
SO, OBVIOUSLY, WHAT WE NEED IS
SOME KIND OF MECHANISM THAT CAN
ALLOW HIM TO LEAVE THAT CHAMBER
WITHOUT CHANGING THE PRESSURE.
THAT THING WAS CALLED A
PRESSURE BOX, AND THESE DAYS
WE'D CALL IT AN AIRLOCK.

The narrator says TO LEAVE THE
WORKING CHAMBER, THE CENTRAL
CHAMBER WAS PRESSURIZED TO THE
SAME ATMOSPHERE.
WORKERS THEN ENTERED THE
CENTRAL CHAMBER, WHICH WAS
GRADUALLY DEPRESSURIZED TO
NORMAL ATMOSPHERE.
THEY COULD THEN OPEN A SECOND
DOOR, LEADING OUTSIDE.
TO ENTER, THE PROCESS WAS
SIMPLY REVERSED.
TRIGER'S REVOLUTIONARY METAL
BOXES OR PNEUMATIC CAISSONS
WORKED AT THE EIFFEL TOWER WITH
GREAT SUCCESS.

Andrew says WHEN THEY
EVENTUALLY HIT THE BEDROCK
ABOUT 22 METRES DOWN, THEY
POURED QUICK-DRYING CEMENT INTO
THE HOLES AND TOPPED IT OFF
WITH LIMESTONE AND LAYERS OF
CUT STONE.
WHEN CONSTRUCTION WAS
COMPLETED, EIFFEL HAD THE NAMES
OF 72 ENGINEERS, SCIENTISTS,
AND MATHEMATICIANS WHO HE
THOUGHT HAD BEEN ESSENTIAL TO
THE SUCCESS OF THE PROJECT
ENGRAVED ON THE SIDE OF THE
TOWER.
AND ONE OF THOSE NAMES IS
JACQUES TRIGER.
A TESTAMENT TO THE BRILLIANCE
OF THE MEN AND WOMEN INVOLVED
IN THIS INCREDIBLE PIECE OF
ENGINEERING.

(music plays)

The narrator says AT THE JOHNSON
SPACE CENTER IN HOUSTON, NASA
ENGINEERS HAVE GIVEN TRIGER'S
AIRLOCKS A 21ST CENTURY
MAKEOVER.

Aaron says THIS IS THE
JOINT AIRLOCK MODULE ON THE
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.
THIS MODULE GIVES US THE
ABILITY TO GO OUT AND DO A
SPACEWALK.

The narrator says MEASURING OVER
FIVE METRES LONG AND FOUR
METRES WIDE, THE AIRLOCK IS THE
ASTRONAUTS' DOORWAY INTO THE
VACUUM OF SPACE.

Aaron says SO, IN HERE,
WE'RE LOOKING AT THE EQUIPMENT
LOCK, SO THIS IS THE VOLUME
WHERE THE ASTRONAUTS WILL SUIT
UP AND THEN, WHEN THEY'RE
FINISHED GETTING READY, THEY'LL
GO INTO THIS VOLUME HERE, WHICH
IS THE CREW LOCK.
AND THEN WE CLOSE THIS HATCH.
AND THAT ALLOWS US TO
DEPRESSURIZE THE CREW LOCK
PORTION TO VACUUM.
WHEN THE ASTRONAUTS STEP
OUTSIDE AND PERFORM A SPACEWALK
FOR THE FIRST TIME, IT'S AN
OUTSTANDING FEELING BECAUSE
WE'VE SPENT MONTHS, SOMETIMES
YEARS, TRAINING THESE CREW
MEMBERS, AND WE'VE SEEN THEM
FROM BEGINNERS WORK ALL THEIR
WAY UP TO BECOMING EXPERTS.
AND IT'S JUST A GREAT FEELING.

The narrator says IT'S A FEELING
TIM PEAKE IS FAMILIAR WITH.

Major Peake says FOR A
ROOKIE SPACEWALKER, IT'S
PROBABLY THE MOMENT OF MOST
APPREHENSION WHEN YOU KNOW
THAT YOU'RE LOSING ALL THE
AIR FROM SPACE AROUND YOU.
AND FOR ME, WHEN TIM KOPRA THEN
OPENED THE HATCH AND THE
SUNLIGHT KIND OF FLOODED IN,
THAT WAS THE BEST MOMENT
BECAUSE I WAS JUST SO READY TO
GO OUTSIDE AND GET TO WORK AND
START THIS SPACEWALK.
IT WAS WONDERFUL.

The controller says CREW, WATCH THE
TETHER LINES AS YOU COME OUT.

An astronaut says YEP.

The narrator says AND ONCE OUTSIDE,
IT WAS WORTH THE WAIT.

The controller says ALL RIGHT,
GENTLEMEN, LOOKING GREAT.
GLAD TO SEE YOU BOTH OUT THERE
TOGETHER ON THE TIP OF THE
WORLD.
SPECTACULAR.

Major Peake says EVERY
SPACEWALKER GETS A FEW MINUTES
JUST TO ADAPT TO THAT NEW
ENVIRONMENT AT THE BEGINNING
OF A SPACEWALK.

An astronaut says ALL THE
SAFETY TETHERS LOOK CLEAR.

The controller says GREAT NEWS;
THANKS, TIM.

Major Peake says FOR ME,
THAT WAS A WONDERFUL
OPPORTUNITY JUST TO LOOK DOWN
AT PLANET EARTH, AND THAT WAS
JUST WONDERFUL TO BE ABLE TO
SEE THAT.

The narrator says THE INTERNATIONAL
SPACE STATION IS MANKIND'S
GATEWAY TO THE REST OF THE
UNIVERSE.

Major Peake says THE
ENGINEERING THAT'S GONE INTO
THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE
STATION, IT IS PHENOMENAL.
OUR FUTURE IN TERMS OF
HUMANITY'S EXPLORATION OF THE
SOLAR SYSTEM, FOR ME, IS VERY
IMPORTANT, AND THE SPACE
STATION IS GOING TO HELP US
TAKE THOSE NEXT STEPPING
STONES.

The narrator says AND SUPPORTING
THOSE STEPS ARE SOME OF THE
BRIGHTEST MINDS IN AEROSPACE
ENGINEERING.

Melanie says I'M EXTREMELY
EXCITED TO BE A PART OF THIS.
IT'S SOMETHING THAT I'VE LIVED
MY WHOLE LIFE FOR.
I LOVE BEING PART OF HUMAN
SPACE EXPLORATION.

The narrator says BY DRAWING ON THE
INNOVATIONS OF THE PAST,
ADAPTING THEM, IMPROVING THEM,
AND MAKING DISCOVERIES OF THEIR
OWN, THESE GROUND-BREAKING
ENGINEERS ARE MAKING THE
IMPOSSIBLE POSSIBLE.

Major Peake says WHILST ON
THE GROUND THERE CAN BE
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE
NATIONS INVOLVED, IT SEEMS THAT
IN SPACE WE HAVE A GREAT
EXAMPLE OF HOW WE ALL WORK
TOGETHER TOWARDS A COMMON GOAL.
AND IT'S A HUGE PRIVILEGE TO
BE PART OF THAT.

Music plays as the end credits roll.

Narrated by Matthew Skilton.

Producer, Directors, Vincent Beeton, Matt Litchfield, Tim Williams and Tom Weller.

Executive producer, Neil Edwards.

Series Producer, Gill Hennessey.

Two Four Rights. Produced in association with Yesterday.

Copyright 2017, Two-four.

Watch: Ep. 4 -International Space Station