Video Transcript

(music plays)

An animation shows a shopping cart fill up with groceries.

The BBC logo appears.

Alice says EVERY DAY WE FACE A
HUGE NUMBER OF CHOICES ABOUT
FOOD.

Sean is in his thirties, clean-shaven and bald. He wears jeans and a black and white striped sweater.

Sean pushes a shopping cart and says EVERYTHING FROM WHAT
WE BUY....

Alice says TO WHETHER IT'S
GOOD FOR US....

Alice appears in a lab, analysing a sample of butter.

Alice is in her late thirties, with long straight blond hair with bangs in a half-do. She wears a printed blue and gray dress and a pendant necklace.

Tom is in his forties, clean-shaven and bald. He wears a white T-shirt and a striped apron.

Tom says AND HOW TO COOK IT.

Tom squirts a lemon on a hot pan.

[sizzling]

Tom says BEAUTIFUL!

Alice says IN THIS SERIES WE'RE
GOING TO USE OUR EXPERTISE TO
HELP YOU MAKE THE BEST FOOD
CHOICES.

Alice fills up a piece of dough with compressed air.

She says WOW!

Alice says WE WANT TO IMPROVE YOUR
COOKING....

Tom teaches Suzanne how to cook fish.

Suzanne is in her forties, with long slightly wavy brown hair. She wears a white sleeveless top.

Tom says WELL DONE, GIRL.

Suzanne says LOOKS DELICIOUS.

Tom says HIGH FIVE THAT.

Alice says YOUR HEALTH...

Dirty dishes appear under ultraviolet light.

Alice says SO EVEN IF I WASH MY HANDS
MY FOREARMS ARE STILL
CONTAMINATED.
AND YOUR BANK BALANCE.

Sean says SO WHAT ARE YOU
GETTING WHEN YOU SPEND EXTRA
MONEY?

A caption reads "Alice."

In a lab, Alice says I'M SCIENTIST ALICE
ROBERTS.
I'LL BE LOOKING AT THE LATEST
RESEARCH INTO NUTRITION TO
FIND OUT WHAT'S GOOD FOR US,
AND WHAT'S NOT.

The caption changes to "Sean."

Sean says I'M JOURNALIST SEAN
FLETCHER.
I'LL INVESTIGATE WHICH
EVERYDAY PRODUCTS ARE VALUE
FOR MONEY AND WHICH ARE A
RIP-OFF.

The caption changes to "Tom."

Tom says AND I'M CHEF TOM
KERRIDGE.

Tom opens a bottle of wine.

[popping]

Tom says AND I'LL BE SHARING MY TRICKS
OF THE TRADE THAT I GUARANTEE
WILL FIRE UP YOUR TASTE BUDS.

Tom dishes up a meal for Sean and Alice.

Sean says WOW, THAT LOOKS
GREAT.

Alice says WE'RE GOING TO DISH
UP THE PLAIN FACTS, SO WE CAN
ALL ENJOY OUR FOOD MORE.

Tom says CHEERS.

Alice and Sean says CHEERS.
[glasses clinking]

(music plays)

An animation shows a circular platform spins as it shows different settings: a kitchen, a supermarket and a lab. The platform spins once more to shows a sign with the name of the shows. It reads "Food detectives."

(music plays)

Alice says COMING UP, WHY DIET
DRINKS MAY NOT BE AS GOOD FOR
OUR WAISTLINES AS WE THINK.

At a buffet, Alice says THEY'RE POLISHING IT OFF; IT'S
DISAPPEARING.
TOM REVEALS THE STORE CUPBOARD
STAPLES NO CHEF WOULD BE
WITHOUT.

Tom says DUST IT WITH SMOKED
PAPRIKA; THAT LAYER OF
SMOKINESS WORKS SO, SO WELL
WITH CHEESE.
STUNNING.

Alice says AND I'LL FIND OUT HOW
UNDERSTANDING THE CHEMISTRY IN
OUR KITCHENS CAN HELP GIVE OUR
FOOD MORE LIFE.

Doctor Patrick Hickey is in his forties, clean-shaven and with short straight gray hair. HE wears a blue shirt.

Patrick says ONIONS
MAKE THINGS LIKE POTATOES AND
OTHER VEGETABLES GO OFF.

(music plays)

Alice says FIRST UP...

(music plays)
WE SPEND A STAGGERING 4.5
BILLION POUNDS ON DIET DRINKS EACH
YEAR.
THEY NOW MAKE UP ALMOST HALF OF
THE FIZZY DRINKS MARKET.
BUT DO DIET DRINKS DO WHAT WE
EXPECT THEM TO DO?
DO THEY HELP US KEEP THE WEIGHT
OFF?

(music plays)
A 330ml BOTTLE OF A
SUGAR-SWEETENED FIZZY DRINK
CONTAINS AROUND 140 CALORIES,
ALMOST ALL OF THEM FROM SUGAR.
THE SAME SIZE OF DIET FIZZY
DRINK CONTAINS ALMOST ZERO
CALORIES AND ZERO SUGAR, SO HOW
DO ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS WORK?
THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT TYPES
OF ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS.
SOME OF THEM ARE MADE FROM
SUGAR, LIKE SUCRALOSE, WHICH
IS A FORM OF CHEMICALLY
MODIFIED SUCROSE.
OTHERS ARE SYNTHESIZED IN THE
LAB FROM DIFFERENT COMPOUNDS,
LIKE ASPARTAME.
BUT WHAT ALL OF THESE
ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS HAVE IN
COMMON IS THE WAY THAT THEY
TRICK OUR SENSE OF TASTE.
SUGAR

Alice says TO FIND OUT
HOW THEY MANIPULATE OUR SENSES,
I'M MEETING Dr. CAROLINE
WITHERS.

Doctor Caroline Withers is in her thirties, with long straight brown hair in a side part. She wears a black blouse and a pendant necklace.

Alice directs a flashlight to his tong and looks at it in a mirror.

Caroline says IF
YOU PUT OUT YOUR TONGUE, YOU
CAN SEE ALL THE LITTLE BUMPS ON
THE SURFACE.
AND ON THOSE EDGES ON THE
OUTSIDES OF THOSE CELLS ARE THE
ACTUAL RECEPTORS THAT CAN PICK
UP THE DIFFERENT TASTES WE
HAVE.
AND FOR SWEET, THERE'S ONLY ONE
MAIN RECEPTOR THAT THEY'VE
FOUND.

Alice shows an image of the location of the tongue receptors on a tablet.

Alice says SO, YOU'VE GOT ONE
SINGLE RECEPTOR THAT OBVIOUSLY
SUGAR, GLUCOSE, AND SUCROSE
INTERACTS WITH, BUT ARTIFICIAL
SWEETENERS ARE ALSO INTERACTING
WITH THAT RECEPTOR AS WELL.
AND I PRESUME IT MUST BE LIKE A
KEY FITTING INTO A LOCK.
IF YOU CAN GET A SIMILAR SHAPED
KEY IN THERE...

Caroline says YOU
CAN JUST ABOUT GET AWAY WITH
IT.

(music plays)

Alice says THESE ARTIFICIAL
SWEETENERS ARE SO GOOD AT
LOCKING ONTO OUR TASTE BUDS
THAT A LITTLE GOES A LONG WAY.

Caroline says SO, IF
YOU TAKE THE SUGAR LUMP AND
THEN YOU TAKE AN EQUIVALENT OF
ACTUALLY ONE OF THESE
SWEETENERS THAT YOU MIGHT GET,
AND IF YOU TAKE THE PURE
SUCRALOSE, FOR EXAMPLE, THAT'S
600 TIMES SWEETER THAN SUGAR.
SO, YOU NEED A FRACTION OF
THAT, REALLY, TO GET JUST AS
SWEET AS THAT SUGAR LUMP.

(music plays)

Alice says BUT WHAT ABOUT THE
TASTE?
CAROLINE IS PUTTING ME TO THE
TEST WITH SUGAR AND SOME
ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS.

Caroline pours samples of stevia, sucralose and aspartame in 3 different glasses of water.

Caroline says SO,
HERE ARE YOUR FOUR SAMPLES.
SO, I THINK YOU SHOULD START ON
THE RIGHT.

(music plays)

Alice says YES, THAT'S QUITE
SWEET; I DON'T THINK IT'S
SUGAR.

Caroline says YOU
DON'T THINK IT'S SUGAR?
WHY NOT?

Alice says I'M NOT SURE.
[laughing]

Caroline says THE
FIRST ONE IS ALWAYS THE
HARDEST, SO TRY THE NEXT ONE
AND THEN COMPARE.

(music plays)

Alice says THAT DOESN'T TASTE
VERY SWEET TO ME AT ALL, THAT
ONE.
IT ISN'T GOING, SUGAR!
[laughing]

(music plays)
UGHHH.

(music plays)
I THINK THAT'S THE SUGAR.

Caroline says THIS
ONE IS THE SUGAR.

She points at the glass to her right.

Alice says REALLY?
[laughing]
SUGAR

Alice says WE MAY THINK
WE CAN TELL THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN SUGAR AND SWEETENERS,
BUT OUR TASTE BUDS ARE EASILY
TRICKED.
SO, WHAT I WANT TO KNOW IS, IF
WE'RE CONVINCED THAT WE'RE
GETTING SUGAR WHEN WE'RE NOT,
WHAT EFFECT CAN THIS HAVE ON
OUR APPETITE?

(music plays)

Athletes at a training centre jump up and down obstacles.

Alice says THESE ATHLETES ARE PERFORMING
AN URBAN SPORT CALLED PARKOUR.
THEY'RE GOING TO BE TAKING PART
IN AN EXPERIMENT TO SEE IF
ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS CAN
INFLUENCE HOW MUCH WE EAT
AFTER EXERCISE.

Prof. Katherine Appleton is in her forties, with long wavy blond hair in a low ponytail. She wears glasses, a blue top, cream cardigan and a gold chain necklace.

She says HI.

Alice says HELLO.
OVERSEEING THE EXPERIMENT IS
PROFESSOR KATHERINE APPLETON
FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF
BOURNEMOUTH.
ABSOLUTELY BRILLIANT TO WATCH
THIS, BUT WHY ARE WE WATCHING
PARKOUR ATHLETES?

Katherine says BEFORE WE ASK OUR PARTICIPANTS
TO DRINK, WE NEED THEM TO BE
THIRSTY.

Alice says THEY CERTAINLY LOOK
LIKE THEY'RE WORKING UP A
THIRST, DON'T THEY?

(music plays)
WE'VE SPLIT THEM INTO A BLUE
GROUP AND A WHITE GROUP.

(music plays)

Katherine says ARE YOU ALL NICE AND THIRSTY?

The athletes say YES.

Alice says TO QUENCH THEIR
THIRST, THE BLUE GROUP IS
DRINKING ARTIFICIALLY SWEETENED
DRINKS, WHILE THE WHITE GROUP
HAS THE SUGARY VARIETY.

The athletes say CHEERS!

(music plays)

Alice says AND NOW, IT'S TIME
FOR LUNCH.

(music plays)
EACH TABLE IS LAID OUT WITH
THE SAME NUMBER OF CALORIES.
WE WANT TO SEE WHICH TEAM EATS
MORE: THE BLUE GROUP WITH THEIR
DIET DRINKS, OR THE WHITE GROUP
WITH THE SUGARY ONES.
THEY'RE POLISHING IT OFF; IT'S
DISAPPEARING.
AFTER EXERCISING, EACH PERSON
IS ASKED TO EAT UNTIL THEY'RE
COMFORTABLY FULL.

Katherine says HAS EVERYBODY FINISHED?

(music plays)

Alice says THE BLUE GROUP, WHO
DRANK THE DIET DRINKS, DIDN'T
LEAVE MUCH FOOD BEHIND.
THEY ATE A STAGGERING 3,126
MORE CALORIES THAN THE WHITE
GROUP, WHO LEFT BEHIND A LOT
MORE FOOD.
WHEN YOU ADD THE CALORIES FROM
THE SUGARY DRINKS, BOTH
GROUPS' OVERALL CALORIE
CONSUMPTION WAS ABOUT THE SAME.
SO, WHAT DO SCIENTISTS THINK IS
GOING ON WITH THE ARTIFICIALLY
SWEETENED DRINKS THAT MADE THE
BLUE GROUP EAT MORE?

Katherine says WHEN YOU EXPERIENCE A TASTE,
YOU EXPECT ENERGY TO COME
AFTERWARDS.
WITH A DIET DRINK, OF COURSE,
YOU EXPERIENCE THE TASTE BUT
THERE'S NO SUBSEQUENT ENERGY.
YOUR BODY IS PREPARED FOR
ENERGY, BUT IT DOESN'T ARRIVE.
CONSEQUENTLY, YOU BECOME MORE
HUNGRY AND YOU EAT MORE.

Alice says SO, IT'S ALMOST
STIMULATING OUR APPETITE THEN,
BUT NOT REWARDING US FOR IT.

Katherine says YES.

Alice says OTHER STUDIES HAVE
FOUND THAT THERE IS A PLACE FOR
LOW-CALORIE DRINKS IN WEIGHT
CONTROL.
BUT THIS RESEARCH SUGGESTS THAT
IF YOU CHOOSE DIET DRINKS AFTER
EXERCISE, YOU MAY END UP EATING
MORE THAN YOU EXPECTED.

(music plays)

The opening sequence plays again.

WE'RE ON A MISSION TO IMPROVE
THE NATION'S COOKING, ONE DISH
AT A TIME.
TOM IS KEEN TO SHARE WHAT HE
KNOWS SO THAT WE CAN ALL RAISE
THE STANDARD OF OUR COOKING.

(music plays)

Tom says I PUT A SHOUT-OUT ON
SOCIAL MEDIA FOR YOUR KITCHEN
FAILS.
IT'S CLEAR THERE'S A LOT OF
YOU STRUGGLING WITH DISHES THAT
DON'T ALWAYS GO THE WAY YOU
WANT THEM TO.
BUT DON'T DESPAIR; I CAN HELP.

(music plays)
I'VE COME TO GLASGOW TO SEE IF
I CAN SAVE GILLIAN BLAND FROM
HER KITCHEN DISASTER: YORKSHIRE
PUDDINGS.
[laughing]
I LIKE MY FAMOUS PUDDING

Tom says NOT QUITE COOKED
ENOUGH.
RISEN AND COLLAPSED.

A clip shows Gillian in her kitchen.

Gillian is in her thirties, with long straight brown hair in a ponytail.

Gillian says TOM, WE NEED
YOUR HELP.

(music plays)

Tom says RIGHT, TIME FOR THE
CAVALRY.
I'M SURE WITH A FEW OF MY TOP
TIPS I CAN WHIP SPORTS MANAGER
GILLIAN'S YORKIES INTO SHAPE.
HEY, GILLIAN.

Gillian says HI-YA.

Tom says NICE TO SEE YOU; YOU
ALL RIGHT?
PROBLEM WITH YORKSHIRE
PUDDINGS?

Gillian says PROBLEM WITH
YORKSHIRE PUDDINGS.

Tom says OKAY, LET'S HAVE A
LITTLE LOOK.

(music plays)
GILLIAN IS GOING TO RUN ME
THROUGH HOW SHE NORMALLY COOKS
HER YORKSHIRE PUDDINGS SO THAT
I CAN SEE WHERE SHE'S GOING
WRONG - STARTING WITH HOW SHE
PREPARES HER BATTER.

Gillian says 140 GRAMS OF
FLOUR, A COUPLE OF EGGS, AND
THEN JUST WHISK IT ALL IN.

Tom says QUITE DRY AND LUMPY.

Gillian says DRY AND
THICK.
SO, WHAT I'D NORMALLY DO NOW IS
PUT SOME MILK IN.

(music plays)

Tom says SO, YOU'VE GOT A BIG
LUMP OF FLOUR AND EGG MIX STUCK
IN BETWEEN THE WHISK.
[laughing]

(music plays)
THAT'S NOT THE WAY TO MAKE
PERFECT BATTER.
NOW, LET'S SEE HOW GILLIAN
COOKS HER YORKIES.

(music plays)

She pours bather into individual into a greased pan.

Gillian says I'D NORMALLY
LEAVE THEM IN THERE FOR 20
MINUTES OR SO.

Tom says OKAY.
SO, WHAT HAPPENS NOW?
DO YOU HAVE A LITTLE LOOK?

Gillian says TRY TO LOOK;
CAN'T QUITE SEE THROUGH THERE.
LOOK A BIT PALE STILL, SO JUST
SHUT THE DOOR BACK OVER.

(music plays)

Tom says IT'S A BIT OF A
DISASTER.
HER YORKIES HAVEN'T RISEN
PROPERLY, AND THEY'RE STILL
DOUGHY IN THE MIDDLE.
RIGHT THEN, GILLIAN, YORKSHIRE
PUDDING MY WAY.
THE MOST IMPORTANT PART OF THIS
YORKSHIRE PUDDING COOKERY
LESSON IS USING THIS, MATE.

He grabs a cleaning spray.

He says WE GOTTA CLEAN THAT OVEN DOOR,
AND I TELL YOU WHY, IT'S
BECAUSE WE NEED TO BE ABLE TO
SEE IN THE OVEN, SEE WHAT'S
HAPPENING, WITHOUT OPENING THE
OVEN DOOR.
'CAUSE YOU OPEN THE OVEN DOOR,
IT CHANGES THE TEMPERATURE AND
THAT DOESN'T HELP THEM RISE.

(music plays)

Gillian says YOU ARE
ACTUALLY CLEANING MY OVEN?

Tom says I KNOW, I AM ACTUALLY
CLEANING THE OVEN, YEAH.
[laughing]

(music plays)

Gillian says KEEP
SCRUBBING THERE, TOM.

Tom says YES, CHEF.

Gillian says THAT'S IT.

Tom says THERE WE GO, MATE.

Gillian says CHEERS.

Tom says OVEN CLEANED.

(music plays)
NOW THAT I CAN SEE WHAT WE'RE
DOING, I'M GOING TO SHOW
GILLIAN A SIMPLE METHOD THAT
WILL HAVE HER PRODUCING LIGHT
AND FLUFFY YORKSHIRE PUDDINGS
IN NO TIME.

(music plays)
NOW, THE FIRST THING WE'RE
GONNA DO, IS GONNA CRACK THESE
FOUR EGGS INTO THIS BOWL.
NOT INTO THE FLOUR.

(music plays)
TO GET THE BEST CONSISTENCY FOR
THE BATTER, MIX THE EGGS AND
THE MILK TOGETHER FIRST, THEN
ADD THIS MIXTURE TO THE FLOUR.

(music plays)
THIS WILL HELP PREVENT THE
BATTER FROM BEING OVERWORKED,
WHICH COULD LEAVE YOUR
YORKSHIRE PUDDINGS STRUGGLING
TO RISE.
IF I JUST GIVE IT A LAST LITTLE
MIX.
SO, YOU JUST WORK THE FLOUR
AWAY FROM THE SIDES.
BUT YOU CAN SEE IN THAT THAT'S
STILL QUITE LUMPY, STILL QUITE
THICK.

(music plays)
NOW, THIS IS THE REALLY
IMPORTANT POINT.
GONNA PUT A BIT OF CLINGFILM ON
IT, AND I'M GONNA LEAVE IT TO
REST FOR A MINIMUM OF FOUR
HOURS, ROOM TEMPERATURE.
THAT SOUNDS LIKE A LONG TIME,
BUT ALL THE LUMPS AND BUMPS
WILL DISSOLVE AND YOU'LL END UP
WITH PERFECT YORKSHIRE PUDDING
BATTER.
AND HERE'S ONE THAT I MADE
EARLIER.
WE'RE GONNA HEAT THESE UP IN
THE OVEN AND BRING EM UP TO
TEMPERATURE.

He grabs some Yorkie pans and says BUT YOU CAN SEE THESE, THESE
ARE DEEPER.
YOURS WERE VERY SHALLOW, SO
THEY'RE GONNA BE SMALLER, BUT
TALLER - WE HOPE.

(music plays)
USE VEGETABLE OIL.
IT DOESN'T HAVE A STRONG TASTE,
SO IT'S GREAT FOR CLEAN AND
CRISP COOKING.
PUT THE TRAY INTO THE OVEN FOR
FIVE TO TEN MINUTES TO HEAT THE
OIL UP.

(music plays)
AND THIS IS WHERE WE POUR THE
YORKSHIRE PUDDING MIX IN NOW.
WHEN YOU POURED YOUR MIX IN,
YOU POURED IT ONTO THE SIDE AND
IT KIND OF DRIBBLED IN.
YOU WANT TO POUR IT DEAD CENTRE
AND ABOUT HALFWAY UP, SO IT'S
CREATING A SMALL WELL.
THEN POP YOUR TRAY INTO THE
OVEN, AND LEAVE IT ALONE.
NOW, WITH YORKSHIRE PUDDINGS,
YOU HAVE TO TRUST ME ON THIS
AND BE BRAVE, DO NOT BE TEMPTED
TO OPEN THAT DOOR.
'CAUSE IF YOU OPEN IT TOO
EARLY, IT WILL JUST KIND OF
COLLAPSE, ALL RIGHT, LIKE A
PANCAKE.
THE HEAT IN THE OVEN CREATES
AIR POCKETS IN THE BATTER,
CAUSING THE PUDDINGS TO RISE.
IF YOU OPEN THE DOOR MIDWAY
THROUGH COOKING, THE OVEN
SUDDENLY COOLS AND THE AIR
POCKETS WILL COLLAPSE, LEADING
TO FLAT YORKIES.

(music plays)
THERE YOU GO, MATE; YOU HAPPY
WITH THOSE?

Gillian take the Yorkies out of the oven.

Gillian says HAPPY WITH
THOSE.

Tom says YOU MADE THOSE.

Gillian says I CAN'T
BELIEVE JUST HOW DIFFERENT THEY
ARE.

Tom says YOU SEE IT'S COOKED ALL
THE WAY THROUGH?
THAT MEANS IT'S GOING TO HOLD
ITS SHAPE.

Gillian says YEP, NO SOGGY
BOTTOMS.

Tom says NO SOGGY BOTTOM.
THERE'S YOUR FIRST ATTEMPT.

Gillian says EMBARRASSING.

Tom says IF YOU FEEL THAT IN
WEIGHT.

Gillian says IT'S LIKE A
DOORSTOP.

(music plays)
I LIKE MY FAMOUS PUDDING

Tom says THE PERFECT
ACCOMPANIMENT: SAUSAGES
AND ONION GRAVY.
THERE YOU GO, MATE.
GET IN THERE AND HAVE A LITTLE
TRY OF IT.

(music plays)

Gillian says WOW.

Tom says A BIT OF A DIFFERENCE?

Gillian says JUST A BIT.

Tom says BRILLIANT.
YORKSHIRE PUDDINGS SOLVED.

(music plays)

Alice says WHEN COOKING PASTA,
DRIZZLE OLIVE OIL IN THE
WATER TO STOP THE PASTA
STICKING.

(music plays)

Tom says THE ANSWER IS FALSE.
NEVER PUT OIL IN THE WATER,
ONLY SALT.
IT'S THE VIGOROUS BOILING OF
THE WATER THAT KEEPS THE PASTA
MOVING, SO IT DOESN'T STICK.

(music plays)

Alice says WE THROW AWAY SEVEN
MILLION TONS OF FOOD AND DRINK
FROM OUR HOMES EVERY YEAR IN
THE UK.
MUCH OF IT IS FOOD WE COULD
HAVE EATEN.
RECENTLY, THE ISSUE OF FOOD
WASTE HAS BECOME REALLY BIG
NEWS, SO WE CAN ALL DO WITH A
LITTLE HELP TO CUT WASTE.
AT THE HEART OF THE KITCHEN
THERE'S SOME CLEVER CHEMISTRY
AT WORK, AND I WANT TO DISCOVER
HOW WE CAN USE IT TO MAKE OUR
FOOD LAST LONGER.

(music plays)
TO FIND OUT, WE'VE SET UP OUR
OWN KITCHEN IN THIS GLASGOW
SHOPPING CENTRE.
I WANT TO KNOW WHAT THE LOCALS
THINK ARE THE DOS AND DON'TS OF
STORING FOOD.
WHAT ABOUT POTATOES?
WOULD YOU KEEP THEM OUT IN THE
LIGHT, OR DO YOU THINK IT'S
IMPORTANT TO KEEP THEM IN THE
DARK?

A woman in her fifties says IMPORTANT TO KEEP THEM
IN THE DARK.

Alice says WHY, WHY?

The woman says GOD KNOWS.

Alice says WHAT ABOUT TOMATOES?
WHERE DO THEY GO?

A woman in her thirties says I PUT THEM IN THE
REFRIGERATOR ON THE BOTTOM
SHELF.

Alice says WHAT ABOUT POTATOES?
WHERE DO YOU KEEP THOSE?

A man in his sixties says WE EAT THEM ALL.

Alice says YOU EAT THEM.
[laughing]

(music plays)
DOCTOR PATRICK HICKEY IS GOING TO
HELP ME SEPARATE FACT FROM
FICTION.
HE'S AN EXPERT ON MOULDS.
FIRST OFF, I WANT TO FIND OUT
HOW TO STORE SOME OF OUR MOST
POPULAR FRUIT AND VEG, STARTING
WITH THESE.

Alice holds a hand of bananas.

(music plays)

Alice says PATRICK, WHAT'S SPECIAL ABOUT
BANANAS?

Patrick says WELL, BY
PLACING THESE BANANAS IN WITH
THE OTHER FRUITS WILL ACTUALLY
SPEED UP THE RIPENING PROCESS.

(music plays)

Alice says WHEN BANANAS RIPEN,
THEY PRODUCE A GAS CALLED
ETHYLENE, WHICH MAKES
NEIGHBOURING FRUIT RIPEN
FASTER.
BUT THIS IS A CHEMICAL SIGNAL
WE CAN USE TO OUR ADVANTAGE.
IF I'VE GOT A PIECE OF UNRIPE
FRUIT THAT I'M REALLY WANTING
TO EAT IN THE NEXT DAY OR SO,
IF I PUT THAT CLOSE TO BANANAS
THAT'S GOING TO MAKE
DIFFERENCE?

Patrick says YEAH,
AND IT MIGHT EVEN HELP IF YOU
PUT THEM IN A PAPER BAG OR IN A
TUPPERWARE CONTAINER.
IT'S GOING TO CONCENTRATE THAT
GAS; THE GAS WILL BUILD UP AND
RIPEN THEM MUCH FASTER.

(music plays)

Alice says IT'S NOT JUST BANANAS
THAT PRODUCE THIS RIPENING GAS.
VEGETABLES DO IT, TOO, AND
THERE'S ONE THAT YOU DON'T WANT
ANYWHERE NEAR YOUR OTHER VEG.

(music plays)

Patrick says ONIONS,
A BIT LIKE THE BANANAS, PRODUCE
THIS ETHYLENE GAS, AND THAT CAN
MAKE THINGS LIKE POTATOES AND
OTHER VEGETABLES GO OFF.

Alice says KEEP ONIONS AWAY FROM
THE REST OF YOUR VEG IF YOU
WANT THEM TO LAST LONGER.

(music plays)
BUT IF FOOD HAS GONE OFF, IS
IT STILL SAFE TO EAT?
WOULD YOU EAT THOSE?

She shows a woman a couple of potatoes.

The woman says THE ONLY TIME I WOULDN'T EAT
IT IS, WITH GREEN, I WOULD
THROW OUT THE GREEN.

Now Alice shows another woman a cheese gone bad.

Alice says WOULD YOU EAT THAT
CHEESE?

The woman says NO.

Her husband says DISGUSTING.

The woman says DISGUSTING.

Alice says WOULD YOU CUT OFF THE
MOULD?

A man in his sixties says I HAVE DONE, YES.
BUT THEN, I'M SCOTTISH.
[laughing]

(music plays)

Alice says I'M GUESSING MOST
PEOPLE WOULD CHUCK OUT MOULDY
BREAD AND CHEESE, BUT DO WE
NEED TO?
IT LOOKS HAIRY.

Alice put some mould from sliced bread under a microscope.

Patrick says THESE
LITTLE THREADS THAT ARE COMING
OUT OF THE SURFACE OF THE
BREADS, THOSE ARE FUNGUS.
AND ON THE END OF THEM, IF YOU
CAN MAKE IT OUT, THERE'S THESE
LITTLE, LITTLE BALLS, AND EACH
ONE OF THOSE TINY BALLS IS
ACTUALLY CALLED A SPORE.
AND THOSE ARE THINGS THAT
SPREAD IN THE AIR AND LAND ON
THE BREAD, GERMINATE, AND START
TO GROW INTO THE BREAD.
SO, IF THE BREAD HAS GOT JUST A
SMALL AMOUNT OF MOULD ON THE
CRUSTS, YOU CAN CUT THOSE
CRUSTS OFF.

Alice says IS THERE GOING TO BE
MOULD IN THE BREAD THAT YOU
JUST CAN'T SEE?

Patrick says YOU
SHOULD ALWAYS ALLOW A BIT
EXTRA, SO, YOU KNOW, CUT A GOOD
5 MILLIMETRES, 10 MILLIMETRES DEEPER THAN THE
MOULD YOU CAN SEE.

Alice says WHAT ABOUT CHEESE
THEN?
WOULD YOU CUT OFF THE MOULDY
BITS AND EAT THE NOT MOULDY
BITS, OR SHOULD WE BE MORE
CAUTIOUS, DO YOU THINK?

Patrick says IF IT'S
A HARD CHEESE, THEN IT'S
USUALLY OKAY TO CUT IT OFF.
BUT IF SOMETHING THAT LOOKS
LIKE IT'S GONE SLIMY, OR IF
IT'S A SOFT CHEESE OR SOMETHING
LIKE A BRIE, I WOULDN'T BOTHER.

(music plays)

Alice says WITH SLIGHTLY MOULDY
BREAD AND HARD CHEESE, I CAN
SIMPLY CUT OFF THE MOULD AND
EAT THE REST.
BUT THERE'S SOMETHING ELSE
LURKING IN THE LARDER THAT HAS
THE POTENTIAL TO MAKE YOU VERY
ILL INDEED.

(music plays)
EVERYONE I ASKED IS QUITE CLEAR
THAT THEY WOULDN'T EAT GREEN
POTATOES EVEN IF THEY DIDN'T
KNOW WHY.
SO, WHY IS IT SO BAD?

Patrick says WELL,
WHEN THE POTATOES START TO TURN
GREEN, THE COMPOUND IN THERE
THAT'S POISONOUS TO US IS
ACTUALLY SOMETHING CALLED
SOLANINE.

(music plays)

Alice says SOLANINE IS A NATURAL
PESTICIDE WHICH GETS
CONCENTRATED IN THE GREEN AREAS
AND IS TOXIC TO HUMANS.

Patrick says IF YOU
WERE TO EAT THAT, YOU'D BE VERY
ILL INDEED.
BEST THING TO DO, CUT THOSE
AREAS OFF, CUT ANY DEVELOPING
SHOOTS OFF AS WELL.

Alice says YES, I TEND TO KEEP
CUTTING UNTIL I'M SURE THAT
THERE'S ABSOLUTELY NO GREEN
LEFT, AND SOMETIMES YOU END UP
WITH NO POTATO, BUT THAT'S
BETTER THAN EATING SOMETHING
THAT'S GREEN.

Patrick says YEAH,
JUST CHUCK IT.

(music plays)

Alice says POTATOES CAN BEGIN TO
SPROUT WITHIN A WEEK IF STORED
AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND EXPOSED
TO LIGHT, SO KEEP THEM IN A
COOL, DARK CUPBOARD.
BEYOND THE WAY OUR FOOD LOOKS
AND SMELLS ON THE SURFACE,
THERE'S THIS INCREDIBLE HIDDEN
WORLD OF CHEMISTRY AND
MICROBIOLOGY IN OUR KITCHENS.
AND UNDERSTANDING MORE ABOUT
THOSE PROCESSES OF RIPENING AND
DECAY MIGHT HELP US KEEP OUR
FOODS FRESHER FOR LONGER.

(music plays)

The opening sequence plays again.

(music plays)

Tom says DISHING UP GREAT FOOD
DOESN'T HAVE TO BE DIFFICULT.
I HAVE LOADS OF WAYS TO
TRANSFORM YOUR COOKING.
IN A PROFESSIONAL KITCHEN,
GETTING FOOD CONSISTENTLY
TASTING GREAT RELIES ON TIPS
AND TECHNIQUES THAT NEVER FAIL.
NOW, I'D LIKE TO SHARE WITH YOU
SOME OF THESE TRADE SECRETS
THAT ARE EASY TO DO BUT
INCREDIBLY EFFECTIVE.

(music plays)
I WANT TO LET YOU IN ON THE
STORE CUPBOARD STAPLES THAT, AS
A PROFESSIONAL CHEF, I WOULDN'T
BE WITHOUT.
NOW, I'VE GOT FOUR INGREDIENTS
THAT ON THE FACE OF IT ARE VERY
FAMILIAR, BUT THEY CAN
TRANSFORM A DISH IN SECONDS.
FIRST, OLIVE OIL.
NOW, THIS IS COLD PRESSED,
VIRGIN OLIVE OIL, AND THIS IS
FANTASTIC.
A LITTLE BIT OF THIS GOES A
LONG, LONG WAY; IT'S FULL ON IN
FLAVOUR.
DO NOT COOK WITH IT.
USE THIS TO FINISH DISHES.
NOW, THE REASON YOU DON'T COOK
WITH IT, BECAUSE ALL THAT
LOVELY FRESHNESS, THAT GREEN,
RAW FLAVOUR THAT YOU GET FROM
OLIVES, THAT'LL BURN IN THE
PAN.

(music plays)
WHEN OVERHEATED, OLIVE OIL CAN
START TO BREAK DOWN.
THIS GIVES FOOD AN UNPLEASANT
TASTE.
SO, CHEFS ONLY USE IT AS A
DRESSING.
MIX IT WITH THESE TOMATOES,
CHOPPED SHALLOTS, AND SOME
CHOPPED HERBS, AND THIS IS
CALLED A SAUCE VIERGE.
HUGE FLAVOURS, WONDERFULLY
CLEAN, WONDERFULLY FRESH, KEEPS
EVERYTHING REALLY DELICIOUS.

(music plays)
ANOTHER STORE CUPBOARD
ESSENTIAL IS FLAKY SEA SALT.
THE FLAVOUR IS REALLY INTENSE
AND DELICIOUS, BUT ALSO
TEXTURE; IT'S GOT LOADS OF
CRUNCH TO IT.

(music plays)
YOU CAN FINISH JUST ABOUT ANY
DISH WITH THIS, INCLUDING
DESSERTS.

(music plays)
THE AMAZING CRUNCH THAT COMES
FROM THE SALT AND THAT LOVELY
FLAVOUR, ABSOLUTELY DELICIOUS.
IT'S ONE OF THOSE NEW CLASSICS,
SALT CARAMEL.

(music plays)
NOW, A LITTLE TRADE SECRET THAT
DELIVERS A BIG PUNCH IS THIS,
SMOKED PAPRIKA.
THAT LAYER OF SMOKINESS WORKS
SO, SO WELL WITH CHEESE.
PUT GRATED CHEESE ON THE TOP,
DUST IT WITH SMOKED PAPRIKA,
AND AS IT COOKS, THAT KIND OF
CHEESE AND THE FATS MELT OUT -
STUNNING.

(music plays)
AND YOU MIGHT THINK THIS FINAL
STORE CUPBOARD ESSENTIAL IS A
BIT ODD.
IT'S ANCHOVIES.
NOW, I KNOW YOU LOT WILL TURN
YOUR NOSE UP AT THESE, OR A LOT
OF YOU WILL, AND THEY'RE THE
SORT OF THING YOU JUST PICK OFF
THE TOP OF A PIZZA.
THINK ABOUT THEM IN A DIFFERENT
WAY.
THEY WILL ENHANCE SO MANY
DISHES AND JUST GIVE THIS
UNDERLYING SAVOURY, SALTY
FLAVOUR.

(music plays)
THEY'LL ADD A SALTY HIT TO A
SPAGHETTI DISH, LIVEN UP A
SIMPLE SALAD, OR ENRICH A
SAUCE, LIKE THIS SALSA VERDE.
FINELY CHOPPED UP, INTO LITTLE
BITS LIKE THIS, AND THEN
SPOONED ONTO A PIECE OF ROASTED
LAMB GIVES A LOVELY SAVOURY,
SALTY KICK - ABSOLUTELY
DELICIOUS.
THERE YOU GO, MY FRIENDS: FOUR
STORE CUPBOARD ESSENTIALS THAT,
AS A PROFESSIONAL CHEF, I THINK
EVERY HOME SHOULD HAVE.

(music plays)

The opening sequence plays again.

(music plays)

Alice says STILL TO COME:
RECENTLY THERE HAVE BEEN A LOT
OF ALARMING HEADLINES ABOUT
PROCESSED MEAT, BUT HOW WORRIED
SHOULD WE BE?

(music plays)
TOM TRIES TO SAVE ANOTHER
KITCHEN DISASTER.

A clip shows Tom with Tina Qureshi in the kitchen.

Tina is in her thirties, with long slightly wavy black hair. She wears black trousers and a short sleeved white sweater.

Tina says IT'S TERRIBLE
ALREADY!

Tom says IT'S NOT TERRIBLE.

Tina says IT'S TERRIBLE!

Tom says IT'S NOT, IT'S NOT,
IT'S NOT.

Alice says SEAN FINDS OUT WHAT
BUDGET AND PREMIUM MAYONNAISES
ARE REALLY MADE OF.

Sean stands behind 3 tables full of condiments with the labels "Budget," "Standard" and "Premium."

Sean says I'M FLABBERGASTED BY
HOW MANY INGREDIENTS THERE ARE.

Carrie is in her thirties, with mid-length straight blond hair with bangs. She wears a pleaded printed skirt, a black top and a lime green blazer.

Carrie says THERE'S A
LOT.

Alice says AND I'LL BE REVEALING
IF APHRODISIACS ACTUALLY WORK.

A plateful of oysters and a bowl of strawberries appear on screen.

Alice watches a TV show scene on a monitor.

Paul and Luciana sit on a couch.

Paul is in his twenties, with short wavy brown hair and a beard. HE wears glasses, jeans and a plaid shirt.

Luciana is in her twenties, with long wavy brown hair. She wears a short tight black dress.

Paul says THERE'S NOT MUCH...

Luciana says I LOVE YOUR HAIR.

Paul says THANK YOU VERY MUCH!

Alice says HIS HEARTBEAT'S GONE
UP TO 120.

(music plays)
FIRST UP.
[sizzling]

A clip shows two slices of meat going on a hot grill pan.

(music plays)

Alice says LAST YEAR, THERE WAS ONE
PARTICULAR STORY ABOUT FOOD AND
HEALTH THAT DOMINATED THE
HEADLINES, AND IT WAS THE CLAIM
THAT PROCESSED MEAT CAUSES
CANCER.

(music plays)

An article from an online paper reads "Drop the bacon roll – processed meats including sausages ‘as bad for you as SMOKING.'"

Another headline reads "Processed meat ranks alongside smoking as major cause of cancer, World Health organization says."

Alice says A WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
REPORT DESCRIBED PROCESSED MEAT
AS A GROUP ONE CARCINOGEN, IN
THE SAME CATEGORY AS ASBESTOS,
ARSENIC, AND CIGARETTES.
THE STORY MADE HEADLINES AROUND
THE WORLD.

(music plays)
SINCE THE ANNOUNCEMENT AND ALL
THE SUBSEQUENT PRESS, SALES OF
BACON AND SAUSAGES DROPPED
DRAMATICALLY BY 25 MILLION POUNDS
IN THIS COUNTRY, SO IT'S CLEAR
THAT MANY OF US WERE SCARED
OFF EATING THEM.
I WANT TO GET TO THE TRUTH
BEHIND THIS STORY.
I WANT TO FIND OUT JUST HOW
DANGEROUS EATING PROCESSED
MEAT REALLY IS.

(music plays)
I'VE COME TO READING
UNIVERSITY'S FOOD AND
NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT.
I'M MEETING ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
GUNTER KUHNLE, WHO'S GOING TO
SHOW ME WHY PROCESSED MEATS
HAVE BEEN LINKED TO CANCER.

She meets Gunter in a lab. Gunter is in his forties, clean-shaven and bald. He wears a yellow lab coat and safety goggles.

(music plays)
Alice says YOU PROBABLY DON'T NEED A WHOLE
RASHER, DO WE, SO I'LL MAYBE
JUST CUT OFF THE END OF IT
THERE.

She cuts the tip of a rasher of bacon off. Gunter puts it in a Petri dish with a solution.

(music plays)

Alice says WITH THIS TEST WE SHOULD SEE
SOMETHING THAT'S BEEN ADDED TO
THE BACON, A CHEMICAL AT THE
HEART OF THE DEBATE SURROUNDING
PROCESSED MEAT.
IF IT'S PRESENT, THE LIQUID
WILL TURN PINK.
YEP, THERE'S A PINK TINGE JUST
STARTING TO APPEAR AROUND THE
EDGES THERE.
VERY DEFINITELY.

Gunter says AH, NOW
WE SEE, YES.

Alice says WHAT'S BEEN DETECTED
IS A PRESERVATIVE CALLED
SODIUM NITRITE.
WELL, I THINK WE'VE DEFINITELY
PROVED THE EXISTENCE OF NITRITE
IN THAT PIECE OF BACON.

(music plays)
SODIUM NITRITE IS ADDED TO
PROCESSED MEAT DURING THE
CURING PROCESS, WHICH GUNTER
IS GOING TO SHOW ME.

Gunter says SO, WE
HAVE HERE A PIECE OF BACON.
WE WRAP IT WITH CURING SALT,
WHICH IS REALLY JUST TABLE SALT
WITH A SMALL AMOUNT OF SODIUM
NITRITE.

(music plays)

Alice says SODIUM NITRITE KILLS
THE BACTERIA THAT CAN LEAD TO
BOTULISM, A DEADLY FORM OF FOOD
POISONING.
IT'S A CHEMICAL THAT KEEPS US
SAFE, BUT IT'S ALSO RESPONSIBLE
FOR THE LINK TO BOWEL CANCER,
ONE OF THE MOST COMMON TYPES
OF CANCER DIAGNOSED IN THE UK.

(music plays)

Gunter says THIS IS
REALLY THE PROBLEM OF HAVING
NITRITE IN PROCESSED MEAT, IS
THAT WHAT ON ONE HAND PRESERVES
THE MEAT, ON THE OTHER HAND,
CAN CAUSE CANCER, CAN INCREASE
THE RISK OF CANCER.

(music plays)

Alice says THE ACIDIC CONDITIONS
OF THE STOMACH ARE THE PERFECT
ENVIRONMENT FOR CONVERTING
THESE NITRITES INTO COMPOUNDS
THAT CAN CAUSE CANCER.
AND SO, IT MAKES SENSE THAT THE
LINK IS TO BOWEL CANCER BECAUSE
THAT'S WHERE THESE DANGEROUS
COMPOUNDS ARE BEING FORMED,
ACTUALLY IN YOUR GUT AS YOUR
FOOD PASSES THROUGH YOU.

Gunter says YES.

(music plays)

Alice says ANOTHER WAY OF PRESERVING MEAT
IS TO SMOKE IT.
SOME OF THE CHEMICALS RELEASED
FROM CIGARETTES ARE ALSO
GENERATED BY THE MEAT SMOKING
PROCESS.
THEY CAN STICK TO THE SURFACE
OF MEAT, AND HAVE ALSO BEEN
LINKED TO BOWEL CANCER.

THANKS TO GUNTER, I'VE GOT A
MUCH BETTER UNDERSTANDING NOW
OF WHY PROCESSED MEAT POSES A
RISK TO OUR HEALTH.
THERE ARE POTENTIALLY
CARCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS PRESENT
IN BOTH CURED AND SMOKED MEATS,
BUT THE WORLD HEALTH
ORGANIZATION HAS PLACED
PROCESSED MEAT INTO THE SAME
CATEGORY AS SMOKING.
BOTH POSE A DEFINITE RISK IN
TERMS OF DEVELOPING CANCER.
BUT WHAT ABOUT THE LEVEL OF
THAT RISK?

(music plays)

Alice says DOES IT MEAN THAT EATING
PROCESSED MEAT IS AS BAD FOR US
AS SMOKING CIGARETTES?
TO HELP ME MAKE SENSE OF THE
STATISTICS, I'M MEETING
DOCTOR KATHRYN BRADBURY FROM THE
UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.
SHE'S AN EXPERT IN HOW CANCER
AFFECTS POPULATIONS.

Kathryn is in her thirties, with shoulder-length slightly wavy brown hair. She wears a blue dress.

(music plays)

Alice says SO, KATHRYN, LOOKING AT THIS
NEW WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
CLASSIFICATION, WHAT DOES IT
ACTUALLY MEAN?

Kathryn says SO,
TOBACCO IS MUCH WORSE, SO WE
ESTIMATE THAT TOBACCO CAUSES
ABOUT 20 PERCENT OF ALL
CANCERS, WHEREAS RED AND
PROCESSED MEAT CAUSE ABOUT
3 PERCENT OF ALL CANCERS.

Alice says HOW MUCH PROCESSED
MEAT ARE WE TALKING ABOUT, AND
WHAT IS THE RELATIVE RISK?

Kathryn says WELL,
WHAT WE KNOW IS, ON AVERAGE,
ABOUT 6 OUT OF 100 PEOPLE IN
THE UK WILL GET BOWEL CANCER
OVER THEIR LIFETIME, AND AN
EXTRA 50 GRAMS OF PROCESSED
MEAT, WHICH IS ABOUT TWO
RASHERS OF BACON, INCREASES
YOUR RISK OF BOWEL CANCER BY
18 PERCENT.

Alice says SO, IS THAT EATING
THAT MUCH BACON EVERY DAY?

Kathryn says YEAH,
IF WE HAD 100 PEOPLE, 6 OF
THEM JUST NORMALLY WOULD GET
BOWEL CANCER OVER THEIR
LIFETIME.
IF ALL OF THAT GROUP OF 100
STARTED EATING AN EXTRA TWO
RASHERS OF BACON EVERY DAY,
THEN WE WOULD EXPECT THAT NOW
7 OUT OF THE 100 WOULD GET
BOWEL CANCER.

Alice says SO, THAT SOUNDS LIKE
A RELATIVELY SMALL INCREASE IN
RISK WHEN YOU PUT IT LIKE THAT.

Kathryn says YEAH,
I GUESS IT DOES FOR 100 PEOPLE,
THAT'S FOR SURE.
BUT THERE'S A LOT MORE PEOPLE
OBVIOUSLY IN THE UK, SO WHEN
YOU START SORT OF MULTIPLYING
THAT UP, IT DOES ACTUALLY
TRANSLATE INTO A LOT MORE
CASES OF CANCER.

(music plays)

Alice says SO, IF YOU'RE EATING
PROCESSED MEAT EVERY DAY, YOU
INCREASE YOUR RISK OF BOWEL
CANCER BY NEARLY 20 PERCENT.
AND IT DOESN'T MATTER IF YOU'RE
BUYING CHEAP OR EXPENSIVE
PROCESSED MEAT; THE VAST
MAJORITY CONTAINS ADDED
NITRITE.
SCIENTISTS ARE WORKING ON
NITRITE-FREE PRODUCTS, BUT AS
YET, NONE ARE COMMERCIALLY
AVAILABLE IN THE UK.
FOR THE MOMENT, THEN, IF YOU
EAT A LOT OF PROCESSED MEAT, IT
MIGHT BE A GOOD IDEA TO CUT
DOWN.
WHAT THIS DOESN'T MEAN IS THAT
PROCESSED MEAT IS ANYWHERE NEAR
AS BAD FOR YOU AS SMOKING.
THERE IS A SMALL INCREASED RISK
OF CANCER, BUT IT DEPENDS ON
HOW MUCH YOU EAT AND HOW OFTEN.

(music plays)

The opening sequence plays again.

(music plays)

Alice says WE WANT TO IMPROVE
THE COOKING SKILLS OF THE
NATION, ONE DISH AT A TIME.
TOM'S TIPS SHOULD HELP YOU TO
ENHANCE YOUR PERFORMANCE IN THE
KITCHEN, NO MATTER HOW GOOD A
COOK YOU ALREADY ARE.

(music plays)

Tom says I ASKED FOR YOUR
KITCHEN FAILS, AND YOU'VE SENT
ME LOADS - FROM DISASTROUS
POACHED EGGS, TO ROAST POTATOES
THAT NO ONE WANTS TO EAT.

(music plays)
THIS TIME, I'M HELPING TINA
QURESHI WITH HER KITCHEN FAIL:
RISOTTO.

(music plays)

A clip shows Tina stirring a risotto.

Tina says I'VE BEEN
STANDING HERE FOR THE LAST 25
MINUTES TRYING TO COOK THIS
THING, BUT IT STILL LOOKS
UNCOOKED.

Tom says THERE'S QUITE A LOT OF
RICE HERE.
LOOKS LIKE SHE'S COOKING ENOUGH
FOR ABOUT 100 PEOPLE.

Tina says SO, TOM, SHOW
ME HOW TO MAKE THE PERFECT
RISOTTO.

(music plays)

Tom says WE CAN SOLVE THIS.

(music plays)
I'VE COME TO BRACKNELL IN
BERKSHIRE TO ANSWER HER CRY FOR
HELP.

(music plays)
HEY, TINA.

Tina says HI, TOM.

Tom says NICE TO SEE YOU.
FEW ISSUES WITH YOUR RISOTTO?

Tina says YES.

Tom says OKAY, SHALL WE SEE IF
WE CAN FIX IT?

Tina says PLEASE.

(music plays)

Tom says TINA'S GONNA RUN ME
THROUGH HOW SHE NORMALLY COOKS
HER RISOTTO, SO THAT I CAN SEE
WHERE SHE'S GOING WRONG.
SO, YOU'RE JUST USING HALF AN
ONION HERE.

Tina says YES, I AM.
AND I ADD THE CLOSED CAP
MUSHROOM, AND WITH THAT, I ADD
THE PORCINI MUSHROOMS THAT I
SOAKED IN HOT WATER.

Tom says WHERE'S THE WATER THAT
YOU SOAKED IT IN?

Tina says OH, RIGHT, I
THREW IT AWAY.
CAN I ACTUALLY USE THAT?

Tom says WHAT DO YOU THINK THAT
WATER WOULD TASTE OF?

Tina says PORCINI
MUSHROOM; I SHOULD ACTUALLY
HAVE SAVED THAT.
ARE YOU DYING INSIDE, TOM?

Tom says NO, NO, NO...

Tina says YOU ARE;
YOU'RE LIKE, WHAT THE HELL IS
SHE DOING?
HER POT'S BURNING.
IT'S TERRIBLE ALREADY!

Tom says IT'S NOT TERRIBLE; IT'S
NOT.
THE METHOD, THE IDEAS THAT
YOU'VE GOT, THEY'RE WORKING -
TO A POINT.

Tina says RIGHT, I'M
GONNA ADD THE RICE NOW, SO
THAT'S PROBABLY ABOUT 500 GRAMS.

Tom says 500 GRAMS IS QUITE A LOT
OF RICE.

(music plays)
FOR A DECENT MAIN COURSE, ALLOW
ABOUT 100 GRAMS OF RICE PER
PERSON.
WHAT TINA'S GOT HERE WOULD FEED
A FAMILY OF FIVE.

(music plays)

Tom tastes the risotto and says OKAY, LET ME BE STRAIGHT WITH
YOU.
IT LOOKS ALL ALL RIGHT, BUT
THERE'S NOTHING ABOUT THAT
THAT'S EXCITING.
BY THE END OF TODAY, WE'RE
GONNA HAVE YOU MAKING AMAZING
RISOTTO.

(music plays)
KICK OFF WITH SOME OIL AND
BUTTER.

(music plays)
I'M USING SHALLOT INSTEAD OF
ONION, BECAUSE THERE IS LESS
ACIDITY, SO IT'S A SWEETER
FLAVOUR THAT GOES THROUGH OUR
RISOTTO RICE.
I'M GONNA USE 200 GRAMS OF
RICE; YOU USED 500 GRAMS OF RICE.

Tina says THAT'S DOUBLE
THAT.

Tom says YEAH.
GIVE IT A GOOD STIR.

Tina says I'M GOOD AT
STIRRING.

Tom says YOU'RE GOOD AT
STIRRING; YOU'RE GONNA BE DOING
A LOT OF STIRRING.
STIRRING RELEASES STARCH FROM
THE RICE.
THIS IS WHAT GIVES RISOTTO
THAT LOVELY CREAMY TEXTURE.
NOW, WE'RE GONNA POUR IN A
MASSIVE GLUG OF WHITE WINE.
AND STRAIGHT AWAY, THE
STARCHES, THE WHITE WINE, AND
THE BUTTER ALL BEGIN TO MIX
TOGETHER TO MAKE ONE KIND OF
RICH FLAVOURED STOCK.
SO NOW, INSTEAD OF WASTING IT,
SO ALL OF THIS LOVELY MUSHROOMY
WATER IS GONNA GO STRAIGHT INTO
THAT RISOTTO.
I'M GONNA GIVE THEM A LITTLE
CHOP TO THE SIDE WHILST YOU
KEEP STIRRING.
THE RATIO OF STOCK TO RICE IN A
RISOTTO IS ABOUT FOUR TO ONE,
SO FOR 200 GRAMS OF RICE, ADD
AROUND 800 MILLILITRES OF STOCK.
YOU WANNA TURN THE HEAT UP JUST
A LITTLE BIT, 'CAUSE YOU'VE
ADDED SOMETHING COLD TO THE
PAN.

Tina says SO, YOU'RE
CONSTANTLY PLAYING WITH THE
HEAT?

Tom says CONSTANTLY ADJUSTING
TEMPERATURE.

(music plays)
IN GOES THE PORCINI MUSHROOMS,
TOGETHER WITH SOME DICED FRESH
MUSHROOMS.

(music plays)
PUT IN TWO TEASPOONS OF
MASCARPONE CHEESE.
THAT'S NOT A TEASPOON, MATE.
I'LL TELL YOU WHAT, LOOK.
IN MY WORLD, THAT'S A TEASPOON.

Tina says OH, GOSH.

Tom says SO, LET'S PUT THAT...

Tina says THAT IS A LOT.

Tom says I NEED YOU TO GRATE ME
A LOAD OF PARMESAN CHEESE, AT
LEAST DOWN TO ABOUT THERE,
HALFWAY.

He marks halfway a slice of around 150 grams of parmesan cheese.

Tom says NOW, PARMESAN CHEESE IS REALLY
IMPORTANT.
HIGH IN SALT, HIGH IN ACID, AND
THAT'S GONNA HELP CUT THROUGH
ALL OF THE RICHNESS THAT'S
ALREADY IN THAT PAN.

(music plays)
POP IN SOME CHIVES FOR A LIGHT
GARLIC AND ONION TASTE.
I TELL YOU WHAT, THIS IS GONNA
BE THE BEST RISOTTO YOU'VE HAD.

Tina says BRILLIANT.

(music plays)

Tom says OKAY, THERE WE GO.

Tina says OH, LOOK AT
THAT.

Tom says THAT'S RISOTTO.

Tina says THAT LOOKS
AMAZING.

Tom says HOLD ON, LOOK, THAT'S
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO.
AND I'LL BE HONEST WITH YOU,
IT'S JUST NOT AS RICH, IT'S
NOT AS LOVED.
COME ON, LET'S HAVE A LITTLE
TRY.

(music plays)

Tina says TOM, THAT'S
DELICIOUS.
ABSOLUTELY DELICIOUS.

Tom says HAPPY?

Tina says MMM, FABULOUS.

(music plays)

Alice says WHOLE MILK CONTAINS
MORE CALCIUM THAN SKIMMED
MILK.

(music plays)

Tom says THE ANSWER IS FALSE.
SINCE THE FAT PORTION OF WHOLE
MILK DOES NOT CONTAIN CALCIUM,
YOU CAN LOSE THE FAT WITHOUT
LOSING ANY CALCIUM.

(music plays)

Sean says LOOK AROUND THE
SUPERMARKET SHELVES AND YOU'LL
SEE LOADS OF OWN LABEL ITEMS.
THERE'S AN ALTERNATIVE FOR JUST
ABOUT EVERY BIG BRAND OUT
THERE.
SUPERMARKETS OFFER A DIFFERENT
RANGE OF THEIR OWN BRAND
PRODUCTS AT DIFFERENT PRICE
POINTS: BASIC, STANDARD, AND
PREMIUM.
BUT WHEN IS IT WORTH SPENDING
EXTRA ON PREMIUM, AND WHEN CAN
WE GET AWAY WITH A MONEY-SAVING
BASIC?

(music plays)

Colourful letters from the words "Budget," "Standard" and "Premium" on a gray slate.

Sean says I'M TEAMING UP WITH EXPERTS AT
EDINBURGH'S QUEEN MARGARET
UNIVERSITY.
WE'RE GOING TO PULL APART THE
INGREDIENTS IN A FRIDGE
FAVOURITE: MAYONNAISE.

(music plays)
THE PRICE OF MAYONNAISE RANGES
BETWEEN 40 PENCE FOR BASIC, TO
3.49 POUNDS FOR PREMIUM.
SO, WHY THE HUGE PRICE
DIFFERENCE, AND WHAT ARE WE
ACTUALLY PAYING FOR?
NUTRITIONIST DOCTOR CARRIE RUXTON
HAS THE ANSWERS.

(music plays)

They stand next to three tables full of ingredients. Each table has a label. The labels read "Budget," "Standard," and "Premium."

Sean says I'M FLABBERGASTED BY HOW MANY
INGREDIENTS THERE ARE.

Carrie says THERE'S
A LOT.

Sean says LOOK, I'VE NEVER MADE
HOMEMADE MAYONNAISE, BUT I'M
GUESSING YOU DON'T NEED ALL OF
THIS TO MAKE IT.

Carrie says DEFINITELY NOT, NO.
IF YOU'RE GONNA MAKE IT AT
HOME, YOU'LL ONLY NEED FOUR
INGREDIENTS: EGG YOLK, VINEGAR,
OIL, AND LEMON JUICE, AND THAT
IS IT.

Sean says I MEAN, SOME OF THESE
ARE 10, 10-PLUS INGREDIENTS.

Carrie says WELL, THE
BIGGEST DIFFERENCE REALLY IS
THE BUDGET INGREDIENTS, THE
FIRST ONE IS WATER.
THEN YOU GO TO THE STANDARD AND
THE PREMIUM AND THE FIRST ONE
IS OIL.

Sean says SO, BUDGET MAYO'S GOT
A LOT OF WATER IN IT, BUT HOW
DO YOU TURN THAT INTO SOMETHING
THAT'S THICK AND HAS THE
TEXTURE OF MAYONNAISE?

Carrie says IT'S THAT
WHITE POWDER RIGHT IN FRONT OF
YOU THERE; THAT'S MODIFIED
MAIZE STARCH.
AND IT'S BASICALLY CORN STARCH
THAT'S BEEN CHEMICALLY ALTERED
TO TURN IT INTO A PRODUCT THAT
CREATES THIS SMOOTH CONSISTENCY
WHEN YOU MIX WATER TOGETHER
WITH OTHER INGREDIENTS, AND
KEEP IT LIKE THAT RIGHT ACROSS
THE SHELF LIFE.

(music plays)

Sean says THE TRICK
MANUFACTURERS HAVE PULLED OFF
IS USING A CHEAP INGREDIENT
LIKE WATER AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR
THE MORE EXPENSIVE OIL.
BUT THIS HAS AN UNEXPECTED
BENEFIT.

Carrie says BECAUSE
THERE'S LESS OIL IN THIS
PRODUCT, COMPARED WITH THE
PREMIUM AND STANDARDS, YOU'RE
GONNA END UP WITH LESS
CALORIES.
AND WHAT THE FIGURES LOOK LIKE
IS AROUND 280 CALORIES PER 100
GRAMS FOR BUDGET, RIGHT UP TO
ROUND ABOUT 700 PER 100 GRAMS
FOR STANDARD AND PREMIUM.

Sean says THE BUDGET MAYO
DOESN'T JUST SAVE US MONEY; IT
ALSO SAVES US CALORIES.
BUT DO THE CHEAPER INGREDIENTS
AFFECT THE TASTE?
TO FIND OUT, WE HAVE A PANEL OF
TASTE TESTERS.
FIRST, WHAT DO THEY BUY?
LET'S HAVE A SHOW OF HANDS FOR
BASIC MAYONNAISE; WHO WOULD BUY
THAT?
STANDARD?

Three young women raise their hands.

Tom says SO, YOU THREE STANDARD.
WHY IS THAT, BETH?

Beth is in her twenties, with shoulder-length slightly wavy brown hair with side swept bangs. She wears a black and white sweater.

She says I'VE TRIED THE BUDGET
ONES BEFORE, AND NOT BEEN VERY
GOOD, SO I'VE UPPED IT TO THE
STANDARD.

Sean says I'M GUESSING, COLIN,
YOU'RE MORE PREMIUM?
WHY PREMIUM?

Colin is in his seventies, clean-shaven and balding. He wears glasses, blue trousers, a gingham shirt and a blue sweater.

Colin says I SUPPOSE IT TASTES
BETTER.

(music plays)

Sean says BUT DOES IT?
THAT'S WHAT WE'RE ABOUT TO FIND
OUT.
IN A BLIND TASTE TEST, THEY'LL
SCORE 10 DIFFERENT MAYONNAISE
SAMPLES, RANGING FROM BUDGET
AND STANDARD TO PREMIUM.

(music plays)
DOCTOR LAURA WYNESS HAS THE
RESULTS.

(music plays)

Laura is in her thirties, with long straight blond hair with bangs in a bun. She wears black a white lab coat.

Laura says OKAY, THE
BUDGET ACTUALLY SCORED HIGHEST;
IT SCORED 5.2 OUT OF 9,
FOLLOWED CLOSELY BY THE
STANDARD, SCORING 5.0.
AND THEN THE PREMIUM WAS 4.1.

(music plays)

Sean says SURPRISINGLY, WHEN IT
COMES TO TASTE, BUDGET CAME
TOP, FOLLOWED BY STANDARD, WITH
PREMIUM IN LAST PLACE.

(music plays)
NOW, WHAT I FIND REALLY
FASCINATING IS THE PREMIUM IS
ONLY HALF THE AMOUNT OF THE
BUDGET, SO THIS IS, IN FACT,
AROUND ABOUT 10 TIMES THE COST
OF THE BUDGET MAYONNAISE.
HOW DOES THAT MAKE YOU FEEL,
COLIN?

Colin says I THINK I MIGHT TRY
THE BUDGET.

(music plays)

Sean says SO, WE'VE FOUND THAT
BUDGET MAYO CAN SAVE US MONEY
AND CALORIES.
AND IF IT'S TASTE THAT MATTERS
TO YOU, WELL, STANDARD AND
BUDGET ARE PRETTY SIMILAR.

(music plays)

The opening sequence plays again.

(music plays)

Alice says WE'LL GO TO GREAT
LENGTHS TO CAPTURE SOMEONE'S
HEART, FROM CHEESY PICKUP LINES
TO EXTRAVAGANT ROMANTIC
GESTURES.
BUT THERE'S ANOTHER WEAPON IN
THE ARSENAL OF LOVE: FOOD.
THE IDEA THAT THERE ARE CERTAIN
FOODS AND DRINKS THAT HAVE
APHRODISIAC PROPERTIES GOES
BACK THOUSANDS OF YEARS, BUT
JUST BECAUSE AN IDEA IS ANCIENT
DOESN'T MEAN IT'S TRUE.
SO, ARE THERE ANY APHRODISIACS
WHICH HAVE BEEN SCIENTIFICALLY
PROVEN TO BE EFFECTIVE?
WHAT DO PEOPLE THINK WORKS?

A man on the street says GINGER, GINGER!
COCKTAIL WITH GINGER IS THE
BEST THING EVER FOR AN
APHRODISIAC.

Another man says POSSIBLY CHAMPAGNE AND
OYSTERS MIGHT WORK.

A woman in her thirties says WELL, I WOULD SAY CAVIAR.

A woman in her twenties says WELL, IT'S CHOCOLATE.

Another man in his thirties says CHOCOLATE GETS SOMETHING
GOING.

(music plays)

Alice says THERE'S NO SHORTAGE
OF SUGGESTIONS.
BUT WHERE'S THE EVIDENCE?
HERE'S A MAN WHO SHOULD KNOW -
MY DATE FOR THE EVENING,
PHYSIOLOGIST Dr. HARRY WITCHEL
FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF SUSSEX.
WELL, HARRY, THIS IS
DELIGHTFUL.
SHALL I OPEN...

Harry meets Alice at a bar. Alice opens a bottle of champagne.

Harry is in his late forties, with short curly graying hair and a soul patch. He wears glasses, a dark suit and a printed blue tie.

Harry says PLEASE!

Alice says THE PROSECCO?

Harry says THAT'S
VERY KIND OF YOU - WHOA!
[cork pops]
[laughing]

Alice says WHAT EXACTLY IS AN
APHRODISIAC?

Harry says AN
APHRODISIAC IS ANYTHING THAT
CONTRIBUTES TO PERFORMANCE IN A
SEXUAL WAY, THAT GETS THE
WHOLE PROCESS STARTED.
[cork pops]

(music plays)

Alice says UNFORTUNATELY,
THERE'S NO SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
THAT CHAMPAGNE, STRAWBERRIES,
OR OYSTERS HAVE ANY APHRODISIAC
PROPERTIES.
SO, ARE THERE ANY FOODS OR
DRINKS THAT CAN INCREASE DESIRE
AND EXCITE US?

(music plays)

Harry says HERE'S
WHAT I GOT FROM THE SHOP,
WHICH IS GINSENG.
MANY CLAIMS HAVE BEEN MADE FOR
IT, BUT IT IS USED QUITE
REGULARLY AS AN APHRODISIAC.

Alice says SO, HAVE THERE BEEN
ANY TRIALS TO ACTUALLY SEE
WHETHER IT DOES PERFORM?

Harry says THERE ARE
A FEW TRIALS THAT SUGGEST THAT
IN CERTAIN DOSAGES, IT WILL
IMPROVE SEXUAL PERFORMANCE.

Alice says SO, ARE THERE ANY
OTHER HERBAL APHRODISIACS OUT
THERE?

Harry says TODAY I
BROUGHT FOR YOU GINKGO.
THOUSANDS OF YEARS OLD, IT
LOOSENS VESSELS, SO PEOPLE HAVE
CLAIMED.

Alice says SO, IF IT MAY BE
HAVING AN EFFECT ON BLOOD
VESSELS AND OPENING THEM UP,
THEN IT SEEMS REASONABLE TO
SUGGEST THAT IT MIGHT HAVE A
VIAGRA-LIKE EFFECT.

Harry says YOU COULD
MAKE THAT ARGUMENT.

(music plays)

Alice says HARRY AND I ARE KEEN
TO SEE IF SUPPLEMENTS DO START
HEARTS RACING.

(music plays)
FOUR VOLUNTEERS: AMANDA, PAUL,
EMILY, AND HUGO HAVE AGREED TO
TAKE PART IN AN EXPERIMENT.

(music plays)
WE'RE GOING TO SET THEM UP ON
A BLIND DATE WITH TWO MODELS,
LUCIANA AND DANIEL.

Amanda is in her twenties, with long straight blond hair dark trousers and a dark sweatshirt.

Emily is in her twenties, with long slightly wavy brown hair. She wears high-waisted trousers and a turtleneck sweater.

Hugo is in his thirties, clean-shaven and with short curly blond hair. He wears jeans and a black T-shirt.

Daniel is in his twenties, clean-shaven and with short straight light brown hair. He wears a dark blazer and a checker shirt.

Harry says YOU HOLD
THAT THERE, KIND OF
THERE-ISH...

Alice says HARRY'S LOOKING FOR
CHANGES TO OUR VOLUNTEERS'
HEART RATES...

Harry wires Amanda up and says IT'S NOT
THE MOST OBVIOUS WAY OF...

Alice says BOTH BEFORE AND AFTER
TAKING THE SUPPLEMENTS.
FIRST UP IS AMANDA.
SHE HASN'T TAKEN ANYTHING YET.
LET'S SEE HOW HER HEART RATE
RESPONDS TO MODEL DANIEL.

Daniel and Amanda sit on a couch and chat.

(music plays)

Alice says HER HEART RATE'S JUST GONE UP
MASSIVELY.
[laughing]
96.
WILL EMILY'S FIRST IMPRESSION
BE AS POSITIVE?

Emily says WHERE ARE YOU FROM
ORIGINALLY?

Daniel says GUESS.

Emily says CROATIA?

Daniel says RUSSIA.

Emily says RUSSIA; REALLY?

Harry says IT'S GONE
UP A TINY BIT, LIKE TWO BEATS
PER MINUTE.

Paul says HELLO!

Luciana says HOW ARE YOU?

Alice says TIME TO TEST OUT HUGO
AND PAUL WITH MODEL LUCIANA.
AGAIN, THE MEN HAVEN'T TAKEN
ANY SUPPLEMENTS YET.

Paul says THERE'S NOT MUCH...

Luciana says I LOVE YOUR HAIR.

Paul says THANK YOU VERY MUCH!

Alice says PAUL SEEMS TO LIKE
THE ATTENTION OF LUCIANA, AS
DOES HUGO.
HIS HEART RATE'S GONE UP TO
120.

Harry says THAT'S
FOR REAL.

Alice says LOOK AT THIS,
TICKITY-TICK-TICK!

(music plays)
WITHOUT TAKING ANYTHING, BOTH
MEN'S HEART RATES HAVE SHOT UP.
NOW, HARRY GIVES OUR VOLUNTEERS
THE SUPPLEMENTS.
AMANDA AND HUGO ARE GIVEN
GINSENG, WHILE PAUL AND EMILY
ARE TAKING GINKGO.

(music plays)

Luciana says DO YOU LIKE GOING
TO THE THEATRE?

Hugo says I DO LIKE GOING TO THE
THEATRE.

Alice says 120 FOR THE HEART
RATE.

Paul says GREAT DRESS, NICE
HAIR.

Emily says I DO PALM READING.

Daniel says YOU DO?

Emily says NO.
NO.

Alice says HARRY HAS BEEN
RECORDING OUR VOLUNTEERS' HEART
RATES THROUGHOUT THE
EXPERIMENT.
FIRST, THE RESULTS FROM BEFORE
THEY TOOK THE SUPPLEMENTS.

(music plays)

Harry says WHAT WE
SAW WAS THAT THE MEN REALLY
RESPONDED.
[laughing]
SO, HUGO WENT FROM ABOUT 82 TO
A HEART RATE OF ABOUT 125.
AND PAUL, HE ENDED UP IN THE
REGION OF ABOUT 132, SO WELL
DONE YOU.
[laughing]

(music plays)

Alice says THE WOMEN RESPONDED
TO DANIEL IN A MORE SUBTLE WAY.
AMANDA'S HEART RATE ROSE FROM
60 TO 72, WHILE EMILY'S ONLY
WENT UP BY TWO BEATS PER
MINUTE.
NOW, WE'RE GOING TO LOOK AT HOW
THEIR HEART RATES RESPONDED
AFTER THEY TOOK THE
SUPPLEMENTS.
WHAT HAPPENED AFTER THE GINSENG
AND THE GINKGO?

Harry says I WOULD
SAY THAT WE DIDN'T SEE ANYTHING
REALLY OBVIOUS WITH THE MEN,
SIMPLY BECAUSE THEY MAY HAVE
MAXED OUT, SO THERE COULD EVEN
BE A TOPPING OUT, A CEILING
EFFECT.

(music plays)

Alice says THE INCREASE IN THE
MEN'S HEART RATES WAS ABOUT
THE SAME AFTER THEY'D TAKEN THE
SUPPLEMENTS AS BEFORE.
HOWEVER, IT WAS A DIFFERENT
STORY FOR THE WOMEN.

Harry says EMILY,
ON HER FIRST GO, SHE WAS
AT 80.
WHEREAS WE RECORDED SOMETHING
ALONG THE LINES OF 107 THE
SECOND TIME.

Emily says THE RESULTS ARE
DIFFERENT SO CLEARLY
INTERNALLY; THERE WAS STUFF
GOING ON THAT I DON'T REALLY
KNOW ABOUT.
THE FIRST TIME I MARKED YOU AS
A SIX - SORRY - BUT THE SECOND
TIME I MARKED YOU AS AN EIGHT,
SO THERE WAS DEFINITELY A
CHANGE.

Harry says WE ALSO
SEE THAT AMANDA HAD AN IMPROVED
RESPONSE, WHICH LEADS US TO THE
QUESTION AS TO WHETHER YOU
THOUGHT THERE WAS ANY
DIFFERENCE.

Amanda says I THOUGHT THAT THE
SECOND ONE WAS BETTER AS WELL.
I THINK IT WAS MOSTLY BECAUSE I
FELT MORE COMFORTABLE, LIKE
WHAT EMILY SAID.

Emily says CLEARLY, THE GINKGO
DID DO SOME WORK.

(music plays)

Alice says IT'S HARD TO SAY IF
THE GINSENG AND GINKGO HAD ANY
EFFECT ON THE MEN, AS THEY HAD
SUCH A STRONG RESPONSE EVEN
BEFORE THEY'D TAKEN ANY
SUPPLEMENTS.
BUT BOTH SUBSTANCES APPEARED TO
HAVE A MEASURABLE EFFECT ON THE
WOMEN.
THEIR HEART RATES ROSE, AND
THEY FOUND DANIEL EVEN MORE
ATTRACTIVE.
IT'S A SMALL EXPERIMENT, SO WE
CAN'T DRAW FIRM CONCLUSIONS.
BUT FROM HARRY'S RESULTS, IT
SEEMS THERE ARE SOME THINGS
THAT COULD CLAIM TO BE
APHRODISIACS AFTER ALL.

(music plays)

The opening sequence plays again.

(music plays)

Tom says FROM FOOD THAT MAKES
OUR HEARTS FLUTTER TO FOOD THAT
CAN'T BE RUSHED, I'VE GOT THE
SECRETS THAT CAN TRANSFORM YOUR
COOKING.
IN A PROFESSIONAL KITCHEN,
GETTING FOOD CONSISTENTLY
TASTING GREAT RELIES ON TIPS
AND TECHNIQUES THAT NEVER
FAILED.
NOW, I'D LIKE TO SHARE WITH YOU
SOME OF THESE TRADE SECRETS
THAT ARE EASY TO DO, BUT
INCREDIBLY EFFECTIVE.

(music plays)

Tom says FROM STREET FOOD TO TOP END
RESTAURANTS, PROFESSIONAL CHEFS
HAVE A CLEVER TECHNIQUE FOR
TURNING CHEAP CUTS OF MEAT INTO
SOMETHING SPECIAL.
SLOW COOKING BREAKS DOWN THE
TOUGH PROTEINS IN MEAT,
RELEASING BAGS OF FLAVOUR.

(music plays)

In the kitchen, Tom says NOW, SLOW COOKING IS THE
PERFECT WAY OF TENDERIZING
THOSE CHEAPER CUTS OF MEAT:
SHOULDER OF LAMB, SHIN OF BEEF,
OR, IN THIS CASE, SHOULDER OF
PORK.
AND YOU NEED TO SLOW COOK CUTS
OF MEAT LIKE THIS BECAUSE
THEY'RE WORKING MUSCLES.
THAT SHOULDER OF PORK SPENDS
ALL DAY WANDERING AROUND, SO
THAT COOKING PROCESS NEEDS TO
BREAK DOWN THE SINEW AND THE
MUSCLE.
NOW, I'M GONNA DO A VERSION OF
PULLED PORK HERE - LOADS OF
FLAVOUR, LOADS OF THINGS GOING
ON.

(music plays)
IN A BOWL, PUT SUGAR, SALT,
DRIED THYME, TOASTED CUMIN
SEEDS, SOME CRACKED BLACK
PEPPER, DRIED SAGE, AND THREE
STAR ANISE, WHICH HAVE BEEN
TOASTED AND THEN GROUND UP.
THEN MIX IT ALL TOGETHER, POUR
IT ON, AND THEN MASSAGE IT INTO
THE MUSCLE MEAT OF THIS PORK.
STRAIGHT AWAY, THAT SALT AND
SUGAR STARTS TO WORK ITS MAGIC
AND IT DRAWS MOISTURE FROM THE
PORK, AND THEN ALL THAT FLAVOUR
BEGINS TO WORK ITS WAY INTO
THAT MEAT.

(music plays)
THIS IS THE KEY TO THIS
TECHNIQUE, BECAUSE AS THE WATER
IS DRAWN OUT OF THE MEAT, IT'S
REPLACED BY ALL THOSE SPICES.
WE'RE GONNA LEAVE THIS PORK IN
THE FRIDGE OVERNIGHT.

(music plays)
SO, THIS IS ONE THAT HAS BEEN
MARINATING FOR 12 HOURS.
THAT PORK'S BEEN ABLE TO TAKE
ON A LOAD OF FLAVOUR THAT'S
COME FROM THAT DRY RUB MIX.
JUST GONNA POP IT INTO A TRAY;
THEN I'M GONNA COVER IT WITH
CHICKEN STOCK.
ADDING STOCK NOT ONLY PROVIDES
FLAVOUR, BUT CRUCIALLY THE
LIQUID WILL STEAM THE MEAT, AND
THAT'S WHAT WE NEED TO HAPPEN.
OKAY, AND THAT'S IT - TIN FOIL
NICE AND TIGHTLY ON.
JUST GONNA STICK THIS PORK IN
THE OVEN, 150 DEGREES
CENTIGRADE, AND WE'LL COME BACK
TO IT IN ABOUT FIVE HOURS'
TIME.

(music plays)
YOU COULD USE A SLOW COOKER,
BUT IN A PROFESSIONAL KITCHEN,
WE JUST DO IT IN THE OVEN.
OH, IT SMELLS INCREDIBLE.
SLOW COOKED, AND LITERALLY WITH
TWO FORKS, JUST GONNA PULL IT
ALL APART.
HENCE WHY IT'S CALLED PULLED
PORK.

(music plays)
I'M GONNA STICK THIS IN A BUN,
WITH SOME LOVELY HOMEMADE
COLESLAW.
LID ON; LOOK AT THAT.

(music plays)

He takes a bite and says YOU HAVE TO DO THIS AT HOME,
PEOPLE.

(music plays)

Alice says THAT'S IT FROM US.
I HOPE WE'VE IMPROVED YOUR
COOKING, YOUR HEALTH, AND YOUR
BANK BALANCE.
JOIN US NEXT TIME.

Theme music plays as the end credits roll.

Presented by Sean Fletcher, Tom Kerridge and Professor Alice Roberts.

Production manager, Lisa Moultrie.

Producer-directors, Lyndon Bruce, Janine Finlay, Alex Hemingway and James Shelton.

Executive producer, Paul Overton.

Series producer, Graeme Thomson.

BBC Scotland Science Production.

Copyright 2016, BBC.

Logo: BBC.