Transcript: Ep. 3 - The Road to Revolution | Oct 23, 2017

An evening view shows a fortress at Saint Petersburg.

(music plays)

Blond Lucy Worsley in her forties says IN THE 1820s,
THE ROMANOV DYNASTY APPEARED INVINCIBLE.
THEY'D RULED RUSSIA FOR MORE
THAN TWO CENTURIES.
THEY'D BUILT AN EMPIRE AND
BEATEN NAPOLEON.
BUT NOW, THERE WAS A NEW
THREAT, MORE DEADLY THAN AN
INVADING ARMY... THE RUSSIAN
PEOPLE THEMSELVES.
[cannon fires]
IN JULY 1826, FIVE
REVOLUTIONARIES WERE LED OUT OF
THIS SAINT PETERSBURG FORTRESS
TO THEIR DEATHS.
THESE WERE THE LEADERS OF THE
DECEMBRISTS, REBELS WHO'D
STAGED A FAILED UPRISING.
THE EXECUTION WENT DISASTROUSLY WRONG.
THE ROPES WEREN'T TIED PROPERLY
ON THE GALLOWS, AND WHEN THE
STOOLS WERE REMOVED FROM
UNDERNEATH THREE OF THE MEN,
THEY FELL DOWN TO THE GROUND.
THEY WERE SQUIRMING ABOUT... THEY
WERE STILL ALIVE!
ONE OF THEM HAD BROKEN LEGS,
AND AS THEY STRUNG HIM BACK UP
AGAIN, HE SHOUTED OUT, "POOR
RUSSIA... THEY CAN'T EVEN HANG
MEN PROPERLY HERE."

As Lucy speaks, a fast clip shows everything she describes.

Lucy continues THE DECEMBRIST REVOLT WAS
SOMETHING NEW.
NOT FOR NOTHING HAS IT BEEN
CALLED THE FIRST RUSSIAN REVOLUTION.
THESE MEN WANTED TO CHANGE THE SYSTEM.
SOME EVEN WANTED TO DO AWAY
WITH THE ROMANOVS ALTOGETHER.
[gunfire]
(loud rhythmic music plays)
IN RUSSIA, SMALL GROUPS OF
REBELS WERE EASILY DEALT WITH,
BUT IN THE ROMANOVS' FINAL
CENTURY, THEIR POWER
UNRAVELLED...
AS THE RUSSIANS WENT FROM
EXECUTING REVOLUTIONARIES TO
MURDERING THE TSAR.
WE'RE GOING TO MEET THE LAST OF
THE ROMANOVS, NICHOLAS...
AND ALEXANDER.
AND ALEXANDER AND NICHOLAS.
AND I'LL SHOW HOW THESE FOUR
TSARS WOULD MEET THE CHALLENGE
OF REVOLUTION IN DIFFERENT
WAYS... WITH DENIAL...
WITH LIBERAL REFORM, ENDED BY A
TERRORIST BOMB...
WITH BRUTAL REACTION...
AND REFUGE IN THE MYSTICISM OF
NOTORIOUS HOLY MAN RASPUTIN.
AND WE'LL SEE HOW THE ROMANOVS
COLLIDED WITH A PEOPLE REELING
FROM FAMINE AND WAR...
BRINGING THE DYNASTY TO ITS
TRAGIC AND BLOODY END.
[gunshot]
(theme music plays)

A fast clip shows portraits of the different Tsars. A title caption reads
"Empire of the Tsars... Romanov Russia with Lucy Worsley." Against a view
of the sea, an episode title caption reads "Part Three... The Road to Revolution."

Lucy continues IN DECEMBER 1825, TSAR
ALEXANDER I... THE HAMMER OF
NAPOLEON... WAS DEAD.
WHO WAS TO SUCCEED HIM?
IT WAS CONFUSING.
AND SENSING A POWER VACUUM, THE
DECEMBRISTS SEIZED THEIR MOMENT.

Standing in front of an equestrian statue, Lucy continues
3,000 SOLDIERS GATHERED HERE,
REFUSING TO SWEAR THE OATH OF
LOYALTY TO THE NEW TSAR, NICHOLAS.
MANY OF THEIR LEADERS HAD BEEN
TO WESTERN EUROPE.
THEY'D BEEN TO PARIS... THEY'D
BEEN RADICALIZED BY THE IDEAS
THAT THEY'D COME ACROSS THERE.
SO, THEY GATHERED BY THE BRONZE
HORSEMAN... THE STATUE OF THE
MODERNIZER PETER THE GREAT, IN
ORDER TO CALL FOR CHANGE.
WHAT THEY WANTED WAS AN END TO
SERFDOM AND A FREE PRESS.
IN FACT, THEY WANTED THE
FOUNDATIONS OF DEMOCRACY.
THE NEW TSAR DITHERED.
THE SITUATION SEEMED TO BE
GETTING AWAY FROM HIM.
AS NIGHT FELL, HE ORDERED HIS
ARTILLERY TO OPEN FIRE.
[gunshots]
SEVEN ROUNDS EMPTIED THE
SQUARE OF ALL BUT THE DEAD AND
THE WOUNDED.
THAT NIGHT, NICHOLAS WROTE TO
HIS BROTHER.
"I AM EMPEROR," HE SAID, "BUT
MY GOD, AT WHAT A PRICE.
AT THE PRICE OF THE BLOOD OF MY PEOPLE."
(dramatic music plays)
THE TRAUMATIC EVENTS OF HIS
VERY FIRST DAY WOULD HARDEN NICHOLAS.
THE UNTESTED YOUTH CAUGHT IN
THIS PORTRAIT SOON DISCOVERED
THAT BEING TSAR IS MUCH EASIER
IF PEOPLE ARE SCARED OF YOU.
IT'S SAID THAT HE HAD "A GAZE
LIKE A RATTLESNAKE THAT COULD
FREEZE THE BLOOD IN YOUR VEINS."
AND THESE ARE THE WORDS OF HIS OWN SON.
[royal instrumental music]
NICHOLAS'S AMBITION WAS LAID
OUT ON THE WALLS OF THE WINTER
PALACE, IN THIS INTERIOR
CREATED TO IMPRESS VISITING DIPLOMATS.
THE DECEMBRISTS HAD IDEALIZED
PETER THE GREAT AS A
MODERNIZER, BUT NICHOLAS
MODELLED HIMSELF ON PETER, THE
GREAT MILITARY CONQUEROR.
BENEATH PETER'S
LARGER-THAN-LIFE PORTRAIT WOULD
SIT NICHOLAS HIMSELF.
BUT PETER HAD WANTED RUSSIA TO
ACCELERATE INTO THE FUTURE;
NICHOLAS WOULD SPEND THE NEXT
30 YEARS TRYING TO PUT ON THE BRAKES.
FROM HIS THRONE, NICHOLAS
FORMULATED A NEW PHILOSOPHY FOR RUSSIA.
THE REST OF EUROPE WAS
STRUGGLING WITH CONCEPTS LIKE
LIBERTY, EQUALITY, AND
FRATERNITY, AND NICHOLAS MADE A
VERY RUSSIAN RESPONSE.
FOR HIM, IT WAS TO BE ABOUT
ORTHODOXY, AUTOCRACY, AND NATIONALITY.
IT WAS AN ULTRA-CONSERVATIVE MESSAGE.
IN NICHOLAS'S NEW MANTRA FOR
RUSSIA, THERE WAS TO BE GOD ON
ONE SIDE, RUSSIA ON THE OTHER,
AND NICHOLAS HIMSELF IN THE
CENTRE, HOLDING THE WHOLE THING TOGETHER.
ORTHODOXY, AUTOCRACY, AND
NATIONALITY WAS INVENTED TO
CREATE AN OBEDIENT PEOPLE, WHO
DIDN'T ASK QUESTIONS.
EVEN NICHOLAS'S INNER CIRCLE
WERE CHOSEN FOR THEIR
DEPENDABILITY.
HE LIKED TO SAY THAT HE NEEDED
LOYAL ADVISORS, NOT SMART ONES.
NEVERTHELESS, GROUPS OF
WRITERS AND THINKERS EMERGED -
THE INTELLIGENTSIA... WHO SET
OUT TO CHALLENGE THIS
STUPEFYING STATUS QUO.
BY THE MIDDLE OF THE CENTURY,
SUBJECTS LIKE SERFDOM WERE
OPENLY TACKLED BY RADICAL
JOURNALS LIKE "THE
CONTEMPORARY," WHOSE ROLL CALL
OF WRITERS INCLUDED LEO TOLSTOY
AND IVAN TURGENEV.
MORE THAN ANY OTHER WRITER, IT
WAS TURGENEV WHO CHANGED
PEOPLE'S MINDS ABOUT SERFDOM.

Lucy sits on the steps leading up to a country house.

Lucy continues HE GREW UP IN A NOBLE FAMILY ON
AN ESTATE RATHER LIKE THIS... HE
HAD A PRIVILEGED CHILDHOOD.
BUT HE'D WITNESSED HIS MOTHER
BEING TYRANNICAL WITH THE FAMILY SERFS.
HE SAW SERFS BEATEN, SENT OFF
TO THE ARMY, SERF FAMILIES SPLIT UP.
TURGENEV WROTE A SERIES OF
STORIES COLLECTED UNDER THE
INNOCUOUS TITLE "SKETCHES FROM
A HUNTER'S ALBUM."
HERE WAS A HUMAN PORTRAIT OF
THE SERFS THEMSELVES, ALONGSIDE
THE CRUELTY OF THEIR MASTERS,
THE LANDOWNERS.
THIS BOOK WAS PUBLISHED IN
1852, EXACTLY THE SAME YEAR AS
UNCLE TOM'S CABIN IN THE UNITED
STATES. AND JUST AS UNCLE TOM HELPED TO
MOBILIZE PUBLIC OPINION AGAINST
SLAVERY OVER THERE, THIS BOOK
HAD THE SAME EFFECT AGAINST
SERFDOM OVER HERE.
TSAR NICHOLAS I WAS SO ANGRY
ABOUT THE BOOK THAT HE PLACED
TURGENEV UNDER HOUSE ARREST FOR
HAVING INSULTED THE LANDOWNERS OF RUSSIA.
PRIVATELY, NICHOLAS
ACKNOWLEDGED THAT SERFDOM WOULD
EVENTUALLY HAVE TO GO.
BUT NOT YET... HIS BELOVED ARMY
DEPENDED ON IT TO FILL ITS RANKS.
AND HE NEEDED THE MILITARY TO
ENLARGE HIS EMPIRE.
(dramatic music plays)

On an animated map, the Russian territory in red engulfs large areas
of the near east and Siberia. Lucy sits behind an array of cardboard
images of uniformed Russian troops

Lucy continues UNDER NICHOLAS, RUSSIA EXPANDED
ITS TERRITORY IN THE CAUCUSES
AND CENTRAL ASIA, AND BECAME
THE DOMINANT POWER IN THE NEAR EAST
RUSSIA HAD THE LARGEST ARMY IN THE WORLD.
ALL THE OTHER POWERS THOUGHT
THAT SHE WAS A TERRIFYING THREAT.
BUT THESE NUMBERS WERE DECEPTIVE.
MOSTLY, THE ARMY WAS MADE UP OF
THESE CONSCRIPTED PEASANTS,
WHOSE EQUIPMENT WAS POOR AND
WHOSE MOTIVATION WAS POORER.
AND NICHOLAS, ALTHOUGH HE LOVED
MILITARY PARADES, HADN'T HELPED.
HE'D PROMOTED PEOPLE WHO WERE
LOYAL, AS OPPOSED TO PEOPLE WHO
WERE TALENTED.
HE JUST DIDN'T HAVE THE RIGHT
GENERALS TO WIN A WAR.
SO, IT WOULD ONLY BE A MATTER
OF TIME BEFORE THE MIGHT OF THE
RUSSIAN WAR MACHINE WOULD PROVE
TO BE PAPER-THIN.

Lucy takes a deep breath and blows down all the paper troops. Portraits
show battle scenes.
[blowing]
[battle cries]

Lucy continues THAT MOMENT CAME IN 1853, WHEN
NICHOLAS BLUNDERED INTO THE CRIMEAN WAR.
RUSSIA WAS FIGHTING FRANCE,
BRITAIN, AND THE OTTOMAN
EMPIRE, AND TO NICHOLAS'S
INCREASING HORROR, HE WAS ON
THE LOSING SIDE.

A balding man in his sixties with glasses speaks to viewers. A caption reads
"Professor Dominic Lieven... London School of Economics."

Professor Lieven says THE
RUSSIANS LOSE THE CRIMEAN WAR
ESSENTIALLY BECAUSE THEY'RE A
PRE-INDUSTRIAL COUNTRY TRYING
TO FIGHT COUNTRIES WHICH ARE
ALREADY BEING TRANSFORMED BY
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION.
THE BRITISH AND FRENCH GET TO
THE CRIMEA BY MODERN FORMS OF
TRANSPORT... THE STEAMSHIP AND
THE RAILWAY.
MEANWHILE, THE RUSSIANS ARE
STILL ESSENTIALLY IN THE
PRE-INDUSTRIAL ERA.
THEY HAVE TO WALK TO THE
CRIMEA, THEY CAN'T SUPPLY THEIR
TROOPS IN THE CRIMEA BY
ANYTHING BUT PRE-INDUSTRIAL
MEANS, AND RUSSIAN ARTILLERY IS
OUTRANGED ON THE BATTLEFIELD BY
ENGLISH AND FRENCH RIFLED MUSKETS.
THEY ALSO SIMPLY DON'T HAVE THE
FINANCIAL MUSCLE TO KEEP GOING.
(dramatic music plays)

Lucy says TO ADD TO NICHOLAS'S
DISGRACE, RUSSIA WAS LOSING ON
HER OWN SOIL.
THERE WAS NO ESCAPE FROM THE
HUMILIATION, NOT EVEN AT THE
ROMANOVS' SUMMER PALACE AT PETERHOF.

On site, pointing, Lucy says JUST OVER THERE ON THE HORIZON
ON A CLEAR DAY IS THE ISLAND OF KRONSTADT.
IT'S THE NAVAL BASE THAT
DEFENDS SAINT PETERSBURG 20 MILES THAT WAY.
AND FROM THE VERY PALACE
GROUNDS, NICHOLAS, WITH HIS
TELESCOPE, COULD SEE FRENCH AND
BRITISH WARSHIPS STATIONED NEAR
THE ISLAND.
TO THEM, THIS WAS A TERRIFIC
SHOW OF STRENGTH, BUT TO
NICHOLAS IT WAS A PERSONAL
HUMILIATION... TO SEE THE ENEMY
SO CLOSE, SO DEEP INTO HIS EMPIRE.
HE'D BEEN BROUGHT FACE TO FACE
WITH HIS OWN MILITARY WEAKNESS.
HIS COURTIERS NOTICED A
PHYSICAL CHANGE IN NICHOLAS.
HE WAS PERPETUALLY DOWNCAST,
HIS FACE IN WRINKLES.

IN 1855, SIX MONTHS INTO THE
SIEGE OF SEVASTOPOL, THE
EMPEROR AND AUTOCRAT OF ALL THE
RUSSIAS WAS TAKEN ILL.
NICHOLAS HAD A CHILL, BUT EVEN
SO, HE WENT OUTSIDE INTO THE
HORRIBLE SAINT PETERSBURG WINTER
TO REVIEW HIS TROOPS.
WHILE HE WAS WATCHING, THE SNOW
WAS FALLING, BUT HE TOOK OFF
HIS COAT AND HE UNBUTTONED HIS SHIRT.
THIS MADE HIM EVEN ILLER, AND
WHEN HE WENT BACK INSIDE HIS
PALACE, HE WOULDN'T LET HIS
DOCTORS SEE HIM UNTIL IT WAS TOO LATE.
HE HAD FULL-BLOWN PNEUMONIA.
SOME HISTORIANS HAVE SPECULATED
THAT MAYBE THIS WAS A
DELIBERATE ACTION BY NICHOLAS...
MAYBE HE WAS TRYING TO "COMMIT
SUICIDE BY SNOW."
(dramatic music plays)
THE BROKEN NICHOLAS HAD KEPT
RUSSIA STATIC FOR 30 YEARS, AND
NOW, HIS COUNTRY WAS A BACKWATER.
BUT DID HIS SON, ALEXANDER,
HAVE WHAT IT TOOK TO CHANGE THINGS?
[triumphant instrumental music]
WELL, THIS IS HOW ALEXANDER II
IS REMEMBERED IN RUSSIA TODAY.
AS THE LAST GREAT TSAR... AND
WITH GOOD REASON.

Lucy stands at the foot of the monument to Alexander the Second.

Pointing, Lucy continues THIS INSCRIPTION LISTS
ALEXANDER'S CV IN GLOWING
TERMS, AND RIGHTLY SO.
HE INTRODUCED REFORMS IN
EDUCATION, IN THE JUDICIARY, IN
LOCAL GOVERNMENT, IN THE ARMY.
BUT HIS BIGGEST ACHIEVEMENT IS
LISTED RIGHT HERE AT THE TOP.
IT SAYS, "IN 1861, ALEXANDER
OVERTURNED SERFDOM, LIBERATING
MILLIONS OF PEASANTS FROM
CENTURIES OF SLAVERY."
AN AXE THAT EARNED HIM HIS NAME
"THE TSAR LIBERATOR."
BY THE MID-1850s, THE
ARGUMENTS FOR ABANDONING
SERFDOM WERE IMMENSE.
IT WAS PART OF THE DISGRACE AT CRIMEA.
IT TIED PEOPLE TO THE LAND SO
THAT INDUSTRY COULDN'T DEVELOP,
AND INCREASINGLY IT WAS JUST
SEEN AS WRONG.
BUT WHEN IT CAME TO REFORMING
THE SYSTEM, HUGE SELF-INTEREST
WAS ALSO AT WORK.
WHAT REALLY CONVINCED ALEXANDER
TO END SERFDOM WAS THE THREAT
THAT HE PERCEIVED TO THE
ROMANOVS THEMSELVES.
UNLESS HE INTRODUCED CHANGE
THROUGH REFORM FROM ABOVE, HIS
HANDS MIGHT BE FORCED FROM
BELOW THROUGH REVOLUTION.
AFTER YEARS OF CONSULTATION
WITH LANDOWNERS, ALEXANDER
SIGNED THE DECREE OF
EMANCIPATION IN 1861.
IN THE MOSCOW STATE ARCHIVES,
IT'S POSSIBLE TO SEE HOW THE
SERFS THEMSELVES WOULD HAVE
LEARNED THE NEWS.
THIS IS THE OFFICIAL DOCUMENT
ANNOUNCING THE END OF SERFDOM
THAT WAS PRINTED AND SENT OUT
ACROSS RUSSIA TO BE READ ALOUD
IN CHURCHES.
NOW, IN DEMOCRATIC AMERICA,
THEY'D HAVE A CIVIL WAR BEFORE
EVERYBODY COULD AGREE TO END SLAVERY.
BUT IN AUTOCRATIC RUSSIA,
ALEXANDER THOUGHT HE COULD JUST
SEND OUT A DOCUMENT AND IT WOULD HAPPEN.
HE ALSO THOUGHT THAT THERE MUST
BE A WAY OF PLEASING ALL THE
PARTIES TO THIS TRANSACTION.
WELL, HE WAS WRONG ABOUT THAT.
NOW, THE SERFS COULD OWN
PROPERTY, MARRY ACCORDING TO
THEIR CHOICE, TRADE FREELY, AND
VOTE IN LOCAL ELECTIONS.
BUT WHEN IT CAME TO SHARING OUT
LAND, RUSSIA'S ELITE WERE LESS
THAN GENEROUS.
WHEN THE LAND WAS SPLIT UP, THE
LANDLORDS GOT TWO-THIRDS OF IT,
AND THE BEST PARTS.
THE EX-SERFS WERE GIVEN THE LEFTOVERS.
THEY WERE GOING TO FIND IT HARD
TO SCRATCH OUT A LIVING FROM THAT.
AND THE LANDLORDS GOT
COMPENSATION, BUT THE EX-SERFS
NOW HAD TO PAY FOR THE RIGHT TO
WORK THEIR LAND, PLACING THEM
IMMEDIATELY IN DEBT.
THE DEVIL WAS IN THE DETAIL.
MANY PEOPLE HAD HOPED THAT
ALEXANDER'S REFORMS WERE THE
FIRST STEP TOWARDS RUSSIA
BECOMING A LIBERAL DEMOCRACY,
BUT THEY WERE DESTINED TO BE
DISAPPOINTED.
AT THE START OF HIS REIGN,
ALEXANDER EMBRACED THE WORD
THAT'LL BE FAMILIAR TO
EVERYBODY WHO REMEMBERS THE END
OF THE COLD WAR... GLASNOST
IT MEANS OPENNESS.
HE EASED UP ON CENSORSHIP... HE
ALLOWED PEOPLE TO HAVE A VOICE
IN REFORM.
IT SOUNDS LIKE A GOOD IDEA, BUT
YOU CAN ARGUE THAT IT WAS A
TERRIBLE MISTAKE, BECAUSE IT
RAISED EXPECTATIONS.
AS IT GRADUALLY BECAME CLEAR
THAT THE REFORMS WERE
COMPROMISED, A NEW
DISILLUSIONED GENERATION
EMERGED, THE STUDENT RADICALS.
THEY WANTED A REVOLUTION TO
OVERTHROW TSARISM ALTOGETHER,
AND SOME OF THEM WOULD USE
VIOLENCE TO ACHIEVE THIS.
THE STORY OF MODERN POLITICAL
TERRORISM STARTS HERE.

A painting shows an assassination attempt.
[gunfire]
(dramatic music plays)

Lucy continues IN 1866, THERE WAS THE FIRST
EVER ATTEMPT ON THE TSAR'S LIFE
BY A MEMBER OF THE PUBLIC.
A STUDENT RADICAL TRIED TO
SHOOT ALEXANDER AS HE WAS
WALKING IN SAINT PETERSBURG.

As Lucy enters a building, she continues
I'VE COME TO THE EUROPEAN
UNIVERSITY AT SAINT PETERSBURG TO
MEET ALEXEY MILLER, PROFESSOR
OF HISTORY, TO FIND OUT WHO
THESE RADICALS WERE, AND WHY IT
WAS THE REFORMING ALEXANDER WHO
BECAME THEIR TARGET.

Facing Professor Miller, Lucy says WHY DID SOME OF THE RADICALS
TURN TO VIOLENCE? WERE THEY FRUSTRATED?

A caption reads "Professor Alexey Miller, Historian."

In his fifties, Professor Miller says DESPERATION, DISENCHANTMENT,
BECAUSE ON THE ONE HAND, THEY
WERE TALKING ABOUT POLITICAL
VIOLENCE, BUT THEY WERE NOT DOING MUCH.
STILL, SENTENCES... COURT
SENTENCES TO THESE PEOPLE...
WERE EXTREMELY HARSH.

Lucy says SO, YOU MIGHT AS WELL
COMMIT VIOLENCE.
IF YOU'RE GOING TO SIBERIA FOR
25 YEARS, YOU MIGHT AS WELL
THROW A BOMB.

Professor Miller says THAT IS
ONE THING. THE SECOND THING, THE LIBERAL
PARTIES AS SUCH FEELS, WELL,
NOT FULL SOLIDARITY WITH THE
TERRORISTS, BUT IT DOESN'T FEEL
FULL SOLIDARITY WITH THE
GOVERNMENT... IT DOESN'T WANT TO
SUPPORT THE GOVERNMENT.
VERA ZASULICH, WHO SHOT THE
GOVERNOR OF SAINT PETERSBURG IN
HIS OFFICE, WAS TRIED BY THE
JURY AND ACQUITTED, BECAUSE
THEY BELIEVED THAT SHE HAD A
MORAL RIGHT TO DO SO.

Lucy says THAT'S QUITE SURPRISING.

Professor Miller says THAT IS
NOT SURPRISING, THAT IS VERY SAD.
AND THAT IS A POWERFUL MESSAGE
ON THE SIDE OF THE SOCIETY... GO
AHEAD, YOU CAN CONTINUE... WE ARE
ON YOUR SIDE.
AND THEN THEY WANT
DESTABILIZATION OF THE
SITUATION... AND HOW DO YOU
DESTABILIZE THE SITUATION?...
YOU START HUNTING THE TSAR.

Lucy says HUNTING THE TSAR WOULD
BECOME THE OBSESSION OF A
REVOLUTIONARY GROUP NAMED
PEOPLE'S WILL, WHO'VE BEEN
CALLED THE FIRST MODERN
TERRORIST ORGANIZATION.
IN AUGUST 1879, AT A FATEFUL
MEETING, THEY CONDEMNED
ALEXANDER TO DEATH.
FOR MAXIMUM SECRECY, THEY HELD
THE MEETING IN A FOREST OUTSIDE
SAINT PETERSBURG, AND HERE THEY
DECIDED THAT THEY'D BE WASTING
THEIR TIME IF THEY WENT AFTER
MIDDLE-RANKING GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS.
WHAT THEY NEEDED TO DO WAS
STRIKE A BLOW AT THE HEART OF
THE TSARIST REGIME.
THEY DECIDED TO GO FOR THE TSAR
HIMSELF, ALEXANDER II.
AND THIS WAS TO BE NO
"ORDINARY" MURDER, AS THEY PUT
IT... IT NEEDED DRAMA AND
SPECTACLE TO WAKE UP THE
PEASANTS AND START A REVOLUTION.
[dramatic music plays]
PEOPLE'S WILL RELENTLESSLY
PURSUED ALEXANDER, LAUNCHING A
SERIES OF ATTACKS ON HIS LIFE.
IN 1880, ONE OF THEIR NUMBER
DETONATED A BOMB THAT DESTROYED
THE DINING ROOM OF THE WINTER PALACE.
11 PEOPLE DIED, BUT ALEXANDER,
WHO WAS LATE FOR SUPPER, SURVIVED.
SECURITY WAS INCREASED, WHILE
ALEXANDER BELATEDLY TRIED TO
RESTART HIS REFORMIST PROGRAM.
PLANS WERE DRAWN UP TO
INTRODUCE A NEW CONSULTATIVE
ASSEMBLY TO ADVISE THE TSAR.
THESE WERE JUST DAYS AWAY FROM
BEING ENACTED WHEN PEOPLE'S
WILL FINALLY CAUGHT UP WITH
ALEXANDER ON THE STREETS OF
SAINT PETERSBURG.

As Lucy speaks, a black and white clip shows the different stages in
the assassination.

Lucy continues TRYING TO WRONG-FOOT THE
TERRORISTS, HIS CARRIAGE HAD
TAKEN A DETOUR ALONGSIDE THIS CANAL.
BUT PEOPLE'S WILL WERE PREPARED.
ONE OF THEIR MEMBERS WAS A
BRILLIANT YOUNG SCIENTIST, AND
HE'D CREATED A SPECIAL BOMB.
A BIT LIKE A HAND GRENADE, IT
CONTAINED VIALS OF NITROGLYCERINE.
WHEN THESE SHATTERED, IT WOULD EXPLODE.
AS ALEXANDER'S CARRIAGE CAME
ROUND THAT CORNER, A MEMBER OF
PEOPLE'S WILL WAS STANDING BY
AND LOBBED A GRENADE RIGHT AT HIM.
[sharp explosion]
SEVERAL ONLOOKERS WERE
WOUNDED, BUT ALEXANDER WAS
FINE... HIS CARRIAGE WAS BOMBPROOF.
HE SHOULD HAVE STAYED INSIDE
AND DRIVEN OFF, BUT NO, HE GOT OUT.
HE WANTED TO TALK TO HIS
WOULD-BE ASSASSIN.
AND THIS GAVE THE OPPORTUNITY
TO ANOTHER MEMBER OF PEOPLE'S
WILL WITH ANOTHER GRENADE.
[explosion]
WHEN THE SMOKE CLEARED, 20
PEOPLE HAD BEEN HURT, AND THE
LOWER HALF OF ALEXANDER'S BODY
WAS SHATTERED.
THEY SCOOPED HIM UP BARELY
ALIVE, AND CARRIED HIM BACK TO
THE WINTER PALACE.
AT THE WINTER PALACE, THE
DYING TSAR WAS SURROUNDED BY
HIS STUNNED FAMILY.

A woman in her seventies speaks to viewers. A caption reads "Charlotte
Zeepvat, author Romanov Asrami"

Charlotte says HE KNEW
HE WAS DYING... THEY KNEW HE WAS DYING.
IT'S ALL VERY BLOODY AND VERY
HORRIBLE, AND THERE STANDING
WATCHING IS HIS SON, ALEXANDER,
WHO IS GOING TO BE ALEXANDER III.
AND HE'S STANDING THERE LOOKING
AT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU TRY
AND OFFER PEOPLE REFORM... THAT'S
HOW HE VIEWED IT.
SO, THE DEATH OF ALEXANDER II
STOPS REFORM IN ITS TRACKS.
THE CONSTITUTION OR DECREES
WHICH WOULD HAVE COME FORWARD,
WHICH WOULD HAVE INTRODUCED
ANOTHER LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT IN
RUSSIA, ARE PUT ASIDE.
ALEXANDER III WILL HAVE NOTHING OF THEM.
HE TAKES THE LINE THAT RUSSIA
NEEDS STRONG GOVERNMENT.

Lucy says ALEXANDER III
PRESENTED HIMSELF AS A STRONG
MAN, AND HE CERTAINLY LOOKS THE
PART... A MIXTURE OF BEARD AND
MUSCLE POURED INTO A UNIFORM.

A huge, gold-framed portrait shows a stocky man with a red beard in
military uniform.

Lucy continues HE WAS AN ENORMOUS MAN... 6 foot 3 inches TALL
AND BUILT LIKE A GREAT BIG BEAR.
HIS PARTY TRICK WAS TO GET AN
IRON BAR AND TO BEND IT WITH
HIS BARE HANDS.
ALEXANDER HAS HAD HIMSELF
PAINTED GREETING A COLLECTION
OF PEASANT LEADERS.
HE'S RESOLUTE, STANDING FIRM,
THE WEIGHT OF RUSSIA ON HIS
BROAD SHOULDERS.
AND THEY'RE COMPLETELY
OVERWHELMED BY THE EXPERIENCE.
SOME OF THEM ARE SWOONING AWAY,
AND OTHERS ARE SHIELDING THEIR
EYES FROM THE MAGNIFICENT SIGHT OF HIM.
ALEXANDER III WASN'T EXACTLY AN
INTELLECTUAL GIANT, BUT HE HELD
HIS AUTOCRATIC REGIME TOGETHER,
ALMOST THROUGH FORCE OF WILL.
ALEXANDER INTRODUCED A NEW ERA OF REACTION.
HE GAVE THE AUTHORITIES
EXTENSIVE POWERS TO JAIL PEOPLE
AND TO CLOSE DOWN NEWSPAPERS.
THERE WAS A NEW SECRET POLICE,
AND HE WAS DETERMINED TO STAMP
OUT ALL REVOLUTIONARY
MOVEMENTS, STARTING WITH
"PEOPLE'S WILL."
(Russian male choral music plays)

Standing in the bow of a moving ship, Lucy continues
IN THE YEARS FOLLOWING 1881,
DOZENS OF REVOLUTIONARIES MADE
THIS BOAT TRIP TO THAT RATHER
TERRIFYING-LOOKING CASTLE.
KNOWN AS THE RUSSIAN BASTILLE,
THE SHLISSELBURG FORTRESS WAS
WHERE POLITICAL PRISONERS WERE
SENT TO BE FORGOTTEN.
SHLISSELBURG WAS BUILT IN THE
14TH CENTURY.
BUT IN THE 1880s, ALEXANDER III
OVERSAW THE CONSTRUCTION OF A
NEW PRISON, FOR THOSE
ASSOCIATED WITH HIS FATHER'S MURDER.

As Lucy steps onto the shore at the fortress, a man assists her.

Lucy says THANK YOU.

Lucy continues IN THE FIRST 20 YEARS AFTER IT
WAS BUILT, 68 MEN AND WOMEN
WERE INTERRED AT HIS MAJESTY'S PLEASURE.
15 WERE EXECUTED, 15 DIED OF
DISEASE, 3 COMMITTED SUICIDE,
AND 8 WENT INSANE.
ON THE SURFACE, ALEXANDER III'S
ERA OF REACTION WAS WORKING WELL.
BUT EVERY TIME HE STRUCK DOWN A
REVOLUTIONARY, ANOTHER ONE
POPPED UP AS A REPLACEMENT.
IN 1887, FIVE PRISONERS WERE
BROUGHT OUT OF THE FORTRESS'S
EXECUTION BLOCK, AND HANGED ON
A GALLOWS JUST WHERE THE WHITE
TREE IS. THEIR CRIME?
PLOTTING TO MURDER THE TSAR.
ONE OF THEM WAS A 21-YEAR-OLD
CALLED ALEXANDER ULYANOV.
THAT'S HIS GREY MEMORIAL UP THERE.
NOW, YOU MIGHT NOT HAVE HEARD
OF ALEXANDER, BUT YOU WILL HAVE
HEARD OF HIS YOUNGER BROTHER.
ON THE DAY OF ALEXANDER'S
EXECUTION, THIS BROTHER WAS AT
SCHOOL DOING HIS GEOMETRY EXAM.
HIS BROTHER'S DEATH RADICALIZED HIM.
HE GOT INVOLVED IN STUDENT
PROTESTS AND STARTED PRODUCING
REVOLUTIONARY LITERATURE UNDER
A PSEUDONYM THAT WOULD BECOME
ONE OF THE 20TH CENTURY'S
BEST-KNOWN NAMES... LENIN.

A black and white photo shows Lenin with his trademark black padlock beard.

Lucy continues CONTEMPORARIES SAW DANGER.
THE NOVELIST TOLSTOY WROTE TO
THE TSAR URGING HIM TO SHOW
LOVE FOR HIS ENEMIES.
BUT ALEXANDER WANTED TO TAKE
THE FIGHT FURTHER, AND HE USED
THE VERY SITE OF HIS FATHER'S
ASSASSINATION IN SAINT PETERSBURG
TO MAKE A POWERFUL STATEMENT.
THIS CITY HAD KILLED HIS
FATHER, AND HERE, ALEXANDER
WOULD CHAMPION THE TRADITIONS
OF THE MOTHERLAND OVER THE
"BANKRUPT MODERNITY OF THE WEST."
PETER THE GREAT HAD CONCEIVED
OF SAINT PETERSBURG AS A MODEL
FOR A NEW RUSSIA.
HERE, RUSSIA WAS GOING TO
EMBRACE WESTERN IDEALS.
THE CITY WAS EVEN GOING TO LOOK
LIKE IT BELONGED TO EUROPE,
BEING LARGELY IN THE CLASSICAL STYLE.
AND YET, BANG IN THE MIDDLE OF
THIS CITY FULL OF
RENAISSANCE-STYLE PALAZZI,
ALEXANDER III HAS PLONKED DOWN
THIS BUILDING.

A building full of old-fashioned colourful cupolas and minarets appears.

Lucy continues IT'S LIKE A DECLARATION OF WAR
ON PETER'S IDEAL, A BIT LIKE A
GHOST AT A FEAST
THIS BUILDING REVIVES THE OLD
RUSSIA THAT PETER THE GREAT
TRIED TO OBLITERATE.
FOR ALEXANDER III, RUSSIA HAD
GONE WRONG WHEN IT HAD TRIED TO
COPY THE WEST...
WHEN IT HAD TRIED TO MODERNIZE ITSELF.
WESTERN IDEAS CLEARLY LED TO
TSARS GETTING BLOWN UP.
RUSSIA COULD ONLY THRIVE BY
EMBRACING RUSSIAN CULTURE AND
THAT TRADITIONAL RUSSIAN FORM
OF GOVERNMENT, AUTOCRACY.
ALEXANDER III WASN'T AT THE
OPENING OF THE CHILLINGLY NAMED
CHURCH OF THE SAVIOUR ON THE
SPILLED BLOOD.
HE DIED OF KIDNEY DISEASE IN
1894, AGED ONLY 49.
RESPONSIBILITY FOR THIS AND
NEARLY EVERYTHING ELSE IN
RUSSIA LANDED SUDDENLY IN THE
LAP OF HIS 26-YEAR-OLD SON, NICHOLAS.

A black and white picture shows a handsome young man with a full beard.

Lucy continues OUTWARDLY, NICHOLAS II WAS A
POLITE COSMOPOLITAN GENTLEMAN.
BUT UNDER THE SURFACE WAS A
RULER WHO FELT DEEPLY RUSSIAN.
HIS CORONATION REVEALED A
VISION OF RUSSIA ROOTED IN TRADITION.
THAT MOST MODERN OF
TECHNOLOGIES... MOVING FILM -
WAS USED TO CAPTURE A CEREMONY
REPLETE WITH 17TH CENTURY COSTUMES.

The coronation appears in an old film.

Lucy continues AFTER NICHOLAS AND HIS WIFE,
ALEXANDRA, WERE CROWNED, THE
NEW TSAR TOOK THE CORONATION
OATH, AND VOWED TO UPHOLD AUTOCRACY.
THE ROYAL COUPLE WERE BOUND
TOGETHER BY THEIR INTENSE
RELIGIOUS DEVOTION.
NEAR THEIR FAVOURITE ROYAL
RETREAT, THEY BUILT THIS...
A CATHEDRAL THAT STANDS ABOVE
NICHOLAS AND ALEXANDRA'S
PRIVATE CRYPT CHURCH.
A VISIT IS LIKE A JOURNEY INTO
NICHOLAS'S OWN SOUL.

The fairy-tale white structure features strange windows and a colourful
blue, green and yellow collection of different roofs. Lucy walks up to
the door.
(religious chants)

Lucy continues THIS IS THE FAMILY'S PRIVATE,
PERSONAL ENTRANCE TO THEIR
PRIVATE, PERSONAL CHAPEL,
BURIED BENEATH THE MAIN BODY OF THE CHURCH.
IT FEELS LIKE YOU'RE GOING
INTO THE INNER SANCTUM OF THE ROMANOVS.
[choral voices singing]
NICHOLAS WAS A FATALIST
HE BELIEVED THAT WHATEVER
HAPPENED WAS ULTIMATELY GOD'S WILL.
MISFORTUNE WOULD LEAD HIM TO
DECLARE, "GOD KNOWS WHAT IS
GOOD FOR US.
WE MUST BOW DOWN OUR HEADS AND
REPEAT THE SACRED WORDS, 'THY
WILL BE DONE.'"
NICHOLAS WAS A MAN OF DEEP, DEEP PIETY.
WITH SOME OTHER RULERS,
RELIGION IS FOR CEREMONY OR
SHOW... NOT SO WITH NICHOLAS.
DURING HIS REIGN, MORE CHURCHES
WERE BUILT IN RUSSIA THAN
DURING THE PRECEDING CENTURY.
AND HIS FIRST RESPONSE TO
DISASTER WASN'T WHAT I'D CALL
PRACTICAL... IT WASN'T, "HOW CAN I
HELP?" HE WOULD SPEND SEVERAL HOURS IN
PRAYER. HE FELT THAT HE HAD A VERY
PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD.
THIS COMMUNION WITH THE DIVINE
DEFINED NICHOLAS'S RULE.
HE NEVER FORGOT THAT HE WAS A
VESSEL OF GOD.
NICHOLAS TRIED TO BE A
GENUINELY ABSOLUTE MONARCH, BUT
PERVERSELY, THIS MADE HIM A
PRETTY INEFFECTIVE ONE.
THE TROUBLE WAS THAT HE
BELIEVED THAT THE WILL OF THE
ALMIGHTY OUGHT TO FLOW DIRECTLY
THROUGH HIM TO HIS 170 MILLION SUBJECTS.
HE FOUND IT VERY HARD TO DELEGATE.
HE DIDN'T EVEN HAVE A
SECRETARY, SO HIS DESK WOULD BE
PILED HIGH WITH PAPERS.
HE WAS METICULOUS ABOUT DEALING
WITH CORRESPONDENCE, ON TOPICS
LIKE THE APPOINTMENT OF RURAL
MIDWIVES, AND WHETHER OR NOT A
PARTICULAR SOLDIER OUGHT TO GO ON LEAVE.
BUT WHILE HE WAS BOGGED DOWN IN
THESE TRIVIA, BIG DECISIONS
ABOUT THE FUTURE OF HIS EMPIRE
WERE GETTING AWAY FROM HIM.
[clock ticking]
INSIDE NICHOLAS'S HEAD, THE
RUSSIAN EMPIRE WAS STILL A
MEDIEVAL ONE.
PEASANTS TOILING IN THEIR
FIELDS, LOYAL TO THEIR "LITTLE
FATHER," THE TSAR.
BUT RUSSIA WAS UNDERGOING A
BELATED AND VERY RAPID
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION.
FAMINE HAD DRAWN HUNDREDS OF
THOUSANDS OF NEWLY LIBERATED
PEASANTS TO THE CITIES AND TO
FACTORY WORK.
SAINT PETERSBURG HAD DOUBLED IN
SIZE IN 15 YEARS.
AS PEASANTS BECAME FACTORY
WORKERS, THEY BEGAN TO DEMAND
BETTER CONDITIONS AND RESPECT
FROM THEIR EMPLOYERS.
EVERYTHING CAME TO A HEAD ON
THE 9TH OF JANUARY 1905...
"BLOODY SUNDAY."
150,000 STRIKING PROTESTORS
PLANNED TO MARCH ON THE WINTER
PALACE, IN THE HOPE THAT THE
TSAR WOULD LISTEN TO THEIR
GRIEVANCES.
MANY OF THOSE WHO TURNED OUT
BELIEVED THAT WHEN THEY GOT TO
THE WINTER PALACE, THE TSAR
WOULD BE PLEASED TO SEE THEM,
WOULD WELCOME THEM IN.
STORIES WENT ROUND THAT HE
WOULD PUT ON A PARADE FOR THEM,
AND OFFER THEM REFRESHMENTS.
(fast music plays)
NICHOLAS WASN'T AT HOME AT THE
WINTER PALACE, BUT 12,000
TROOPS HAD BEEN POSTED AROUND
THE CITY, WITH ORDERS TO
PREVENT THE MARCHERS FROM REACHING IT.

Wearing warm clothes, lucy stands beside a huge archway and says IT WAS AT THE NARVA GATE THAT
THE LARGEST BRIGADE OF
PROTESTORS FOUND THEMSELVES
FACE TO FACE WITH TWO COMPANIES
OF THE 93RD IRKUTSK INFANTRY REGIMENT.
ONE OF THE THOUSANDS OUT ON THE
STREETS THAT DAY WAS THE WRITER
AND COMMUNIST MAXIM GORKY.
WITHIN HOURS, GORKY WROTE THIS
LETTER DESCRIBING EXACTLY WHAT
HAPPENED NEXT TO THE PROTESTORS.
"AT THE NARVA GATE, THEY WERE
MET BY THE TROOPS, WHO FIRED
NINE ROUNDS.
AFTER THE FIRST SHOTS, SOME OF
THE WORKERS BEGAN TO SHOUT...
DON'T BE FRIGHTENED... THEY'RE
BLANKS! BUT THIS WASN'T TRUE.
ALREADY A DOZEN OR SO PEOPLE
HAD FALLEN TO THE GROUND.
THE FRONT RANKS WERE MOWN DOWN,
AND THE SOLDIERS FIRED AGAIN AT
ANYBODY WHO TRIED TO STAND UP
AND GET AWAY."
40 PEOPLE DIED AT THIS SPOT,
AND ACROSS THE CITY MORE THAN
100 WERE KILLED, AND HUNDREDS
MORE WOUNDED.
BUT ACCORDING TO GORKY, THERE
WAS ANOTHER CASUALTY...

Reading, Lucy says "THE TSAR'S PRESTIGE HAS BEEN
KILLED HERE. THAT IS THE MEANING OF THIS DAY."
FOR A YEAR, REVOLUTION RAGED
ACROSS THE EMPIRE.
AND IT WAS ONLY BROUGHT TO AN
END WHEN NICHOLAS CAVED IN AND
MADE CONCESSIONS.
HE PROMISED A FREE PRESS, RIGHT
OF ASSEMBLY, AND ABOVE ALL, A CONSTITUTION.
AND RUSSIA WAS TO HAVE AN
ELECTED ASSEMBLY, THE DUMA,
WHOSE APPROVAL WOULD BE NEEDED
TO PASS LEGISLATION.
NICHOLAS INSISTED THAT THE
STATE OPENING OF THE DUMA BE ON
HOME GROUND, AT THE WINTER PALACE.
AND SO, IN APRIL 1906, RUSSIA'S
ELITE FOUND THEMSELVES FACE TO
FACE WITH THE PEOPLE FOR THE FIRST TIME.

Standing in the huge white and gold colonnaded hall, Lucy says ON THIS SIDE OF THE ROOM STOOD
NICHOLAS'S EXISTING GOVERNMENT,
HIS STATE COUNCILLORS, IN THEIR
UNIFORMS WITH GOLD LACE.
ON THE OTHER SIDE STOOD THE
MEMBERS OF THE NEW DUMA.
THEY WERE WEARING THE CLOTHING
OF WORKERS AND PEASANTS...
THAT'S RED SHIRTS AND BIG ROUGH
BOOTS... AND THE TWO SIDES
LOOKED AT EACH OTHER WITH
SUSPICION AND HOSTILITY.
IF THERE WERE EVER A MOMENT FOR
NICHOLAS TO REACH ACROSS THE
DIVIDE AND BRING PEOPLE
TOGETHER, THIS WAS IT.
BUT NO, HE MADE A SPEECH
RECOMMITTING HIMSELF TO THE
PRINCIPLE OF AUTOCRACY.
HE WAS GOING TO HOLD ONTO IT,
HE SAID, WITH UNWAVERING FIRMNESS.
AT THE END OF THE SPEECH, THE
STATE COUNCILLORS LET OUT A BIG
CHEER; THEY WERE DELIGHTED.
BUT THE MEMBERS OF THE NEW DUMA
STOOD AND LISTENED IN STONY SILENCE
IN THE END, NICHOLAS'S FIRST
DUMA DIDN'T LAST 10 WEEKS.
HE DISSOLVED IT, AND ULTIMATELY
FIXED THE ELECTIONS TO GET A
MORE COMPLIANT ONE.
FOR NOW, AUTOCRACY HAD WON THE DAY.

Standing in front of a huge colonnaded palace, Lucy continues
AFTER THE 1905 REVOLUTION,
NICHOLAS AND ALEXANDRA WERE
SPENDING MORE AND MORE TIME IN
THE SAFETY OF THIS
NEO-CLASSICAL PALACE.
HERE, THE TSAR WAS ABLE TO BE
SOMETHING THAT HE WAS ACTUALLY
GOOD AT... A HUSBAND AND A FATHER.
WE'RE ONLY 15 MILES AWAY FROM
THE CENTRE OF SAINT PETERSBURG,
BUT THE SECLUDED ALEXANDER
PALACE IN ITS BEAUTIFUL PARK
SEEMS LIKE A COMPLETELY
DIFFERENT WORLD.
IT WAS HERE THAT NICHOLAS AND
HIS FAMILY FOUND AN ESCAPE FROM
SYCOPHANTIC COURTIERS AND THE
UNKIND GOSSIP OF THE COURT.
BUT IT WAS ALSO HERE, AT THE
CENTRE OF THEIR HAPPY DOMESTIC
LIFE, THAT A CRISIS WAS
UNFOLDING, WITH GRAVE
CONSEQUENCES FOR THE DYNASTY.

Four girls and a little boy in sailor suits and straw hats line up
for a photo.

Lucy continues NICHOLAS II HAD FOUR DAUGHTERS,
AS SEEN HERE... OLGA, TATIANA,
MARIA, AND ANASTASIA.
BUT WITH THE BIRTH OF HIS FIFTH
CHILD, ALEXEI, IN 1904, HE
FINALLY HAD AN HEIR.
THE ROYAL CHILDREN PLAYED IN
THE PALACE'S VAST PARK.
A FAVOURITE DEN WAS THIS
PLAYHOUSE, BUILT FOR THE
CHILDREN OF NICHOLAS I.
BUT A HANDFUL OF PEOPLE KNEW
THAT ALEXEI HAD INHERITED THE
CONDITION OF HAEMOPHILIA,
THROUGH HIS MATERNAL
GREAT-GRANDMOTHER QUEEN VICTORIA.
AT THE START OF THE 20TH
CENTURY, THIS WAS A DEATH SENTENCE.
IN 1907, THE THREE-YEAR-OLD
ALEXEI HAD BEEN PLAYING WHEN HE
FELL OVER AND HURT HIS LEG.
WHEN HE WAS CARRIED INTO THE
PALACE, IT WAS CLEAR THAT
SOMETHING WAS VERY WRONG.
POOR ALEXEI HAD A HAEMORRHAGE
IN HIS LEG.
IT HAD SWOLLEN UP, AND IT WAS
GIVING HIM EXCRUCIATING PAIN.
HIS BODY WAS TWISTED AND HE HAD
DARK SHADOWS UNDER HIS EYES.
FOR THREE DAYS, THE BOY'S
CONDITION DETERIORATED, AND HE
CAME CLOSER AND CLOSER TO DEATH.
THE DOCTORS COULDN'T EVEN EASE HIS PAIN.
WITH NOTHING TO LOSE, ALEXANDRA
AND NICHOLAS TURNED TO GRIGORI
RASPUTIN, A MYSTIC AND A HOLY
MAN, WHO, IT WAS SAID, HAD
HEALING POWERS.

A photo shows a tall man in a black cloak, with a straggly curly beard
and a piercing gaze.

Lucy continues RASPUTIN WAS BROUGHT INTO THE
PALACE THROUGH A SIDE ENTRANCE,
AND HE WAS TAKEN UP TO ALEXEI'S BEDROOM.
THERE, HE MADE THE SIGN OF THE
CROSS AND HE PRAYED OVER THE
LITTLE BOY FOR TEN MINUTES.
AND THEN HE SAID, "YOUR PAIN
IS LEAVING YOU.
YOU MUST THANK GOD FOR HEALING YOU.
NOW, GO TO SLEEP."
AND THAT WAS IT.
RASPUTIN'S WORDS APPEARED TO
MAKE ALEXEI INSTANTLY BETTER.
THOSE PRESENT FELT THAT THEY'D
WITNESSED A MIRACLE.
TO NICHOLAS AND ALEXANDRA, THE
MESSAGE WAS CLEAR... RASPUTIN WAS
THE ONLY MAN IN RUSSIA WHO
COULD SAVE THEIR SON.

Charlotte says RASPUTIN
COULD STOP ALEXEI'S BLEEDING.
EVEN WHEN HE WASN'T THERE IN
PERSON, WHEN HE WAS TALKING ON
THE TELEPHONE, HE COULD MAKE
THE BLEEDING STOP.
IT'S A VERY HARD ONE FOR US TO
UNDERSTAND.
RUSSIANS CAN EXPLAIN IT.
THE NEAREST I COULD COME TO IT
IS TO SAY THAT PERHAPS IT'S THE
CALMING EFFECT HE HAS.
(dramatic music plays)

Lucy says WITH ALEXANDRA'S
ANXIETY, HER SON'S FRAGILE
HEALTH, TALK OF REVOLUTION, AND
THE THREAT OF ASSASSINATION,
THE ALEXANDER PALACE TURNED
INTO A PLACE OF EVEN GREATER SECLUSION.
THE EMPRESS AND THE CHILDREN
SIMPLY LOCKED THEMSELVES AWAY.
AND JUST AS THE PUBLIC WERE
UNABLE TO SEE INTO THIS PRIVATE
WORLD, SO THE ROMANOVS FOUND IT
INCREASINGLY HARD TO SEE OUT TO
THE CHANGING NATION BEYOND THEIR GATES.
A RARE PUBLIC APPEARANCE
OCCURRED IN 1913, THE 300-YEAR
ANNIVERSARY OF THE ROMANOVS
GAINING POWER.
WHEN THE FAMILY EMERGED, THEY
WERE PRESENTED WITH THE
STAGE-MANAGED RUSSIA OF THEIR IMAGINATION.
NICHOLAS RELIVED THE MOMENT
WHEN MIKHAIL ROMANOV WAS
GREETED AT THE KREMLIN, ON THE
WAY TO BE CROWNED.
AND THE HIGHLIGHT WAS A JOURNEY
AROUND THE ANCIENT RUSSIAN
CITIES, INCLUDING KOSTROMA,
WHERE THE ROMANOV STORY HAD
BEGUN THREE CENTURIES BEFORE.

A black and white film shows the celebrations and the trip on the Volga.

Lucy continues DURING THE TRIP ALONG THE
VOLGA, NOT AS MANY AS EXPECTED
TURNED OUT TO SEE THE ROYAL STEAMER.
BUT WHEN THEY GOT HERE TO
KOSTROMA, THE WEATHER WARMED
UP, AND SO DID THE CROWDS.
PEOPLE WERE THROWING THEMSELVES
AT THE TSAR'S FEET.
THEY WERE EVEN KISSING THE
GROUND WHERE HIS SHADOW HAD FALLEN.
THIS WAS A TRUE SPIRITUAL HOMECOMING.
THIS ADULATION MADE ALEXANDRA
COCK-A-HOOP.
"WE NEED MERELY TO SHOW
OURSELVES," SHE SAID, "AND AT
ONCE THEIR HEARTS ARE OURS."
WHAT NO ONE KNEW WAS THAT THIS
WAS TO BE IMPERIAL RUSSIA'S
FINAL GOLDEN SUMMER.

Over an old film of the beginning of world War 1, a caption reads "War
Declared."
[gunfire]

Lucy continues IN 1914, NICHOLAS LED HIS
PEOPLE INTO THE FIRST WORLD WAR.
WORKERS RALLIED TO THE TSAR
"AS TO OUR EMBLEM."
12 MILLION MEN WOULD BE
MOBILIZED, AND NICHOLAS MADE A
STIRRING SPEECH FROM THE WINTER
PALACE, LIKENING THE FIGHT TO
ALEXANDER I'S WAR AGAINST NAPOLEON.
BUT THE WAR WOULD FORCE
NICHOLAS TO MAKE A FATEFUL DECISION.

The family chapel appears.

Lucy continues IN 1915, NICHOLAS WAS PRAYING
TO AN ICON OF THE PROTECTRESS
OF THE ROMANOVS.
AND THEN... AS HE DESCRIBED IT -
AN INNER VOICE SPOKE, AND TOLD
HIM THAT HE SHOULD TAKE
PERSONAL COMMAND OF THE ARMY.
AFTERWARDS, HE EXPERIENCED A
FEELING LIKE AFTER HOLY
COMMUNION... GOD WAS FLOWING
DIRECTLY THROUGH HIM.
BUT BY TAKING PERSONAL CONTROL
OF THE ARMY, NICHOLAS SHACKLED
HIMSELF AND HIS DYNASTY TO THE
SUCCESS OF THE WAR.
"THE TSAR DIRECTS THE WAR NOT
FROM THE DISTANCE OF HUNDREDS
OF MILES," SAID NICHOLAS.
"HE APPEARS IN THE MIDST OF
BATTLE; HE FEELS THE MOOD OF
HIS ARMIES."
WITH THE TSAR AWAY AT THE FRONT
A POWER VACUUM WAS CREATED.
ONE EAGERLY FILLED BY RASPUTIN.
BECAUSE OF ALEXANDRA'S RELIANCE
UPON HIM, MANY BELIEVED THAT A
MALIGN POWER WAS WORKING BEHIND
THE THRONE.
AND RASPUTIN DIDN'T HELP HIMSELF.
HE DRANK HEAVILY, ENJOYED THE
FLATTERY OF SOCIETY LADIES AND,
WELL, OTHER SORTS OF LADIES TOO.

Virginia says HE WAS
KNOWN TO VISIT PROSTITUTES.
WE DON'T KNOW QUITE WHAT HE DID
WITH THEM, BUT THERE'S SOME
SUGGESTION HE MAY HAVE BEEN
TESTING HIMSELF SPIRITUALLY, OR
THAT HE ALSO HAD THE BELIEF
THAT THE MORE YOU SIN, THE MORE
YOU CAN BE FORGIVEN, SO YOU
SHOULD GET ON AND DO PLENTY OF SINNING.

Lucy says RASPUTIN'S CONTINUING
REPUTATION AS "RUSSIA'S
GREATEST LOVE MACHINE" IS A
RELIC FROM THIS TIME.
THE RUMOURS DAMAGED ALEXANDRA,
WHO WAS TAINTED BY ASSOCIATION.

Virginia says THE FACT
THAT THEY WERE CLOSE TO HIM AND
REFUSED TO SPEAK ABOUT IT JUST
EXACERBATED RELATIONS WITH THE
REST OF THE FAMILY AND WITH THE
WIDER ARISTOCRACY, CERTAINLY
CALLING INTO QUESTION THEIR
JUDGMENT, AND INCREASING THIS
SENSE OF "US AND THEM."

Lucy says A PLOT WAS HATCHED TO
KILL RASPUTIN.
IT CENTRED AROUND THE MAN WHO
LIVED HERE, PRINCE FELIX
YUSUPOV, WHO WAS MARRIED TO
TSAR NICHOLAS'S BEAUTIFUL
NIECE, IRINA.
ON THE NIGHT OF DECEMBER 16TH,
1916, FELIX LURED RASPUTIN
TO HIS PALACE WITH THE PROMISE
OF A MIDNIGHT ASSIGNATION
WITH IRINA.
UPSTAIRS, THEY COULD HEAR THE
SOUNDS OF A PARTY; A GRAMOPHONE
WAS PLAYING.
FELIX EXPLAINED THAT HIS WIFE
HAD GUESTS, AND THAT SHE WOULD
COME DOWN WHEN THEY'D LEFT.
[gramophone music playing]
[ominous music]
PRINCE FELIX SAID, WHILE WE'RE
WAITING, LET'S HAVE SOME CAKES
AND SOME WINE.
THE CAKES WERE ROSE-FLAVOURED -
RASPUTIN'S FAVOURITE... AND BOTH
WERE LACED WITH CYANIDE.
HE ATE AND HE DRANK, BUT THERE
SEEMED TO BE NOTHING WRONG WITH HIM.
HE ASKED PRINCE FELIX TO PLAY
SOME SONGS ON HIS GUITAR.
AN HOUR LATER, FELIX IS GETTING IMPATIENT.
SO, HE GOT HIS PISTOL.
HE DISTRACTED RASPUTIN BY
ASKING HIM TO LOOK AT A
CRUCIFIX, AND HE SHOT HIM IN THE SIDE.
NOW, THE CONSPIRATORS STARTED
TALKING ABOUT WHAT TO DO WITH
RASPUTIN'S CLOTHES, HIS OVERCOAT.
BUT, UNNOTICED BY THEM,
RASPUTIN WAS STILL ALIVE.
HE MANAGED TO CREEP HIS WAY
RIGHT OUT OF THE BUILDING AND
INTO THE COURTYARD BEFORE THEY
SPOTTED THIS.
THERE, THEY SHOT HIM AGAIN
PROPERLY IN THE HEAD, AND THEY
WEIGHED DOWN HIS BODY WITH
HEAVY IRON CHAINS AND THREW IT
INTO THE RIVER NEVA.
(dramatic piano music plays)
THE REMOVAL OF RASPUTIN WAS
TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE TO SAVE
THE ROMANOVS.
THE WAR WAS DRAGGING ON, AND
CONDITIONS WERE GETTING WORSE.
A DECISIVE MOMENT WAS REACHED
IN FEBRUARY 1917, ON THE
STREETS OF THE RUSSIAN CAPITAL.
WORKERS, TIRED OF LONG HOURS IN
THE FACTORIES, AND EVEN LONGER
QUEUES FOR BREAD, CAME POURING
OUT ONTO THE STREETS.
THE FIRST WORLD WAR WAS A
DISASTER FOR RUSSIA.
THREE OUT OF FOUR RUSSIAN
SOLDIERS BECAME CASUALTIES.
WORKERS AND FARMERS HAD BEEN
TAKEN FROM THEIR JOBS AND THEN
SLAUGHTERED BY THE GERMAN ARMY.
AND THIS LED TO FOOD SHORTAGES
AND RAMPANT INFLATION.
ULTIMATELY, THE GLITTERING
ROMANOVS WOULD BE BROUGHT DOWN
BY A PEOPLE WHO WANTED THE
BASIC COMMODITY OF BREAD.
THE BREAKING POINT CAME ON
INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S DAY.
THOUSANDS OF WOMEN FLOODED THE
STREETS TO PROTEST, JOINING
FORCES WITH STRIKING WORKERS.

Crowds of women wearing headscarves march in the streets.

Lucy continues BY THE NEXT DAY, A QUARTER OF
A MILLION PEOPLE WERE MARCHING
DOWN NEVSKY PROSPEKT.
THEY WERE SMASHING UP THE
SHOPS, AND CARRYING BANNERS
THAT SAID THINGS LIKE, STOP THE
WAR, FEED THE CHILDREN, AND...
MOST WORRYINGLY TO THE
ROMANOVS... "END AUTOCRACY."
[bell tolling]
ALEXANDRA WROTE TO NICHOLAS OF
A "HOOLIGAN MOVEMENT IN THE
STREETS."
NICHOLAS COMMANDED THE LOCAL
GARRISON TO PUT A STOP TO THE
PROTESTS AND ORDERS WERE ISSUED
TO USE ALL NECESSARY FORCE.
[bell tolling]
THE THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE ON THE
STREETS WERE MET BY SOLDIERS,
WHO FOLLOWED THEIR ORDERS AND
FIRED AT THEM.
BUT THAT NIGHT, WHEN THE TROOPS
WENT BACK TO THEIR BARRACKS,
THEY BEGAN TO ASK THEMSELVES
WHETHER THEY COULD FACE ANOTHER
DAY OF SHOOTING AT THEIR FELLOW
CITIZENS, WHO WERE DESPERATE FOR FOOD.
THE ANSWER TO THAT QUESTION
BECAME CLEAR THE NEXT MORNING.
THE STREETS WERE FULL AGAIN
WITH THE WORKERS, BUT ALSO WITH
SOLDIERS WITH RED RIBBONS ON
THEIR BAYONETS.
THE MUTINIES AMONGST THE ARMED
FORCES WENT ON ALL DAY.
THEY BROKE INTO WEAPONS
FACTORIES... THEY SET FIRE TO
POLICE STATIONS.
BY SUNSET, THE REVOLUTION WAS
WELL UNDERWAY.
BY NOW, NICHOLAS HAD BEEN
ABANDONED BY HIS GENERALS, WHO
BELIEVED HE WAS COMPLETELY
USELESS, AN OBSTACLE TO VICTORY.
TRAVELLING HOME FROM THE FRONT,
NICHOLAS'S TRAIN WAS FORCED TO
DIVERT, AND HE STARTED GETTING
TELEGRAMS FROM POLITICIANS AND THE MILITARY.
THEY SAID THAT IN ORDER TO
AVOID A COMPLETE COLLAPSE OF
ORDER, HE WOULD HAVE TO GO.
NOW, FOR ALL OF HIS FAILURES,
NICHOLAS WAS A PATRIOT.
TO AVOID CIVIL WAR, HE AGREED TO ABDICATE.

Opening an old ledger in an archive, Lucy says AND HERE'S THE DOCUMENT WHEN
NICHOLAS RENOUNCES AN EMPIRE,
EFFECTIVELY BRINGING AN END TO
300 YEARS OF ROMANOV RULE.
I CAN'T HELP NOTICING THAT HE
SIGNED IT VERY LIGHTLY IN
PENCIL, AS IF HE DIDN'T REALLY MEAN IT.
PEOPLE PRESENT WERE STRUCK BY
THE CALMNESS WITH WHICH
NICHOLAS SIGNED AWAY HIS THRONE.
ONE OF THE GENERALS PRESENT
LATER SAID, "HE WAS SUCH A
FATALIST, I COULDN'T BELIEVE IT.
HE SIGNED AS SIMPLY AS ONE
HANDS OVER A CAVALRY SQUADRON
TO ITS NEW COMMANDER."
NICHOLAS HANDED THE THRONE TO
HIS BROTHER, WHO REFUSED IT.
INSTEAD, THE MIGHTY POWER OF
THE TSAR FLOWED TO RUSSIA'S NEW
PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT.
300 YEARS OF ROMANOV RULE HAD
COME TO AN END.
THE NEW PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT
IMMEDIATELY FACED DEMANDS FOR
THE EX-TSAR'S ARREST
ON THE 7TH OF MARCH, THEY
ORDERED THAT NICHOLAS AND
ALEXANDRA BE DEPRIVED OF THEIR FREEDOM.
THE FAMILY FOUND THEMSELVES
CAPTIVE BACK AT THE ALEXANDER PALACE.
BUT EVEN HERE, THE WORLD WAS
TURNED UPSIDE DOWN.
THE SOLDIERS MOVED FREELY
THROUGH THE PALACE, COMING INTO
THE FAMILY'S ROOMS UNANNOUNCED.
AND OUTSIDE THE PARK RAILING,
CROWDS GATHERED... THE "GAPERS,"
AS NICHOLAS CALLED THEM... COME
TO SEE THE ONCE-GREAT ROMANOVS
BROUGHT SO LOW.
THE GUARDS LIKED TO HUMILIATE
NICHOLAS FOR A JOKE.
ONE DAY HE WAS RIDING ALONG ON
HIS BICYCLE, AND ONE OF THE
SOLDIERS THRUST HIS BAYONET
THROUGH THE SPOKES OF THE
WHEEL, THEN LAUGHED
UPROARIOUSLY AS THE EX-TSAR
WENT OVER THE HANDLEBARS.
(percussion music plays)
THE NEW PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT
WAS STILL AT WAR WITH THE GERMANS.
AND SO, THE GERMANS GAVE THEM A
SPECIAL PRESENT... LENIN.
THE EXILED REVOLUTIONARY WAS
TRANSPORTED ACROSS GERMANY IN A
SEALED TRAIN TO RUSSIA.
LENIN STIRRED UP A MORE
MILITANT MOOD, AND PRESSURE WAS
PUT ON THE PROVISIONAL
GOVERNMENT TO BE HARDER ON THE
ROYAL FAMILY.
BY THE LATE SUMMER, IT WAS
DECIDED THAT THE ROMANOVS
BELONGED IN A CAGE LESS GILDED.
AT DAWN, ON THE 1ST OF AUGUST
1917, TSAR NICHOLAS AND HIS
FAMILY LEFT THE PALACE THROUGH
THESE DOORS.
ALONG WITH 39 COURTIERS AND
RETAINERS, THEY WERE TO BE
TAKEN UNDER HEAVY GUARD TO SIBERIA.
THEY DIDN'T REALIZE IT, BUT
THEY WERE LEAVING FOREVER.
IN SPITE OF THIS HARDER LINE,
THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT WERE
OUT OF STEP WITH THE PEOPLE WHO
WANTED AN END TO THE WAR, AND
WHO WERE FLOCKING TO LENIN'S
PROMISE OF "PEACE, LAND, AND BREAD."
IN OCTOBER CAME THE TEN DAYS
THAT SHOOK THE WORLD, WHEN
LENIN'S BOLSHEVIKS OVERTHREW
THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT.
THE WINTER PALACE WAS STORMED,
TELEGRAPH STATIONS AND
GOVERNMENT OFFICES OCCUPIED.
WITH CONTROL OF THE STATE, THE
BOLSHEVIKS NOW FOUNDED THEIR
OWN MILITIA... THE RED ARMY -
AND THEY WOULD IN TIME HAVE TO
DECIDE WHAT TO DO WITH MISTER
NICHOLAS ROMANOV AND FAMILY.

A balding man in his sixties speaks to viewers. A caption reads "Professor
Peter Waldron, University of East Anglia"

Professor Waldron says THE
BOLSHEVIKS HAVE A DEEP LOATHING
OF THE RUSSIAN IMPERIAL FAMILY.
LENIN DESCRIBES THE LAST TSAR
NOT AS NICHOLAS II, BUT AS
"NICHOLAS THE BLOODY."
AND THEY HOLD THE IMPERIAL
FAMILY AND THE ROMANOV REGIME
RESPONSIBLE FOR, YEAH, THE
EVENTS OF 1905 WHERE PEACEFUL
WORKING PEOPLE ARE SHOT DOWN
BY TSARIST TROOPS.
AND IN THE SPRING AND SUMMER OF
1918, LENIN AND HIS COMRADES
ARE FIXED ON ONE THING AND ONE
THING ONLY says IT IS THE
MAINTENANCE OF THEIR OWN POWER.
THEY UNDERSTAND VERY CLEARLY
THE FRAGILITY OF THEIR
SITUATION, AND THEY'RE PREPARED
TO DO ALMOST ANYTHING TO HOLD
ONTO THE AUTHORITY THAT THEY
HAVE GAINED IN OCTOBER 1917.

Lucy says BY JULY 1918, THE
FAMILY WERE BEING HELD IN A
HOUSE IN YEKATERINBURG IN THE
URAL MOUNTAINS.
CIVIL WAR WAS RAGING; THE GUNS
OF THE WHITE ARMY RUMBLED JUST
A FEW MILES AWAY.
A DECISION WAS MADE SOMEWHERE
IN THE SOVIET BUREAUCRACY THAT
NICHOLAS AND HIS FAMILY SHOULD
BE KILLED, TO PREVENT THEM FROM
BECOMING A RALLYING POINT FOR
THEIR ENEMIES.
IT'S HARD TO GET A CLEAR
PICTURE OF WHAT ACTUALLY
HAPPENED AT YEKATERINBURG.
THERE ARE SO MANY CONFLICTING
STORIES ABOUT IT.
AND, IN ANY CASE, THE WHOLE
THING WAS HUSHED UP AFTERWARDS.
BUT MOST SOURCES DO AGREE THAT
IN THE EARLY HOURS OF THE
MORNING, NICHOLAS, ALEXANDRA,
AND THE CHILDREN WERE WOKEN UP.
THEY WERE TOLD TO DRESS AND TO
GO DOWN TO THE CELLAR.
THIS WAS FOR THEIR OWN SAFETY...
THEY HAD TO BE MOVED AGAIN.
THEY WERE ACCOMPANIED BY SOME
OF THEIR SERVANTS AND THEIR DOG.
MEANWHILE, OUTSIDE THE CELLAR,
AN EXECUTION SQUAD WAS FORMING UP.
ONE OF ITS MEMBERS WAS CALLED
MIKHAIL MEDVEDEV, AND THIS IS
THE GUN THAT HE CARRIED.

Lucy puts on gloves and picks up an old pistol.

Lucy continues WHEN THE SQUAD ENTERED,
NICHOLAS WAS TOLD THAT HE AND
HIS FAMILY WERE TO BE KILLED,
AND HE WAS ACTUALLY IN THE ACT
OF GOING, "WHAT?!" WHEN THE
FIRST SHOT WAS FIRED.
MEDVEDEV LATER CLAIMED IT AS HIS OWN.
WHAT HAPPENED IN THE BASEMENT
WAS A MASSACRE.
AS WELL AS BEING SHOT MULTIPLE
TIMES, MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY
WERE ALSO BAYONETED.
ONE OF THE SOLDERS LATER
REMEMBERED THAT IT HAD BEEN
DIFFICULT TO BAYONET THE GIRLS
BECAUSE, THINKING THAT THE
FAMILY WAS ON THE MOVE ONCE
AGAIN, THEY'D STORED THEIR
DIAMONDS AND THEIR JEWELS
INSIDE THEIR CORSETS.
THIS HAD ACTED LIKE ARMOUR PLATING.
AFTER THE WHOLE BUSINESS WAS
OVER, THERE WAS ONLY ONE SURVIVOR.
IT WAS THE LITTLE DOG.
(sad music plays)

Standing in the square at Saint Petersburg, Lucy continues
THE QUESTION I KEEP COMING
BACK TO IS, COULD ALL OF THIS
HORROR HAVE BEEN AVOIDED IF
NICHOLAS WAS A BIT MORE
POLITICALLY ASTUTE AND A BIT
LESS DETERMINED TO CLING ON TO
HIS AUTOCRACY?
IF NICHOLAS HAD HEEDED THE
WARNING OF THE REVOLUTION OF
1905, AND BECOME A
CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCH, LIKE IN
BRITAIN, THEN MAYBE HIS LIFE,
THE LIVES OF HIS FAMILY, AND
THE LIVES OF MILLIONS OF
ORDINARY RUSSIANS COULD HAVE
BEEN SAVED.
BUT NO, HE WAS DETERMINED THAT
HIS POWER SHOULD BE UNDILUTED.
AND IF YOU LOOK BACK AT THE
HISTORY OF HIS DYNASTY, YOU CAN
SORT OF SEE WHY HE MADE THAT DECISION.
NICHOLAS'S DEVOTION TO
AUTOCRACY WASN'T A FETISH.
FOR HIM, IT WAS A RATIONAL
RESPONSE TO HOW POWER WORKED IN RUSSIA.
HIS DIRECT ANCESTORS PETER THE
GREAT AND CATHERINE THE GREAT
HAD USED THEIR ABSOLUTE RULE TO
TURN RUSSIA INTO A WORLD POWER,
WHILE WESTERN STYLE REFORMS LED
TO INSTABILITY AND ASSASSINATION.
[explosion]
[bells ringing]
AND EVEN THOUGH NICHOLAS
HIMSELF DIDN'T MAKE A GOOD JOB
OF BEING AN AUTOCRAT, THE
REGIME THAT FOLLOWED HIM WOULD
IN SOME WAYS RESEMBLE THAT OF
TSARIST RULE, WITH ITS OWN "RED
TSARS" AROUND WHOM THE STATE REVOLVED.

Stalin and Khrushchev appear.

FOR BETTER OR WORSE, HOW THE
ROMANOVS GOVERNED PAVED THE WAY
FOR WHAT WAS TO COME.

Three palace guards goose-step, holding their bayonets vertically.
(marching)

The red cathedral bell tower appears.
[bell ringing]

(theme music plays)

The end credits roll.

Presented by Lucy Worsley.

Production Manager, Nicole Larmour.

Film Editor, Stuart Davies.

Executive Producer, Michael Poole.

Director and Series Producer, John Das.

Produced and Directed by Sebastian Barfield.

A B.B.C. Arts Production, Bristol, 2015.

Watch: Ep. 3 - The Road to Revolution