Transcript: To the Ends of the Earth | Jan 17, 2017

(gentle music plays)

A quote on screen reads "An era can be said to end when its basic
illusions are exhausted... Arthur Miller, playwright."

[squeaking]

A multiple antenna appears against the sky. Against a tall tubular structure
supporting communications cables, then a pointer on a signal chart, an
abandoned old truck a basic oil pump and storage tank and wrecked buildings,
a caption reads "White Gold Productions Presents (Opening credits roll) Produced
and directed by David Lavallée, Scripted by Fernanda Rossi, David Lavallée,
Narrated by Emma Thompson, Edited by Jean Baillargeon... "To the Ends of the
Earth." The title caption crumbles. A symbol shows an arrow diagonally crossing
a square. A hand squirts a drop of black oil on the square. The screen fades to
black and is then replaced by fast motion city traffic scenes.
(ominous music plays)

A Man says THE FLASH OF
POWER, THE GLEAM OF OIL.
WELL, YOU KNOW WHAT
MAKES YOUR AUTO RUN.

A man comes out of a log cabin in the countryside. He checks a vegetable garden
and then a double solar panel connected to a block of 16 storage batteries.
[birds chirping]
(water running)

Emma Thompson says DAVID HUGHES
IS A PETROLEUM GEOLOGIST.
DURING THE COURSE OF
HIS CAREER, HE'S CONDUCTED
FULL-SCALE ASSESSMENTS
OF CANADA'S COAL AND
NATURAL GAS RESERVES.
HUGHES KNOWS THAT ENERGY IS
AT THE CENTRE OF EVERYTHING
WE DO AS HUMAN BEINGS.

A quick clip shows traffic crossing a bridge, tractors and a container ship.

David Hughes, with curly graying hair in his forties, says ROUGHLY 85 PERCENT OF THE ENERGY
THAT WE USE IS HYDROCARBON.
OIL, NUMBER ONE...
FOLLOWED BY COAL
AND NATURAL GAS.
IT'S JUST A FACT OF LIFE.

(gentle music plays)
Suburban houses are seen at nightfall. In a bedroom, a couple wakes and turns
on lights. The man starts a coffee machine and munches an apple. He and his
wife, having finished their breakfast, enter their family car.

Emma Thompson says CONSIDER FOR
A MOMENT THE ROLE OF ENERGY IN
OUR DAY-TO-DAY LIVES, BOTH THE
EMBEDDED ENERGY IN ALL THE
MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS AROUND
US AND THE ACTIVE ENERGY
WE CONSUME TO RUN OUR LIVES.
[alarm clock beeping]
FROM THE SHEETS TO THE CARPET
TO THE LIGHT CONNECTED TO AN
ELECTRIC GRID INCREASINGLY
POWERED BY NATURAL GAS;
THE COFFEE BROUGHT FROM COSTA
RICA IN AN OIL BURNING SHIP;
EVEN THE LABEL ON THAT APPLE.
IT TAKES SEVEN CALORIES OF
FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY TO MAKE
ONE CALORIE OF FOOD.
BEFORE WE LEAVE OUR HOMES,
WE HAVE CONSUMED GALLON UPON
GALLON OF OIL AND GAS.
THE AVERAGE NORTH AMERICAN
FAMILY OF FOUR CONSUMES
100 BARRELS OF OIL A YEAR.
[doors closing]
[engine starting]
AND LET'S NOT FORGET
YOUR MORNING COMMUTE.

A fast motion clip shows highway traffic.
[horns honking]

A formally dressed man in his forties with short blond hair and glasses addresses
viewers. A caption reads "Charles Hall, Professor Emeritus, Syracuse University
of New York."

Charles says OUR PAST SUPER
ABUNDANCE OF ENERGY HAS, FIRST
OF ALL, ALLOWED A TERRIFIC
GROWTH OF SOCIETY, BUT IT'S
ALLOWED ECONOMICS AS A
DISCIPLINE TO PAY NO
ATTENTION TO ENERGY AT ALL,
EVEN THOUGH THERE'S
ANY NUMBER OF WAYS
THAT WE CAN SHOW THAT IF
YOU TAKE THE ENERGY OUT
OF THE SOCIETY, IT'LL
STOP IMMEDIATELY.

A large stadium is seen from the air. A man with trimmed gray hair and a beard
speaks. A caption reads "Andrew Nikiforuk, author "The Energy of Slaves."

Andrew says MODERN
SOCIETY, AS A CONSEQUENCE OF
HAVING AN ABUNDANCE OF
CHEAP ENERGY FOR 100 YEARS,
ENERGY IS NO LONGER
PART OF OUR CONVERSATION.

A man tries to push his stalled car uphill. An animation shows the different speeds
of the pushed car and a properly working one on the same hill.

Emma Thompson says TAKE, FOR
EXAMPLE, THE ENERGY IN A
GALLON OF GAS AS COMPARED TO
THE ENERGY FROM THE SWEAT
OF YOUR BROW.
A GALLON OF GAS DELIVERS
ENERGY EQUIVALENT TO 490 HOURS
OF STRENUOUS HUMAN LABOUR,
LABOUR WHICH WOULD COST $6,500
IF THE LABOURER WERE PAID MINIMUM WAGE.
[car horn]
AND YET, IT COSTS ONLY $4.
IT'S BASICALLY "FREE ENERGY."

(music plays)

A caption reads "In our globalized world, 99 percent of the labour in society
is done with fossil fuels."

Andrew says ECONOMIES
DON'T RUN ON MONEY.
THEY RUN ON ENERGY.
MONEY IS REALLY A METAPHOR FOR
"ENERGY SURPLUS" IN MANY WAYS.

Emma Thompson says PRIOR TO 2005,
OIL AND GAS CAME PRIMARILY
FROM CONVENTIONAL SOURCES...
FREELY FLOWING SOURCES OF
OIL AND GAS.
[film reel clicking]

A clean-shaven man in his sixties with short hair speaks. A caption reads
"Richard Heinberg, author... "The End of Growth."

Richard says THEN IN
2005 SOMETHING STRANGE HAPPENED.
REGULAR CONVENTIONAL CRUDE OIL
PRODUCTION STOPPED GROWING.
ALL OF THE GROWTH HAS BEEN
FROM UNCONVENTIONALS...
FROM TAR SANDS OR FROM
"TIGHT OIL" IN THE U.S.,
FROM FRACKING OPERATIONS.

Over a clip of an oil drilling operation, a caption reads "68 million barrels
per day." Then another reads "27 million barrels per day."

Emma Thompson says ACCORDING TO
THE INTERNATIONAL ENERGY
AGENCY, 68 MILLION BARRELS
OF OIL TODAY COME FROM
CONVENTIONAL FIELDS, AND BY
2035, THAT WILL DECLINE TO
27 MILLION BARRELS A DAY.

David Hughes says THAT'S AN
INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT MILESTONE
IN TERMS OF THE HUMAN RACE.

Emma Thompson says SO IN ORDER
TO POWER OUR ECONOMY, WE WILL
HAVE TO REPLACE THAT LOSS WITH
UNCONVENTIONAL RESOURCES.
CAN THESE RESOURCES DO
THE JOB THAT CONVENTIONAL
OIL AND GAS DOES?
ONE THING IS CLEAR... THEY
WILL "HAVE TO" IN ORDER FOR US
TO HAVE AN ECONOMY THAT LOOKS
EVEN REMOTELY LIKE THE ONE
WE HAVE NOW.
BOTH THE GEOLOGY AND
GEOGRAPHY OF A RESOURCE
CAN MAKE IT UNCONVENTIONAL.
THE BEST TOOL TO MEASURE THE
QUALITY OF A RESOURCE IS
THE RESOURCE PYRAMID.

After clips showing different geological features, an animation shows petrol
being poured from a portable fuel tank into a pyramidal shape. At the side, from
top to bottom, captions read "Conventional oil and gas. Arctic...
unconventional tar sands and bitumen, Extremely unconventional oil shale... Utah."

Andrew says EVERY
RESOURCE HAS A PYRAMID.
SO AT THE TOP OF THE PYRAMID,
THAT'S THE EASY FRUIT.
THAT'S THE STUFF THAT'S
EASY TO FIND, CHEAP TO GET,
DOESN'T REQUIRE A LOT
OF LABOUR AND ENERGY.
THOSE ARE THE SWEET
DAYS OF THE RESOURCE.
[machinery humming]

Richard says THE
INDUSTRY'S GOING TO THE ENDS
OF THE EARTH TO
PRODUCE OIL THESE DAYS.
IT'S CERTAINLY NOT YOUR
GRANDFATHER'S OIL INDUSTRY.

(music plays)

A view of northern North America homes in on Clyde River. Over a clip of a desolate
cliff area, a caption reads "Baffin Island... North of the Arctic Circle."

Emma Thompson says CANADA'S
ARCTIC IS NOW AT THE
FOREFRONT OF UNCONVENTIONAL
OIL AND GAS DEVELOPMENT.

Andrew says ONCE YOU'VE
PICKED ALL OF THE LOW-HANGING
FRUIT, THEN YOU HAVE TO MOVE
DOWN THE PYRAMID, AND AS YOU
MOVE DOWN THE PYRAMID,
EVERYTHING BECOMES MORE
DIFFICULT, MORE COSTLY, MORE
ENERGY-INTENSIVE, AND IT'S A
SIGN THAT YOU HAVE TO BEGIN
SOME KIND OF TRANSITION.

Clips show an Arctic Wolf and a tall cliff.

David says THE USGS DID A
MAJOR STUDY OF THE ARCTIC AND
THEY SAID THAT THERE'S A 50
PERCENT PROBABILITY OF ABOUT
90 BILLION BARRELS OF OIL.
TO PUT THAT IN PERSPECTIVE,
WE'RE BURNING ABOUT 32 BILLION
BARRELS A YEAR, SO 90 BILLION
BARRELS IS ABOUT THREE YEARS
OF GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION.
IT'S GOING TO BE VERY HIGH-COST
OIL IF YOU LOOK AT THE
EXTREME ENVIRONMENT IT'S
LOCATED IN AND ALSO EXTREME
ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS
IN TRYING TO GET AT IT.

Ships travel in the Arctic, towing devices behind them.
[mechanical whirring]
(air pulses blowing)

An animation shows the method of seismic testing.

Emma Thompson says THE FIRST
INVESTMENT COMPANIES ARE
MAKING IS IN EXPLORATION.
IN ARCTIC WATERS, THIS BEGINS
WITH SEISMIC TESTING.
SHIPS CARRYING LARGE AIR GUNS
KNOWN AS SONIC ARRAYS SHOOT
PULSES OF AIR DOWN INTO THE
BEDROCK AT THE BOTTOM OF THE
OCEAN TO INDICATE
THE PRESENCE OF OIL.
[explosion]
WHEN THE SONIC ARRAYS ARE UP
AT FULL SPEED, THE DECIBEL
COUNT CAN BE AS HIGH AS 250.
[explosion]

A woman with shoulder-length brown hair speaks. A caption reads "Lindy Weilgart,
Marine Biologist."

Lindy says ASIDE FROM
NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, IT IS
THE LOUDEST MAN-MADE SOUND.
THESE SHOTS THAT HAPPEN EVERY
12 SECONDS AROUND THE CLOCK,
DAY AND NIGHT FOR MONTHS AT
A TIME, ARE GOING TO REALLY
CAUSE A HUGE AMOUNT OF
BACKGROUND NOISE THAT CAN BE
HEARD AT DISTANCES OF
3,000 KILOMETRES AWAY.
HALF OF THE ATLANTIC,
BASICALLY, IS THE DISTANCE
OVER WHICH THESE SOUNDS
HAVE BEEN DETECTED.
[explosion]

Emma Thompson says LINDY
WEILGART WORKS AT THE
DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY AT
DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY IN CANADA.
SHE'S BEEN STUDYING THE
AFFECTS OF UNDERWATER NOISE
ON WHALES SINCE 1994.

Lindy says WHALES,
DOLPHINS AND PORPOISES RELY ON
SOUND FOR EVERY ASPECT OF
THEIR LIVES, AND I THINK FOR
NARWHALS, IT WOULD BE
PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT BECAUSE
THEY HAVE THE ADDITIONAL
CHALLENGE OF HAVING TO WORK
AROUND ICE AND FIND BREATHING HOLES.

A voice speaks Inuit.
A dark-haired man in his thirties speaks. A caption reads "Jerry Natanine."

Jerry says "Last year, they really wanted to explore Baffin Bay and the
Davis Strait area. We were against it... we thought it would affect the
animals. We pushed back against it... we didn't think it would benefit us
at all..."

A clip shows wildlife and then a small settlement. A caption reads "Clyde River."
[beeping]
[children playing]

Jerry continues "We are accustomed to our traditional foods. Our foods are more
filling than white men's foods.

In the supermarket, Lesley Ashevak, an Inuit hunter, says "The vegetables are
small and expensive. One thing even costs fourteen dollars. This chicken costs
fifty dollars, and you can't even get full on it. Vegetarians... I think they
do their hunting in grocery stores."
[throat singing]
[drumming]

Lesley goes out hunting on a motorbike. He pulls out a big gun.

Emma Thompson says LESLEY
ASHEVAK IS A MAN WHO BELIEVES
THAT VEGETARIANISM IS JUST AN
EXCUSE FOR BEING A BAD HUNTER.
HIS CULINARY PREFERENCE
IS FOR "FREE RANGE ORGANIC."

Lesley says HEY!
[gunshot]

He picks up the seal cub he's shot, and says "If the oil companies offered us
lots of money, it might be our only option for work. People have to eat. We
need to feed and clothe our children. When there is an oil spill, the animals
are greatly affected, and the humans would be too. It would affect our food
supply... seals and narwhals."

He flays the cub. A polar bear crosses in the distance.

[drumming]
(vocal humming music plays)

Jerry continues ..."they had migrated from Greenland, an area where there was
seismic testing. The narwhals had bloody ears, and they seemed to be confused.
The Inuit began to say that they are also getting deaf from the seismic testing.
That's what the Inuit are saying."

A caption reads "In 2008, in Pond Inlet, 500 narwhals were trapped in the ice.
Unable to reach open water, they perished. The frozen narwhal tusks protrude
from the ice.

Lindy says ICE
ENTRAPMENT HAPPENS WHEN WHALES
GET, IN POLAR REGIONS,
UNEXPECTEDLY GET CAUGHT IN
THE ICE AND THEY CAN'T
FIND A WAY TO THE SURFACE.
THEY'RE MAMMALS, THEY HAVE TO BREATHE.
[squealing]

Lindy continues THEY NORMALLY
WOULD START THEIR SOUTHWARD
MIGRATION AT A VERY PREDICTABLE
TIME, BUT THIS TIME, THERE
WAS A SEISMIC SURVEY BLOCKING
THEIR MIGRATION PATH AND SO
THEY HUNG AROUND LONGER IN
THEIR SUMMER FEEDING GROUNDS
THAN THEY EVER HAD BEFORE.
[explosions]
THEY DELAYED THEIR MIGRATION
SUCH THAT THE ICE MOVED IN
AND THEN THEY WERE STUCK.
[squealing]
NARWHALS ARE SO PREDICTABLE IN
THEIR MIGRATIONS THAT IF THEY
DEVIATE FROM THIS NATURAL
BASELINE, THAT RAISES A
RED FLAG IMMEDIATELY.

Desperate narwhals breathe heavily through a breathing hole in the ice.
[puffing]

Lindy continues THERE WERE THREE MORE ATYPICAL
NARWHAL ICE ENTRAPMENTS THAT
THEY THINK ARE CONNECTED WITH
THE SEISMIC SURVEYS DONE
IN THE AREA.
SO ALL OF THESE THREE ARE
SUSPICIOUSLY CONNECTED WITH
THE AIR GUN SURVEYS.

Narwhal skeletons lie on an ice platform. An engraving shows early oil wells.
Early photos show oil drilling equipment and drums.
(gentle music plays)

Richard says IT WAS
ENERGY THAT LED TO THE MIRACLE
OF THE MID AND
LATE 20th CENTURY.
HAVING ALL OF THAT ENERGY
AT OUR DISPOSAL ENABLED US
TO DO AMAZING THINGS.
ECONOMIES REALLY DIDN'T
GROW SIGNIFICANTLY OVERALL,
RIGHT UP UNTIL THE INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION, AND THEN CHEAP
ENERGY CHANGED EVERYTHING.
CHEAP ENERGY, PLUS A LITTLE
MECHANIZATION, YIELDED
ECONOMIC GROWTH.

A line graph in green and black reads "Gross Domestic Product Globally and Fossil
Fuels Consumption." the two lines rise and merge.

Emma Thompson says IN FACT, IF
YOU WERE TO OVERLAY A GRAPH OF
OUR ECONOMIC GROWTH INCREASES
SINCE THE 20th CENTURY,
YOU WOULD FIND IT WALKS HAND-IN-HAND
WITH THE CONSUMPTION OF FOSSIL FUELS.
OUR CARBON EMISSIONS FOLLOW
EXACTLY THE SAME TRAJECTORY.

Engravings show a bearded man and a community featuring oil derricks.

Emma Thompson continues IN 1858, EDWIN
DRAKE STRIKES OIL
IN TITUSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA.
HIS DOGGED DETERMINATION
HAS FINALLY PAID OFF.

A clip shows ecstatic workers.
[film reel clicking]

Emma Thompson continues AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR, AN
ECONOMIC BOOM UNPARALLELED IN HUMAN HISTORY.
ALL THINGS SEEMED POSSIBLE
IN THIS BRIGHT NEW TIME.

Clips show roads and vehicles.

A commentator says OUR BIGNESS, OUR
GREATNESS, THE ABUNDANCE
THAT STEMS FROM LIBERTY.

Richard says ECONOMISTS
THOUGHT THEY HAD DISCOVERED
THE PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE,
THAT THIS COULD
JUST GO ON FOREVER.

Emma Thompson says FOR THE FIRST
TIME IN HISTORY, WE BEGAN
CREATING A 'GROW OR DIE'
ECONOMY... IF ECONOMIC GROWTH
STOPS, THE WHOLE SYSTEM COLLAPSES.

A building is shown collapsing. Huge expanses are covered with derricks.
[creaking]
[thud]

Emma Thompson continues BETWEEN 1950 AND 1970, THE
BIGGEST OILFIELDS IN THE WORLD
ARE DISCOVERED.
THE ENERGY RETURNS ARE SO GOOD
THAT ONE BARREL OF OIL IN
TERMS OF ENERGY INVESTED
YIELDS A RETURN OF 100
BARRELS OF OIL.

An old photo shows a strong-faced man with dark hair writing on a blackboard.

Emma Thompson continues THE FIRST PERSON TO QUESTION
THIS DREAM OF ENDLESS PLENTY
WAS M.K. HUBBERT, A
GEOSCIENTIST WORKING FOR SHELL.
IN 1956, HE PUBLISHED A PAPER
THAT WAS LARGELY IGNORED, IN
WHICH HE PREDICTED A PEAK
AND THEN A DECLINE OF U.S.
OIL SUPPLIES BETWEEN
1965 AND 1970.
WHEN HIS PREDICTION CAME TRUE
IN 1970, HE GARNERED MUCH
MEDIA ATTENTION.
THIS, COMBINED WITH THE OPEC
OIL SHOCKS, WOKE PEOPLE
"BRIEFLY" UP TO THE FACT THAT
THIS RESOURCE WAS NOT INFINITE.

Using a pointer, a now older Hubbert says THIS WIDENING
MONUMENT-LIKE SPIKE HERE IS
THE EPISODE OF THE FOSSIL
FUELS... COAL, OIL AND NATURAL
GAS AND EVERY OTHER KIND OF
FOSSIL FUEL IN HUMAN HISTORY.
IT'S RESPONSIBLE FOR OUR
TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY, AND IN
TERMS OF HUMAN HISTORY,
IT'S A VERY BRIEF EPOCH.

Emma Thompson says BUT WHAT
HUBBERT COULD NOT HAVE
PREDICTED AT THE TIME IS THE
IMPORTANT ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY
IN ACCESSING INCREASINGLY
DIFFICULT DEPOSITS OF OIL AND
GAS, AND THE BIRTH OF
UNCONVENTIONAL OIL AND GAS.
BETWEEN 1960 AND 2003,
HUMANITY LARGELY OPERATED
AT THE TOP OF THE RESOURCE
PYRAMID, BUT IN 2003,
THAT ALL CHANGED.

Huge bomb explosions take place. Modern jets fly in attack.
[explosions]
[aircraft engines rumbling]

Emma Thompson continues THE ACTIONS OF A ROGUE
DICTATOR SEND THE PRICE OF OIL
SKYWARDS, BUT AS BAGHDAD
BURNS, CALGARY BOOMS.
THE AGE OF EXTREME
ENERGY IS BORN.
HUMANITY HAS TAKEN A GIANT
STEP DOWN THE RESOURCE PYRAMID.

The resource pyramid seen before shows a dump truck filling the sections. The
Government buildings in Ottawa appear.

Emma Thompson continues CANADA'S PRIME MINISTER
ANNOUNCES A BRAND NEW CANADIAN
INDUSTRY... THE OIL SANDS,
FORMERLY KNOWN AS THE TAR SANDS.

Stephen Harper says THE
OIL SANDS ARE THE SECOND
LARGEST OIL DEPOSIT IN THE
WORLD, BIGGER THAN IRAQ,
IRAN OR RUSSIA, EXCEEDED
ONLY BY SAUDI ARABIA.
DIGGING THE BITUMEN OUT OF THE
GROUND, SQUEEZING THE OIL
AND CONVERTING IT
INTO SYNTHETIC CRUDE IS
A MONUMENTAL CHALLENGE.
IT REQUIRES VAST
AMOUNTS OF CAPITAL.
IN SHORT, IT IS AN ENTERPRISE
OF EPIC PROPORTIONS, AKIN TO
BUILDING THE PYRAMIDS
OR CHINA'S GREAT WALL,
ONLY BIGGER.
(dramatic music plays)

Emma Thompson says THIS IS WHEN
WE BEGAN FEEDING THE BEAST.

(music plays)

An aerial view of an oil refinery is obscured by a puff of smoke.

Emma Thompson continues THE TAR SANDS DIFFER FROM
CONVENTIONAL OIL IN KEY WAYS.
WITH CONVENTIONAL OIL, YOU
SIMPLY DRILL A WELL
AND UP FROM THE GROUND
COMES BUBBLING CRUDE.
YOU SEND IT TO A REFINERY
AND THEN YOU'RE DONE.
WITH TAR SANDS BITUMEN, THE
FIRST STEP IS TO CLEAR-CUT A
FOREST, DIG A LARGE OPEN PIT
MINE, DIG TWO TONS OF SAND OUT
OF THE EARTH IN ORDER TO
PRODUCE ONE BARREL OF BITUMEN,
THEN SEND THE BITUMEN, A
HYDROCARBON COUSIN OF OIL,
TO AN UPGRADING PLANT.
AT THIS PLANT, SAND AND OIL
ARE SEPARATED USING LARGE
AMOUNTS OF NATURAL GAS, COAL
AND WATER FROM NEARBY RIVERS.
MANY OF WESTERN CANADA'S
RESOURCES ARE BEING SWALLOWED
UP TO FACILITATE THIS PROCESS...
PROPOSED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
IN SASKATCHEWAN, STRIP
MINES ACROSS ALBERTA,
THE LIST GOES ON.
[street din]

A large glass building entrance reads "Colorado Convention Center." A caption
reads "Denver, Colorado, U.S.A:."

Charles Hall says BUT EVEN THE
OPTIMISTS UNDERSTAND THAT
CONVENTIONAL OIL IS GOING DOWN.
THIS BLUE AREA IS IN FIELDS
YET TO BE FOUND AND SO FORTH.
THIS IS CALLED THE WEDGE OF HOPE.
[laughter]

In his fifties, Charles says MY NAME IS CHARLES HALL, AND
I'M PARTICULARLY INTERESTED
IN THE ENERGY COST OF ENERGY.
BUT THIS IS WHAT WE HAVE
TO DO TO GET OIL TODAY.
EVERY ORGANISM IN NATURE
INVESTS ENERGY INTO ITS LIFESTYLE.
IF YOU'RE A CHEETAH AND YOU'RE
RUNNING DOWN ANTELOPE, YOU
USE A LOT OF ENERGY IN CHASING
THE ANTELOPE AND NINE OUT OF
10 OF YOUR CHASES ARE GOING TO
BE UNSUCCESSFUL, ON AVERAGE.
BUT THEN YOU DO GET THE
ANTELOPE, AND YOU'RE WAY AHEAD.
SO THE CHEETAH, IN ORDER TO
SURVIVE, HAS TO HAVE A
POSITIVE ENERGY RETURN ON INVESTMENT.

Emma Thompson says IS WHAT IS
TRUE FOR CHEETAHS ALSO TRUE
FOR OUR GLOBAL ECONOMY?
COULD IT BE THAT WE ARE
ENTERING A PERIOD WHERE NINE
OUT OF 10 CHASES TO FIND OIL
AND GAS ARE UNSUCCESSFUL?

A drill starts up.
[drill humming]

Emma Thompson continues THERE ARE TWO
WAYS TO VERIFY THIS.
FOLLOW THE MONEY
AND DO THE MATH.
ENERGY RETURN ON INVESTMENT,
OR EROI, IS A NEW FIELD OF
STUDY THAT SEEKS TO UNDERSTAND
THE RAMIFICATIONS OF OUR MOVE
INTO A WORLD OF
DIFFICULT ENERGY.
EROI IS EXPRESSED AS A RATIO
AND IT ANSWERS A RATHER
IMPORTANT QUESTION... HOW
LONG WILL THIS "HYDROCARBON
PARTY" LAST?

Andrew says AS OIL'S
GOTTEN MORE DIFFICULT TO FIND,
THESE ENERGY RETURNS
HAVE STARTED TO DROP.
SO, ON AVERAGE, AROUND THE WORLD
NOW, IT TAKES ONE BARREL OF
OIL OR ENERGY EQUIVALENT
TO FIND ABOUT 20 MORE.
IF YOU GO TO THE TAR SANDS,
YOU BEGIN TO SEE HOW THINGS
ARE REALLY BEGINNING TO CHANGE.
FOR THE MINING PROJECT,
THE RETURNS ARE, IT TAKES
ONE BARREL OF OIL
TO GET FIVE BACK.
FOR THE IN-SITU PROJECTS,
WHERE YOU'RE STEAMING BITUMEN
OUT OF THE GROUND, IT TAKES
ONE BARREL OF ENERGY OR ENERGY
EQUIVALENT, LARGELY IN THE
FORM OF NATURAL GAS, TO GET
ONE OR TWO BACK.
THESE ARE DRAMATICALLY LOW RETURNS.

In a lecture, Richard says WITH TAR
SANDS AT FIVE TO ONE, THAT'S
GETTING PRETTY DARN CLOSE
TO THE ENERGY RETURNS THAT
WERE COMMON IN AGRARIAN
TIMES, BEFORE THE
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION.

An old rural cart appears.

Charles Hall says SOCIETY NEEDS
NOT JUST A POSITIVE EROI FROM
ITS FUELS... IT NEEDS A
SIGNIFICANTLY POSITIVE EROI.
WE WANTED TO KNOW WHAT
EROI YOU WOULD NEED
TO DRIVE A TRUCK.
WE CALCULATED THE ENERGY COST
OF THE ROADS AND THE BRIDGES
AND THE MAINTENANCE ON THE
TRUCK AND THE DEPRECIATION OF
ALL OF THESE THINGS,
AND WE GOT ABOUT 3 TO 1.
YOU WOULD HAVE TO HAVE AN EROI
OF 3 TO 1 AT THE OIL WELL TO
BE ABLE TO DRIVE A TRUCK, BUT
YOU COULDN'T PUT ANYTHING IN
THE TRUCK BECAUSE
YOU'VE USED IT ALL UP.
HOW MUCH EROI WOULD YOU NEED
TO GROW SOME GRAIN AND PUT IT
IN THE TRUCK, AND WE
GUESSED MAYBE 5 TO 1.
TO SUPPORT THE FAMILIES THAT
WOULD PUT FOOD INTO THE TRUCK
AND DELIVER IT, YOU NEEDED
MAYBE 7 TO 1, AND THEN IF YOU
NEEDED HEALTHCARE OR EDUCATION
FOR THE KIDS, IT WOULD BE
MAYBE 11 TO 1, AND WE KEPT
ADDING UP TO WHAT YOU NEEDED
TO HAVE CIVILIZATION.
WELL, YOU NEED SOMETHING LIKE
A 15 TO 1 EROI, AND THAT'S
PART OF THE PROBLEM WE'RE
HAVING TO TRY TO RUN OUR
SOCIETY ON LOWER AND LOWER
EROI FUELS AND WE JUST HAVE
LESS ENERGY PROFIT TO DO THE
THINGS THAT WE ARE USED TO
THAT WE CONSIDER TO BE
HALLMARKS OF CIVILIZATION.

A suspension bridge appears at dusk. A caption reads "Vancouver, B.C., Canada."
[beeping]
[water running]

In his forties, with short brown hair, trimmed beard and moustache, environmental
lawyer Eoin Madden says I USED TO WORK
FOR A COMPANY THAT FABRICATED
DIAMONDS, SO WE USED TO CREATE
THE DIAMOND TIPS THAT WENT ON
TOP OF THE DRILLING MACHINES
THAT ARE ENABLING HYDRAULIC
FRACTURING TO REACH OUT
THREE KILOMETRES FROM ANY
ONE WELL PAD.

Standing with an assistant, Eoin says DID I TELL YOU THERE'S A FIRST
NATIONS LADY COMING DOWN FROM,
ALL THE WAY DOWN
FROM FORT SAINT JOHN?

The Woman says NO.

Eoin says YEAH...
SO MY JOB AS THEIR CORPORATE
LAWYER WAS TO ENSURE THAT
NOBODY COULD FIGURE OUT HOW TO
DO JUST THAT, SO THAT WE COULD
BE THE FOLKS HALLIBURTON AND
THESE OTHER COMPANIES CAME TO,
TO ENABLE THEM TO CREATE THE
HAVOC THAT WE'RE LEARNING
ABOUT RIGHT NOW.
IT KIND OF PUTS PRESSURE ON A
LITTLE BIT FOR HER TO MAKE IT
A PROFESSIONAL EVENT.

Emma Thompson says AS AN
ENVIRONMENTAL LAWYER, EOIN IS
PART OF GROWING MOVEMENT
FOCUSING ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACTS OF EXTREME ENERGY.

Eoin says WE WERE
RECEIVING SOME CONCERNS ABOUT
ISSUES LIKE DOMESTIC WELLS
DRYING UP IN THE AREAS WHERE
FRACKING IS HAPPENING, LARGE
DISPOSAL SITES AT THE EDGE
OF TOWN, INDUSTRIALIZATION OF
THE LANDSCAPE WITH AREAS LIKE
THE PEACE RIVER HAVING
16,000 WELLS IN PLACE.

Emma Thompson says IN ORDER TO
BUILD HIS CASES, HE EMBARKS ON
A FACT-FINDING MISSION TO
NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA,
WHERE THE SHALE GAS
INDUSTRY IS BOOMING.
ONE OF THE FIRST PLACES EOIN
VISITS IS THE FUTURE SITE OF
THE SITE C. DAM, A PROPOSED
HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT.

Over an aerial view of a hilly green area, a caption reads "Site C. Clean Energy
Project." A project photo shows the new dam.

A Man says THE SITE C CLEAN ENERGY
PROJECT WILL BE THE THIRD DAM
AND HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING
STATION ON THE PEACE RIVER,
ABOUT SEVEN KILOMETRES
SOUTHWEST OF FORT SAINT JOHN.

A woman in her forties with hair parted in the middle speaks. A caption reads
"Christy Clark, British Columbia Premier. December 2014."

Christy says IT IS GOING
TO BENEFIT BRITISH COLUMBIANS
FOR GENERATIONS, AND THAT
IS WHY WE HAVE DECIDED TO
GO AHEAD WITH THE SITE C
CLEAN ENERGY PROJECT.
[applause]

Ben Parfitt says ONE OF THE MORE
UNAPPRECIATED ASPECTS OF SHALE
GAS DEVELOPMENTS IN BRITISH
COLUMBIA IS THAT ENORMOUS
AMOUNTS OF POWER,
HYDROELECTRIC POWER, ARE GOING
TO BE REQUIRED TO FUEL THE
EXPANSION OF THE SHALE GAS
INDUSTRY IN THE PROVINCE.

Over a photo of a dam wall and the artificial lake, a caption reads "Existing dam
near Hudson's Hope, B.C." Another caption reads "In 2008, Canadian Association
of Petroleum Producers presented a proposal to B.C. Hydro to take up to 60
percent of the power from the Site C. dam project." A newspaper article is headed
"What the Site C. Dam is really for... an explosion of new fracking wells."
(dramatic music plays)

Ben continues WE WOULD BE USING RELATIVELY
CLEAN ENERGY IN THE FORM OF
HYDROELECTRIC POWER TO POWER
UP ONE OF THE MOST ENERGY-INTENSIVE,
GREENHOUSE GAS INTENSIVE FUELS IN THE WORLD.
AND, BASICALLY, YOU COULD TAKE
ALL OF THE POWER THAT WOULD BE
PRODUCED AT SITE C., AND IT
WOULD BE GOBBLED UP BY AN
EXPANDING SHALE GAS
INDUSTRY IN THE PROVINCE.
RIGHT NOW, SOMEWHERE BETWEEN
55 AND 56 PERCENT OF ALL THE
GAS THAT IS PRODUCED IN
BRITISH COLUMBIA IS GOING
TO THE TAR SANDS INDUSTRY.
THAT'S THE NATURE OF THE BEAST.

Emma Thompson says IN 2016, THE
PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT
ANNOUNCES ANOTHER PURPOSE FOR SITE C.

Christy says SITE C COULD
BE THE KEY PART OF ESTABLISHING
CANADA'S BRAND AROUND THE WORLD.
FOR BOTH OIL AND GAS AS THE
CLEANEST PRODUCED ANYWHERE
ON THE GLOBE.
WE COULD POTENTIALLY
ELECTRIFY THE OIL SANDS.

Over a photo of the Site C. Team, a caption reads "Source... Alaska Highway
News Interview with Christy Clark... April 2016."
[beeping]

A farmer and another man approach, accompanied by two small white dogs.

Emma Thompson says EOIN MEETS
WITH PEOPLE WHOSE LIVES
ARE GOING TO BE DIRECTLY
IMPACTED BY SITE C.
KEN BOON IS A FARMER LIVING
IN THE PEACE RIVER VALLEY.
THE PROPOSED SITE C. DAM
THREATENS TO EVICT KEN AND HIS
FAMILY FROM THE HOMESTEAD THEY
HAVE LIVED ON FOR GENERATIONS.

Wearing a stetson, in his forties, Ken Boon says THE FARMING WE DO
HERE IS A LITTLE BIT OF GRAIN
FARMING AND THEN WE
DO A LOT OF HAY AS WELL.
SO THIS IS SUNDRE
VARIETY OF BARLEY.

The Man says OH, YEAH.

Ken says WE PLANTED IT
JUST OVER TWO MONTHS AGO.
THIS CLASS ONE FARMLAND UP
HERE, IT'S THE ONLY CLASS ONE
FARMLAND NORTH OF QUESNEL
IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
IT WOULD ALL BE FLOODED
IF SITE C. GOES AHEAD.
THIS RIGHT HERE WOULD BE ABOUT
THE WATER LEVEL AND THERE'D BE
OVER 100 FEET OF WATER HERE.
HYDRO'S ALREADY INDICATED
TO US THAT OUR HOUSE...
WE WOULD NOT BE ABLE
TO STAY IN OUR HOUSE.
WE'D HAVE TO MOVE.

Ken and his companion approach a neat log cabin.

The Man says HE RAISED THE WHOLE FAMILY
ACTUALLY IN THIS HOUSE.

Ken says VIRTUALLY EVERYTHING
WE HAVE HERE WOULD BE LOST.
(dramatic music plays)
WE'RE NOT PLANNING
ON SITE C. HERE.
WE'RE PLANNING ON
WINNING THIS FIGHT.

(music plays)

Emma Thompson says NORTH OF
KEN'S FARM LIES THE HORN RIVER
BASIN SHALE GAS FIELD, A GIANT
GAS RESOURCE IN THE EARLY
STAGES OF ITS DEVELOPMENT.
THE NATURAL GAS BOOM UNDERWAY
IN NORTHEASTERN BRITISH
COLUMBIA IS BEING TOUTED AS
THE ECONOMIC SALVATION OF THIS
PROVINCE, A PROVINCE WHOSE
FORESTRY ECONOMY HAS
ALL BUT DISAPPEARED.
BC's PREMIER, CHRISTY CLARK,
SPEAKS TO THE PROMISE
OF SHALE GAS.

The Premier stands on the stage and speaks.
[applause]

Christy Clark says WE HAVE A VAST
OCEAN OF ENERGY UNDERNEATH THE
EARTH IN THE NORTHEAST OF OUR
PROVINCE, 150-YEAR SUPPLY
AT CURRENT ESTIMATES.

Emma Thompson says ALSO KNOWN AS
FRACKING, THIS PROCESS INJECTS
A MIXTURE OF WATER, SAND AND
CHEMICALS DOWN A WELL AT
EXTREMELY HIGH PRESSURES IN A
BID TO EXTRACT UNCONVENTIONAL
SHALE GAS.
LANA LOWE IS THE LANDS
DIRECTOR FOR THE FORT NELSON
FIRST NATION.

The Fort Nelson First Nation coat of arms appears over a doorway. Lana speaks.
A caption reads "Lana Lowe."

Lana says FRACKING WASN'T
A BAD WORD BACK THEN.
THEY DIDN'T TELL US
THAT THERE WAS CHEMICALS
IN THE FRACKING PROCESS.
THEY PORTRAYED IT AS
JUST WATER AND SAND,
A PRETTY BENIGN PROCESS
AND EVERYBODY'S HAPPY
AND EVERYBODY'S WORKING
AND IT'LL BE REALLY
GOOD FOR THE COMMUNITY
AND THE REGION.
SO THAT SENT US DOWN A BIT OF
A PATH OF LOOKING AT WHAT
HAPPENS TO THE WATER?
WE LEARNED THEN THAT THERE'S
CHEMICALS THAT ARE USED IN
FRACKING THAT AREN'T
NECESSARILY GOOD FOR THE
ENVIRONMENT OR HUMAN
HEALTH, ANIMAL HEALTH.
THEY DO USE HYDROCHLORIC
ACID, KNOWN CARCINOGENS.

(music plays)

A caption reads "15 million people in the United States live within one mile of
a frack well." A flaming burnoff appears at a fracking unit outside a town.
A sign reads "Aggressive Energy Inc."

Lana says THERE'S A SENSE
THAT WE'RE BEING STEAMROLLED,
THAT THE INDUSTRY IS SO BIG
AND SO POWERFUL AND MOVING
SO QUICKLY THAT THERE'S NOT
A LOT WE CAN DO TO STOP IT.
BUT WE'RE STUCK IN THE MIDDLE.
THEY TOLD US AT THE TIME THAT
THERE'D BE 600 JOBS ASSOCIATED
WITH THE PROJECT.
IT WOULD BENEFIT PEOPLE,
THE REGION IN GENERAL.
TODAY, THERE'S FIVE PEOPLE
WORKING AT THE PLANT.

The ground in an area abandoned by a shale gas fracking unit is pitted with square
patches where nothing grows.

Lana continues INDUSTRY USES THE TERM "CARPET
BOMB" TO DESCRIBE WHAT IT
LOOKS LIKE WHEN THEY'RE DONE
THEIR SHALE GAS EXTRACTION,
AND I'VE SEEN THE TAR SANDS.
I KNOW WHAT THEY'RE CAPABLE
OF TO GET FOSSIL FUELS.
I KNOW WHAT'S COMING.
IN A PERFECT WORLD, EVERYBODY
WOULD CLOSE UP CAMP
AND GO HOME AND LEAVE US ALONE.

Lana pauses and looks into space with a desolated expression on her face. A
large sign reads "Fort St. John, The Energetic City."

Emma Thompson says LANA'S
COMMUNITY EMBRACED THIS
DEVELOPMENT BECAUSE OF THE
PROMISE OF WEALTH AND JOBS.
THIS PROMISE HAS BEEN
A KEY SELLING ARGUMENT TO
COMMUNITIES AND INVESTORS
ALIKE SINCE THE SHALE GAS
REVOLUTION STARTED IN 2002 IN
THE BARNETT SHALE IN TEXAS.
(dramatic music plays)

A map of the U.S. homes in on Fort Worth, Texas. A woman with blond hair in a
bob speaks. A caption reads "Deborah Rogers, Financial Analyst."

Deborah says MY SPECIALTY
IS THE ECONOMICS OF
UNCONVENTIONAL OIL AND GAS,
SO SHALE GAS, TIGHT OIL,
OIL SANDS AND RENEWABLES.

Emma Thompson says DEBORAH
ROGERS, A FINANCIAL ANALYST
WHO FORMERLY WORKED WITH WALL
STREET FIRMS SUCH AS MERRILL
LYNCH, LIVES IN THE MIDDLE
OF THIS SHALE DEPOSIT.
SHE HAS TRACKED THE
NUMBERS OVER THE YEARS.

Deborah says WHEN SHALE
GAS CAME TO FORT WORTH,
I STARTED LOOKING AT THE
FINANCIALS OF THE COMPANIES
THAT WERE DRILLING HERE BECAUSE
I HAD A LOT OF QUESTIONS,
AND IT DIDN'T MAKE SENSE.
I IDENTIFIED SOME ANOMALIES IN
THE COMPANY FINANCIALS AND
STARTED TO SPEAK OUT ABOUT IT
AND GOT ENORMOUS PUSHBACK
FROM INDUSTRY.

In a lecture, Deborah says A LOT OF PEOPLE WITHIN THE
INDUSTRY HAVE ACCUSED ME OF
BEING A CONSPIRACY THEORIST.
THEY SAY, "WELL
THAT'S A VERY NICE
CONSPIRACY THEORY, DEBORAH."

In the interview, she continues
IN THE EARLY DAYS, EVERYONE
WAS GIDDY AND THEY THOUGHT
THEY WERE GOING TO BE
"SHALE-IONNAIRES."

In a press conference, Gray-haired Stephen Holditch says IT'S JUST
GONNA KNOCK YOUR SOCKS OFF.
IT'S GONNA BE A GAME CHANGER.
IT'S REALLY GONNA HELP OUR ECONOMY.

Deborah continues THEY DRILL
IN A FRENZY IN THE BEGINNING
AND IT LOOKS AS THOUGH
IT'S A GREAT SUCCESS.

Andrew says INITIALLY,
YOU CAN HAVE ENORMOUS AMOUNTS
OF GAS BE BROUGHT UP TO
THE SURFACE, BUT THEN YOU
EXPERIENCE RAPID DEPLETION
WITHIN ONE OR TWO YEARS.
BY RAPID DEPLETION, I MEAN
60 PERCENT DEPLETION RATES...
THAT'S EXTRAORDINARY.

President Barack Obama says WE HAVE
A SUPPLY OF NATURAL GAS THAT
CAN LAST AMERICA NEARLY 100 YEARS.

Deborah says IT'S VERY
MISLEADING TO USE RESOURCE
NUMBERS BUT, OF
COURSE, THEY SOUND GOOD.
A HUNDRED YEARS OF
NATURAL GAS SOUNDS GREAT.
RESERVES ARE COMPLETELY DIFFERENT.
THAT IS THE AMOUNT OF OIL OR
GAS THAT YOU COULD POTENTIALLY
EXTRACT USING TODAY'S
TECHNOLOGY AND IN TODAY'S
BUSINESS CLIMATE.
SO RESERVES ARE A
SUBSET OF RESOURCES.
UNFORTUNATELY, THE INDUSTRY,
AND VERY UNFORTUNATELY,
PRESIDENT OBAMA, USED THE
RESOURCE NUMBER AND SAID 100 YEARS.
BUT IF YOU LOOK AT THE
RESERVE NUMBER, IT'S MORE
LIKE... LAST I HEARD,
IT WAS LIKE 11 YEARS.
WE HAVE ABOUT 18,000 WELLS
HERE, SO 1,800 OF THEM WERE
ECONOMICALLY VIABLE,
THE REST OF THEM WERE NOT.
SHALES ARE A CASH-EATING MONSTER.
S. and P. ESTIMATES THAT ABOUT
75 PERCENT OF THE COMPANIES
INVOLVED IN THE "SHALE
REVOLUTION" ISSUED JUNK DEBT
IN ORDER TO FINANCE IT.
THERE HAS NOT BEEN A
SINGLE YEAR OF POSITIVE
FREE CASH FLOW.
NOW THAT TELLS YOU THAT
THERE'S A LONG-TERM PATTERN OF
THESE WELLS NOT MAKING MONEY.
IT'S LIKE YOU OR ME, WE CAN
MAX OUT OUR CREDIT CARDS BUT
AT SOME POINT, OUR CREDIT
CARDS ARE MAXED OUT.

(music plays)

An aerial view shows a mountainous wooded area with an installation.
A caption reads "Canadian Oilsands Steaming Projects." A sign reads "University
of Calgary."
[beeping]

With Eoin, pointing at a map, fiftyish Steve Larter says GREY STUFF IS THE OIL SANDS, SO THIS IS
ATHABASCA OIL SANDS, PEACE RIVER.

Emma Thompson says EOIN FINDS
HIMSELF IN ALBERTA MEETING UP
WITH STEVE LARTER, A PETROLEUM
RESEARCHER WHO HAS JUST
PUBLISHED A PAPER ON THE
ENERGY COST OF ENERGY,
SPECIFICALLY THE USE OF
NATURAL GAS TO MAKE BITUMEN.

Holding a tiny statue, Steve says THE
OIL SANDS THERE.
THE GEOLOGY IS VERY SIMPLE.
YOU KNOW, THE OIL SANDS
SIT OUT HERE ON THE EDGE.
THIS IS A LITTLE CHINESE
BITUMEN BUDDHA; WOULD BE
BITUMEN OR HEAVY OIL THAT,
AGAIN, IS SO VISCOUS,
IT DOESN'T READILY FLOW.
YOU KNOW, IT'S NOT GOING TO
FLOW OUT OF ITS LITTLE GLASS
BOTTLE HERE UNDER
NATURAL CONDITIONS.
SO UNCONVENTIONAL RESOURCES,
THEY DON'T FLOW EASILY,
FOR A VARIETY OF REASONS.
(ominous music plays)

A caption reads "86 percent of the Tar Sands are a project steaming
underground caverns, using huge amounts of natural gas.

Steve continues THE STEAM FORMS A BIG BALLOON
AND RISES UP THROUGH THE
RESERVOIR, VERY SLOWLY, OVER
MONTHS AND YEARS, MELTS THE
OIL AND THE OIL RUNS
DOWN TO A COLLECTOR WELL,
AND IT'S PRODUCED.

Emma Thompson says THIS STEAMING
PROCESS IS KNOWN AS SAG-D.,
OR STEAM ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE.
AS THE INDUSTRY MOVES FROM
HIGHER QUALITY DEPOSITS INTO
LOWER QUALITY DEPOSITS, THEY
WILL REQUIRE EVER INCREASING
QUANTITIES OF GAS.

Steve says THE ANALYSIS
INDICATES THAT YOU'RE ACTUALLY
PUTTING MORE ENERGY IN THAN
YOU GET BACK IN THE REFINED
FUELS AT THE END.
SO EMPHASIZE AGAIN, MOST,
MOST OF THE OIL SANDS RECOVERY
PROCESSES DO GENERATE NET
ENERGY BUT SOME DON'T.

A series of photos is captioned "Deer Creek Explosion... 2006," "Water Hammer
accident... 2007" and "Devon Jackfish accident... 2010."

Emma Thompson says WHEN
TECHNOLOGIES FOR STEAMING
BITUMEN UNDERGROUND EXPLODED
ONTO THE SCENE IN 2003,
THE INDUSTRY FACED A
STEEP LEARNING CURVE.
THIS FORAY INTO THE WORLD'S
MOST CHALLENGING OIL DEPOSITS
PROVED TO BE A BUMPY ROAD.
THE LATEST IN THIS SERIES OF
ACCIDENTS HAS HAPPENED IN THE
TOWN OF COLD LAKE, ALBERTA.

In her sixties, wearing a hardhat, Caroline Campbell says CAN I
ASK ABOUT THE TIMELINE?
AS I RECALL, C.N.R.L. REPORTED
THIS SITE ON JUNE 8th.

Emma Thompson says CAROLINE
CAMPBELL IS AN INDEPENDENT JOURNALIST.
WHEN NEWS BREAKS OF A
MYSTERIOUS BITUMEN SPILL
IN MAY OF 2013 IN THE SAGD
PROJECTS OF THE TAR SANDS,
SHE TRAVELS NORTH TO INVESTIGATE.

Standing with Caroline, a Worker says THIS WAS EXCAVATED
YESTERDAY AND CLEANED UP THIS
MORNING, SO THIS IS WHAT, THIS
IS WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE, JUST A
SMALL LINE IN THE GROUND THAT
SLOWLY ACCUMULATES BITUMEN.
THERE IS A...
IT'S NOT VIOLENT, IT'S NOT EXPLODING.

Caroline says HOW DEEP
WOULD THE FAULT LINE GO,
THOUGH, DOWN TO
THE BITUMEN FORMATION?

The Worker says I CAN'T
COMMENT ON THAT. I JUST...
I'M JUST MANAGING THE
SURFACE CLEAN-UP, SO...

Caroline says OKAY.

Emma Thompson says WITH HER
QUESTIONS FOR HER NEWS STORY
NOT COMPLETELY ANSWERED,
CAROLINE DECIDES TO MEET UP
WITH WALLACE KING, A RETIRED
PETROLEUM GEOLOGIST.
SHE WANTS TO KNOW MORE ABOUT
THE GEOLOGY UNDERLYING THE SPILL SITE.

Standing with Caroline, Wallace King says THIS IS COLD
LAKE PROPER, THE TOWN OF
COLD LAKE HERE TO THE SOUTH.

Emma Thompson says ONE OF THE
KEY GEOLOGICAL FEATURES HERE
IS THE "DEVONIAN SALTS," AN
UNDERGROUND SALT FORMATION
FORMED OVER MILLIONS OF YEARS.

Caroline says I REMEMBER
YOU TOLD ME ABOUT THOSE
COLLAPSING SALTS EARLIER,
AND THOSE ARE, THOSE ARE
UNDERNEATH THE
BITUMEN RIGHT?

Wallace says THAT'S CORRECT.

Caroline says SO THEY
SORT OF ACT TO DESTABILIZE...

Wallace says THE
OVERLYING FORMATIONS.

Caroline says YEAH,
THE OVERLYING FORMATIONS,
INCLUDING THAT CAPPING
LAYER, IS THAT POSSIBLE?

Wallace says YEAH, ABSOLUTELY.
YOU GET FRACTURES PROPAGATING
UP TOWARDS THE SURFACE AND HERE
ABOVE IS THE BITUMEN LAYER
THAT THEY'RE STEAMING, AND SO
IT'S A NATURAL AREA OF
WEAKNESS FOR OIL TO FLOW UP.

Emma Thompson says SO WHY
DRILL IN SUCH A
DIFFICULT ENVIRONMENT?
SIMPLY PUT, THERE'S NO OTHER
PLACE LEFT TO DRILL, AND THE
CHALLENGES OF THE EXTRACTION
PROCESS ARE LEADING THE
INDUSTRY INTO EQUALLY
DAUNTING FINANCIAL TERRAIN.

In an interview, a Journalist says HOW'S THAT GOING
TO AFFECT YOUR PROFITABILITY?
IN YOUR FIRST QUARTER REPORT,
YOU SAID THAT THIS PRIMROSE
FACILITY WAS ONE OF THE MOST
PROFITABLE FORMS OF EXTRACTION.
WITH THE CHANGES YOU HAVE IN
MIND, IS THAT GOING TO AFFECT
ITS PROFITABILITY GOING FORWARD?

Wearing a hardhat, a spokesman answers. A caption reads "Steve Laut, C.E.O.
Canadian Natural Resources Ltd."

Steve says IT'S
GOING TO COST US MORE.
IT'S GOING TO COST MORE.

A Woman says SORRY, WE DO HAVE TO GO.

Steve says SORRY, GUYS,
GOTTA KEEP YOU ON TRACK.

Richard says CLEARLY,
THE OIL INDUSTRY IS IN AN ERA
OF DIMINISHING RETURNS
ON CAPITAL INVESTMENT.
THEY'RE SEEING DECLINING
PROFITS, THEY'RE SEEING AN
INABILITY TO REPLACE THEIR
RESERVES AS THEY'RE DRAWN DOWN
AND THEY'RE BORROWING
MONEY TO PAY DIVIDENDS
TO THEIR SHAREHOLDERS.

Deborah says THEIR
OPERATIONAL COSTS WERE GOING
UP EACH YEAR, SO IT WAS
BECOMING INCREMENTALLY MORE
AND MORE EXPENSIVE TO DO THIS.
THAT WAS WHEN OIL WAS
TRADING AT $100 A BARREL.
WELL, THINK WHAT
IT IS AT 45.

A cartoon shows a huge dump truck captioned "Layoffs" tailgating a tiny pink car.
The car driver's thought balloon reads "Tailgaters make me nervous."
[engine revving]
[car horn]

The resource pyramid suddenly "bottoms out." A red line separates the tiny black
profitability area from the red bulk of the pyramid.
[thud]

Emma Thompson says THE BOTTOM OF
THE RESOURCE PYRAMID SHOWS US
THAT THERE'S A LOT OF
RESOURCE LEFT OUT THERE.
UNFORTUNATELY, IT ALSO SHOWS
US THAT WHERE ECONOMY AND
ENERGY CONVERGE, ANY OTHER
RESOURCE BELOW THE RED LINE
IS UNSUSTAINABLE.
IN EARLY 2015, THE
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WEAK
FINANCIAL FOUNDATIONS
AND THE ENERGY FUNDAMENTALS
UNDERPINNING THEM COMES FULL
CIRCLE... A 60-DOLLAR SLIDE IN THE
PRICE OF OIL MAKES TRILLIONS
OF DOLLARS OF ASSETS SIMPLY
DISAPPEAR OVERNIGHT.
CANADA, A COUNTRY HEAVILY INTO
EXPENSIVE UNCONVENTIONAL OIL,
EXPERIENCES A SEVERE
ECONOMIC DOWNTURN.
MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF LAYOFFS
OCCUR ACROSS THE ENERGY SECTOR
AND CANADIAN BANKS BECOME
SADDLED WITH HUNDREDS OF
BILLIONS OF DOLLARS OF BAD
DEBTS... THE CANADIAN DOLLAR
DROPS DRAMATICALLY.
THE CAUSE OF ALL THIS CARNAGE?
OVER-PRODUCTION.
THE SAUDIS REFUSE TO CUT
PRODUCTION OF THEIR LOW-COST
CONVENTIONAL OIL, AND COMBINED
WITH NEW SOURCES OF
UNCONVENTIONAL ENERGY, THE
MARKET IS NOW FLOODED.
TO MOST CANADIANS, THIS COMES
AS A BIG SURPRISE, BUT TO
ENERGY ECONOMISTS STUDYING THE
FUNDAMENTALS, THE PRESENT
CRISIS IS SYMPTOMATIC OF AN
IMPENDING ECONOMIC APOCALYPSE.

A clip shows a satellite view of the turning Earth.

Charles Hall says IF WE CONTINUE
ON THE PATH THAT WE ARE ON
NOW, IT LOOKS LIKE WE WILL BE
HAVING VERY SIGNIFICANT DECLINES
IN EROI WITHIN A DECADE OR
TWO, AND THEN IT'LL BE...
THE "NET ENERGY CLIFF" IDEA
WILL BE REALLY IMPORTANT.

An animation shows cars. planes and other vehicles tumbling off a cliff.

Emma Thompson says THE NET
ENERGY CLIFF PROFESSOR HALL
REFERS TO IS WHEN THE E.R.O.I.
RATIO DROPS SO LOW IT CAN'T
SUSTAIN OUR GROWTH ECONOMY.
THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC ENGINE STALLS.
IRONICALLY, THIS WILL HAPPEN
WITH LOTS OF OIL AND GAS LEFT
IN THE GROUND AS THIS
IS AN ECONOMIC THRESHOLD.
IT'S NOT PEAK OIL... IT'S
THE PEAK OF AN ECONOMY
THAT DEPENDS ON OIL.

Richard says IT'S NOT
JUST THAT WE ARE UNDERMINING
THE LIVELIHOODS OF FUTURE
GENERATIONS WITH CLIMATE
CHANGE, IT'S NOT JUST THAT
WE'RE DRAWING DOWN RESOURCES
AS FAST AS WE CAN.
WE'VE ALSO BUILT WITHIN
SOCIETY THIS WHOLE SEPARATE
SYSTEM OF DEBT AND CREDIT AND
FINANCE, ON THE BASIS OF THE
ASSUMPTION THAT THE ECONOMY
CAN GROW AND GROW AND GROW
FOREVER INTO THE FUTURE.
ECONOMIC GROWTH IS NO LONGER
REALLY AN OPTION OR A CHOICE,
AND THE SOONER WE UNDERSTAND
THAT, THE SOONER WE'LL BE ABLE
TO ADAPT TO THIS NEW
ECONOMIC REALITY WE'RE IN.

A woman with shoulder-length dark hair and glasses speaks. A caption reads
"Claudia Medina, Filmmaker... Degrowth Theorist."

Claudia says IF, TOMORROW,
THERE WAS A GRAND ANNOUNCEMENT
THAT THERE HAD BEEN THE
DISCOVERY OF SOME CLEAN,
CHEAP, ABUNDANT ENERGY SOURCE,
I DON'T BELIEVE THAT WOULD BE
THE GAME-CHANGER OR THAT WOULD
SOLVE ALL OUR PROBLEMS BECAUSE
IT DOESN'T ADDRESS HOW WE LIVE.
IN SOME WAYS, I JUST SEE THAT
WOULD CAUSE AN ACCELERATION
OF BAD HABITS.

A clip shows an array of windfarm mills.

Emma Thompson says THE DOMINANT
ECONOMIC VIEW TODAY IS THAT WE
CAN SOLVE PROBLEMS WITH ENERGY
EFFICIENCY AND NEW TECHNOLOGY,
BUT WE'VE BEEN DOWN THAT ROAD BEFORE.

Andrew says IN THE
19th CENTURY, ENGLAND BEGAN
TO REALIZE THAT IT HAD
BUILT AN EMPIRE ON COAL.
THE NOTION CAME UP, "WELL, YOU
KNOW, WHY DON'T WE JUST GET
MORE EFFICIENT AT USING COAL,
AND IF WE DO THAT, THEN, YOU
KNOW, THE EMPIRE WILL BE
GLORIOUS FOR A MUCH LONGER
PERIOD OF TIME."
WELL, THAT'S NOT NECESSARILY TRUE.
THE MORE EFFICIENT WE BECOME
AT USING ENERGY... THEN WE
CREATE THESE KIND OF SURPLUSES
WHICH WE BECOME MORE ADEPT
AT SPENDING.
SO AT THE END OF THE DAY,
WE'RE BURNING MORE COAL, NOT
SAVING COAL, AND WE CAN FIND A
SIMILAR EXPERIENCE WITH OIL,
WITH NATURAL GAS, EVEN RENEWABLES.

A fast motion clip shows a busy highway at night.
(traffic noise)

Emma Thompson says A GROWTH
ECONOMY WILL ALWAYS HAVE
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT THAT
GROWS IN SIZE, AND IT WILL
ALWAYS CONSUME MORE RESOURCES
THAN IT DID BEFORE.

Claudia says WHY IS IT
THAT THE ECONOMY GROWS
AND WE HAVE MORE UNEMPLOYMENT?
WHY IS IT THAT THE G.D.P. GROWS
AND WE ARE IN A STATE OF TOTAL
ECOLOGICAL CRISIS?
THESE ARE THE THINGS THAT THE
GROWTH MODEL ARE TRYING TO
TELL US THAT GROWTH WILL
SOLVE ALL THOSE PROBLEMS WHEN,
IN FACT, THEY ARE CREATING
A LOT OF THESE PROBLEMS.

Emma Thompson says BUT WHAT DOES
DE-GROWTH OF WESTERN ECONOMIES
LOOK LIKE? COULD IT ACTUALLY BE A
DESIRABLE WAY OF LIFE?
WHAT IF, INSTEAD OF FACING
A GREAT COLLAPSE, WE TAKE
CONTROL AND CREATE INSTEAD
A GREAT SIMPLIFICATION?
DE-GROWTH WILL HAPPEN, EITHER
BY DESIGN OR BY DISASTER.

Richard says WHAT WE'LL
GET AT THE END OF THE DAY IS
A DIFFERENT KIND OF SOCIETY.
IT'S A SOCIETY THAT'S SLOWER,
THAT'S MORE LOCALIZED.

A woman rides a bike down a road.

Emma Thompson says RE-ENGINEERING THE GROWTH
ECONOMY WILL NOT HAPPEN OVERNIGHT.
IN THE MEANTIME, A NEW SOCIAL
MOVEMENT COMES OUT OF LEFT
FIELD, CHALLENGING THE EXXONS
AND SHELLS OF THE WORLD IN
THEIR INSATIABLE "QUEST FOR MORE."

To a large audience, Naomi Klein says ...ARE STEPPING
INTO THAT LEADERSHIP VACUUM.

Emma Thompson says AUTHOR NAOMI
KLEIN IS ONE OF THE LEADING
VOICES IN THIS MOVEMENT.

With blond, shoulder-length hair and glasses, Naomi Klein says THIS MOVEMENT IS INCREASINGLY BEING CALLED
"BLOCKADIA," WHICH IS A PHRASE
THAT CAME OUT OF THE MOVEMENT
AGAINST THE KEYSTONE X.L.
PIPELINE IN THE UNITED STATES.
AS RANCHERS AND INDIGENOUS
PEOPLE STARTED BLOCKING THE
PIPELINE WITH THEIR BODIES, THEY
CALLED THEIR CAMPS "BLOCKADIA."
THIS SORT OF ROVING
TRANSNATIONAL PROTEST ZONE
THAT WE'RE SEEING CROP UP
WHEREVER THESE EXTREME ENERGY
PROJECTS ARE MOVING AHEAD.
WE NEED POLITICIANS WILLING TO
DO IT, BUT SINCE WE DON'T HAVE
POLITICIANS DOING IT, WE
INCREASINGLY HAVE SOCIAL
MOVEMENTS THAT ARE STEPPING
INTO THAT LEADERSHIP VACUUM
AND ARE SAYING "NO."

A Protestor in native dress stands with her back to the screen facing a huge
yellow offshore drilling rig, A caption reads "Greenpeace Save the Arctic
Campaign."

The Protestor says NO TAR SANDS, NO
PIPELINES, NO ARCTIC DRILLING!
YOU HAVE NO CONSENT!
YOU ARE NOT WELCOME!

Emma Thompson says IN 2014,
CANADA'S WEST COAST BECOMES
THE FLASHPOINT FOR THIS FIGHT.
AMERICAN-OWNED ENERGY GIANT
KINDER MORGAN BEGINS SURVEY
WORK FOR THEIR PIPELINE ROUTE.

Gray-haired Lynne Quarmby says IT'S GONNA
TAKE A COUPLE OF MONTHS.

Emma Thompson says LYNNE QUARMBY
IS A CHAIR OF THE BIOLOGY
DEPARTMENT AND A PROFESSOR AT
SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY.

Lynne says THIS SEPTEMBER,
I GOT A TEXT MESSAGE AND THEN
AN e-mail MESSAGE LETTING ME
KNOW THAT KINDER MORGAN HAD
WALKED INTO THE BURNABY
CONSERVATION AREA ON BURNABY
MOUNTAIN, WHICH IS, YOU KNOW,
LESS THAN A KILOMETRE FROM
MY OFFICE, AND CUT DOWN 13
TREES WITHOUT PERMISSION.

This is shown.
[chainsaw buzzing]

Lynne continues I CANCELLED MY NEXT
APPOINTMENT AND WALKED DOWN
TO THE SITE, AND I'VE BEEN
INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS
SINCE THAT MOMENT.

A Protestor says NO PIPELINE!

Other Protestors repeat and say NO PIPELINES!
NO PIPELINES!
NO PIPELINES!
NO PIPELINES!

An article is headed "B.C. University Professor joins campout on Burnaby
Mountain in protest of N.E.B. decision favouring Kinder Morgan."

Lynne says I WROTE AN
OP-ED PIECE ABOUT THAT PROTEST.
AND IN THAT OP-ED PIECE, I
DESCRIBE THE DEFICIENCIES IN
THE REGULATORY PROCESS... AND
I ALSO STATED THAT, IF IT CAME
TO IT, I WOULD BE WILLING TO
DO CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE TO STOP
THE PIPELINE.

A Reporter says MEANWHILE, THE
CITY OF BURNABY HAS TWO
SEPARATE LEGAL BATTLES AGAINST
KINDER MORGAN, ALSO TRYING TO
STOP THE COMPANY FROM
DOING ITS SURVEY WORK.

A Mounted Police Officer says THE DEFENDANTS
ARE HEREBY RESTRAINED FROM
TRESPASSING, PHYSICALLY
OCCUPYING OR OTHERWISE
ENTERING ONTO THE LANDS, WHICH
WILL BE COLLECTIVELY REFERRED
TO AS BURNABY LANDS.
[protestors shouting]

Lynne says CIVIL
DISOBEDIENCE IS AN IMPORTANT
TOOL, REALLY, IN DEMOCRACY.
THERE HAVE BEEN MANY TIMES IN
HISTORY AS OUR SOCIETY EVOLVES
WHERE LEGAL RECOURSE FOR WHAT
IS MORALLY RIGHT IS LIMITED.
[protestors shouting]
I KNOW THAT IT'S A HUGE DECISION.
FOR EACH AND EVERY PERSON
THAT DID THAT, IT'S SCARY.

To a crowd of protestors, Lynne says AND AS AN ENGAGED CITIZEN, AT
THE END OF THE DAY, WHEN
YOU'RE DEALING WITH UNJUST
LAWS AND ABUSE OF POWER,
THE LAST RESOURCE THAT WE
HAVE IS SOMETHING CALLED
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE.
IT'S DONE IN FULL RESPECT OF
RULE OF LAW, BUT IT'S ALSO
DONE AS A SERIOUS
RESPONSIBILITY OF BEING A
CITIZEN IN THIS COUNTRY.
[cheering]
SO I'M GOING TO TURN AROUND
RIGHT NOW, AND I'M GOING TO
WALK UP THAT HILL AND I'M
GOING TO BE THE BEST CITIZEN
I CAN BE.
[cheering/applause]
[drumming/chanting]

A Mounted Police Officer says SO YOU'RE
IN A POSITION RIGHT NOW
TO BE ARRESTED, OKAY?
YOU'RE LOOKING TO BE ARRESTED
IS WHAT I'M UNDERSTANDING, ARE YOU?

Lynne says I'M ACCEPTING
THE CONSEQUENCES OF MY
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE.

The Officer says OKAY.
ALL RIGHT, WE WANT
THIS TO BE PEACEFUL.

Lynne says DIGNIFIED AND PEACEFUL.

Emma Thompson says DURING THE
COURSE OF THE PROTESTS,
105 PEOPLE EXERCISED THEIR
RIGHT TO PEACEFUL CIVIL
DISOBEDIENCE AND WERE ARRESTED.
[cheering]
[helicopter rotor whirring]
THE INJUNCTION GRANTED TO
KINDER MORGAN EXPIRES
BEFORE THE PROTESTORS
RUN OUT OF STEAM.
THE KINDER MORGAN CREW
AIRLIFTS THEIR EQUIPMENT OFF.

Deborah says WE ESTIMATED
THAT THE PIPELINE DELAYS HAVE
COST THE OIL SANDS INDUSTRY
IN CANADA ABOUT 19 BILLION,
AND SINCE 2011, JUST IN
THE PIPELINE ACTIVISM,
I MEAN IT WORKED.
PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY WORKED.
IT HAS COST THAT INDUSTRY
AN ENORMOUS SUM OF MONEY.

A crowd of people gathers in a Parisian square. The Eiffel Tower appears.

Emma Thompson says IN PARIS IN
2015, THE WORLD GATHERS TO
DISCUSS ANOTHER THING THAT
MUST URGENTLY DE-GROW...
OUR CARBON EMISSIONS.
[bicycle bells ringing]

Naomi Klein says WE DIDN'T COME
TO THIS SUMMIT BEGGING OUR
LEADERS TO SAVE THE WORLD.
I THINK WE CAME HERE WITH OUR
EYES OPEN, AND WE NEED TO DO
WHAT OUR POLITICIANS WON'T DO,
WHICH IS STAND UP TO THE POWER
OF FOSSIL FUEL COMPANIES...
ERODE THEIR POWER.
SO, YOU KNOW, WE NEED TO
DO THIS ON MULTIPLE FRONTS.
(dramatic music plays)

Against a huge serrated scraping wheel, a caption reads "After his fact-finding
trip, Eoin Madden now shifts his career focus to carbon pricing legislation."

Eoin says WHAT I DEDICATE
MYSELF EVERY DAY TO LEARNING
HOW TO DO, IS TO BUILD A
MOVEMENT, THE FRIENDSHIPS,
THE COMMUNITIES THAT WILL
BRING THOSE LAWS INTO BEING.
AND IT'S BRINGING PEOPLE TOGETHER.
IT'S... I KNOW WE CAN
BUILD A COHESIVE MOVEMENT
TO CHANGE ALL OF THIS.
AND SO FAST, PEOPLE
WILL BE IN SHOCK.
IT'S COMING.
(lively music plays)

A front line of a protest march features huge metallic balloons.

Naomi Klein says PEOPLE HERE
ARE, YOU KNOW, NOT CRYING,
THEY ARE NOT IN DESPAIR...
THEY UNDERSTAND...
WE UNDERSTAND THAT THIS
JUST MEANS WE HAVE TO WORK
SO MUCH HARDER.
[chanting/cheering]
(lively music plays)

Road signs read "Wave Impact" and "Flood Impact."

Over a clip of farmer Ken Boon standing in his field, a caption reads "The future
for Ken Boon and his family farm appears uncertain as the Site C. Dam project
proceeds." An aerial clip is captioned "Peace River Valley Before and After
Site C. Construction." The Paris protest march continues.

Naomi Klein says WE NEED
TO CHANGE THE DYNAMIC.
WE HAVE TO WEAKEN THE POWER OF
THE FORCE WE'RE UP AGAINST.

An aerial photo showing white and orange plugs has a caption that reads "Kinder
Morgan borehole... final seal."

Lynne Quarmby says I BROUGHT YOU UP HERE TO THE
SITE WHERE KINDER MORGAN
DRILLED INTO THIS MOUNTAIN AND
WHERE I WAS INVOLVED IN THE
PROTESTS AGAINST THAT
DRILLING, TO MAKE THE
ANNOUNCEMENT THAT I AM SEEKING
THE NOMINATION TO BE THE "GREEN
PARTY OF CANADA" CANDIDATE IN
THE 2015 FEDERAL ELECTION.
[cheering]

Claudia Medina says NEW KINDS
OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS
NEED TO BE IMAGINED.
WE KNOW WHAT WE SHOULD
DO BECAUSE WE LIVE HERE,
AND WE SEE THE
IMPACTS OF THINGS.

(music plays)

Andrew Nikiforuk says WE'RE
GOING TO HAVE TO USE LESS.
THAT COULD MAKE US MORE
INNOVATIVE, MORE CREATIVE,
HAPPIER, MORE LOCALIZED,
MORE FOCUSED,
MORE SPIRITUAL IN NATURE.
WE'RE NOT READY YET FOR THAT
CONVERSATION, BUT IT WILL COME.
IT WILL BE FORCED ON US.
(lively music plays)

Raising and lowering a long red banner with the words inscribed on it,
Protestors chant and say
"IT'S UP TO US
TO KEEP IT IN THE GROUND.
IT'S UP TO US TO
KEEP IT IN THE GROUND.
IT'S UP TO US TO KEEP
IT IN THE GROUND.
IT'S UP TO US TO
KEEP IT IN THE GROUND.
IT'S UP TO US TO
KEEP IT IN THE GROUND."
(lively music plays)

On a black screen illegible end credits roll, including colourful logos.

Copyright 2016, White Gold Productions Inc.

Watch: To the Ends of the Earth