Video Transcript

(music plays)

Amanda Foreman stands in a neoclassicist building, with a façade modeled on the Pantheon in Rome, surmounted by a dome. She is in her early forties with shoulder-length wavy blond hair. She wears a white pink.

Amanda says THIS IS THE
PANTHEON IN PARIS.
THE MAUSOLEUM TO HONOUR THE
GREAT MEN OF FRANCE.
AND THE INSCRIPTION OUTSIDE
SAYS EXACTLY THAT.
TO GREAT MEN, A GRATEFUL
NATION.
ALL THE HEROES OF THE 18th AND
19th CENTURY ARE BURIED HERE.
BUT NOT ONE SINGLE WOMAN FROM
THAT TIME.

A caption appears on screen. It reads "Doctor Amanda Foreman."

She continues AND EVEN TODAY, THERE ARE 71
MEN AND ONLY TWO WOMEN BURIED
HERE.
IT'S ONE THING TO BE WRITTEN
OUT OF HISTORY, BUT IT'S QUITE
ANOTHER WHEN THAT'S CARVED IN
STONE.
AND THIS IS THE ISSUE THAT I
HAVE WITH RECORDED HISTORY.
THE MESSAGE THAT IT'S ONLY THE
MEN WHO COUNT.

Fast clips show details of sculptures and statues.

Amanda continues IN THIS LAST FILM, I WANT TO
LOOK AT THE WOMEN WHO ARE
CENTRAL TO THE REVOLUTIONS
THAT SHAPED THE MODERN WORLD.
COURAGEOUS, VISIONARY FIGURES
WHO FOUGHT FOR CHANGE AND
CHALLENGED THE STATUS QUO.
THEIR HISTORY REVEALS THAT
REVOLUTIONS ARE ALL TOO OFTEN
ABOUT EXCHANGING ONE POWER
DYNAMIC FOR ANOTHER.
LEAVING WOMEN BETRAYED AND
EXCLUDED FROM THE NEW
SOCIETIES THEY HAD HELPED TO
CREATE.
BUT I ALSO WANT TO LOOK AT HOW
WOMEN HAVE REDEFINED THE VERY
NATURE OF REVOLUTION.
FIGHTING FOR EQUAL RIGHTS TO
EDUCATION, TO POLITICAL POWER,
AND REPRODUCTIVE CHOICE.

Women around the world show illustrations of important female figures.

Amanda continues IN THE END, TRUE REVOLUTIONARY
CHANGE COMES, NOT FROM THE
DEATH OF MILLIONS, BUT FROM
THE DEATH OF PREJUDICE.
AND WOMEN HAVE CHANGED THE
WORLD BY CHANGING THE
ARGUMENTS.
IT WASN'T VIOLENCE THAT
CREATED THE PIVOTAL MOMENT IN
WOMEN'S HISTORY, IT WAS WOMEN
THEMSELVES WHO INSPIRED,
DEMANDED, AND SEIZED THE RIGHT
TO CONTROL THEIR OWN BODIES.

[protesters shouting]
Clips show of women demonstrating.

Amanda continues IN THE 21st CENTURY, THERE IS
A NEW REVOLUTION TAKING PLACE.
WOMEN ARE CLAIMING THEIR RIGHT
TO BE HEARD, CAMPAIGNING,
RESISTING, AND SPEAKING OUT
AGAINST INJUSTICE.
THEIR AIM?
TO BREAK THE OLD CYCLE OF
WINNERS AND LOSERS, AND
INSTEAD, FOCUS ON EQUALITY
FOR ALL.

Lindiwe Masibuko is in her early thirties with combed short brown hair. She wears a gray shirt.

Lindiwe says THE GREAT
THING ABOUT BEING A WOMAN IN
REPRESENTATIVE POLITICS IS YOU
GET TO BREAK THAT MOULD.
AND YOU GET TO SHOW OTHER
WOMEN THAT, IN FACT, WE DO HAVE
A PLACE IN THE FRONT LINE.
WE DO HAVE A PLACE IN POWER.
WE CAN EXERCISE IT WELL AND
BETTER THAN MANY OF OUR MALE
COUNTERPARTS.

(theme music plays)

Against a white background, women from different cultures and times appear inside ink drops flashing by. In a black brushstroke, the title of the program reads "The Ascent of Women."

The caption changes to "3. Revolution."

Amanda walks towards the The Palace of Versailles.

Amanda says IT'S THE 5th OF OCTOBER, 1789.
IT'S COLD, WET, THE MOOD IS
DESPERATE.
THE PEOPLE OF PARIS ARE
STARVING, DRIVEN TO FURY BY
RUMOURS OF STOCKPILING OF
BREAD, THE WOMEN OF PARIS
RISE UP.
IT'S THE MARKET SELLERS, THE
STALL HOLDERS, THE POISSARDES,
THE FISH SELLERS, WIVES,
MOTHERS, THEY DO WHAT THEIR
HUSBANDS ARE TOO FRIGHTENED
TO DO.
THEY TAKE MATTERS INTO THEIR
OWN HANDS IN A SHOCKING AND
VIOLENT WAY, MARCHING FOR SIX
HOURS IN THE DRIVING RAIN,
DRAGGING CANNONS, BRANDISHING
MUSKETS, PITCH FORKS, KNIVES.
THEY STORM VERSAILLES.
AT SIX IN THE MORNING, THE
PROTESTORS TORE DOWN THE
GATES, THEY RIPPED THE
CEREMONIAL GUARDS APART.
THIS WAS A MOB BAYING FOR
BLOOD.
MARIE ANTOINETTE WAS STILL IN
HER BED CLOTHES.
SHE RAN FOR HER LIFE DOWN THE
CORRIDOR TO THE KING'S BED
CHAMBER.
SHE POUNDED ON THE DOOR
BEGGING TO BE LET IN UNTIL
SOMEONE FINALLY HEARD HER
ABOVE THE DIN AND UNLOCKED THE
DOOR.

As she speaks, paintings and drawings of the French Revolution flash by.

Amanda continues THE PROTESTORS FORCED THE KING
AND THE ROYAL FAMILY, AND THE
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY TO LEAVE
VERSAILLES, AND THEY
PHYSICALLY BROUGHT THEM TO
PARIS.
THIS
WAS THE MOMENT WHEN
EVERYTHING CHANGED.
IT WAS NOW THE KING WHO WAS
BEHOLDEN TO THE PEOPLE, AND
SUDDENLY, A DEMOCRATIC FUTURE
SEEMED POSSIBLE.
THE KING HAD REFUSED TO SIGN
THE DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS
OF MAN AND THE CITIZEN,
FEARFUL IT WOULD INTRODUCE
DEMOCRACY TO FRANCE.
WHAT BROKE HIS RESISTANCE WAS
THE STORMING OF VERSAILLES BY
THE WOMEN OF PARIS.
THE KING HASTILY SIGNED THE
DECLARATION THE NEXT DAY.
WITHOUT THE CATALYST OF THE
MARCH ON VERSAILLES, WHO'S TO
SAY LOUIS THE SIXTEENTH WOULD HAVE
SIGNED THE DECLARATION OF THE
RIGHTS OF MAN?
HE WAS LOOKING FOR A WAY OUT
WHEN THE WOMEN TURNED HIS
WORLD UPSIDE DOWN.
AS FOR THE DECLARATION ITSELF,
FOR SUCH A RADICAL DOCUMENT,
IT'S SURPRISINGLY SHORT.
A MERE 800 WORDS.
BUT IN JUST 17 PROPOSITIONS,
IT OFFERED A BOLD NEW VISION
FOR FRANCE.
ONE THAT GUARANTEED FULL
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS.
Travelling in a car through downtown Paris, she continues BUT THE DEVIL WAS IN THE
DETAILS.
WOMEN SOON DISCOVERED THAT
BEING A CITOYENNE, THE
FEMININE FORM OF CITIZEN, DID
NOT MAKE THEM EQUAL CITIZENS
UNDER THE EYES OF THE LAW.
TURNED OUT THE LIBERTE,
EGALITE AND FRATERNITE WAS
JUST THAT, LIBERTY AND
EQUALITY FOR THE BROTHERHOOD.
BUT AS THE REVOLUTION
PROGRESSED, MORE AND MORE
WOMEN WANTED TO TAKE PART.
THEY FORMED CLUBS, DEBATING
SOCIETIES, REVOLUTIONARY
COMMITTEES.
BUT ONLY ONE WOMAN HAD THE
COURAGE AND THE CONVICTION TO
STATE ON PAPER THAT THE
DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF
MAN WAS INCOMPLETE WITHOUT THE
RIGHTS OF WOMEN.
AND THAT WOMAN WAS OLYMPE DE
GOUGES.
BORN MARIE GOUZE IN 1748, SHE
WAS THE DAUGHTER OF A BUTCHER.
AFTER THE DEATH OF HER
HUSBAND, SHE MOVED TO PARIS,
CHANGED HER NAME, AND MADE A
CAREER FOR HERSELF AS A
PLAYWRIGHT.
OLYMPE IS ONE OF THE HEROES OF
THE FRENCH REPUBLIC WHO IS
NOT BURIED IN THE PANTHEON.

[singing in French]
A group of people holding flowers and paintings of Olympe de Gouges sing in the street.

Catherine Marand-Fouquet is in her early fifties with short wavy gray hair. She wears a gray scarf, black jacket, and holds a blue umbrella.

Catherine speaks French. Subtitles read "For the last 25 years the Presidents of the Republic, one after the other have refused to let the ashes of Olympe de Gouges rest in the Pantheon even though she was recognised around the world as a shining example for the defence of human rights."

They sing OLYMPE IN THE PANTHÉON!

In French, Amanda asks WHY DO YOU
THINK OLYMPLE SHOULD BE PUT TO
REST HERE?

The caption changes to "Catherine Marand-Fouquet. Historian and Writer."

Catherine says SHE IS
ABSOLUTELY SYMBOLIC
OF THE ENLIGHTNMENT
DURING WHICH FRANCE
AND OTHER COUNTRIES WERE TRYING
TO DEFINE WHAT HUMAN
RIGHTS SHOULD
STAND FOR.

The caption changes to "Beatrice Daël. Olympe de Gouges Campaigner." Beatrice is in her fifties with short light brown hair. She wears a colourful scarf and gray jacket.

Beatrice says SHE WAS IN FAVOUR OF
THE LIBERATION OF SLAVES
AND DEFENDED ABUSED WOMEN,
CHILDREN AND OLD PEOPLE
WHO HAD BEEN IMPRISONED
FOR DEBTS.
SHE WAS A GREAT THINKER
AND THEREFORE SHE SHOULD
BE IN THE PANTHEON
WITH ALL THE OTHER
GREAT THINKERS.

Amanda says THESE WOMEN HAVE EVERY RIGHT
TO BE ANGRY.
AT THE CURRENT PACE OF CHANGE,
IT'S GOING TO BE 200 YEARS
BEFORE THERE'S AN EQUAL NUMBER
OF MEN AND WOMEN BURIED HERE.
WHAT THE PROTESTORS WANT IS
FOR THE PANTHEON TO REFLECT
THE ACTUAL HISTORY OF FRANCE,
AND ALONGSIDE THE GREAT MEN,
TO HAVE THE GREAT WOMEN OF THE
REVOLUTION, TOO.
THIS WAS THE AGE OF THE
ENLIGHTENMENT, WHEN LOGIC AND
REASON HAD SUPPOSEDLY
CONQUERED SUPERSTITION AND
PREJUDICE.
YET THE PHILOSOPHER JEAN
JACQUES ROUSSEAU, WHOSE
WRITINGS HELPED TO INSPIRE THE
REVOLUTION, SAW NOTHING
ILLOGICAL IN STATING, "MAN
SHOULD BE STRONG AND ACTIVE,
THE WOMAN SHOULD BE WEAK AND
PASSIVE."

A classical portrait shows a man wearing a fur hat and a coat.

Amanda continues IN 1791, OLYMPE WOULD EXPOSE
THE SELF-SERVING BIAS THAT
UNDERPINNED THE DECLARATION
OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN BY
PUBLISHING HER OWN DECLARATION
FOR THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND
THE FEMALE CITIZEN.

Amanda walks into file vaults.

The caption changes to "Oliver Blanc. Biographer." Oliver is in his fifties, clean-shaven with gray hair. He wears a black shirt.

Oliver browses through a booklet and says SHE SAYS THAT THE RIGHTS
OF WOMEN SHOULD BE
BASED ON NATURE AND REASON.
THESE TWO CONCEPTS ARE
ESSENTIAL IN
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
WILL TURN ITS BACK
ON DESPOTISM AND RELIGION
BY EMPHASIZING REASON
AND NATURE. AND IN OLYMPE
DE GOUGES’ WORKS, AND
ESPECIALLY IN THE DECLARATION
OF THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN
WE ALWAYS FIND THE
JUSTIFICATION OF THESE
DEMANDS.
SHE DEMANDS POLITICAL RIGHTS,
BUT ALSO CIVIL RIGHTS
FOR WOMEN.
SHE THINKS THAT WOMEN
SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO PRACTISE
JOBS TRADITIONALLY RESERVED
FOR MEN. FOR EXAMPLE,
SHE SAYS THAT WOMEN CAN BE
LAWYERS, SHE SAYS THAT WOMEN
CAN BE AMBASSADORS.
SHE RECOGNISED AT THA TIME
THE LEGITIMACY OF
HAVING A ROMANTIC
RELATIONSHIP AND
HAVING CHILDREN
OUTSIDE OF MARRIAGE.

Amanda says AND SHE ALSO TALKS
ABOUT LIBERTY AND JUSTICE BEING
THE DRIVING ENGINE FOR WOMEN'S
RIGHTS.

Oliver says OLYMPE DE GOUGES
INSISTS ON SEVERAL
IMPORTANT POINTS.
SHE CONSIDERS THAT
WOMEN SHOULD HAVE RIGHTS,
BUT ALSO DUTIES. SHE WANTS THESE
DUTIES TO BE EXACTLY
THE SAME AS MEN’S
AND SHE PRESENTS HER
FAMOUS COUNTER IDEAS
IN ARTICLE 10.
He reads IF A WOMAN HAS THE
RIGHT TO MOUNT THE SCAFFOLD;
SHE MUST EQUALLY HAVE THE RIGHT
TO TAKE THE POLITICAL PLATFORM.

Amanda says SO WHAT WAS THE
EFFECT OF THIS DOCUMENT?
WHO READ OLYMPE'S DECLARATION?

Oliver says SHE WOULD
ALWAYS SEND HER POLITCAL WRITINGS
TO THE PRESDENT
OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
AND TO SEVERAL DEPUTIES.
SHE WOULD ALSO SEND HER
TEXTS TO NEWSPAPERS
DIRETORS AND ALSO
TO ALL POLITICAL CLUBS.
SHE HAD A GREAT SENSE
OF COMMUNICATION
AND SHE GAVE MAXIMUM
PUBLICITY TO HER
WRITINGS.

Amanda says AND WHAT WAS THE
REACTION?

Oliver says THERE HASN’T
EVEN BEEN A DEBATE.
SHE AT LEAST WANTED A DEBATE
AT THE ASSEMBLY
ON THE QUESTION OF THE RIGHTS
OF WOMEN BUT THIS
DEBATE WAS NEVER
EVEN PUT ON THE AGENDA.

Amanda says WITHIN A YEAR, ALL
DEBATE WOULD BE CLOSED DOWN AS
THE JACOBINS' REIGN OF TERROR
BEGAN.
FEARING FURTHER UPRISINGS LIKE
VERSAILLES, THEY TOOK EXTREME
MEASURES.
IN OCTOBER, THEY BANNED WOMEN
FROM MEETING IN GROUPS OF FIVE
OR MORE.
THIS WAS THE BEGINNING, WHEN
THE REVOLUTION TURNED FROM
BEING A MEANS OF LIBERATION
FOR WOMEN, TO A INSTRUMENT OF
THEIR OPPRESSION.

Aerial views of the city of Paris appear.

Amanda continues WITHIN A YEAR, THE POLITICAL
TIDE HAD TURNED AGAINST
MODERATES LIKE OLYMPE.
WHEN THE JACOBINS OUTLAWED
EXPRESSIONS OF DISSENT, OLYMPE
REFUSED TO STAY SILENT.
EVEN TO SAVE HER LIFE.
OLYMPE CALLED ON THE FRENCH TO
REJECT VIOLENCE.
SHE DISTRIBUTED AN
INFLAMMATORY POSTER CALLED THE
THREE URNS, THAT ENCOURAGED
PEOPLE TO DECIDE FOR
THEMSELVES HOW FRANCE SHOULD
BE GOVERNED.
THE AUTHORITIES ARRESTED HER,
AND SHE WAS IMPRISONED HERE,
AT THE CONCIERGERIE.

Oliver says IT IS THE FILE OF THE TRIAL
OF OLYMPE DE GOUGES
SENTENCED TO DEATH
IN FRONT OF
THE REVOLUTIONARY
COURT. IT IS NOT
AN IMPARTIAL COURT.
IN THIS FILE WE REALIZE
THAT IT’S ONLY BASED
ON ACCUSATIONS.
THERE AR NO WITNESSES TO
DEFEND HER,
ONLY WITNESSES TO ACCUSE HER.
THIS IS THE LAST LETTER THAT
OLYMPE DE GOUGES WROTE.
SHE’S WAITING FOR THE
EXECUTIONER; SHE WRITES
TO HER SON ‘I’M DYING
MY DEAR SON, VICTIM
OF MY IDOLATRY FOR
THE HOMELAND AND
FOR THE PEOPLE.’
SHE SIGNS OLYMPE
DE GOUGES IN HER
OWN HAND.

Amanda stands at The Place de la Concorde at night.

Amanda says OLYMPE WAS SENTENCED
TO DEATH ON THE NIGHT OF
NOVEMBER 2nd, 1793.
IT'S A TERRIBLE IRONY THAT
ONE OF THE MOST ELOQUENT
REVOLUTIONARIES OF THE 18th
CENTURY WAS EXECUTED HERE IN
THE PLACE DE LA CONCORD ON
ACCOUNT OF BEING A SO-CALLED
TRAITOR TO THE REVOLUTION.
AND THE QUESTION IS WHY?
I THINK IT'S BECAUSE OLYMPE,
AS A WOMAN, BREACHED THE
ALL-MALE SPHERE OF POLITICS,
AND AS A WOMEN, USED THE
SUPPOSEDLY MALE TOOLS OF
REASON, WIT, AND LOGIC TO
PROMOTE A FEMINIST AGENDA.
OLYMPE'S EXECUTION MARKED THE
BEGINNING OF A POLITICAL
BACKLASH AGAINST WOMEN.
IN 1795, THEY WERE BANNED FROM
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY.
THEY WERE ORDERED TO STAY AT
HOME AND STOP HAVING OPINIONS
OF THEIR OWN.
AND THE ROLL-BACK CONTINUED
WHEN NAPOLEON BECAME EMPEROR.
HE INSTITUTED THE NAPOLEONIC
CODE, WHICH WAS HARSHER AND
MORE RIGID THAN ANYTHING WOMEN
HAD EXPERIENCED IN THE
PREVIOUS 20 YEARS.
IT'S A FACT, BY 1804, WOMEN
WERE AS POWERLESS, IF NOT MORE
SO THAN THE WOMEN WHO HAD
MARCHED ON VERSAILLES IN 1789.

The Eiffel Tower illuminates the city.

Amanda says THE CODE WAS A DISASTER FOR
WOMEN'S RIGHTS, GIVING FATHERS
AND HUSBANDS THE ULTIMATE
POWER OVER THEIR DAUGHTERS AND
WIVES.
IN MARRIAGE, IT ASSIGNED
UNEQUAL STATUS BETWEEN THE TWO
PARTNERS.
ADULTERY WAS ONLY A CRIME FOR
WIVES.
THEY COULD NOT BUY OR SELL
PROPERTY AND WERE
DISADVANTAGED IN DIVORCE AND
INHERITANCE.
FOR WOMEN, THE CODE WAS THE
MOST ENDURING LEGACY OF THE
FRENCH REVOLUTION.
THEIR LIVES SHAPED BY ITS
DICTATES UNTIL THE MIDDLE OF
THE 20th CENTURY.

Now, Amanda stands in white classical building.

She says IT WAS 1946 BEFORE FRENCH
WOMEN FINALLY GOT THE VOTE,
AND ANOTHER 20 YEARS BEFORE
WIVES COULD WORK WITHOUT THEIR
HUSBANDS' PERMISSIONS.
BUT THE BATTLES OF THE FRENCH
REVOLUTION WEREN'T IRRELEVANT.
IT WAS WOMEN LIKE OLYMPE DE
GOUGES, WHO LIT THE FLAMES OF
MODERN FEMINISM.
AND ONCE THEY WERE ALIGHT,
THERE WAS NO GOING BACK.
A REVOLUTION THAT BETRAYS THE
PROMISE OF EGALITARIANISM AND
SIMPLY EXCHANGES ONE MALE
STRUCTURE FOR ANOTHER, IS
HARDLY A VICTORY FOR WOMEN.
AND YET, WOMEN CONTINUED TO
TAKE PART IN THE REVOLUTIONARY
MOVEMENT SPREADING AROUND THE
WORLD, BELIEVING THIS WAS
THEIR ONLY HOPE FOR CHANGE.
LIBERATION, REPUBLICANISM,
SELF-DETERMINATION, THESE
POLITICAL IDEAS FELL ON
FERTILE GROUND IN SOUTH
AMERICA AND CONTINENTAL
EUROPE.
BY THE EARLY 1800s, THE SOUTH
AMERICAN COUNTRIES WERE
FIGHTING AGAINST SPAIN,
DEMANDING THEIR INDEPENDENCE,
AND WOMEN WERE FIGHTING
ALONGSIDE MEN.

(music plays)

Amanda continues BY THE TURN OF THE 19th
CENTURY, SOUTH AMERICAN
COLONIES WERE RISING UP
AGAINST SPAIN, DEMANDING THEIR
INDEPENDENCE.
IN ECUADOR, MANUELA SAENZ,
FELLOW REVOLUTIONARY AND LOVER
OF SIMON BOLIVAR, FOUGHT
ALONGSIDE HIM AS SIX SOUTH
AMERICA COUNTRIES WERE
LIBERATED.
IN GREECE, PLAYWRIGHT EVANTHIA
KAIRI, CAMPAIGNED TO OVERTHROW
TURKISH RULE.
IN POLAND, EMILIA PLATER, WENT
INTO BATTLE AGAINST OCCUPYING
RUSSIA.
AND KATHINKA ZITZ-HALEIN,
FOUNDED THE LARGEST WOMEN'S
ORGANIZATION OF THE GERMAN
REVOLUTION IN 1848.

An animated map shows the women mentioned in their corresponding highlighted countries.

Amanda continues NOT ALL REVOLUTIONS BEGIN WITH
MASS MEETINGS IN PUBLIC
SQUARES, OR ON THE
BATTLEFIELD.
IN FACT, I THINK THE GREATEST
REVOLUTION OF THE 19th CENTURY
STARTED IN THE HOME, WITH THE
EDUCATION OF GIRLS.
ONCE CAMPAIGNERS BEGAN TO
ARGUE THAT WOMEN MUST HAVE
EQUAL ACCESS TO EDUCATION,
THEN THE GENIE WAS OUT OF THE
BOTTLE.
WHAT WAS THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN A GIRL'S EDUCATION AND
A BOY'S EDUCATION IN THE 19th
CENTURY?

The caption changes to "Elizabeth Crawford. Author, Enterprising Women, the Garretts and their circle." Elizabeth is in her mid-sixties, with short straight gray hair. She wears a black dotted scarf over a black sweater.

Elizabeth says THE MAIN
DIFFERENCE WAS THAT NOTHING
MUCH WAS EXPECTED OF GIRLS.
THEY MIGHT BE EDUCATED BY
THEIR MOTHER.
THEY MIGHT BE SENT TO A SMALL
LADIES BOARDING SCHOOL, EVEN,
OR THEY MIGHT HAVE A GOVERNESS
AT HOME, BUT GOVERNESS WERE
BADLY EDUCATED THEMSELVES, AND
WEREN'T CAPABLE OF GIVING AN
EDUCATION OF VERY HIGH
STANDARD.
THEY WAS CERTAINLY NO HIGHER
EDUCATION.
14, 16, THAT WAS THE END OF
THE SCHOOL ROOM FOR GIRLS.
THEIR ONLY HOPE WAS TO STAY AT
HOME AND HOPE SOMEBODY WOULD
MARRY THEM.

Amanda says THE FIRST WAVE OF
FEMINISTS DEMANDED EQUAL
OWNERSHIP OF PROPERTY, ACCESS
TO THE PROFESSIONS, AND
POLITICAL REPRESENTATION.
THEY ALSO RECOGNIZED, LIKE
MARY WOLSTENCRAFT, THAT
NOTHING WOULD CHANGE FOR WOMEN
WITHOUT EQUAL EDUCATION.
WITH SO MANY DIFFERENT ISSUES
AT STAKE, A STRONG CAMPAIGNER
WAS NEEDED TO LEAD A UNITED
FRONT.

A black and white photograph shows a young woman sitting on a chair wearing a black dress with a large lace collar and a ribbon.

Amanda continues SEEMS TO ME THAT MILLICENT
FAWCETT THOUGHT THERE AS WAS A
LOT OF UNFAIRNESS IN SOCIETY.
WOMEN COULDN'T HAVE THE VOTE.
THEY COULDN'T OWN PROPERTY.
THEY COULDN'T OBTAIN A DIVORCE.
AND SHE WANTED TO NOT JUST
CHANGE THE WORLD, BUT CHANGE
WOMEN, TOO, SO THEY COULD
CONFRONT THIS UNFAIRNESS.

Elizabeth says SHE
COULDN'T SEE WHY THERE SHOULD
BE ANY DIFFERENCE IN THE WAY
MEN AND WOMEN SHOULD BE
TREATED ECONOMICALLY,
EDUCATIONALLY, POLITICALLY.
SHE MARRIED VERY YOUNG, AT 19,
TO HENRY FAWCETT, PROFESSOR OF
POLITICAL ECONOMY AT
CAMBRIDGE, AND A RISING
LIBERAL MP.
HER ONE VIEW WAS WOMEN NEEDED
TO HAVE A UNIVERSITY EDUCATION
THAT WAS EQUAL TO THAT OF MEN.
SHE WANTED WOMEN TO MAKE USE
OF THEIR LIVES.

Amanda says WHEN IT CAME TO
WOMEN'S EDUCATION, WHAT WERE
THE WAYS IN WHICH MILLICENT
FAWCETT DREW ATTENTION TO THE
CAUSE?

Elizabeth says THERE
WAS THE IDEA THAT THERE SHOULD
BE A SERIES OF LECTURES FOR
WOMEN IN CAMBRIDGE ON A
VARIETY OF SUBJECTS THAT WOULD
INTEREST WOMEN, AND WOULD GET
THEIR MINDS THINKING.
AND BECAUSE SO MANY WOMEN
WANTED TO COME NOT ONLY FROM
THE TOWN, BUT FROM OUTSIDE,
THEY HAD TO PROVIDE LODGINGS.
AND IT WAS DECIDED THEY WOULD
REALLY HAVE TO BUILD A HALL TO
ACCOMMODATE THEM.
AND THIS FIRST BUILDING WENT
UP TO ACCOMMODATE ABOUT 30
WOMEN.
FROM THEN ON, NEWNHAM GREW.

(soft music plays)

Amanda says THE FIRST PHASE OF
MILLICENT FAWCETT'S CAMPAIGN
WAS ACHIEVED IN 1871, AND SHE
CO-FOUNDED NEWNHAM COLLEGE FOR
WOMEN IN CAMBRIDGE.
BUT THAT WASN'T ENOUGH.
EDUCATION FOR HER WAS A MEANS
TO AN END.

Elizabeth says MILLICENT
HAD SO MANY DIFFERENT INTERESTS.
I MEAN, WE KNOW HER NOW AS A
LEADER OF THE SUFFRAGE
MOVEMENT.
I MEAN IT WAS SHE WHO
CAMPAIGNED TO ALL INTENTS AND
PURPOSES FROM 1866 TO 1928,
WHEN WOMEN GOT VOTES ON THE
SAME TERMS AS MEN.
AND SHE DIED IN 1929, HER WORK
COMPLETED.

Amanda stands in a bridge in front of The Houses of Parliament.

Amanda says MILLICENT FAWCETT
WAS A QUIET REVOLUTIONARY.
AND THE TACTICS SHE DEVELOPED
OF COMBINING GRASSROOTS
ACTIVISM WITH POLITICAL
LOBBYING WOULD BE ADOPTED BY
OTHER CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENTS.
OF COURSE, SHE WASN'T THE
FIRST PERSON TO HARNESS THE
POWER OF SOCIAL PROTEST, BUT
WHAT MARKS MILLICENT OUT AS A
STRATEGIC GENIUS IS THE FACT
SHE TOOK A ROOT AND BRANCH
APPROACH TO FIGHTING FEMALE
OPPRESSION.
SHE BELIEVED IN EMPOWERING
WOMEN FIRST THROUGH EDUCATION,
AND SECOND, THROUGH LEGAL
REPRESENTATION.
BY THE END OF HER LIFE,
MILLICENT WAS ABLE TO SAY THAT
WOMEN'S ULTIMATE VICTORY LAY
IN THE FACT THEY COULD NO
LONGER BE TREATED, EITHER
SOCIALLY OR LEGALLY, AS IF
THEY WERE HELPLESS CHILDREN.
WHAT I ADMIRE MOST ABOUT
MILLICENT IS SHE DID MORE THAN
FIGHT FOR CHANGE, SHE GAVE
WOMEN THE TOOLS TO FIGHT FOR
THEMSELVES.
BRITAIN WAS NOT ALONE IN ITS
RELUCTANCE TO GRANT WOMEN THE
VOTE.
THE FIRST COUNTRY WAS NEW
ZEALAND IN 1893.
IN EUROPE, ONLY NORWAY, IN
1913, AND DENMARK IN 1915,
GAVE WOMEN FULL DEMOCRATIC
RIGHTS.
AND FOR THE NEXT COUNTRY, IT
WOULD TAKE A REVOLUTION.

The animated map shows the countries named. Then, Russia appears highlighted in blue and red.

Amanda walks in Moscow’s Red Square.

Amanda continues PERHAPS SURPRISINGLY, THE
COUNTRY WITH THE MOST ADVANCED
FEMINIST AGENDA IN THE EARLY
20th CENTURY WAS HERE, IN
COMMUNIST RUSSIA.
LEADING THIS CHARGE TO REMAKE
RUSSIAN SOCIETY INTO THE
SOVIET IDEAL OF THE LIBERATED
AND EQUAL WORKERS COLLECTIVE
WAS A FIREBRAND FROM
St. PETERSBURG CALLED ALEXANDRA
KOLLONTAI.
SEXUAL REVOLUTIONARY, AUTHOR,
DIPLOMAT, AGITATOR, FREE
SPIRIT.

An old picture of a young woman with short hair holding a pen appears.

Amanda continues REMARKABLY, ALEXANDRA
KOLLONTAI WAS THE FIRST WOMAN
TO ENTER THE INNER CIRCLE OF
THE BOLSHEVIK GOVERNMENT.
HER NAME IS NOT SYNONYMOUS
WITH THE HEROES OF THE
REVOLUTION.
INSTEAD, HER STORY LIES HERE,
GATHERING DUST IN THE ARCHIVES
OF THE FORMER MARX LENIN
INSTITUTE.

Amanda sits at a table opening a file.

Amanda continues SOME PEOPLE ARE BORN FIGHTERS,
AND ALEXANDRA KOLLONTAI WAS
ONE OF THEM.
SHE'D BEEN BORN INTO AN
ARISTOCRATIC RUSSIAN FAMILY.
HER FATHER WAS A CZARIST
GENERAL.
AND SHE HERSELF HAD THE KIND
OF UPBRINGING THAT WAS TYPICAL
OF THE RUSSIAN UPPER CLASSES,
COMPLETE WITH ENGLISH NANNY.
BUT SHE COULDN'T GET AWAY FAST
ENOUGH, AND AT THE AGE OF 21,
SHE MARRIED AN IMPOVERISHED
RELATIVE NAMED VLADIMIR
KOLLONTAI.
VERY SOON, THAT ESCAPE ROUTE
TURNED INTO A PRISON FOR HER.
SHE HATED DOMESTIC LIFE.
SHE WAS INTERESTED IN
POLITICS, AND SHE WANTED TO
PLAY A ROLE IN REVOLUTIONARY
MARXISM.
MATTERS CAME TO A HEAD,
THOUGH, WHEN SHE VISITED A
FACTORY THAT HER HUSBAND WAS
ABOUT TO MANAGE.
KOLLONTAI BECAME ENRAGED BY
THE INHUMANE CONDITIONS
SUFFERED BY THE WOMEN WORKERS
THERE AND DECIDED AT THAT
MOMENT THAT SHE WOULD LEAVE
VLADIMIR AND DEVOTE HER LIFE
TO THE CAUSE OF THE WOMEN
WORKERS.
ALEXANDRA KOLLONTAI WENT ON TO
ORGANIZE STRIKES AND PROTESTS
TO HELP THESE WOMEN FIGHT FOR
EQUALITY.
IT'S EASY TO SEE WHY A WOMAN
LIKE ALEXANDRA KOLLONTAI,
DRIVEN, FRUSTRATED, ANGRY,
WOULD BE DRAWN TO THE
PHILOSOPHIES OF MARX AND
ENGELS.
WRITING ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF
THE FAMILY, ENGELS THEORIZED
THAT THE EMERGENCE OF
PATRIARCHY WAS DRIVEN BY THE
DESIRE FOR OWNERSHIP.
OWNERSHIP OF PROPERTY,
OWNERSHIP OF WOMEN'S BODIES.
AND THEREFORE, ONLY A COMPLETE
WORKERS' REVOLUTION, ONE THAT
ABOLISHED ALL RIGHTS TO
OWNERSHIP, IN FAVOUR OF THE
COLLECTIVE, WOULD LEAD TO A
COMPLETE REORDERING OF THE
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SEXES.

Amanda browses through black and white pictures of Alexandra Kollontai’s life.

She continues ONE BASED ON MUTUAL NEED,
MUTUAL RESPECT, AND EQUALITY.
EXILED FROM RUSSIA BY THE CZAR
IN 1908 FOR HER ACTIVISM, SHE
WAS DETERMINED TO RETURN TO
ENSURE THAT WOMEN'S RIGHTS
WERE AT THE TOP OF THE
BOLSHEVIK AGENDA.

People march holding a large banner and red balloons and flags.

Amanda says JUST AS IN THE FRENCH
REVOLUTION, IT WAS THE WOMEN
WHO WERE THE AGENTS OF CHANGE.
ON THE 23rd OF FEBRUARY, 1917,
IT WAS INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S
DAY, AND THE WOMEN POURED INTO
THE STREETS, ORGANIZING
PROTESTS AND STRIKES.
AMONG THEM WERE THE FEMALE
TEXTILE WORKERS ORGANIZED BY
ALEXANDRA KOLLONTAI.
AND THE MOVEMENT THEY STARTED,
THE MOMENTUM BECAME IMPOSSIBLE
TO STOP.
A WEEK LATER, THE CZAR FELL
FROM POWER.
KOLLONTAI RETURNED TO RUSSIA
IN MARCH OF THAT YEAR, AND
BECAME A PROMINENT BOLSHEVIK
CAMPAIGNER.
LENIN REWARDED HER BY GIVING
HER A GOVERNMENT ROLE IN
SOCIAL WELFARE.
AND IN 1920, SHE WAS MADE HEAD
OF THE ZHENOTDEL, A NEW
DEPARTMENT DEVOTED TO IMPROVING
THE LIVES OF WOMEN.
AS HEAD OF THIS DEPARTMENT,
KOLLONTAI WAS NOW ABLE TO TURN
HER UTOPIAN BOLSHEVIK FEMINIST
VISIONS INTO A REALITY.

Amanda and Barbara Evans Clements sit at a café.

Amanda asks HOW KEY WAS ALEXANDRA
KOLLONTAI IN CHANGING WOMEN'S
RIGHTS AND IMPROVING THEM?

The caption changes to "Barbara Evans Clements. Professor Emerita, University of Akron." Barbara is in her sixties with short white hair. She wears a pink cardigan over a black shirt.

Barbara says SHE
DRAFTED THE FIRST REGULATIONS
THAT WOULD CREATE UNIVERSAL
MATERNITY CARE.
SHE SPEAR-HEADED EQUALIZATION
OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES
FOR WOMEN.
SHE SPEAR-HEADED WOMEN'S
ENGAGEMENT IN THE PAID LABOUR
FORCE AS MEN'S EQUALS.
AND SHE WAS THE CHIEF
SPOKESPERSON FOR IDEAS ABOUT
HOW WOMEN AND MEN COULD TREAT
EACH OTHER AS EQUALS.
THIS IS PARTICULARLY
REMARKABLE BECAUSE SHE HAD NOT
BEEN A MEMBER OF THE BOLSHEVIK
PARTY.
SHE WASN'T IN TIGHT WITH THE
GUYS WHO LED THE ORGANIZATION.
AND YET, SHE STILL MANAGED TO
PERSUADE THEM TO LISTEN TO
HER AND TO GRANT HER
CONSIDERABLE AUTONOMY.
THE ZHENOTDEL WENT SO FAR AS
TO ARGUE FOR WHAT WE WOULD CALL
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION.
THE PROMOTION OF WOMEN INTO
LEADERSHIP POSITIONS IN THINGS
LIKE TRADE UNIONS.
THEY BEGAN TO ADVANCE A
PROGRAM FOR WOMEN'S RIGHTS
THAT WAS HUGE IN CHANGING THE
LIVES OF WOMEN AND MEN IN THE
SOVIET UNION, AND THEN BECAUSE
OF THE SPREAD OF COMMUNISM
ACROSS THE PLANET, BECAME
ADOPTED BY COMMUNIST PARTIES
ALL OVER THE WORLD, FROM
NICARAGUA TO CHINA.
KOLLONTAI PROMOTED CHANGE IN
THE LIVES OF TENS OF MILLIONS
OF PEOPLE.

Amanda says THE BOLSHEVIK PARTY
INTRODUCED A RANGE OF RADICAL
REFORMS.
UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE WAS
GRANTED.
HOMOSEXUALITY AND ABORTION
WERE DECRIMINALIZED, AND
ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE WAS MADE
FREE TO ALL.
REFORMS THAT WOULD NOT BE
INTRODUCED IN THE REST OF
EUROPE FOR ANOTHER 50 YEARS.
BUT THIS WASN'T REVOLUTIONARY
ENOUGH FOR ALEXANDRA KOLLONTAI.
SHE WANTED TO FREE WOMEN FROM
WHAT SHE VIEWED AS THE BURDENS
OF THE FAMILY.

People walk in the subway among several statues of political figures and a large painting of the Bolshevik Revolution on a wall.

Amanda continues SHE BELIEVED CHILD CARE SHOULD
BE A SOCIAL, RATHER THAN AN
INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY, AND
THAT WOMEN SHOULD BE ABLE TO
HAVE THE SAME BALANCE BETWEEN
LIFE AND WORK AS MEN.
ALEXANDRA KOLLONTAI WANTED TO
ABOLISH DOMESTIC LIFE AS A
MATTER OF PRINCIPLE.
BUT THE SOVIETS WANTED WOMEN
OUT OF THE KITCHEN FOR A
PRACTICAL PERSON.
THE STATE HAD TO MODERNIZE
QUICKLY, AND THEY COULD ONLY
DO THAT BY DOUBLING THE WORK
FORCE.
THIS
WAS THE REAL PURPOSE
BEHIND THE RISE OF THE NEW
SOVIET WOMAN.
THIS WAS THE NEW SOVIET
LIFESTYLE.
AND WOMEN WERE TO BE THE
CO-BUILDERS OF THE ROAD TO
UTOPIA, AND ENTHUSIASTIC
PARTICIPANTS IN PUBLIC LIFE.
LENIN PREDICTED IN 1919 THAT
THE REAL EMANCIPATION OF
WOMEN, REAL COMMUNISM WILL
BEGIN ONLY WHERE AND WHEN AN
ALL OUT STRUGGLE BEGINS
AGAINST PESKY HOUSEKEEPING.
IN ORDER FOR WOMEN TO BE EQUAL
FOR MEN, THEY NEEDED TO WORK
OUTSIDE THE HOME, AND
PROPAGANDA WOULD BECOME THE
TOOL TO PROMOTE THIS NEW
SOVIET DREAM.

Sergo Grigorian is in his forties, clean-shaven with short grayish hair. He wears a striped white shirt and gray cardigan.

Sergo says THIS
POSTER WAS PRINTED IN THE
YEAR 1920.
AND YOU CAN SEE ON THE UPPER
SIDE, THIS IS THE OLD LIFE.

The caption changes to "Doctor Sergo Grigorian. Art Collector."

He continues AND HERE, UNDERNEATH, THIS IS
THE NEW LIFE ALREADY.
YOU CAN SEE THEY ARE HAVING
LUNCH IN THE CANTEEN, WHICH IS
ORGANIZED BY THE STATE.

Amanda says SO WHAT DOES THE
SLOGAN SAY?

Sergo says IT'S
FUNNY.
WOMAN WORKER, THE CORPORATION
FREES YOU FROM THE POWER OF
KITCHEN AND THE STOVE.
He smiles and continues NEXT ONE, POSTER, SHOWING THE
LADY ALREADY WORKING IN THE
FACTORY.
SHE'S VERY HAPPY.

He points to bar graphs at the bottom of the poster.

He continues YOU CAN SEE THE GROWING
FIGURES.
AND IT SAYS THERE IS A GROWING
PERCENTAGE OF WOMEN
PARTICIPATING IN THE GARMENT
INDUSTRY.
EXACTLY ALEXANDRA KOLLONTAI
IDEAS TO MAKE WOMAN ABSOLUTELY
THE SAME AS THE MAN.

Amanda says IT'S AN AMAZINGLY
MODERN MESSAGE THOUGH, ISN'T
IT?
THIS IDEA THAT WOMEN'S
PARTICIPATION IN THE WORK
FORCE MAKES THE COUNTRY MORE
PROSPEROUS.

Sergo says YES.
IT WAS ONE OF THE KEY TOPICS
OF THE WHOLE POLITICS OF THE
SOVIET GOVERNMENT.
AND THEY SUCCEEDED.

Amanda says CONTROVERSIALLY,
ALEXANDRA KOLLONTAI ARGUED
THAT WOMEN'S EMANCIPATION
SHOULD EXTEND TO THEIR
SEXUALITY.
SHE THOUGHT MARRIAGE WAS AN
UNNATURAL CONSTRAINT ON HUMAN
BEHAVIOUR.
KOLLONTAI WENT EVEN FURTHER.
SHE WANTED TO ABOLISH THE
FAMILY AND ALL ASPECTS OF
DOMESTIC LIFE, SAYING CHILDREN
SHOULD BE MADE WARDS OF THE
STATE BECAUSE ONLY THEN COULD
WOMEN BE FREE TO BE
THEMSELVES.
CLEARLY, THAT WASN'T SOVIET
IDEOLOGY, THAT WAS KOLLONTAI'S
OWN DESPERATE REACTION TO
HISTORIC OPPRESSION.
BECAUSE, IN ESSENCE, WHAT SHE
WAS SAYING IS THAT WOMEN CAN
ONLY BE REAL WOMEN WHEN THEY
STOP BEING WIVES AND MOTHERS.

Barbara says A
LOT OF BOLSHEVIKS THOUGHT
TALKING ABOUT THINGS LIKE FREE
LOVE, AND PEOPLE HOOKING UP
WITH WHOMEVER THEY WANT TO,
AND LEAVING WHENEVER THEY FEEL
LIKE IT, WHICH IS LITERALLY
WHAT SHE WAS WRITING ABOUT IN
1923, THOUGHT THAT WAS, IF NOT
DISTASTEFUL, AT LEAST PUTTING
PRIORITIES WHERE THE BOURGEOIS
FEMINISTS WOULD HAVE PUT THEM.
SO SHE WAS SUSPECT BECAUSE SHE'S
TALKING ABOUT THINGS THAT THEY
DID NOT CONSIDER POLITICALLY
SIGNIFICANT.

Amanda says LIKE OLYMPE DE
GOUGES, KOLLONTAI'S RADICAL
AGENDA LED TO HER CONDEMNATION
BY THE POLITICAL ELITE.
IN 1922, LENIN HAD HER REMOVED
AS THE HEAD OF THE ZHENOTDEL.
IN 1924, SHE TOOK THE OFFER OF
A GRACEFUL EXILE AND SPENT
THE NEXT TWO DECADES IN THE
SOVIET FOREIGN SERVICE AS
AMBASSADOR TO SWEDEN.
THE LAST YEARS OF ALEXANDRA
KOLLONTAI'S LIFE WERE BITTER
ONES.
BY THE LATE 1940s, THE GAINS
ACHIEVED BY ZHENOTDEL HAD BEEN
ROLLED BACK BY JOSEPH STALIN.
DIVORCE, ABORTION,
CONTRACEPTION, THESE ALL
BECAME DIFFICULT, IF NOT
IMPOSSIBLE.
THE WORKERS' PARADISE HAD
GIVEN WAY TO THE GULAG.
WHEN A COUNTRY IS IN CRISIS,
ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS TO GO
ARE WOMEN'S RIGHTS.
AND SO IT WAS IN THE SOVIET
UNION.
THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET
UNION IN 1991 HAS NOT IMPROVED
THE SITUATION FOR RUSSIAN
WOMEN.
DESPITE SOME POLITICAL
REFORMS, WOMEN ARE STILL PAID
LESS, RECEIVE WORSE
HEALTHCARE, AND ARE
UNDERREPRESENTED IN ALL SENIOR
POSITIONS ACROSS SOCIETY.
YET, THE EQUALITY THAT
ALEXANDRA KOLLONTAI FOUGHT FOR
HASN'T BEEN FORGOTTEN.

[singing]
Four hooded women wearing colourful dresses and tights frantically dance raising their legs in a church altar.

Amanda continues TODAY, THE FEMINIST PUNK BAND
PUSSY RIOT IS AT THE FOREFRONT
OF A HIGHLY PERSONAL CAMPAIGN
FOR SOCIAL EQUALITY, WHICH HAS
RESULTED IN THEM BEING
HARASSED, BEATEN, AND
IMPRISONED.
NADIA, WHAT DOES ALEXANDRA
KOLLONTAI MEAN TO YOU?

The caption changes to "Nadya Tolokonnikova. Pussy Riot." Nadya is in her mid-twenties with short green and turquoise hair. She wears a black shirt.

Nadya speaks Russian. Subtitles read "Kollontai, together with the women she was working with tackling feminist issues, promoting feminism achieved some amazing things."

The caption changes to "Masha Alyokhina." Masha is in her twenties with long white, pink and purple hair. She wears a pink blouse with orange fruits.

Masha says IN CONTEMPORARY RUSSIA
THERE IS A DEPLORABLE STATE OF AFFAIRS
IN POLITICS IN GENERAL
BUT ESPECIALLY WITH WOMEN
INVOLVED IN POLITICS
BECAUSE ALL THESE WOMEN
WHO ARE REPRESENTED IN
THE STATE DUMA, FOR EXAMPLE
HAVE ONLY ONE MESSAGE,
ONE AGENDA TO
PUT ACROSS WHICH
IS FILLED WITH EXTREME CONSERVATISM.
SHE HAS TO BE AGAINST ABORTION.
SHE HAS TO BE IN FAVOUR OF
PRESERVING THE FAMILY.

Amanda says DO YOU THINK
ALEXANDRA KOLLONTAI CAN BE A
GREAT ROLE MODEL FOR WOMEN
TODAY?

Masha says FOR HER TO BECOME
A ROLE MODEL, PEOPLE NEED TO
KNOW ABOUT HER.
AND FOR PEOPLE TO KNOW
ABOUT HER, THEY HAVE TO BE TOLD
ABOUT HER IN SCHOOLS
AND UNIVERSITIES. BUT
SADLY WE DON’T HAVE THAT,
BECAUSE OUR STATE IS NOT
PARTICULARLY BOTHERED
ABOUT EDUCATING PEOPLE.

Amanda nods.

Masha continues EDUCATED PEOPLE
ARE NOT IN NEED. BUT
AS FAR AS WE ARE CONCERNED,
AS PART OF OUR ACTIVITIES,
WE ARE DOING OUR BEST
TO RAISE AWARENESS.

Nadya says WE BELIEVE
THAT RUSSIAN MINDS
AND THE RUSSIAN SPIRIT
ARE CAPABLE OF INVENTING
SOMETHING NEW, STRONG,
DARING. WE BELIEVE THAT
A WOMAN LIKE ALEXANDRA
KOLLONTAI MAY APPEAR
AMONGST US
AND WE LOOK FORWARD
TO HER JOINING US.

[singing]
The Pussy Riots play guitars and dance in a church.

Amanda takes a taxi in New York city.

Amanda says WHILE ALEXANDRA
KOLLONTAI WAS ARGUING THAT
SOCIALISM SHOULD DELIVER
SEXUAL LIBERATION TO RUSSIAN
WOMEN, IN AMERICA, WOMEN WERE
LOOKING TO CAPITALISM TO
DELIVER THAT SAME LIBERATION.
HERE, TOO, IT WAS ABOUT WOMEN
HAVING CONTROL OVER THEIR
LIVES AND BODIES, AND BECOMING
EMPOWERED IN THE PROCESS.
ONE OF THE GREATEST
REVOLUTIONS OF THE LAST 2,000
YEARS FOR WOMEN WAS TO COME
FROM AN ALLIANCE BETWEEN THE
HEIRESS TO AN INDUSTRIAL
FORTUNE AND A SOCIALIST
RADICAL.
NEW YORKER, MARGARET SANGER,
WAS ONE OF 11 CHILDREN.
HAVING WITNESSED THE
CATASTROPHIC TOLL ON HER
MOTHER'S HEALTH FROM MULTIPLE
PREGNANCIES, SANGER MADE IT
HER LIFE'S WORK TO HELP WOMEN
GAIN ACCESS TO CONTRACEPTION.
IT WAS THE ONE THING THAT MEN
HAD CLAIMED CONTROL OVER FOR
THOUSANDS OF YEARS.

A young woman standing in the street looks to the camera holding a black and white picture of a woman in her thirties wearing a long pearl necklace.

Amanda continues AND SANGER WAS DETERMINED TO
GIVE THAT CONTROL BACK TO
WOMEN.
DURING HER LONG BATTLE FOR
WOMEN'S LIBERATION, IT BEGAN
WITH THE RIGHT TO SEX
EDUCATION, AND ENDED, FINALLY,
WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
PILL.

Amanda and Esther Katz sit in a deparment.

The caption changes to "Doctor Esther Katz. New York University." Esther is in her fifties with short wavy brown hair. She wears a white sleeveless blouse, red scarf and matching necklace.

Esther says SHE
STARTED AS A NURSE ON THE
LOWER EASTSIDE OF NEW YORK
AND ENCOUNTERED A WHOLE LOT OF
WOMEN WHO WERE DYING FROM
ABORTIONS, WHO WERE PLEADING
FOR ADVICE ON HOW TO AVOID AN
UNWANTED PREGNANCY.
SHE PUBLISHED A COLUMN FOR
THE NEW YORK CALL.
IT WAS LATER BOUND UP INTO A
PAMPHLET.
AND SHE EXHIBITED A FEISTINESS
EARLY ON WHEN THE GOVERNMENT
TRIED TO SUPPRESS THAT COLUMN.
SHE, INSTEAD, HAD THEM PRINT A
NOTICE SAYING NOTHING, BY
ORDER OF THE POST OFFICE.

Amanda says SO CONTRACEPTION
WAS CONSIDERED OBSCENE.

Esther says YES, YES.
ALONG WITH ABORTION AND OTHER
FORMS OF 'PORNOGRAPHY', AS
THEY SAID.
THE COMSTOCK LAW WAS A FEDERAL
LAW PASSED IN 1873 TO FIGHT
OBSCENITY BY PROHIBITING THE
SALE, DISTRIBUTION THROUGH THE
MAILS, OR ADVERTISEMENT OF A
VARIETY OF MATERIALS INCLUDING
CONTRACEPTIVES.
IT WAS THE LAW THAT SANGER
CAME UP AGAINST EVERY TIME SHE
WANTED TO PROMOTE BIRTH
CONTROL IN A PUBLICATION OR
DISTRIBUTE IT THROUGH A
CLINIC.

An old document "The Birth Control Review. Shall we break this law? By Margaret Sanger."

Amanda says MARGARET SANGER
WAS ON A CRUSADE.
SHE COINED THE TERM BIRTH
CONTROL IN 1914.
THE FOLLOWING YEAR, SHE BROKE
THE LAW BY DISTRIBUTING
DIAPHRAGMS IN THE POST.

Esther says SHE
REALIZED SOMETHING ELSE HAD TO
BE DONE TO GAIN PUBLICITY FOR
THE CAUSE.
AND HER SOLUTION WAS TO OPEN
A CLINIC.
SHE CHOSE BROWNSVILLE,
BROOKLYN, AS THE SITE, BECAUSE
IT HAD MANY POOR IMMIGRANT
WOMEN.
AND SHE OPENED THE CLINIC IN
NOVEMBER OF 1916.
SHE PUT OUT POSTERS WRITTEN IN
ENGLISH, YIDDISH AND ITALIAN,
TO APPEAL TO THOSE IMMIGRANT
WOMEN.

A black and white photograph shows women sitting next to vintage baby strollers.

Amanda says WHAT'S SO
INTERESTING IS HOW SHE'S
SPECIFICALLY LINKING BIRTH
CONTROL WITH POVERTY.
OR THE LACK OF BIRTH CONTROL
WITH POVERTY.

Esther says INDEED.
SHE SAW ACCESS TO CHEAP,
AFFORDABLE BIRTH CONTROL, AS
THE KEY TO GETTING OUT OF
POVERTY.
SO SHE WRITES IN THE POSTER,
MOTHERS, CAN YOU AFFORD TO
HAVE A LARGE FAMILY?
DO YOU WANT ANY MORE CHILDREN?
IF NOT, WHY DO YOU HAVE THEM?
DO NOT KILL, DO NOT TAKE LIFE,
BUT PREVENT.
A FEW DAYS LATER, THE POLICE
CAME AND RAIDED THE CLINIC.
ARRESTED SANGER ON CHARGES OF
VIOLATING THE STATE LAWS.
SHE OPENED THE CLINIC A FEW
DAYS LATER, AGAIN, AND SHE WAS
AGAIN ARRESTED, THIS TIME FOR
BEING A PUBLIC NUISANCE.
SHE WENT ON TRIAL IN 1917, AND
THE PUBLICITY FOR IT WAS
ENORMOUS.
SANGER WAS, OF COURSE, GIVING
INTERVIEWS ABOUT THE CLINIC
AS OFTEN AS SHE COULD.
SHE WAS FOUND GUILTY.
THE JUDGE ORDERED HER TO SPEND
30 DAYS IN JAIL OR PAY A FINE.
SHE CHOSE JAIL.
SHE WAS TAKEN TO THE QUEEN'S
COUNTY PENITENTIARY, WHERE SHE
PROCEEDED TO GIVE THE INMATES
BIRTH CONTROL INFORMATION.

Amanda laughs.

Amanda says HER ARREST AND
TRIAL BROUGHT SANGER THE HUGE
PUBLICITY THAT SHE HAD BEEN
COURTING.
IN 1929, AT A TALK IN BOSTON,
SHE HAD ONE OF HER ASSISTANTS
GAG HER WHILE HER SPEECH WAS
READ OUT.
"I SEE IMMENSE ADVANTAGES IN
BEING GAGGED," SHE SAID.
"IT SILENCES ME, BUT IT MAKES
MILLIONS OF OTHERS TALK AND
THINK THE CAUSE IN WHICH I
LIVE."
SANGER LOOKED FOR SUPPORTERS
ANYWHERE SHE COULD, EVEN
BECOMING PART OF THE POPULAR
EUGENICS MOVEMENT AT THE TIME,
WHICH ADVOCATED PREVENTING THE
BREEDING OF THE UNFIT.
THESE VIEWS WOULD LATER BE
USED TO SMEAR HER REPUTATION.
FORTUNATELY, SANGER HAD A GIFT
FOR ATTRACTING WEALTHY
PHILANTHROPISTS TO HER CAUSE.
ONE OF THEM WAS SUFFRAGETTE
AND HEIRESS TO A VAST
INDUSTRIAL FORTUNE, KATHARINE
McCORMICK.
HER MONEY WOULD TURN SANGER'S
DREAM INTO A REALITY.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN YOUR
GRANDMOTHER, MARGARET SANGER,
AND KATHARINE McCORMICK SEEMS
TO HAVE BEEN REALLY REMARKABLE
AND UNIQUE.

Alexander Sanger is in his mid-sixties, clean-shaven with combed white hair. He wears a dark blue stripped suit, light blue shirt and red tie.

Alexander says MY
GRANDMOTHER HAD THE ABILITY TO
KEEP IN TOUCH WITH WOMEN WITH
MONEY.

The caption changes to "Alexander Sanger. Chair, International Planned Parenthood Council."

Alexander continues AND WAS VERY GOOD AT PARTING
THEM FROM THEIR PURSE, FOR HER
CAUSE.
AND IN THE EARLY 1950s,
MY GRANDMOTHER HAD THE IDEA OF
CREATING A BIRTH CONTROL PILL.
THE DIAPHRAGM WAS THE MAJOR
METHOD BACK THEN, AND MY
GRANDMOTHER WANTED SOMETHING
THAT WAS GOING TO BE
FOOLPROOF, 100 PERCENT
EFFECTIVE, AND SAFE FOR WOMEN.
SHE FOUND GREGORY PINCUS, UP
AT THE WORCESTER INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY TO DO THE SCIENCE.

A black and white picture shows a man with a moustache holding a rabbit.

Alexander continues AND MY GRANDMOTHER BROUGHT
KATHARINE McCORMICK TOGETHER
TO HAVE A LUNCH WITH THEM HERE
IN NEW YORK.
AND MY GRANDMOTHER SAID, HOW
MUCH MONEY WILL YOU NEED?
AND HE SAID, WELL, YOU CAN
START IT WITH 40,000 DOLLARS, BUT
IT'S GOING TO COST A LOT MORE.
AND KATHARINE McCORMICK, TOOK
OUT HER CHEQUE BOOK, AFTER MY
GRANDMOTHER KICKED HER UNDER
THE TABLE, WROTE OUT A CHEQUE
FOR 40,000 DOLLARS.
AND THAT WAS THE START OF A
1 MILLION DOLLARS GIFT THAT KATHARINE
McCORMICK MADE FOR THE
DEVELOPMENT OF THE PILL.
AN EXTRAORDINARY FACT THAT THE
MOST IMPORTANT MEDICINE TO
LIBERATE WOMEN WAS AN IDEA OF
A WOMAN, AND FUNDED BY A
WOMAN, AND DONE PRIVATELY WITH
NO GOVERNMENT FUNDS
WHATSOEVER.

Amanda says MARGARET SANGER AND
KATHARINE McCORMICK WANTED A
PILL THAT WOULD BE SAFE, CHEAP,
AND AVAILABLE TO ALL WOMEN.
TODAY, IT IS USED BY OVER A
HUNDRED MILLION WOMEN AROUND
THE WORLD.

Fast clips show women from different countries doing daily activities.

Amanda continues BUT AFTER THAT INFORMAL LUNCH
WITH SCIENTIST GREGORY PINCUS
IN 1951, IT WOULD TAKE TEN
YEARS FOR THE PILL TO BECOME
AVAILABLE.
IT'S NOT A DATE THAT'S
CELEBRATED.
IN FACT, IT HARDLY EVER
APPEARS IN THE HISTORY BOOKS,
FOR THE 9th OF MAY 1960 IS THE
DAY THAT WOMEN'S LIVES CHANGED
FOREVER.
IT'S THE DAY THE FDA APPROVED
THE FIRST EVER BIRTH CONTROL
PILL.
MARGARET SANGER, WHO WAS 80
YEARS OLD AND IN FAILING
HEALTH AT THE TIME, LEARNED
ABOUT THE DECISION VIA THE
NEWSPAPERS.
UPON HEARING THAT HER IDEA
HAD COME TO FRUITION, SANGER
REPORTEDLY SIGHED SAYING,
"IT'S ABOUT TIME."
WHAT HAPPENED AT THE END OF
MARGARET'S LIFE?
SHE DID SO MUCH TOWARDS THE
DEVELOPMENT OF THE PILL AND
HELPING TO GET IT FUNDED, SO
WHY WAS SHE SHUT OUT AT THE
VERY END?

Alexander says AT THE
END OF HER LIFE, SHE FELT SHE
WAS FORGOTTEN, AND IN MANY
WAYS, WAS FORGOTTEN.
I MEAN, SHE WAS A VERY STRONG
PERSONALITY.
SHE RUBBED A LOT OF PEOPLE
THE WRONG WAY.
SHE HAD VERY DEFINITE IDEAS
ABOUT HOW THINGS OUGHT TO BE
DONE.
AND THE DOCTORS WHO WERE DOING
THE CLINICAL TRIALS OF THE
PILL, AND DOING THE CHEMISTRY
AND THE SCIENCE AND THE
BIOLOGY DID NOT WANT TO HEAR
FROM A NURSE WHO NEVER
GRADUATED FROM NURSING SCHOOL
ABOUT HOW THEY OUGHT TO DO
THEIR JOBS.

Amanda says FAR FROM BEING
CELEBRATED AS A REVOLUTIONARY
FORCE FOR WOMEN, SANGER IS
OFTEN VILIFIED FOR HER EARLY
VIEWS ON EUGENICS.

Black and white pictures of Margaret Sanger in her elderly years appear.

Amanda continues THESE ARE OFTEN USED TO
DISCREDIT BOTH HER AND WOMEN'S
RIGHTS ADVOCATES TODAY.

A clip plays.

The caption changes to "Representative Christopher Smith. R-New Jersey, 4th District Hamilton, Whiting." Christopher is in his mid-forties, with gray hair and clean-shaven.

At the Senate, Christopher says I'VE ACTUALLY READ MANY OF
SANGER'S ARTICLES AND HER
BOOKS.
SANGER WAS AN UNAPOLOGETIC
EUGENICIST.

The caption changes to "Representative Jeff Fortenberry. R-Nebraska, 1st District Lincoln, Fremont." Jeff is in his forties, clean-shaven with side-parted gray hair.

Jeff says MARGARET SANGER CLEARLY
EMBRACED BIGOTRY AND RACISM.

The caption changes to "Hillary Clinton. Secretary of State." Hillary is in her sixties, with short blond hair.

Hillary says LET ME SAY WITH RESPECT TO
YOUR COMMENTS ABOUT MARGARET
SANGER, YOU KNOW, I ADMIRE
THOMAS JEFFERSON.
I ADMIRE HIS WORDS AND HIS
LEADERSHIP.
AND I DEPLORE HIS UNREPENTANT
SLAVE-HOLDING.
I ADMIRE MARGARET SANGER BEING
A PIONEER IN TRYING TO EMPOWER
WOMEN TO HAVE SOME CONTROL
OVER THEIR BODIES.
AND I DEPLORE HER STATEMENTS
THAT YOU HAVE REFERENCED.

The clip ends.

Alexander says THERE'S A
HUGE BACKLASH BY MEN, BY
CONSERVATIVES, BY THOSE WHO
DON'T WANT WOMEN TO CONTROL
THEIR FUTURES, WHO LIKE THE
WAY THINGS ARE WITH MEN
CONTROLLING SOCIETY, MEN
HAVING ALL THE LEVERS OF
POWER, NOT ONLY IN THE UNITED
STATES, BUT IN MANY DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES, WHERE THERE ARE
FORCES TRYING TO ELIMINATE
ABORTION ACCESS.
THIS BATTLE IS BEING REPEATED
THROUGHOUT THE WESTERN
HEMISPHERE AND POOR NATIONS IN
AFRICA.
MY GRANDMOTHER WOULD BE
APPALLED THAT THIS FIGHT IS
STILL GOING ON.
I'M
APPALLED IT IS STILL GOING
ON.
THIS SHOULD NOT BE HAPPENING.
THIS BATTLE SHOULD HAVE BEEN
WON DECADES AGO.

Amanda says DESPITE SANGER'S
INTENTIONS, AMERICAN LAWS
HEAVILY RESTRICTED WOMEN'S
ACCESS TO THE PILL.
UNMARRIED WOMEN WERE STILL
DENIED THEIR SEXUAL RIGHTS.
Travelling in the subway, she continues THE PILL WAS REVOLUTIONARY,
BUT IT WASN'T THE PERFECT
ANTIDOTE TO ALL THE COMPLEX
ISSUES SURROUNDING WOMEN'S
LIVES.
FOR ONE THING, IT RAISED MORE
QUESTIONS THAN IT ANSWERED
ABOUT ACCESSIBILITY, SIDE
EFFECTS, SEXUAL
RESPONSIBILITY.
AND THOUGH IT DID BRING WOMEN
FREEDOM, IT COULDN'T FIGHT
THEIR BATTLES FOR THEM,
SEXISM, MISOGYNY, VIOLENCE,
LACK OF OPPORTUNITY, THE GLASS
CEILING, THESE STRUGGLES WERE
ONGOING.

(violin music plays)

Amanda continues THESE ISSUES WERE TAKEN UP BY
WOMEN IN THE 1960s AND 1970s.
FRUSTRATED BY THE SLOW PACE OF
SOCIAL CHANGE, THIS MOVEMENT
BECAME KNOWN AS THE SECOND
WAVE OF FEMINISM.
ARTISTS, LIKE JUDY CHICAGO,
CREATED POWERFUL EXPRESSIONS
OF THIS MOVEMENT'S IDEOLOGY.
HER INSTALLATION, THE DINNER
PARTY, IS AN INVITATION TO
JOIN THE MISSING WOMEN OF
HISTORY.

Amanda walks into a dark large room where colorful dishes shaped like shells and abstract shapes sit on a huge triangle table. Pastel tablecloths embroidered with the names of famous feminists cover the table.

Amanda continues THE SECOND WAVE OF FEMINISM
AIMED TO ACHIEVE MORE THAN
JUST POLITICAL CHANGE.
IT DEMANDED THAT WOMEN RAISE
THEIR CONSCIOUSNESS.
BECAUSE THE FIRST WAVE OF
FEMINISM IN THE 19th CENTURY
HAD SUCCEEDED IN WINNING THE
VOTE.
BUT IT HAD NOT SUCCEEDED IN
EARNING A PLACE FOR WOMEN AT
THE TABLE.
THE SECOND WAVE OF FEMINISTS
DEMANDED THERE BE RECOGNITION
FOR WOMEN'S ISSUES FROM EQUAL
PAY FOR EQUAL WORK, TO EQUAL
OPPORTUNITY AND, OF COURSE, TO
BE WRITTEN BACK INTO HISTORY.

[protesters shouting]
Women wearing black burqas protest on the street.

Amanda says THIS HISTORY IS BEING WRITTEN
NOW.
IN WHAT SOME HAVE TERMED THE
ARAB SPRING, WOMEN TOOK PART
IN SPONTANEOUS MASS PROTESTS
ACROSS THE MIDDLE EAST.
FROM TUNISIA TO EGYPT, YEMEN
TO LIBYA, THROUGH TO SYRIA,
THEY JOINED THE EXPLOSION OF
PROTESTS AGAINST TYRANNY AND
CORRUPTION.

The animated map shows the countries mentioned.

Amanda continues DEFYING CULTURAL AND POLITICAL
TRADITIONS OF FEMALE
EXCLUSION, WOMEN MARCHED INTO
THE PUBLIC SQUARES ADDING
THEIR VOICES TO THE CALLS FOR
CHANGE.

Two women hold a sign written in Arabic and in English. It reads "We need Yemen with real democracy and without terrorism."

Amanda and Nadje Al-Ali talk in a library.

The caption changes to "Professor Nadje Al-Ali. SOAS, University of London." Nadje is in her early forties with long curly brown hair. She wears a black jacket and turquoise scarf.

Nadje says SO
WOMEN WERE JUST AS MEN,
INVOLVED IN THE VARIOUS
MOVEMENTS THAT CHALLENGED
DICTATORS ACROSS THE REGION.
IN EGYPT, THE FAMOUS 18 DAYS
ON TAHRIR SQUARE WHERE, YOU
KNOW, WOMEN WHO MAYBE PRIOR
TO THE PROTEST WERE NOT
INVOLVED POLITICALLY, STARTED
ALSO TO GET INVOLVED.

In a protest, a young woman says WE FELT WE HAD TO COME HERE
AND DO WHATEVER WE CAN.
SO WE CAME HERE WITH SOME
MARKERS AND SOME PAPERS.

Nadje says AND
MANY EGYPTIAN WOMEN WHO
PARTICIPATED TOLD ME AT THE
TIME, YOU KNOW, GENDER WAS
SUSPENDED.
WE WERE NOT THERE AS WOMEN, WE
WERE THERE AS EGYPTIANS, WE
WERE THERE AS CITIZENS, WE WERE
THERE AS THOSE RESISTING
MUBARAK.
I THINK THE CHALLENGES STARTED
THE MOMENT WHEN WOMEN STARTED
TO ASSERT THEIR OWN RIGHTS AS
WOMEN.
WHEN THEY WENT OUT AND SAY,
WELL, YOU KNOW, WE'RE HERE AS
CITIZENS, BUT WE'RE ALSO HERE
AS WOMEN, AND WE WANT TO HAVE
SPECIFIC RIGHTS AS WOMEN.
THE VERY SAME MEN WHO WERE
STANDING NEXT TO THEM AND WERE
SUPPORTING THEM, THEN STARTED
TO FEEL CHALLENGED.
CANNOT SAY WOMEN HAVE GAINED
RIGHTS.
IF ANYTHING, LIFE IS MUCH MORE
DIFFICULT.
AND ALTHOUGH WOMEN IN LIBYA
HAVE ACTUALLY PARTICIPATION IN
PARLIAMENT, I'VE BEEN TALKING
TO LIBYAN WOMEN'S RIGHTS
ACTIVISTS, AND THEY ARE
REGULARLY THREATENED,
INTIMIDATED AND SILENCED.
IT IS TRUE THAT SOME WOMEN WHO
IN 2011 WOULD HAVE GONE OUT ON
THE STREET TO PROTEST, WOULD
NOT DO THAT.
BUT THEY DO OTHER THINGS NOW.
THEY MAKE FILMS.
THEY DRAW GRAFFITI, THEY GIVE
TALKS, THEY MAKE MUSIC.
SO I THINK WOMEN ARE VERY
CREATIVE IN FINDING
NON-VIOLENT FORMS OF
RESISTANCE.

Amanda says DO YOU THINK THE
ARAB SPRING HAS MOVED THE
DEBATE OF WOMEN'S RIGHTS
FORWARD OR BACKWARDS?

Nadje says I
PERSONALLY, ANYWAY, DON'T LIKE
THE TERM ARAB SPRING BECAUSE,
FIRST OF ALL, IT'S NOT A
SPRING.
SPRING DENOTES SOMETHING
POSITIVE.
AND I THINK MANY OF THE
DEVELOPMENTS ARE QUITE
NEGATIVE.
BUT THINKING ABOUT HOPE, THE
OTHER SOURCE OF HOPE THAT I
HAVE IN THE REGION IS THE FACT
YOU HAVE MORE AND MORE YOUNG
MEN, AND ALSO OLDER MEN, BUT I
WOULD SAY PARTICULARLY YOUNGER
MEN, WHO RECOGNIZE THAT THE
STRUGGLE FOR GREATER
GENDER-BASED EQUALITY IS THEIR
STRUGGLE, AS WELL.
AND IF THEY WANT TO CHANGE
SOCIETY, AND IF THEY WANT TO
HAVE A MORE JUST, A MORE
DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY, THEN THEY
NEED TO FIGHT SIDE BY SIDE
WITH WOMEN FOR WOMEN'S RIGHTS.

[protestors shouting]

Amanda says THE POLITICAL
VOICES OF WOMEN ARE ALSO
EMERGING IN AFRICA.
DESPITE INGRAINED CULTURAL
OPPRESSION, WOMEN ARE SEIZING
THE INITIATIVE AND CAMPAIGNING
FROM THE GRASSROOTS.
FIGHTING ENDED IN LIBERIA IN
2003 AFTER WOMEN TOOK UP
RESIDENCE IN A FISH MARKET
PRAYING AND SINGING FOR PEACE.
IT GREW INTO A CAMPAIGN OF
THOUSANDS, AND RESULTED IN THE
ELECTION OF ELLEN JOHNSON
SIRLEAF, THE FIRST FEMALE
PRESIDENT IN THE CONTINENT'S
POST-COLONIAL HISTORY.
MALAWI FOLLOWED IN 2012 WHEN
JOYCE BANDA WAS SWORN IN
AS PRESIDENT.
AND IN SOUTH AFRICA, LINDIWE
MAZIBUKO BECAME THE FIRST
BLACK WOMAN TO LEAD THE
PARLIAMENTARY OPPOSITION IN
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY.

An animated map of Africa appears. It shows women protesting and the female politicians mentioned.

Amanda says YET SO FAR, THESE ARE ISOLATED
SUCCESSES THAT ARE NOT WITHOUT
THEIR SETBACKS.
HOW DID PEOPLE REACT TO YOU
WHEN YOU BECAME A WOMAN IN
POWER?

Lindiwe says SOUTH
AFRICA HAS ONE OF THE BEST
GENDER REPRESENTATION IN
POLITICS IN THE WORLD.

The caption changes to "Lindiwe Masibuko. South African Politician. Former Parliamentary Leader for the Democratic Alliance."

Lindiwe continues ALMOST 40 PERCENT OF CABINET
MINISTERS, JUDGES, MEMBERS OF
PARLIAMENT ARE WOMEN.
AND I THINK SOMETIMES IT GIVES
US THE FALSE IMPRESSION WOMEN
HAVE COME SO FAR WE'RE ON
EQUAL FOOTING WITH MEN IN
POLITICS.
BUT WHAT'S INTERESTING ABOUT
BEING A WOMAN IN POWER IS IT
THREATENS THE STATUS QUO SO
MUCH THAT PEOPLE GO TO A LOT
OF TROUBLE TO PULL YOU DOWN.
AND TO ATTACK YOU FOR VERY
SPURIOUS REASONS.
YOUR HAIR, YOUR CLOTHING, YOUR
ACCENT.
THINGS THAT WOULD NEVER HAPPEN
TO A MAN.
AND I SEE IT ALL OVER THE
WORLD.
THERE'S AN EFFORT TO BRING
WOMEN BACK TO THEIR PLACE.
AND THAT'S WHAT I EXPERIENCED.

A clip plays.

The caption changes to "National Assembly."

Lindiwe drinks a glass of water standing behind a wooden lectern.

Koos Van Der Merwe is in his late fifties, with receding white hair and clean-shaven.

Koos says POINT OF ORDER IS THAT
BEFORE THE MEMBER CONTINUES,
CAN SHE JUST EXPLAIN TO THE
HOUSE WHAT SHE'S DONE TO HER
HAIR?

The caption changes to "Koos Van Der Merwe. IFP MP. May 31, 2012."

[laughter]

John Jeffrey is in his forties, clean-shaven with black hair.

The caption changes to "John Jeffrey. ANC MP. June 11, 2013."

John says NOW, THE HONOURABLE MAZIBUKO
MAY BE A PERSON OF SOME
WEIGHT, BUT IS SHE OF SOME
STATURE?
THANK YOU.

The caption changes to "Buti Manamela. ANC MP. June 12, 2013." Buti is in his mid-forties, clean-shaven with a shaved head.

Buti says THE HONOURABLE LINDIWE
MAZIBUKO HAS BAD FASHION
TASTE AND HAS BEEN ARRESTED
BY THE POLICE, BY THE FASHION
POLICE.
BLAME ZUMA.
SO EVERYTHING MUST BE BLAMED
FROM ZUMA.

[cheering, laughter]

The clip ends.

Lindiwe says BUT THE
GREAT THING ABOUT BEING A
WOMAN IN REPRESENTATIVE
POLITICS IS YOU GET TO BREAK
THAT MOULD.
AND YOU GET TO SHOW OTHER
WOMEN THAT, IN FACT, WE DO
HAVE A PLACE IN THE FRONT LINE.
WE DO HAVE A PLACE IN POWER.
IT'S LEGITIMATE.
WE CAN EXERCISE IT WELL,
FORMIDABLY AND BETTER THAN
MANY OF OUR MALE COUNTERPARTS.

Amanda says DO YOU THINK
THERE'S A DIFFERENT KIND OF
REVOLUTION TAKING PLACE IN
AFRICA?
A REVOLUTION THAT ISN'T LED BY
VIOLENCE, BUT LED BY WOMEN
THROUGH THE POLITICS OF
PERSUASION AND ECONOMIC
EMPOWERMENT?

Lindiwe says I THINK
THERE'S DEFINITELY A
REVOLUTION IN TERMS OF
ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT.
THERE'S A WHOLE RAFT OF STUDIES
ABOUT HOW WOMEN HAVE BECOME
PRIMARY BREADWINNERS IN FAMILIES
THROUGHOUT THE CONTINENT.
BY BORROWING SMALL SUMS OF
MONEY TO START BUSINESSES.
SO THEY'RE WOMEN WHO ON A VERY
SMALL SCALE, AND IN A VERY
QUIET WAY, ARE FINDING NEW AND
INNOVATIVE WAYS TO SUPPORT THE
FAMILY.

Amanda says SO THE FUTURE OF
AFRICA LIES IN THE FUTURE OF
ITS WOMEN?

Lindiwe says ABSOLUTELY.
I THINK THE FUTURE OF AFRICA
HINGES UPON WHETHER AFRICA CAN
WAKE UP TO THE FACT, AND WAKE
UP QUICKLY ENOUGH TO THE FACT
THAT IT WILL NOT SUCCEED UNLESS
WOMEN SUCCEED AS WELL.

Amanda says WORLDWIDE, WE HAVE
THE CHOICE TO BE PARTICIPANTS
OR OBSERVERS IN THE MOVEMENT
FOR WOMEN'S EQUALITY.
AT STAKE ARE THE GOALS OF
AUTONOMY, AUTHORITY, AND
AGENCY FOR ALL WOMEN.
I THINK RADICAL CHANGE IS
HAPPENING TO WOMEN RIGHT NOW.
IT'S BY NO MEANS UNIVERSAL,
AND IN SOME PARTS OF THE GLOBE
IT'S NOT EVEN GOING IN THE
SAME DIRECTION.
BUT, NEVERTHELESS, THERE IS
SOMETHING WHOLLY NEW ABOUT
THIS REVOLUTION.
IT'S AN UPRISING WITHOUT
BLOODSHED.
WOMEN ARE CHALLENGING THE
STATUS QUO THROUGH AWARENESS,
THROUGH DIALOGUE, THROUGH
EDUCATION.
WHAT THESE REVOLUTIONS HAVE
ACHIEVED IS A GLOBAL AWARENESS
OF THE IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN'S
RIGHTS.
BUT WE CANNOT BE COMPLACENT.
THE UNITED NATIONS, IN SPITE
OF ITS CHECKERED HISTORY,
HAS A FUNDAMENTAL ROLE TO PLAY
IN PROMOTING GLOBAL EQUALITY,
AND ITS CHARTER EXPLICITLY
GUARANTEES THE RIGHTS OF
WOMEN.
PHUMZILE MIAMBO-NGCUKA, AS
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF U.N.
WOMEN IS LEADING THE CAMPAIGN
TO CHAMPION WOMEN'S RIGHTS.

Phumzile Miambo-Ngcuka gives a press conference. She is in her late forties with short curly black hair. She wears a salmon zip blouse with black shoulder patches.

Phumzile says WE
WILL ACTIVELY CAMPAIGN FROM
ALL SECTIONS OF SOCIETY TO
TAKE PART AND TO COMMIT TO END
VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN.

Now, Phumzile sits in her office.

She says I DON'T THINK WOMEN HAVE AN
AMBITION TO DOMINATE ANYONE.
THEY JUST WANT THEIR SPACE,
THEY WANT RESPECT, AND THEY
ALSO WANT TO RESPECT THE OTHER
PEOPLE WE SHARE THE PLANET
WITH.

The caption changes to "Phumzile Miambo-Ngcuka. United Nations Under-Secretary-General. Executive Director of UN Women."

Phumzile continues IN MANY COUNTRIES, THE
EDUCATION SYSTEMS IS STILL
FULL OF GENDER STEREOTYPES.
THIS IS LEARNED BEHAVIOUR, AND
IT CAN BE UNLEARNED.
WE JUST NEED TO WORK HARDER.

Amanda says I BELIEVE THERE IS
A REVOLUTION HAPPENING, AND
IT'S GOING TO TAKE PLACE
AROUND WOMEN.
THEIR EQUALITY, THEIR
PARTICIPATION, AND THROUGH
THEM, IT WILL MAKE THE WORLD A
MORE SECURE AND MORE
PROSPEROUS PLACE.

Phumzile says IF
YOU DO NOT HAVE WOMEN, WE WILL
NOT HAVE THIS PROSPERITY
BECAUSE IT IS JUST LIKE
GETTING INTO A FIELD, AND
PLAYING WITH HALF OF THE SQUAD
SITTING ON THE BENCH.
THE MOST CRITICAL ISSUES OF
THE 21st CENTURY WILL NEED US
TO ADDRESS GENDER EQUALITY.

(music plays)

Amanda says ACROSS THE
MILLENNIA, WOMEN HAVE HAD TO
FIGHT EVERY STEP OF THE WAY TO
ACHIEVE THE SAME BASIC RIGHTS
AS MEN.
ACCESS TO POWER, FREEDOM OF
MOVEMENT, AND THE RIGHT TO
SELF-DETERMINATION.
FOR MANY, THIS IS STILL AN
ONGOING STRUGGLE TODAY.
I BELIEVE THAT THE FUTURE
DEPENDS ON THE INCLUSION OF
WOMEN.
AND TO DO THIS, WE HAVE TO
BREAK FROM THE PAST AND CREATE
A NEW MODEL FOR SOCIAL
REVOLUTION.

Fast clips show the women featured in the previous episodes.

Amanda concludes IT'S NOW TIME TO RECOGNIZE
THAT THE WORLD WAS MADE BY MEN
AND WOMEN.
AND THOUGH FOR WOMEN THEIR
CONTRIBUTION WAS CONSTRAINED
BY POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND
RELIGIOUS FACTORS THAT DIDN'T
EXIST IN THE SAME WAY FOR MEN,
THAT DOESN'T ALTER THE VALUE
OF THEIR CONTRIBUTION OR
DIMINISH THEIR IMPACT.
IT IS VITAL FOR THE FUTURE OF
SOCIETY THAT WE HAVE A PROPER
UNDERSTANDING OF THE PAST.
BECAUSE ONCE WE ACCEPT THE
HISTORY OF WOMEN HAS NO END
POINT, AND IS STILL IN THE
PROCESS OF BEING WRITTEN, THEN
WE CAN BE PROUD, WE CAN BE
VIGILANT, AND WE CAN BE UNITED
IN ENSURING THAT THE NEXT
REVOLUTION IS THE AGE OF
EQUALITY.

(music plays)

The end credits roll.

Written and Presented by Doctor Amanda Foreman.

Production Executive, Samantha Chambers.

Film Editor, Julian Caidan.

Producer and Director, Louise Hooper.

Logo: BBC, Silver River, The Open University.

Copyright 2015, Silver River Productions Ltd.