Transcript: Ep. 7 - Fundy | Nov 15, 2016

A group of men and women chatters. They are all wearing uniforms with dark trousers and yellow jackets. They are in the forest.

Next, a few fast clips show some of them putting their gloves on and securing the rest of the equipment, or simply helping each other.

A Woman asks
THIS TIGHT ENOUGH?

A Man responds
THAT BOTTOM ONE IS LOOSE.

Everyone puts on a blue life vest.

Corey leads the group to the riverside. He’s in his thirties. He has short dark blond hair and a beard. He wears sunglasses, a yellow and black jacket and black trousers. A caption on screen reads "Corey Clarke. Resource Management Officer. Fundy National Park."

He says WELCOME, EVERYONE!
YOU'RE HERE ON THE UPPER
SALMON RIVER TODAY
IN FUNDY NATIONAL PARK...
WE HAVE A GROUP OF
STUDENTS HERE FROM
THE MARITIME COLLEGE OF
FOREST TECHNOLOGY TODAY,
LEARNING ALL SORTS OF
DIFFERENT SKILLS.
ONE OF THE THINGS
THAT WE'RE DOING
IS SHOWING THEM HOW WE
COUNT RETURNING ADULT SALMON.

He shows some of the members of the group how to downstream.

He says ...AND YOU'RE JUST GONNA
GO DOWNSTREAM LIKE THIS.

Corey continues
WE'VE HAD A LONG-
RUNNING PROGRAM
HERE IN FUNDY
NATIONAL PARK
BECAUSE POPULATIONS IN
THE INNER BAY OF FUNDY
HAVE HISTORICALLY
BEEN ESTIMATED
TO RANGE AROUND 40,000.
THAT NUMBER NOW IS BELIEVED
TO BE LESS THAN 200.

As he speaks, old footage on screen shows fishermen catching big fishes.

A Male Narrator says CRITICALLY ENDANGERED SALMON
AREN'T THE ONLY CHALLENGE
FACING THE PEOPLE
OF THIS REGION.
BUT NEW AND SURPRISING
PARTNERSHIPS
ARE HELPING ITS COMMUNITIES
APPROACH THESE PROBLEMS
IN UNIQUE WAYS...
CAUSING PEOPLE TO
PAY CLOSE ATTENTION
TO WHAT HAPPENS NEXT HERE
IN THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE RESERVE.

A series of fast clips show views of the area as well as people working on different activities in natural environments.

(theme music plays)

The Narrator says BIOSPHERE RESERVES
ARE REGIONS OF
GLOBAL ECOLOGICAL
SIGNIFICANCE
THAT MAKE AN ONGOING COMMITMENT
TO THE UNITED NATIONS
TO STRIVE FOR SUSTAINABILITY.
THEY ARE NOT PARKS,
AND THEY HAVE
NO LEGAL AUTHORITY.
THEY ARE PLACES WHERE
PEOPLE ARE INSPIRED
TO FIND WAYS TO LIVE
AND WORK IN HARMONY
WITH NATURE.
THIS SERIES EXPLORES
WHAT'S HAPPENING IN CANADA'S
BIOSPHERE RESERVES...
THE SUCCESSES
AND THE CHALLENGES
OF PEOPLE DETERMINED TO CREATE
A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE
FOR THEIR COMMUNITIES.
COME WITH US ON
A COAST-TO-COAST ADVENTURE
SPANNING THOUSANDS OF YEARS.
IT JUST MIGHT CHANGE THE WAY
YOU THINK ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT
AND OUR PLACE IN IT.

A fast-motion clip shows northern lights, flock of white birds, woods, mountains, a port, people trekking, sailing and working with various animals.

Against a beach, the title of the show reads "Striking Balance. Fundy Biosphere Reserve. Narrated by Jim Cuddy."

A man dives into the water and the camera follows him down. The caption changes to "Friedrich Wüthrich. Student. Maritime College of Forest Technology." He’s in his thirties. He has long dark hair and a beard. He wears a yellow and black jacket, a blue life vest and black trousers.

Friedrich says WE WERE HERE TODAY TO BE
DOING A SALMON SURVEY,
OR AT LEAST THAT WAS
OUR ATTEMPT.
IT PROGRESSED INTERESTINGLY.
WE DIDN'T REALLY SEE
ANY ADULT SALMON.
WE SAW ONE SALMON PAR,
WHICH IS A YOUNG SALMON
ABOUT YAY BIG.
AND THAT WAS PRETTY MUCH
THE EXTENT OF OUR SURVEY.

New clips show the group accompanying Corey performing tests in the water.

The Narrator says THE SALMON PAR
THE COLLEGE STUDENTS FOUND
DURING THEIR SURVEY
AT FUNDY NATIONAL PARK
WAS LIKELY THE RESULT OF
THE PARK'S EARLIER EFFORTS
TO RECOVER THE INNER BAY
OF FUNDY ATLANTIC SALMON.
IF IT SURVIVES,
THE SALMON PARK WILL SPEND THREE
OR FOUR YEARS IN THE RIVER
AND THEN HEAD OUT
INTO THE OCEAN
TO FEED AND GROW
INTO AN ADULT
BEFORE RETURNING
TO THE RIVER TO SPAWN.

Fast clips show salmon in their natural habitat.

A satellite map shows Canada, Quebec and Labrador near the Atlantic Ocean. The screen zooms in and lands on Nova Scotia.

The Narrator continues
MOST ATLANTIC SALMON
GO ON LONG-DISTANCE
MIGRATIONS
AS FAR AWAY AS
GREENLAND TO FEED.
BUT THE INNER BAY
OF FUNDY SALMON
ARE A GENETICALLY
DISTINCT GROUP
THAT GET ALL
THE FOOD THEY NEED
FROM THE NUTRIENT-RICH WATERS
OF THE BAY OF FUNDY.
THIS SALMON ONCE PLAYED AN
IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE ECOSYSTEM
AS A FOOD SOURCE FOR OTHER FISH
AND BIRDS EARLY IN LIFE...
AS A TOP PREDATOR IN
THE BAY OF FUNDY AS AN ADULT...
AND FINALLY BECOMING FOOD
FOR ANIMALS LIKE BEARS
AND FERTILIZER FOR
PLANTS ALONG THE RIVERBANKS
AT THE END OF THEIR LIVES.

A new animated clip follows the journey of the salmon and its predators all along the way. Next, the screen goes back to the group performing their tests.

The Narrator continues
BUT WHILE SOME
40,000 ADULT SALMON
HISTORICALLY RETURNED TO
THE RIVERS OF THE BAY OF FUNDY
EVERY YEAR TO SPAWN,
TODAY SO FEW FISH
MAKE IT BACK,
IT WOULD'VE BEEN VERY UNLIKELY
FOR THE STUDENTS TO ACTUALLY
FIND ONE ON THEIR SURVEY.
SO WHILE THE STUDENTS
ARE DISAPPOINTED
THEY DIDN'T SEE
AN ADULT SALMON,
THEY ARE LEFT
FEELING INSPIRED
TO HELP WITH
THE SALMON'S RECOVERY.

The caption changes to "Reid Anderson. Student. Maritime College of Forest Technology." He’s in his twenties. He has short dark blond hair and is clean-shaven. He wears a big yellow jacket.

Reid says IT'S REALLY PAINFUL,
COMING FROM AN AREA THAT
USED TO HAVE SO MANY SALMON.
AND LOOKING AT IT NOW,
IT HAS NOTHING.
IT MOTIVES ME EXTREMELY
TO WANT TO DO SOMETHING TO
PROTECT AND PROBABLY, HOPEFULLY,
BRING BACK THESE WONDERFUL
FISH IF I CAN.

Friedrich says I'M VERY PASSIONATE ABOUT
WILDLIFE AND ABOUT NATURE,
AND SO ANYTHING
THAT I CAN DO TO HELP.
CLEARLY IT'S A BIG PROBLEM
THAT NEEDS LOOKING AFTER.

The Narrator says WORKING WITH PARKS CANADA,
TRYING TO RESTORE THE SALMON,
SINCE HE WAS A STUDENT HIMSELF
HERE 15 YEARS AGO.
HE'S COME TO UNDERSTAND
THAT THE SALMON ARE JUST
AS IMPORTANT TO PEOPLE
AS THEY ARE TO THE ECOSYSTEM.

Corey says I'M NOT OLD ENOUGH, REALLY,
TO REMEMBER SEEING
ANY FISH IN THE RIVERS.
BUT, BEING FROM THE AREA,
I CERTAINLY UNDERSTAND
HOW IMPORTANT THEY ARE
TO THE COMMUNITIES
AROUND HERE,
TO THEIR STORIES,
AND TO THEIR SENSE OF NATURE.
SO I HOPE THAT I CAN HELP
TO PROTECT AND RESTORE
THESE FISH.

As he speaks, the videos show him coordinating groups and activities.

The Narrator says THE PASSION
FOR NATURE RUNS DEEP
HERE IN THE FUNDY
BIOSPHERE RESERVE,
AND IT'S EASY TO SEE WHY.

A new clip shows the Fundy National Park location near Alma followed by the Fundy Biosphere Reserve nearby.

The Narrator continues
FUNDY NATIONAL PARK FORMS
THE CORE PROTECTIVE PART
OF A BIOSPHERE RESERVE
THAT'S FAMOUS FOR
ITS NATURAL WONDERS.
DESIGNATED BY UNESCO
AS A BIOSPHERE RESERVE IN 2007,
THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE RESERVE
ENCOMPASSES 440,000 HECTARES
ON THE NEW BRUNSWICK SIDE
OF THE BAY OF FUNDY.
THIS IS ONE OF CANADA'S
MOST DRAMATIC
AND ECOLOGICALLY
DIVERSE LANDSCAPES,
AND ONE OF THE LEAST-
DISTURBED AREAS
ON THE ATLANTIC COAST.

Fast clips show aerial views of the shore, nature and animals living in the area.

The Narrator continues
BUT FEW THINGS ARE MORE
IMPORTANT TO THIS REGION
THAN ITS WORLD-FAMOUS,
50-FOOT MEGA-TIDES.

The caption changes to "Donald Alward. Curator and Manager. Albert County Museum." He’s in his forties. He balding in the front and has short dark hair on the temples. He has a goatee and wears a bordeaux cardigan underneath a dark brown suit.

Donald says THE TIDES HERE ARE
THE HIGHEST IN THE WORLD.
AND THE PEOPLE THAT HAVE
BEEN LIVING HERE,
FROM THE EARLIEST SETTLERS
RIGHT THROUGH TO TODAY...
WE'RE ALL CONNECTED
AND ARE DRIVEN BY THE TIDES.

The caption changes to "Doctor Paul Bogaard. Professor Emeritus. Department of Philosophy. Mount Allison University." He’s in his fifties. He has short grey hair and a full beard. He wears a cap and a big grey jacket.

Paul says THE CHURNING ACTION
OF THE TIDES,
WHICH IS PULLING UP
SEDIMENTS FROM THE BOTTOM
AND SCRAPING NEW SEDIMENTS
OFF OF THE UNDERLYING STONE...
TURNS IT INTO THIS
CHOCOLATE COLOUR,
REFLECTING THE FACT THAT
IT'S CARRYING SILT LOAD.
THERE IS A HUGE SILT LOAD
THAT'S BEING CARRIED
BY THE WATER HERE.
AND AT THE TOP OF EVERY TIDE,
AS THE TIDE SLOPES UP HERE
AT THE VERY END OF THE BAY,
IT DROPS A LOT OF THAT STUFF.

As he speaks, a clip shows the flooding of the territory by the water in fast speed.

Paul continues
AND OVER THE CENTURIES...
ACTUALLY,
OVER THE THOUSANDS OF YEARS...
IT HAS DROPPED SO MUCH SILT
THAT IT HAS BUILT UP
THESE TIDAL MARSHES THAT ARE
THE LARGEST EXPANSE
OF SALT MARSH
ANYWHERE IN
NORTH AMERICA.

New clips offer aerial views of the area as well as footage of the coasts and birds.

The Narrator says GOING HAND IN HAND
WITH FUNDY'S VAST SALT MARSHES
ARE HUNDREDS OF ACRES
OF MUDFLATS.
CONTINUALLY RENEWED
AND EXPOSED BY THE TIDES,
THE MUDFLAT ECOSYSTEM
BRINGS MILLIONS OF MIGRATING
SHOREBIRDS EACH SUMMER
TO THE FUNDY
BIOSPHERE RESERVE.
THE TIDES EVEN PLAY A ROLE IN
SUPPORTING FISH POPULATIONS.

Paul says ALL OF THIS SALT MARSH GRASS
DIES DOWN IN THE WINTER...
AND THE BAY ACTUALLY
SCOURS THE GRASSES OFF.
ALL OF THOSE GRASSES
ARE TURNED INTO A RICH MUSH,
AND ALL OF THAT WASHES
DOWN THE BAY OF FUNDY,
CREATING A NUTRIENT LOAD
IN THIS WATER
THAT MAKES IT
EXTRAORDINARILY RICH.

A new animated clip shows a broader view of the area while zooming out. In the Bay of Fundy, near Saint Martins, fishes swim in a large quantity.

Paul continues
THE FISH UP AT THIS END
ARE FAIRLY SMALL,
BUT THE FISH IN THE MIDDLE
GET BIGGER AND BIGGER
AND PREDATE ON EACH OTHER.
AND BY THE TIME YOU GET DOWN TO
THE MOUTH OF THE BAY OF FUNDY,
WE HAVE WHALES.
THAT MAKES ONE GREAT,
INTERCONNECTED
ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM.
PEOPLE HAVE TAKEN
ADVANTAGE OF THAT.
ALL OF THIS FOOD CHAIN
OF ANIMALS AND FISH
TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THIS.

Fast clips show street views and landscapes of the city of Moncton.

The Narrator says LIVING ALONGSIDE
THE FUNDY BIOSPHERES RESERVES
NATURAL WONDERS
ARE MORE THAN
160,000 PEOPLE,
MANY OF WHOM LIVE IN
THE CITY OF MONCTON,
MAKING THIS
ONE OF THE MOST
POPULATED BIOSPHERE
RESERVES IN CANADA.
SO TO HELP PEOPLE APPRECIATE
WHAT'S IN THEIR OWN BACKYARD,
THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE
RESERVE ORGANIZATION
STARTED THE AMAZING
PLACES PROJECT
TO IDENTIFY AND PROMOTE
THE REGION'S FAMOUS,
AND NOT SO FAMOUS,
SITES OF ECOLOGICAL
IMPORTANCE.

The caption changes to "Paul Gaudet. Interpretive Services Manager. Hopewell Rocks." He’s in his mid-fifties. He has short white hair and is clean-shaven. He wears a blue sweater.

Gaudet says IT SOMETIMES TAKES
A LITTLE BIT OF GENTLE PRODDING
TO MAKE PEOPLE REALIZE
WHAT WE HAVE HERE.

The Narrator says PAUL GAUDET
IS THE CHIEF INTERPRETER
FOR WHAT'S ARGUABLY
THE MOST RECOGNIZED
OF THE AMAZING PLACES,
THE HOPEWELL ROCKS.
BUT HE'S ALSO VISITED
THE OTHER 49 SITES
IN THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE.

Gaudet says I JUST LOVE IT.
I'M OUT IN IT ALL THE TIME.
I FEEL PROUD TO LIVE HERE,
AND I DON'T EVER WANT TO SEE IT
DETERIORATE IN ANY WAY.

The Narrator says THERE'S NO DOUBT THAT
THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE RESERVE
IS A PRETTY AMAZING PLACE.
BUT RIGHT NOW
IT'S ALSO FACING SOME
DAUNTING ECOLOGICAL CHALLENGES
THAT ARE THREATENING
ITS SUSTAINABILITY.
CLIMATE CHANGE IS
ALTERING ITS FORESTS...
THE BATS THAT OVERWINTER HERE
HAVE DIED OF
WHITE NOSE SYNDROME...
ITS ICONIC SHOREBIRDS
MAY BE LESS ABUNDANT
THAN ONCE THOUGHT...
AND ITS FAVOURITE FISH,
THE INNER BAY OF FUNDY
ATLANTIC SALMON,
IS AT CRITICALLY LOW LEVELS.
MOST OF THESE PROBLEMS
ARE NOT UNIQUE TO
THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE RESERVE...
BUT PEOPLE HERE ARE LEADING
THE WAY IN DEALING WITH THEM.


The screen shows a group of professionals working on labs examining different materials and samples.

The Narrator continues
THEY ARE RESEARCHING
HOW TO CREATE
CLIMATE CHANGE
RESILIENT FORESTS...
THEY ARE COLLABORATING WITH
AMERICAN SCIENTISTS
ON A WAY TO FIGHT
WHITE NOSE BAT SYNDROME...
THEY ARE LEARNING
ALL THEY CAN
ABOUT HOW TO
PROTECT THE SHOREBIRDS...
AND THEY ARE THINKING
OUTSIDE THE BOX
TO RECOVER THE SALMON.
THE PEOPLE HERE IN
THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE RESERVE
MAY NOT HAVE
ALL OF THE ANSWERS,
BUT THEIR PASSION
AND INGENUITY
IS AN INSPIRATION TO
COMMUNITIES EVERYWHERE
STRUGGLING TO
PROTECT AND RESTORE
THE ENVIRONMENTS
THEY CALL HOME.

A new video shows a group of men collecting samples.

The Narrator says THE FISH IN THIS BROOK
ARE DESTINED FOR BIG THINGS.
BORN IN A HATCHERY FROM
THE REMAINING GENETIC STOCK
OF THE INNER BAY OF FUNDY
ATLANTIC SALMON,
THEY HAVE BEEN SPENDING
THE SUMMER GROWING STRONGER
IN THE STREAMS OF
FUNDY NATIONAL PARK.
TODAY THEY ARE
BEING COLLECTED
USING A TECHNIQUE
CALLED "ELECTROFISHING."
THAT TEMPORARILY STUNS THEM
FOR EASY CAPTURE.

The caption changes to "Tim Robinson. Manager. Fort Folly Habitat Recovery." He’s in his mid-forties. He has short white hair and a full beard. He wears a blue sweater.

Tim says THE PARK STAFF...
THEY PUT NEWBORN SALMON FRY
INTO DICKSON BROOK LAST SPRING.
SO NOW THEY'VE
BEEN IN THE BROOK,
BEING EXPOSED TO
THE WILD ELEMENTS,
NATURAL SELECTION,
THAT SORT OF THING,
SINCE LAST SPRING.
AND NOW WE'RE
COLLECTING THEM AS FALL PAR
AND THEY'RE GONNA GO BACK UP
TO THE HATCHERY.
WE'VE BEEN FISHING NOW
FOR A FEW DAYS
AND WE'VE CAUGHT ABOUT 1,600.
AND WE'RE NOT FINISHED YET.
WE'RE GONNA TRY TO
GET SOME MORE.

A clip on screen shows the little fishes captured during the sampling collection as well as the equipment used when doing so.

The Narrator says TIM AND HIS CREW
ARE NOT PARK STAFF,
BUT ONE OF THE PARK'S
KEY PARTNERS
IN THE SALMON
RECOVERY EFFORT...
THE FORT FOLLY FIRST NATION'S
HABITAT RECOVERY TEAM.
ALTHOUGH THE FORT
FOLLY FIRST NATION
ONLY HAS ABOUT 120 MEMBERS,
THEY HAVE BECOME ONE OF
THE FUNDY BIOSPHERES RESERVE'S
LEADING EXPERTS
IN SALMON RECOVERY,
LARGELY DUE TO THE EFFORTS
OF ITS FORMER CHIEF,
JOSEPH KNOCKWOOD.
IT WAS A DESIRE TO CREATE
JOBS FOR HIS COMMUNITY,
COMBINED WITH THE MI'KMAQ'S
LONG CONNECTION TO THE SALMON,
WHICH PROMPTED HIM
TO GET INVOLVED
WHEN IT BECAME CLEAR THE SALMON
WAS IN SERIOUS TROUBLE.

The caption changes to "Joseph Knockwood. Former Chief. Fort Folly First Nation." He’s in his fifties. He has short dark grey hair and is clean-shaven. He wears a grey jacket with feathers printed on.

Joseph says IF YOU LOOK THROUGHOUT
THE PROVINCE,
YOU WILL NOTICE
THAT ALL THE RIVERS...
THERE HAPPENS TO BE
FIRST NATIONS SITTING ON THEM,
AND THEY HAPPEN TO HAVE SALMON
RUNNING IN THESE RIVERS.
AND THAT'S WHAT THEY
USED THESE RIVERS FOR...
FOR FOOD.
THAT'S THE REASON WHY THE FIRST
NATIONS IS SITUATED RIGHT HERE,
IS BECAUSE OF THE ENTRANCES
OF THE TWO RIVERS.
ONE IS THE MEMRAMCOOK
AND THE OTHER IS
THE PETITCODIAC.

The screen zooms out and shows Memramcook, Petitcodiac and Fort Folly First Nation Historic Settlement.

The Narrator says CHIEF KNOCKWOOD'S DETERMINATION
WAS IMPORTANT IN GETTING THE
SALMON RECOVERY OFF THE GROUND.
BUT HE'S NOT THE FIRST MI'KMAQ
IN THE BAY OF FUNDY
TO STAND UP FOR THE SALMON.

Paul says ONE STORY THAT WE HAVE FOUND
COMES OUT OF A JOURNAL, A DIARY,
THAT WAS SAVED BY TWO BROTHERS,
WILLIAM AND THOMAS CALHOUN,
WHO MOVED INTO THIS REGION
IN THE LATE 1760S
AND EARLY '70S.
AND THEY STOPPED ONE DAY,
SEEING THAT THERE'S
A NATIVE MI'KMAQ VILLAGE.
WE THINK THIS MAY BE IN THE AREA
OF BEAUMONT SOMEWHERE TODAY.
THEY STOPPED THERE
AND ASKED ABOUT
WHERE THE GOOD FISHING WAS.
WELL, THEY SAID TO THEM,
"OF COURSE WE KNOW EXACTLY
THE BEST PLACES
"WHERE THE SALMON SCHOOL,
"AND THE BEST PLACES
TO CATCH THEM.
"BUT FOR HEAVEN'S SAKES,
"IF YOU GO UP THERE
AND SWEEP ALL THOSE SALMON
"OUT OF THAT PART OF THE RIVER
"FOR YOU AND ALL OF
YOUR NEW SETTLERS,
THAT'S ALL WE'VE
GOT LEFT," RIGHT?
"YOU HAVE TAKEN EVERYTHING
ELSE AWAY FROM US.
"YOU CAN'T EXPECT US
TO THROW THIS AWAY
"IN YOUR LAP AS WELL.
SO GO AWAY AND LEAVE US ALONE."

As he speaks, the screen shows sliding pictures of native populations in the area.

The Narrator says THE MI'KMAQ'S
CONCERN FOR THE SALMON IN 1771
WOULD PROVE PROPHETIC,
AS IT WASN'T LONG AFTER
THAT EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT
BEGAN TO ADVERSELY
AFFECT THE FISH.
MUCH CAN BE LEARNED ABOUT
HELPING THE INNER BAY
OF FUNDY SALMON TODAY
BY EXPLORING
HOW IT'S FACED SOME
200 YEARS OF CHALLENGES.

Old footage of the work with logs over the water and explosions is shown. Next, paintings depict the traditional country scene of people working on their regular activities.

Paul says THE FIRST RESOURCE SETTLERS WERE
CONCERNED ABOUT MAKING USE OF...
WAS THIS VERY
PRECIOUS SALT MARSH
THAT THE BAY OF FUNDY
HAS CREATED RIGHT UP HERE
AT THE TIP.
THAT WAS THE AREA
THE FRENCH ACADIANS LANDED IN,
SMILED BROADLY,
AND THOUGHT,
"THIS WE CAN DEAL WITH."
BUT IF YOU MOVE
PAST AGRICULTURE
INTO SERIOUS LUMBERING,
FOR THAT, YOU NEEDED TO BE
FURTHER DOWN THE COAST.

The screen shows an animated map that follows the path to Caledonia Highlands, near Alma. Following, actual old footage of the area appears onscreen.

Paul continues
THERE'S MUCH BETTER
LUMBERING TO BE HAD
UP IN THE CALEDONIA HIGHLANDS.
THEN YOU CAN RUN YOUR LOGS RIGHT
DOWN THOSE RIVERS TO THE COAST,
AND LOAD THEM UP IN THE COAST,
AND EITHER SHIP THEM AWAY
OR BUILD SHIPS OUT OF THEM.
THERE'S VAST LUMBERING
THAT'S GONE ON.

Fast old black and white clips show ships working on the transportation of logs over the water.

The Narrator says FEW ACTIVITIES
HAVE CAUSED MORE TROUBLE
FOR THE SALMON HERE OVER
THE YEARS THAN LUMBERING.
MANY RIVERS
IN THE BAY OF FUNDY
WERE DAMMED TO MAKE
LOG DRIVING EASIER,
PREVENTING SALMON FROM
THIS INCLUDES THE POINT WOLF
AND UPPER SALMON,
THE TWO RIVERS
IN WHAT IS TODAY
FUNDY NATIONAL PARK.
BOTH RIVERS IN THE PARK
WERE ALSO THE SITE OF
SAWMILLS AND
LUMBERING VILLAGES.

The caption changes to "Daniel Mazerolle. Ecologist Team Leader. Fundy National Park." He’s in his late thirties. He’s bald and clean-shaven. He wears beige trousers and a deep blue jacket.

Daniel says THE ESTIMATES ARE SIX MILLION
BOARD-FEET PER YEAR CUT.
THE PLACE WOULD'VE LOOKED
DRAMATICALLY DIFFERENT.

The Narrator says A COMMERCIAL FISHERY
DEVELOPED ALONGSIDE
THE LUMBER INDUSTRY
IN MANY COMMUNITIES,
AND SALMON WAS
AN IMPORTANT FOOD SOURCE
FOR EUROPEAN SETTLERS.
BUT LUMBERING TOOK
PRECEDENCE OVER THE FISHERY,
WITH UNFORTUNATE CONSEQUENCES
FOR THE SALMON.

Daniel says ONE OF THE BIG CONCERNS WAS
THE CARRY-OVER EFFECTS OF
THE MILLING OPERATIONS.
SO THE SAW DUST
GOING INTO THE RIVERS.
AND BY THE MID-1800s,
THERE WAS ALREADY CONCERNS
ABOUT THE INFLUENCE OF
THOSE KIND OF EFFECTS
ON FISH POPULATIONS,
SALMON IN PARTICULAR.
BUT THAT WAS OBVIOUSLY
BALANCED WITH
THE NEED FOR AN ECONOMIC
DRIVER IN THE REGION,
AND IT WAS A MAJOR
SOURCE OF EMPLOYMENT.

The caption changes to "Gerry Redmond. Executive Director. Maritime College of Forest Technology." He’s in his fifties. He has short grey hair and is clean-shaven. He wears a green uniform with a cap, a long-sleeve T-shirt and a matching vest.

Gerry says BACK IN THE EARLY DAYS,
THEY WOULD LOG DRIVE
DOWN RIVERS,
AND THAT WOULD OFTEN
SCOUR THESE NURSERY AREAS
THAT WERE VERY IMPORTANT
FOR SALMON.
BUT ALSO THE FOREST INDUSTRY
HAS LEARNED OVER TIME.
AND SO NOW IN PLACE
ARE REGULATIONS TO HELP
PROTECT THESE STREAMS.

The Narrator says THINGS ARE VERY DIFFERENT
IN NEW BRUNSWICK'S
LUMBER INDUSTRY TODAY.
THE MARITIME COLLEGE OF
FOREST TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS,
WHO WERE HELPING THE PARK
LOOK FOR SALMON,
ARE ACTUALLY TRAINING TO
WORK IN THE FOREST INDUSTRY.
BUT INSTRUCTORS
BRING THEM TO THE PARK
TO TEACH THEM
HOW TO REDUCE
THEIR IMPACTS
ON THE ENVIRONMENT.

Gerry says WE WANT TO
INSTILL IN OUR STUDENTS
THAT WHATEVER THEY DO...
WHETHER IT'S WORKING
NEXT TO A BROOK,
OR UP HERE IN
A MATURE FOREST,
THAT THERE'S GOING TO BE
IMPACTS DOWN THE LINE,
AND LET'S MAKE SURE THAT
WE MINIMIZE THE IMPACTS
SO THAT OTHER OF
NATURE'S RESOURCES
HAVE A CHANCE TO BE
SUCCESSFUL AS WELL.

The group of students coordinated by Corey continues to work.

A Student says 'KAY, WE'VE GOT RED SPRUCE,
DOMINANT CROWN CLASS...
WITH OBVIOUS SIGNS
OF INFESTATION.

The Narrator says ONE OF THE ISSUES THAT
THE FOREST INDUSTRY
IN NEW BRUNSWICK
HAS LONG HAD TO
DEAL WITH IS INSECTS.
TODAY THE MARITIME COLLEGE
OF FOREST TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS
ARE HELPING FUNDY
NATIONAL PARK
MONITOR AN INFESTATION
OF SPRUCE BARK BEETLE.
BUT NEW BRUNSWICK IS FAMOUS
FOR ITS HISTORIC RESPONSE
TO ANOTHER BUG,
THE SPRUCE BUDWORM.

The students study the trees and their bark. Next, old footage shows images of the city back in the day as well as a small aircraft doing an aerial spray round.

The caption changes to "Inka Milewski. Marine Biologist and Science Advisor. Conservation Council of New Brunswick." She’s in her forties. She has long brown hair tied in the back and wears a V-neck dark grey blouse.

Inka says THE AERIAL SPRAYING FOR
SPRUCE BUDWORM IN
NEW BRUNSWICK WAS
THE LARGEST AND MOST EXTENSIVE
AERIAL SPRAY PROGRAM
IN THE WORLD.
THE DDT OVER THE PERIOD,
FROM '52, 1952,
TO '68,
WAS ABOUT 85,000
METRIC TONS.
THE EFFECT OF THIS SPRAYING
ON THE ATLANTIC SALMON
IS BEAUTIFULLY DESCRIBED
IN RACHEL CARSON'S BOOK
"SILENT SPRING."

The book cover appears on screen next to a photo of Rachel Carson.

Inka continues
SHE DEVOTES AN ENTIRE CHAPTER
CALLED "RIVERS OF DEATH."
SHE TELLS ABOUT,
IN ONE RIVER IN NEW BRUNSWICK,
NOT ONE FISH THAT HATCHED
SURVIVED A PARTICULAR SPRAY
IN 1953.
DDT WAS SO TOXIC
IT KILLED THE ADULT
BECAUSE THE CONCENTRATIONS
WERE SO HIGH.
THE INDIRECT EFFECT WAS,
OF COURSE,
THE TARGET FOR THESE
PESTICIDES WERE INSECTS,
AND INSECTS ARE
THE PRIMARY FOOD SOURCE
FOR THE FISH AND THE BIRDS.
AND THEY BASICALLY
STARVED TO DEATH.

As she speaks, the screen shows fast clips of insects, dead animals and spread rounds with the toxic DDT.

The Narrator says DDT WAS BANNED IN CANADA
IN 1972.
ANOTHER PESTICIDE,
FENITROTHION,
WHICH WAS MORE
HEAVILY SPRAYED IN
THE REGION THAT IS NOW
THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE RESERVE,
WAS BANNED IN 1998.
BUT IN THE LATE '60S,
THE SALMON FACED YET
ANOTHER CHALLENGE
WHEN A CAUSEWAY ROAD
WAS CONSTRUCTED ACROSS
THE PETITCODIAC RIVER
NEAR MONCTON
TO MAKE TRAVEL
EASIER IN THE REGION.
TWENTY PERCENT OF ALL
INNER BAY OF FUNDY
ATLANTIC SALMON
ONCE RETURNED TO
THE PETITCODIAC RIVER TO SPAWN,
BUT VERY FEW FISH COULD
MAKE IT PAST THE CAUSEWAY.

A new animated map lands on Causeway, near Moncton.

Tim says IT'S NOT KNOWN
EXACTLY OR DIRECTLY WHAT IMPACT
TAKING THE PETITCODIAC SYSTEM
OUT OF THE EQUATION
HAD ON THE WHOLE
UPPER BAY POPULATION.
BUT GIVEN THAT IT WAS ARGUABLY
THE MOST IMPORTANT
OF ALL THE INNER BAY RIVERS,
HISTORICALLY...
SO TO ALL OF THE SUDDEN,
Y'KNOW, BLOCK THAT OFF...
THE OUTCOME CAN'T BE GOOD
FOR THE SALMON.

The Narrator says DAMMING THE PETITCODIAC
WAS BAD NEWS FOR THE SALMON.
BUT AROUND THE SAME TIME,
AS THE IMPORTANCE OF DAMS TO
THE LUMBER INDUSTRY FADED,
A FEW RIVERS IN WHAT IS TODAY
THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE RESERVE
STARTED OPENING UP AGAIN
TO ALLOW SALMON TO SPAWN.
ON BOTH THE BIG SALMON
AND UPPER SALMON RIVERS,
THE DAMS WERE GONE
BY THE MID-60S.
CLEARING THE DAM ON
THE POINT WOLFE RIVER
INSIDE FUNDY NATIONAL PARK
TOOK A BIT LONGER.

The screen shows a series of pictures with people fishing in the National Park.

The Narrator continues
THE PARK WAS CREATED AS
A TOURIST ATTRACTION IN 1948,
AND THEY DIDN'T WANT TO REMOVE
THIS PICTURESQUE DAM
BECAUSE IT WAS
CONSIDERED PART OF
THE REGION'S
CULTURAL HERITAGE.
BUT IN THE 1970S,
PARKS CANADA SHIFTED
ITS PRIMARY FOCUS
TO THE PRESERVATION
OF ECOLOGICAL INTEGRITY,
AND THE POINT WOLFE RIVER DAM
WAS FINALLY REMOVED IN 1985.

Daniel says THE REMOVAL OF THOSE DAMS
WAS THE FIRST STEP
AT RECOVERING THOSE POPULATIONS.
IT CERTAINLY HAD AN IMMEDIATE,
POSITIVE EFFECT.

Corey says SALMON REPOPULATED
THE UPPER SALMON RIVER
TO SUCH AN EXTENT
THAT WE DID HAVE
A RECREATIONAL FISHERY
HERE IN FUNDY NATIONAL PARK...
SO MUCH SO, ACTUALLY,
THAT WE HAVE A WARDEN CABIN
AT A PLACE CALLED "BLACK HOLE."
ON THE UPPER SALMON RIVER.
BECAUSE THERE WAS SO MANY
ANGLERS CATCHING FISH,
SOMEBODY WOULD NEED TO BE THERE
TO MAKE SURE THAT
EVERYTHING WAS BEING DONE
LEGALLY IN THE PARK.

The Narrator says THE RETURN OF
THE INNER BAY SALMON
TO FUNDY NATIONAL PARK
PROVED THE RESILIENCE
OF THE FISH.
BUT ITS TRIUMPHANT RETURN
WAS SHORT LIVED.
IN THE 1990S,
SOMETHING WAS HAPPENING TO
THE ENTIRE POPULATION.

Daniel says SYNCHRONOUSLY,
WITH ALL OF THE OTHER RIVERS
IN THE INNER BAY,
THERE WAS A GRADUAL
POPULATION DECLINE
TO THE LEVEL THAT WE'RE AT,
WHICH ARE CRITICALLY
LOW LEVELS,
RETURNING TO
INNER BAY OF FUNDY RIVERS.

Next, a clip shows Corey arriving to John’s office.

Corey knocks on the door and says HEY JOHN?

John says COREY!

Corey says HOW'S IT GOIN'?

John says HOW YOU DOING, MAN?

Corey says GOOD TO SEE YA.

John says YEAH, YOU TOO.

Corey says ALRIGHT!

Johns says HOW YA BEEN?

Corey says ALRIGHT.
JUST WONDERING HOW OUR
POINT WOLFE FISH ARE DOIN'.

John says ACTUALLY,
THINGS ARE GOIN' WELL.

John takes Corey for a walk around the establishment.

The Narrator says WHEN THE NUMBER OF
INNER BAY OF FUNDY SALMON
BECAME CRITICALLY LOW,
SOME OF THE REMAINING FISH
WERE COLLECTED FROM
FUNDY NATIONAL PARK
AND OTHER RIVERS AROUND
THE BAY OF FUNDY
AND PUT INTO A HATCHERY
TO PRESERVE THE UNIQUE
GENETIC MAKEUP
OF THE POPULATION.
TODAY THIS LIVE GENE BANK
IS THE FOUNDATION OF
THE INNER BAY OF FUNDY
ATLANTIC SALMON
RECOVERY PROGRAM.

Corey says WE'RE HERE AT
THE DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES
AND OCEANS MACTAQUAC
BIO-DIVERSITY FACILITY.
THIS IS THE LIVE GENE BANK.

(music plays)

The screen shows the large tanks where the fish live.

Corey says THESE FISH
ACTUALLY ORIGINATE FROM
THE FOUNDING FAMILIES
THAT WE COLLECTED
AT THE VERY BEGINNING
OF OUR RECOVERY PROGRAM.
SO THEY WOULD BE LIKE
GREAT-GREAT-GREAT
GRANDPARENTS AT THIS POINT.

John is in his thirties. He has short brown hair and a full beard. He wears a light blue shirt. The caption changes to "John Whitelaw. Manager. Mactaquac Biodiversity Facility. Fisheries and Oceans Canada."

John says THE MAIN
OBJECTIVE OF THIS LIVE GENE BANK
IS TO HARBOUR AND PROTECT
WHAT WE HAVE.
SO WHEN WE FIGURE OUT
WHAT'S HAPPENING,
START KINDA MITIGATING
FOR THESE THREATS THAT
ARE CAUSING THIS
DOWNWARD SPIRAL...
AT LEAST THEN WE STILL HAVE
INNER BAY OF FUNDY STOCK,
OF WHICH WE CAN KINDA
REBUILD THE POPULATION.

The Narrator says FOR MORE THAN A DECADE,
JUVENILE AND ADULT SALMON
GROWN AT THE LIVE GENE BANK
HAVE BEEN PUT INTO THE RIVERS
OF THE BAY OF FUNDY
EVERY YEAR IN NEW BRUNSWICK
IN AN ATTEMPT TO
RESTORE THE POPULATION.

Corey says THAT SUSTAINED FISH
IN OUR RIVERS
FOR THE LAST
DECADE AND A HALF...
AND MOST LIKELY IS THE REASON
THAT THERE ARE ANY FISH AT ALL
TO WORK WITH TODAY.
SO WITHOUT THE WORK
THAT EVERYBODY HAS PUT IN,
THERE WOULD LIKELY BE NO
INNER BAY OF FUNDY
ATLANTIC SALMON RIGHT NOW.
BUT, AS OF YET,
WE HAVEN'T REALLY SEEN ANY
MARKED RETURN IN ADULTS.

A new clip shows Corey working on his computer.

The Narrator says IT IS NOT KNOWN
WHY THE INNER BAY OF FUNDY
SALMON POPULATION CRASHED.
NOR IS IT KNOWN WHY SALMON
ARE NOT RETURNING TO
THE RIVERS TO SPAWN.
SCIENTISTS BELIEVE
IT HAS SOMETHING TO DO
WITH THE OCEAN ENVIRONMENT.

Tim says THERE SEEMS TO BE
A HIGH MARINE MORTALITY,
WHICH HASN'T REALLY
BEEN COMPLETELY
UNDERSTOOD OR EXPLAINED.
BUT AS SCIENTISTS
AND RECOVERY TEAM MEMBERS
WORK TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING,
AND HOPEFULLY MITIGATING,
THE LIMITING FACTORS AT PLAY
IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT,
WE WANNA DO EVERYTHING
WE CAN TO MAKE SURE,
IF WE CAN TURN
THIS THING AROUND,
THAT THERE'S QUALITY
FRESHWATER HABITAT
FOR THE FISH TO RETURN TO.

The Narrator says THE PETITCODIAC ONCE ATTRACTED
THE LARGEST NUMBER OF
INNER BAY OF FUNDY SALMON
EVERY YEAR TO SPAWN.
BUT THE FISH WERE
CUT OFF FROM THE RIVER
WITH THE CONSTRUCTION OF
THE CAUSEWAY IN THE 1960S.

New clips mix views of the local landscapes mixed with TV footage of an interview where a man addressed the press.

The Narrator continues
SO IN 1999,
WITH SALMON NUMBERS
AT CRITICAL LOWS,
A GRASSROOTS CAMPAIGN
WAS STARTED
TO GET THE PETITCODIAC
FLOWING AGAIN.
A TEN-YEAR STRUGGLE RESULTED IN
THE PROVINCE OF NEW BRUNSWICK
PERMANENTLY OPENING THE GATES
OF THE CAUSEWAY DAM IN 2010,
ALLOWING FISH TO ONCE AGAIN
FREELY TRAVEL UP THE RIVER.
WITH THE GATES OPENED,
THE FORT FOLLY FIRST NATION
LOBBIED THE DEPARTMENT
OF FISHERIES AND OCEANS
THAT RUNS THE LIVE GENE BANK
TO MAKE SOME INNER BAY
OF FUNDY SALMON
AVAILABLE FOR THE PETITCODIAC,
A RIVER THAT HASN'T
SEEN THEM IN 40 YEARS.

Tim says WELL, WE'VE BEEN RELEASING
JUVENILES AND ADULTS
INTO THE POLLETT
AND THE LITTLE RIVER SYSTEMS,
WHICH ARE ON THE HEADWATERS
OF THE PETITCODIAC,
FOR THREE YEARS NOW...
JUST TRYING TO BRING THE
PETITCODIAC RIVER BACK ONLINE.
THIS IS WHAT WE'VE
WORKED TOWARDS ALL ALONG...
TO ACTUALLY PUT FISH
BACK INTO THE RIVER...

Large trucks get closer to the coast and when ready they release a large amount of fish back to the water.

Tim continues
TO SEE NATURAL SPAWNING
OCCUR IN THE RIVER,
AND TO KNOW THAT THE FRY
THAT WILL RESULT
FROM THOSE SPAWNINGS
WILL BENEFIT FROM A LIFE
TOTALLY LIVED IN
A WILD ENVIRONMENT.

The Narrator says GIVING THE STAFF
A HAND RELEASING FISH
IS THE NEW BRUNSWICK MINISTRY
OF NATURAL RESOURCES.
FOR TYSON MACCALLUM,
THE OPPORTUNITY TO HELP
HITS CLOSE TO HOME.

The caption changes to "Tyson MacCallum. Forest Ranger. Natural Resources, New Brunswick." He’s in his late thirties. He has short brown hair and is clean-shaven. He wears a beige shirt underneath a heavy dark jacket.

Tyson says I GREW UP ALONG
THE BANKS OF THIS RIVER,
AS DID MY GRANDFATHER
AND MY FATHER.
THE FIRST LOCATION
WHERE WE DROPPED FISH
WAS THE LOCAL SWIMMING HOLE
AS A YOUTH.
AND I HEAR THE STORIES THAT
MY FATHER AND GRANDFATHER TOLD
OF SALMON IN THIS RIVER.
WHEN I GREW UP,
I DIDN'T SEE ANY.

Tyson appears on screen releasing the fish in the water.

He continues
SO IT'S REALLY NICE,
30 YEARS LATER,
TO COME BACK AND BE
PART OF TRYING TO
RESTOCK THIS RIVER
AND PUT IT BACK TO WHAT IT WAS
IN THE DAYS OF MY GRANDFATHER.

The Narrator says CAUSEWAY GATES WERE OPENED
AND THE RIVER
STOCKED WITH SALMON,
THE FORT FOLLY FIRST NATION'S
HABITAT RECOVERY TEAM
HAS BEEN CAREFULLY MONITORING
THE RIVER USING FYKE NETS
FOR ANY SIGN OF RECOVERY.

The caption changes to "Edmund Redfield. Field Technician. Fort Folly Habitat Recovery." He’s in his forties. He has short dark curly hair and is clean-shaven. He wears glasses, a white cap and a dark big jacket.

As he speaks, the screen shows him fishing.

Edmund says THIS MORNING WE'VE BEEN
FISHING WITH FYKE NETS
THAT YOU CAN SEE BACK THERE
IN ORDER TO SEE
WHAT CAME UP WITH
THE OVERNIGHT TIDE LAST NIGHT.
GOT A PAIR OF YOUNG
STRIPED BASS...
WELL, IF YOU'RE AT ALL FAMILIAR
WITH A LOBSTER TRAP...
WHERE THEY CAN
SORT OF GO IN ONE END
AND THEN THEY CAN'T FIND
THEIR WAY OUT THE BOTTOM...
IT WORKS LIKE THAT, EXCEPT
IT HAS A SERIES OF CHAMBERS.
WE'VE GOT SOME
BIG STUFF IN HERE, TOO.
THE FISH WE HAD IN THE TRAP
FROM LAST NIGHT'S TIDE
WERE MOSTLY STRIPED BASS,
AND TOMCOD,
AND EELS.
THE FIRST YEAR
THE TRAP WAS FISHED,
THERE WEREN'T ANY
STRIPED BASS.
IN 2011,
THEN WE CAUGHT 156.
2012,
IT WAS 706.
THIS YEAR WE'RE CLOSING IN ON
2,000 RIGHT NOW.
SIMILARLY, TOMCOD,
THE FIRST YEAR,
THERE WAS JUST
ONE TOMCOD CAUGHT.
BY 2013,
IT WAS OVER 3,000....ANOTHER TOMCOD.

Once the fish is caught, they put it in containers to measure them.

The Narrator says EDMOND IS SEEING BIG INCREASES
IN SEVERAL FISH SPECIES
SINCE HE STARTED MONITORING
THE RIVER IN 2010.
BUT UNFORTUNATELY,
SALMON IS NOT AMONG THEM.


Edmund says THIS SEASON,
THE ONLY SALMON WE'VE CAUGHT
WERE SMOLTS THAT WERE
GOING OUT TO SEA IN THE SPRING.
AND THOSE SMOLTS WOULD'VE GROWN
FROM FRY THAT WE'D RELEASED
IN THE RIVER EARLIER.
SO THAT DOESN'T REALLY COUNT,
SINCE THOSE ARE FISH
THAT WE PUT THERE.

Tim says WE HAVEN'T CAUGHT
AN ADULT IN THE FALL,
A WILD ADULT,
IN OUR FYKE NETS YET.
BUT... ANY DAY NOW.

The Narrator says THE WORK TO RECOVER
THE INNER BAY OF FUNDY
ATLANTIC SALMON
HAS BEEN A LONG, DIFFICULT,
AND UNCERTAIN TASK.
BUT IT CONTINUES,
BECAUSE THE SALMON IS
SO IMPORTANT TO THE ECOLOGY,
HISTORY,
AND CULTURE HERE,
AND THERE IS HOPE
THAT A SOLUTION
MIGHT BE
AROUND THE CORNER.
BUT WHAT HAPPENED TO THE SALMON
IS A NIGHTMARE SCENARIO
THAT PROVES HOW IMPORTANT
IT IS TO PAY CLOSE ATTENTION
TO THE REST OF
THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE RESERVE'S
NATURAL WONDERS...
EVEN ONES THAT MIGHT SEEM
IN ALMOST ENDLESS ABUNDANCE.
EVERY AUGUST,
MILLIONS OF SHOREBIRDS STOP AT
THE BAY OF FUNDY MUDFLATS
TO FATTEN UP
DURING AN EPIC MIGRATION FROM
THEIR ARCTIC BREEDING GROUNDS
TO THEIR SOUTH AMERICAN
WINTERING HABITAT.
THESE MUDFLATS ARE FULL OF
LITTLE ORGANISMS THE BIRDS EAT
TO BECOME STRONG ENOUGH TO
CONTINUE THEIR JOURNEY.
THE MUDFLATS HAVE
BEEN INCREASINGLY
PROTECTED OVER THE YEARS
BY ENVIRONMENT CANADA
AND THE NATURE CONSERVANCY
OF CANADA,
AS IT HAS BECOME CLEAR
HOW IMPORTANT THEY ARE
TO SHORE BIRDS IN
THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE.
THE SHOREBIRDS
ARE NOT ONLY
A SPECTACULAR DRAW
FOR BIRD WATCHERS.
IN THE ECOSYSTEM.
THEY ARE A KEY FOOD SOURCE
FOR PREDATORS LIKE
THE PEREGRINE FALCON,
AND THEIR DROPPINGS
FERTILIZE THE MUDFLATS,
HELPING WITH THE GROWTH
OF PHYTOPLANKTON
THAT FORMS THE BASE
OF AN AQUATIC FOOD CHAIN
THAT EVENTUALLY FEEDS FISH
LIKE THE ATLANTIC SALMON.
SCIENTISTS THROUGHOUT
THE AMERICAS
ARE WORRIED THAT
THE POPULATIONS OF
THE MOST ABUNDANT SHOREBIRD
TO VISIT THE BAY OF FUNDY,
THE SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER,
ARE DECLINING.
SO ENVIRONMENT CANADA
AND MOUNT ALLISON UNIVERSITY
ARE WORKING WITH THE NATURE
CONSERVANCY OF CANADA
ON A MAJOR RESEARCH PROJECT
THEY HOPE WILL
PROVIDE INFORMATION
NEEDED TO PROTECT THE SPECIES
FROM FURTHER DECLINE.

The caption changes to "Julie Paquet. Shorebird Biologist. Canadian Wildlife Service." She’s in her mid-thirties. She has long dark brown hair and wears a dark grey sweater underneath a blue vest.

Julie says WHAT WE'RE DOING IS
TRYING TO GET A MEASURE
OF LENGTH OF STAY,
WHICH IS A METRIC
THAT ALLOWS US
TO BETTER MONITOR
THE POPULATION.
AND WE'RE ALSO LOOKING AT
GATHERING INFORMATION ON DIET,
SO THAT WE CAN ASSESS IF THEY'VE
CHANGED THEIR EATING PATTERNS,
ESSENTIALLY.
WE'RE TRYING TO MEASURE
CHANGES IN HABITAT USE.
AND FINALLY WE'RE
ALSO TRYING TO ASSESS
THE SURVIVAL RATES
OF THE INDIVIDUALS.
SO THAT ALLOWS US
TO BETTER UNDERSTAND
HOW OUR POPULATIONS
ARE DOING.

As she speaks, the screen shows clips with a variety of birds.

The caption changes to "Doctor Diana Hamilton. Associate Professor. Department of Biology. Mount Allison University." She’s in her mid-thirties. She has short curly brown hair down to the shoulders and wears a dark brown blouse.

Diana says I'M VERY LUCKY,
BEING AT MOUNT ALLISON.
WE HAVE LOTS OF
SUPER-CAPABLE STUDENTS
WHO ARE VERY ENTHUSIASTIC
ABOUT THIS KIND OF WORK.

The Narrator says ONE OF THOSE
ENTHUSIASTIC STUDENTS
IS SARAH NEIMA,
WHO IS WORKING ON
HER MASTER’S DEGREE
STUDYING THE SANDPIPERS.

The caption changes to "Sarah Neima. Graduate Student- Department of Biology. Mount Allison University." She’s in her twenties. She has long dark brown hair in a ponytail and wears a dark grey sweater.

Sarah says WE WANTED
A LITTLE BIT MORE INFORMATION,
SORT OF SPECIFICALLY WHEN THEY
WERE ARRIVING HERE IN THE BAY,
TO GET REALLY ACCURATE ESTIMATES
OF HOW LONG THEY STAY HERE.
AND IN ORDER TO DO THAT,
WE NEEDED TO GO PUT
THE RADIO TRANSMITTERS ON
EARLY IN THE MIGRATION.
SO I GOT TO GO ALL THE
WAY UP TO THE ARCTIC
AND PUT TAGS ON
THE BIRDS UP THERE
SO THAT WE COULD PICK THEM UP
ONCE THEY HAD TRAVELLED
DOWN TO THE BAY OF FUNDY.

As she speaks, the clips on screen show a crew setting nets and equipments for a study near the beach.

The Narrator says SARAH'S WORK
LETS RESEARCHERS KNOW
EXACTLY WHEN
THE SANDPIPERS START ARRIVING
IN THE BAY OF FUNDY.
BUT ONCE THEY GET HERE,
DOCTOR DIANA HAMILTON
AND JULIE PAQUET
NEED TO GET THEIR HANDS ON
A LOT MORE BIRDS
TO COMPLETE THEIR STUDY.
TO DO THAT,
THEY USE A TECHNIQUE THAT WAS
DEVELOPED HERE IN
THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE,
KNOWN AS
THE "FUNDY PULL TRAP."

Diana says THE INTERESTING THING
ABOUT CATCHING BIRDS
IS YOU NEVER QUITE KNOW
WHAT'S GONNA HAPPEN.
THE FIRST THING YOU HAVE TO DO
IS GUESS WHERE TO PUT THE NET...
AND THEN WE NEED TO
CONVINCE THE BIRDS
THAT THEY WANT TO BE
IN FRONT OF THE NET.
AND THE WAY WE DO THAT
IS QUITE LITERALLY
BY HERDING THE BIRDS.
THIS WAS OUR FIRST
PULL OF THE YEAR,
SO THERE WERE
STUDENTS WHO WERE NEW
AND WHO HAD NEVER
DONE THIS BEFORE.
SO WE HERDED THE BIRDS
RELATIVELY EFFECTIVELY,
AND THEN THE NET WAS PULLED.
ONCE THE NET'S PULLED,
IT DOESN'T MATTER WHAT
YOU'RE DOING, WHERE YOU ARE...
YOU TAKE OFF FLYING DOWN
THE BEACH AS FAST AS YOU CAN,
BECAUSE THE IDEA IS
TO GET TO THE NET,
GET ROCKS AROUND
THE EDGES OF THE NET
SO THE BIRDS DON'T FLY OUT,
AND THEN START PUTTING THEM
INTO THE BIRD BOXES.

Once the birds get in the net, the staff hurries to catch them.

Diana continues
WE HAD,
I BELIEVE,
WHAT IS THE BIGGEST CATCH
THAT WE'VE EVER HAD
THROUGHOUT THIS PROJECT.
IT WAS ENORMOUS...
SO MANY THAT WE COULDN'T
USE ALL THE BIRDS.
WE HAD TO RELEASE
A NUMBER OF THEM.

Julie says ONCE WE HAVE THE BIRDS
IN THE BOXES,
WE BRING THEM BACK TO
OUR PROCESSING STATION.
WE HAVE BANDING GOING ON,
SO WE PUT A METAL BAND
ON THE BIRD,
AS WELL AS A COLOURED FLAG.
WHITE IS THE COLOUR FOR CANADA.

Neima says THEY'RE PRETTY
DOCILE IN THE HAND, ACTUALLY,
SO WHEN YOU ARE HOLDING THEM
AND BANDING THEM,
THEY'RE JUST KINDA
HANGING OUT THERE WITH YOU,
AND THEY DON'T SEEM
TOO PANICKED.

New clips show the team working on the examination of the birds in their lab.

Julie says WE CAN TAKE
A BLOOD SAMPLE AND LOOK AT,
ESSENTIALLY,
ISOTOPES IN THE BLOOD,
WHICH CAN THEN TELL YOU
PROPORTIONALLY
WHAT THE BIRDS
PRETTY MUCH ARE EATING.

Neima says WE'RE PUTTING
RADIO TAGS ON TO, AGAIN,
BE ABLE TO TRACK THEIR MOVEMENT,
DETERMINE LENGTH OF STAY.
WE USED TO THINK THEY STAYED
FOR ABOUT TWO WEEKS ON AVERAGE,
BUT WHAT WE SAW USING THIS DATA
IS THEY'RE STAYING ABOUT
THREE WEEKS ON AVERAGE.
THE POPULATION ESTIMATES
ARE BASED ON THAT
TWO-WEEK LENGTH OF STAY.
BUT IF THEY'RE STAYING LONGER,
IT MEANS WE'RE OVERESTIMATING
THE NUMBER OF BIRDS
THAT ARE HERE
IN THE BAY OF FUNDY.

A new clip shows part of the staff releasing the birds and setting them free again.

Julie says IF YOU TALK TO THE FOLKS
THAT'VE BEEN AROUND THESE
SHORES FOR 50, 60 YEARS,
THEY'LL TELL YOU THAT
IT'S NOT WHAT IT WAS.
THERE WERE MANY,
MANY, MORE BEFORE.
AND THE DATA SHOWS IT.

The Narrator says IT IS NOT KNOWN WHY
SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER
NUMBERS ARE DECLINING.
IT COULD BE DUE TO
CLIMATE CHANGE, HUNTING,
OR HABITAT DEGRADATION
IN OTHER PARTS OF
THE BIRD'S RANGE.
JULIE BELIEVES
THE PROBLEM IS NOT
IN THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE RESERVE.

Julie says WE CONSIDER THE BAY OF FUNDY
AS A GOOD HOTEL.
IT'S GOT GOOD FOOD,
IT'S GOT GOOD ROOMS,
IT'S COMFORTABLE.
THE BIRDS HERE SEEM TO
GET WHAT THEY NEED.
BUT BECAUSE IT HAS BECOME
A WELL-KNOWN PHENOMENON,
IN AUGUST, IT PUTS PRESSURE
THAT DIDN'T EXIST
ON AN AREA
THAT'S VERY SPECIFIC,
VERY LIMITED
FOR THESE BIRDS.

Massive flocks invade the area while some of the staff take pictures.

The Narrator says THE SLIGHTEST
DISTURBANCE TO THE BIRDS
WHEN THEY ARE ROOSTING ON
THE SHORE DURING HIGH TIDE
WILL CAUSE AN ENTIRE FLOCK
TO RISE UP AND FLY AROUND
TO FIND ANOTHER ROOSTING SPOT,
WASTING VALUABLE FAT STORES
THEY NEED FOR THEIR
LONG MIGRATION SOUTH.
TO PROTECT THE SHOREBIRDS,
THE NATURE CONSERVANCY
OF CANADA
HAS PURCHASED 500 ACRES
AT JOHNSON'S MILLS,
ONE OF THE SANDPIPERS'
FAVOURITE FEEDING SITES
IN THE BAY OF FUNDY.
THEY'VE SET UP VIEWING AREAS
WHERE VISITORS CAN WATCH THE
BIRDS WITHOUT DISTURBING THEM.

Julie says THE NATURE CONSERVANCY
HAS COME IN
AND HAS BASICALLY STARTED
MANAGING AND INTERPRETING.
AND IT’S DONE IN SUCH A WAY
THAT THE BIRDS AREN'T
DISTURBED AT ALL.
BOTH CAN EXIST IN A WAY
THAT'S A BENEFIT TO EVERYBODY.

New clips show people in the designated spots for watching as well as team members putting birds in the boxes.

The Narrator says PEOPLE IN
THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE RESERVE
HAVE CREATED A WELL-
PROTECTED STOP-OVER
FOR MIGRATING SHOREBIRDS.
IN RETURN,
THE SHOREBIRDS ARE PROVIDING
A BOOST TO THE LOCAL
TOURISM INDUSTRY.
BUT JULIE BELIEVES THAT
CONTINUED RESEARCH
IS CRITICAL TO
FIGURING OUT HOW TO
STOP THE DECLINE
IN SHOREBIRD NUMBERS.

Julie says AS A REGION,
WE ARE THE CARETAKERS.
WE ARE THE ONES THAT
ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR
LOOKING OUT FOR THESE BIRDS.
AND THE DATA SHOWS
THAT THESE BIRDS,
ALTHOUGH STILL ABUNDANT,
USED TO BE MORE ABUNDANT.
DO WE WANT TO WAIT
UNTIL WE HAVE
ONLY A FEW THOUSAND LEFT
TO BECOME CONCERNED,
OR DO WE WANT TO INTERVENE
WHEN WE STILL HAVE
A FAIRLY ABUNDANT POPULATION
AND GOOD POTENTIAL
FOR TURNAROUND?

A new clip shows Donald walking in the snow. He and his staff come to a certain spot, leave their heavy backpacks and put on special uniforms.

The Narrator says THEY DON'T HAVE
THE CULTURAL CACHE OF SALMON,
AND THEY AREN'T AS AWE-
INSPIRING AS THE SANDPIPERS,
BUT BATS PLAY AN IMPORTANT
ECOLOGICAL ROLE
BY EATING UP TO THEIR WEIGHT
IN INSECTS EVERY NIGHT.
THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE RESERVE
IS HOME TO THE LARGEST
BAT HIBERNATION SITE
IN NEW BRUNSWICK...
AND DOCTOR DONALD MCALPINE
HAS BEEN STUDYING
BATS HERE FOR DECADES.
DONALD WAS SADDENED,
BUT NOT SURPRISED,
WHEN THIS SITE WAS AMONG
THE FIRST IN ATLANTIC CANADA
TO BE STRICKEN BY
WHITE NOSE BAT SYNDROME...
A DEVASTATING
DISEASE THAT'S BEEN
SPREADING ACROSS NORTH AMERICA
SINCE 2006.

The caption changes to "Doctor Donald McAlpine. Head of the Department of Natural Science. New Brunswick Museum." He’s in his late forties. He as short dark wavy hair and is clean-shaven. He wears glasses and a dark grey shirt.

Donald says WE WERE ANTICIPATING THAT WHITE
NOSE WAS GOING TO ARRIVE HERE,
WE WERE TRYING TO DECIDE
WHAT WE WERE GOING TO DO.
IT OCCURRED TO ME
WHAT WE REALLY NEEDED TO DO
WAS GET SOME BASELINE DATA.

Karen is part of the staff. She follows Donald during the study.

The caption changes to "Karen Vanderwolf. Research Associate. New Brunswick Museum." She’s in her thirties. She has long straight blond hair and wears a blue long-sleeve blouse.

Karen says I STARTED
MY MASTER'S DEGREE IN 2009.
SO IT WAS ACTUALLY
REALLY GOOD TIMING FOR ME,
BECAUSE I COULD GET
THAT BASELINE DATA
TO SEE WHAT IT WAS LIKE HERE
BEFORE THIS DISEASE ARRIVED,
TO SEE WHAT THE NORMAL WAS.
AND THEN, OF COURSE,
WE GOT HIT,
AND EVERYTHING CHANGED.

As she speaks, pictures on screen show the interior of a cave with bats on the roof. Next, a bat is having some trouble moving in the snow.

Donald says HAVING TROUBLES, HUH?
IT WAS MARCH OF 2011.
AS SOON AS WE
ARRIVED AT THAT CAVE,
WE KNEW THERE WAS
A PROBLEM RIGHT AWAY.
THERE WERE BATS ACTUALLY
FLYING AROUND OUTSIDE THE CAVE.
THERE WERE DEAD BATS
ON THE SNOW.
WE HAD TO DIG OUR WAY IN,
AND ONCE WE GOT IN THERE,
THERE WERE THOUSANDS AND
THOUSANDS OF DEAD BATS.

Karen says SO IT WAS ACTUALLY HARD TO
WALK AROUND WITHOUT
STEPPING ON THEM.
I MEAN, YOU COULDN'T.
WE TOOK A LOT OF PICTURES,
HUNDREDS OF PICTURES,
OF WHAT IT LOOKED LIKE.
AND SOMETHING THE PHOTOS
DON'T SHOW, ACTUALLY,
IS THE NOISE AND THE SMELL.
'CAUSE IT'S...
FRANKLY, IT SMELLED LIKE DEATH.
IT WAS PRETTY EMOTIONAL,
ACTUALLY.

Donald says THE ASSUMPTION'S
THAT THIS FUNGUS
HAS BEEN INTRODUCED
FROM EUROPE.
BATS SEEM TO HAVE CO-EVOLVED
WITH THE FUNGUS THERE
AND HAVE DEVELOPED
AN IMMUNITY TO IT.
THE FUNGUS FIRST APPEARED AT A
SHOW CAVE, ACTUALLY, IN NEW YORK
THAT GETS SEVERAL HUNDRED
THOUSAND VISITORS A YEAR.

A new animated map lands on First White Nose Occurence between the United States and Canada.

Donald continues
SO PERHAPS A VISITOR
BROUGHT THIS WITH THEM.
ONCE IT ARRIVED HERE
IN NORTH AMERICA,
BATS HAVE BECOME
A MAJOR VECTOR.
SO IT SPREAD VERY QUICKLY.

New clips show close ups of the batcave and the bats inside.

Karen says IT ACTUALLY
PENETRATES INTO THE SKIN.
IT WAKES THEM UP FROM
HIBERNATION TO GROOM.
THEY CAN GROOM IT OFF, BUT ONCE
THEY GO BACK INTO HIBERNATION,
IT JUST REGROWS.
SO THAT'S NOT
ACTUALLY HELPFUL.
AND EVENTUALLY THEY DIE
OF A COMBINATION OF
STARVATION AND DEHYDRATION
AS THEY RUN OUT OF WATER FROM
THE WOUNDS AND FAT
FROM WAKING UP ALL THE TIME.

The Narrator says SINCE THEIR
GRUESOME DISCOVERY IN 2011,
DON AND KAREN
HAVE BEEN WORKING TO
DOCUMENT THE DECLINE OF
NEW BRUNSWICK'S BATS.

Karen and Donald are deep inside a batcave. They wear white gowns and protective helmets with torches by the forehead.

Donald says THIS WAS, UNTIL 2011,
THE LARGEST BAT HIBERNACULUM
IN THE PROVINCE.
PRE-WHITE NOSE,
WE WOULD SEE MAYBE
6,000 BATS IN THIS CAVE.
TODAY WE SAW TWO.
IN NEW BRUNSWICK,
WE'VE GOT LESS THAN
HALF OF ONE PERCENT
OF WHAT WE STARTED WITH
IN TERMS OF OVERWINTERING BATS.
SO IT'S CONSIDERED PROBABLY
ONE OF THE MOST
SIGNIFICANT WILDLIFE DISEASES
THAT'S AFFECTED
NORTH AMERICAN WILDLIFE
PROBABLY IN THE LAST CENTURY.

The Narrator says KAREN'S WORK
INCLUDES DOCUMENTING
THE DIFFERENT KINDS
OF FUNGUS IN THE CAVES
WITH THE HOPE OF FINDING
SOMETHING TO USE
IN FIGHTING THE DISEASE.

New clips show Karen collecting samples and examining them in the lab.

Karen says ONE THING WE WERE LOOKING AT
IS IF I CAN FIND A FUNGUS
THAT'S NATURALLY ANTAGONISTIC
TO THE WHITE NOSE FUNGUS.
SO MATCHING THEM UP
HERE IN THE LAB,
TRYING TO FIND OUT IF ANY
INTERACT WITH THAT
AND CAN KILL IT.
AND WE DID FIND
SOME THAT DO, ACTUALLY.
SO WE'VE BEEN COLLABORATING
WITH A LAB IN GEORGIA,
TRYING TO FIGURE OUT
WHAT EXACTLY
IS GOING ON
IN THIS INTERACTION,
AND IF THERE'S ANY WAY IT COULD
BE APPLICABLE TO THE FIELD
IN TERMS OF A BIO-CONTROL.

The Narrator says IN AREAS NOT YET
AFFECTED BY THE DISEASE.
BUT IT IS LIKELY TOO LATE
FOR THE BATS OF NEW BRUNSWICK.

Donald says THE HOPE IS THAT THERE WILL BE
SOME INDIVIDUALS THAT'LL
HAVE NATURAL IMMUNITY,
AND OVER A PERIOD OF TIME,
THAT THE POPULATION
WILL RECOVER.
BUT RECOVERY
OF THE POPULATION
COULD TAKE A VERY,
VERY LONG TIME.
IT CERTAINLY WON'T
RECOVER IN MY LIFETIME,
OR PROBABLY IN MY
CHILDREN'S LIFETIME...
IF, IN FACT,
THEY EVER DO.

The Narrator says DON AND KAREN WORRY ABOUT
INADVERTENTLY SPREADING
THE DISEASE,
SO THEY INCINERATE THE SUITS
THEY WEAR DURING THEIR RESEARCH
AND WASH THE REST OF THEIR
CLOTHING AND GEAR IN FUNGICIDE
AFTER EVERY VISIT.
THE CAVE'S OWNER, TONY,
IS ALSO HELPING SLOW
THE DISEASE SPREAD,
AND IS PROTECTING
THE FEW REMAINING BATS
THAT MAY BE IMMUNE.
CAVERS TO USE THE CAVE,
BUT NOW ONLY ALLOWS
ACCESS TO RESEARCHERS.

The caption changes to "Tony Gilchrist. Landowner." He’s in his late thirties. He has short brown hair and a beard. He wears a fur hat, a dark sweater and a matching jacket. As he speaks, the screen shows images of the cave on the inside.

Tony says WE'VE, OVER THE YEARS,
SORT OF GRADUALLY DISCOURAGED
PEOPLE FROM VISITING THE SITE.
WE'RE INTERESTED IN PROTECTING
AND PRESERVING THESE RESOURCES,
'CAUSE THE BATS ARE AN
IMPORTANT THING IN OUR ECOLOGY.
PEOPLE DON'T EVEN
THINK ABOUT IT,
BUT EVERYTHING YOU NEED
COMES FROM THAT ONE SYSTEM
OF SCIENCE AND NATURE.
YOU CERTAINLY NOTICE IT IN THE
SUMMER WHEN THE BUGS COME OUT,
'CAUSE THERE'S
NO BATS EATIN' THEM.

The Narrator says THE LONG-TERM IMPACT OF
THE LOSS OF BATS HERE
IS UNCLEAR.
BUT DONALD IS CONCERNED ABOUT
THE REGION'S FORESTS
AND FOREST INDUSTRY.

Donald says IN NEW BRUNSWICK,
BATS FEED HEAVILY ON MOTHS,
AND BEETLES IN PARTICULAR,
AND SOME OF THOSE ARE
PESTS OF FORESTRY.
SO WE CAN SURMISE
THAT BATS PERHAPS
PLAY A PRETTY IMPORTANT ROLE
IN DEALING WITH INSECT PESTS
THAT MIGHT BE OF CONCERN
TO THE FOREST INDUSTRY.
BUT WE REALLY DON'T HAVE ANY
DATA TO SUPPORT THAT
AT THIS STAGE.

The Narrator says WHILE IT'S NOT KNOWN HOW
THE LOSS OF BATS WILL AFFECT
THE FORESTS OF
THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE RESERVE,
THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE
ORGANIZATION
HAS EMBARKED ON A MAJOR PROJECT
TO HELP PEOPLE CREATE
THE CLIMATE CHANGE-RESILIENT
FORESTS OF THE FUTURE.

The caption changes to "Megan de Graaf. Executive Director. Fundy Biosphere Reserve." She’s in her thirties. She has long curly dark hair down to the shoulders and wears glasses and a pink shirt.
As she speaks, the screen shows images of the reserve as well as a group of young men and women taking samples from certain trees.

Megan says THERE WAS SOME INFORMATION
ALREADY OUT THERE AND AVAILABLE,
BUT NOTHING VERY CONCRETE
ABOUT WHICH SPECIES,
WHICH NATIVE TREE SPECIES,
WERE LIKELY TO SURVIVE
UNDER A CHANGING CLIMATE.
SO OUR VERY EXCELLENT
CONSERVATION SCIENTIST
BEN PHILLIPS LED A PROJECT
TO ANALYZE AND THEN ASSESS
AND MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS
BASED ON WHICH SPECIES
WILL INDEED DECLINE
OR EVEN PROLIFERATE
UNDER CERTAIN
CLIMATE PROJECTIONS.

The Narrator says ONE OF THE SPECIES
THAT BEN BELIEVES IS ALREADY
BEING IMPACTED BY
CLIMATE CHANGE HERE
IS THE RED SPRUCE.

The caption changes to "Ben Phillips. Conservation Scientist. Fundy Biosphere Reserve." He’s in his thirties. He has short dark hair and a beard. He wears a blue T-shirt and a matching cap.

Ben says THIS TREE'S BEING ATTACKED
BY THE BARK BEETLE.
AND YOU CAN SEE THESE
PITCH TUBES ALL OVER THE TREE.
ESSENTIALLY,
THE BEETLE HAS
BURROWED INTO THE TREE.
AND ONE OF THE DEFENSE
MECHANISMS OF THE TREE
IS TO TRY TO DROWN THE BEETLE.
SO THIS TREE IS PITCHING OUT
AN AMAZING AMOUNT OF PITCH,
AND IT JUST CAN'T...
IT'S UNSUSTAINABLE.
IT CAN'T KEEP THIS UP,
AND IT'S A GONER.
WELL, IN THE PAST,
THE SPRUCE BARK BEETLE HAS BEEN
JUST A NATIVE SPECIES
THAT PRETTY MUCH
YOU FIND IN TREES
THAT'RE KILLED BY
SOMETHING ELSE.
THEY'VE BEEN AROUND,
BUT THEY'VE NEVER BEEN
A THREAT TO THE FOREST BEFORE.
BUT LATELY,
IN THE PAST MAYBE
20, 30 YEARS,
SOMETHING HAS HAPPENED
WITH OUR CLIMATE
THAT'S RELEASED THE BEETLE.
WE WANT PEOPLE TO UNDERSTAND
THE IMPLICATIONS OF
THE CLIMATE CHANGE
AND HOW IT'S GOING TO
AFFECT OUR FORESTS.
SO WE'VE MAPPED ALL ACROSS
THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE
WHAT FOREST TYPES ARE THERE,
AND WHAT LEVEL
OF RESILIENCY
THEY SHOULD HAVE
TO CLIMATE CHANGE.

As he speaks, the screen shows him studying a tree and showing people a map of the area.

The Narrator says BEN'S RESEARCH HAS IDENTIFIED
EIGHT NATIVE TREE SPECIES
THAT SHOULD DO WELL HERE
AS THE CLIMATE CHANGES,
AND THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE
IS MAKING THAT INFORMATION
AVAILABLE TO LANDOWNERS
WHO WANT TO "FUTURE-PROOF."
THEIR FORESTS.

Megan says I WAS REALLY HAPPY TO
SEE THE RESULTS OF THIS PROJECT
BECAUSE IT PROVIDED ME WITH
A LITTLE MORE
INFORMATION TOWARDS
HOW TO MANAGE SOME OF THE STANDS
ON MY OWN PROPERTY,
WHICH WERE THE RESULT OF
CLEAR-CUTTING IN THE PAST.
SO THIS IS A
PRETTY GOOD EXAMPLE
OF A VERY UNIFORM
RED PINE STAND.
AND RED PINE IS ONE OF
THOSE BOREAL SPECIE
THAT IS PROJECTED
NOT TO DO WELL
UNDER A CHANGING CLIMATE.
SO, IN THIS CASE,
WE'VE UNDER-PLANTED WITH
SOME OTHER SPECIES...
LIKE RED MAPLE,
WHICH IS GOING TO BE
A RESILIENT SPECIES...
SO THAT WHEN
THE RED PINES DIE,
THEN WE HAVE SOMETHING
POISED TO REPLACE IT.

Ben appears walking down the beach.

He says IT'S ABOUT CREATING
A NEW CULTURE OF ADAPTATION.

The Narrator says IN ADDITION TO HIS ROLE
AS CONSERVATION SCIENTIST
FOR THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE,
BEN PHILLIPS ALSO TEACHES
DENDROCHRONOLOGY,
OR TREE RING SCIENCE,
AT MOUNT ALLISON UNIVERSITY.
TO FUNDY NATIONAL PARK,
A PLACE THAT HOLDS
SPECIAL MEANING FOR BEN.

New fast clips show Ben and the rest of the team working on their studies.

Ben says HANDS-ON EXPERIENCE
IS SO IMPORTANT.
YOU CAN LEARN THEORY IN
THE CLASSROOM ALL YOU WANT,
BUT UNTIL YOU ACTUALLY
GET OUT THERE,
AND GET YOUR HANDS
ON SOMETHING,
AND START DOING THE RESEARCH,
I DON'T THINK YOU REALLY
BUILD THE PASSION FOR IT.
TEN YEARS AGO,
WHEN I STARTED DOING
DENDROCHRONOLOGY,
I FOUND THE WORLD'S OLDEST
LIVING RED SPRUCE TREE
HERE IN FUNDY NATIONAL PARK,
IN THE CORE OF
THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE,
WHICH IS NOW ABOUT
465 YEARS OLD.
IT REALLY BUILT
A PASSION FOR ME.
I REALLY FEEL CONNECTED TO
THAT PARTICULAR SPECIES.

The Narrator says AROUND THE SAME TIME
THAT BEN WAS DISCOVERING
ANCIENT SPRUCE TREES
IN THE FORESTS OF
FUNDY NATIONAL PARK,
A YOUNG COREY CLARKE
WAS A STUDENT
VOLUNTEERING WITH THE PARK'S
EARLY SALMON RECOVERY PROGRAM.
TODAY COREY IS
A KEY PART OF A TEAM
THAT HAS COME UP
WITH A NEW IDEA
FOR HELPING THE INNER BAY
OF FUNDY ATLANTIC SALMON.

Corey says IT IS UNLIKELY THAT THE CAUSE OF
DECLINE OF THE INNER BAY OF
FUNDY ATLANTIC SALMON POPULATION
IS ONE SINGLE THING.
BUT WHAT'S REALLY
LIMITING THIS POPULATION
IS A LACK OF RETURNING ADULTS
FROM THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT.
AND THAT'S ONE OF
THE EXCITING THINGS
ABOUT THE COALITION THAT WE'RE
INVOLVED WITH RIGHT NOW...
THAT HAS LINKED A GROUP
THAT IS SORT OF LOW ON ADULTS
WITH A GROUP THAT
CAN GROW ADULTS
VERY, VERY EASILY.

Corey appears on board of a ship with a group of men.

The Narrator says OVER THE PAST FIVE YEARS,
COREY HAS BEEN WORKING CLOSELY
WITH CANADA'S BIGGEST
AQUACULTURE COMPANY,
COOKE AQUACULTURE,
TO CREATE WHAT'S LIKELY
THE WORLD'S FIRST
CONSERVATION FISH FARM
ON GRAND MANAN ISLAND
IN THE BAY OF FUNDY.

Corey says THE AQUACULTURE INDUSTRY
HAS IMMENSE EXPERIENCE,
SKILLS,
AND INFRASTRUCTURE
IN GROWING ADULT SALMON.
SO WE APPROACHED THE INDUSTRY
TO SEE IF THEY WOULD CONSIDER
GROWING SOME WILD FISH
IN THEIR COMMERCIAL SITES
IN THE BAY OF FUNDY.

The caption changes to "Howard Streight. Assistant Harvest Manager. Cooke Aquaculture Incorporated." He’s in his forties. He has short dark hair and is clean-shaven. He wears a white cap and a brown jacket with a red life vest.


Howard says IT REALLY WAS A NO-BRAINER TO
WORK WITH SOMEBODY
LIKE PARKS CANADA
ON A PROJECT
THAT'S THIS IMPORTANT.

Corey and Howard sail with the rest of the staff to reach a new spot in the water. The open the nets on top of the cages that contain fish.

The Narrator says COOK'S SEA CAGES NORMALLY HOLD
TENS OF THOUSANDS
OF FARMED SALMON.
SO THEY BUILT CUSTOM CAGES
FOR MUCH SMALLER NUMBERS
OF WILD FISH.
THE CUSTOM CAGES ARE ALSO
DIVIDED INTO DIFFERENT SEGMENTS
SO FISH FROM DIFFERENT RIVERS
CAN BE KEPT SEPARATE.

Howard says WE HAVE APPROXIMATELY
A THOUSAND FISH ON SITE.
THEY COME FROM THE TWO RIVERS
OF FUNDY NATIONAL PARK,
AND THEY ALSO COME
FROM THE POLLETT RIVER,
WHICH IS A TRIBUTARY
OF THE PETITCODIAC,
WHERE THEY WERE COLLECTED BY
THE FORT FOLLY FIRST NATION.
SO FOR ABOUT
THE NEXT 12 MONTHS,
THEY'RE FED DAILY,
TWICE DAILY, HAND FED.
THEY'RE VISITED BY VETERINARIANS
ON A MONTHLY BASIS.
AND THEN WE'LL BUNDLE THEM ALL
INTO A TRANSPORT VEHICLE
AND TAKE THEM BACK TO
THEIR HOME RIVERS.

The Narrator says GROWING THE INNER
ALLOWS THE RECOVERY TEAM
THAN AT THE GENE BANK HATCHERY.
IT ALSO GIVES THE FISH
A CLOSER-TO-WILD EXPERIENCE
IN THE OCEAN.
COREY'S RESEARCH INDICATES
THAT THIS WILL GIVE THESE FISH
AND THEIR OFFSPRING
THOSE REARED AT THE HATCHERY.

Tim says THE HOPE IS,
IF WE CAN PUT ENOUGH ADULTS
BACK IN THE RIVERS,
THAT THEY PRODUCE
A HUGE SMOLT RUN
COMING OUT OF
MULTIPLE RIVERS...
THAT IT MIGHT BE
THE DIFFERENCE IN
TURNING THIS WHOLE
THREAT OF EXTINCTION AROUND.

The Narrator says IF THE CONSERVATION
FISH FARM ON GRAND MANAN
IS SUCCESSFUL AT JUMP-STARTING
THE RECOVERY OF THE INNER BAY
OF FUNDY ATLANTIC SALMON,
THE OPERATION CAN
EASILY EXPAND
TO HELP OTHER
ENDANGERED POPULATIONS.
BUT FOR THE MOMENT,
COREY AND HIS PARTNERS ARE
FOCUSED ON RESTORING SALMON
TO THE FUNDY BIOSPHERE RESERVE.

Corey says Y'KNOW, SOMETIMES
IT CAN GET DISCOURAGING.
BUT INCREASINGLY I CAN
BE INSPIRED BY
HOW MANY PEOPLE
ARE TRYING TO HELP.
I HOPE, FOR THEIR SAKE,
THAT WE'RE ONTO SOMETHING,
BECAUSE I SEE EVERY DAY
HOW HARD PEOPLE ARE TRYING.

Ben says WE'VE MADE A LOT OF
CHANGE ON THIS PLANET,
AND ALL THOSE THINGS ARE ALL
TIED UP IN THE SALMON STORY.
SO IT'S A VERY COMPLEX STORY,
AND IT PROBABLY HAS
A CLIMATE CHANGE SIDE TO IT.
BUT WE JUST NEED TO DO ALL WE
CAN DO IN THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE
TO MAKE SURE THAT
OUR RIVERS ARE HEALTHY.
SO WE'RE HOPEFULLY GONNA BE
WORKING ON SOME NEW PROJECTS,
LOOKING AT OUR WATERSHEDS,
AND TRYING TO MAKE THEM
MORE HEALTHY AND OPEN TO FISH.

Paul says AT THE OUTSET,
I THINK WE JUST FIGURED THAT
A BIOSPHERE RESERVE DESIGNATION
BY UNESCO WOULD BE COOL...
BUT AS MUCH AS
I FELT THE BIO-SPHERE
WAS GONNA BE ABOUT SINGING OUR
SONG TO THE REST OF THE WORLD,
IT'S REALLY BEEN
VERY MUCH
AN EXPLORATION INWARD...
INTO OUR OWN PLACE,
INTO OUR OWN BACKYARD,
INTO OUR OWN HOMES.
WE HAVE TO INTERACT
WITH OUR ENVIRONMENT.

Donald says WE HAVE TO INTERACT WITH
OUR BIOSPHERE.
THERE'S BEEN SOME
TIMES IN THE PAST
THAT THINGS HAVE MAYBE NOT GONE
THE WAY THAT THEY SHOULD'VE.
BUT WE LEARN FROM OUR
MISTAKES OF THE PAST.
AND THAT'S THE CONCEPT
OF THE BIOSPHERE...
IS THAT WE CONTINUE
TO INTERACT WITH
OUR OWN ENVIRONMENT,
BUT WE DO IT IN A CONSCIOUSLY
MORE SUSTAINABLE WAY
SO THAT WE CAN
LIVE IN A BETTER FUTURE.

A series of fast clips shows scenes of the episode.

The Narrator says AFTER A YEAR AND A HALF
IN THE GRAND MANAN SEA CAGES,
400 SALMON ARE RETURNING TO
THE RIVERS OF FUNDY
NATIONAL PARK.
THEY ARE BEING DELIVERED BY
COAST GUARD HELICOPTER
DIRECTLY TO THEIR
SPAWNING GROUNDS
IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PARK.

A helicopter discharges a green container full of fish into the water.

Corey says THE REAL HOPE HERE IS THAT
THE FISH THAT WE RELEASE
WILL SPAWN
AND THEY WILL PRODUCE OFFSPRING
WHICH HAVE BEEN HATCHED
AND SURVIVED
ENTIRELY IN THE WILD
HERE IN FUNDY NATIONAL PARK.
WE'VE NEVER RELEASED THIS MANY
FISH INTO THIS RIVER BEFORE,
AND WE WILL BE RELEASING
EVEN MORE IN FUTURE YEARS.
WE HAVE MADE THE GREATEST
CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONSERVATION,
IN MY OPINION,
WHEN WE'VE COLLABORATED
WITH ALL OF OUR NEIGHBOURS
AND PARTNERS.
THE PROOF IS IN THE RIVER TODAY
THAT ALL OF THAT CAN
ADD UP TO SOMETHING AMAZING.

A caption reads
THE SALMON WERE RELEASED IN THE
FALL OF 2015.
BY THE SUMMER OF 2016, AT LEAST
ONE ADULT HAD ALREADY RETURNED
TO THE RIVER IN FUNDY NATIONAL PARK.
SHE WAS FOUND BEING EATEN BY A BALD
EAGLE, ONCE AGAIN PART OF THE
ECOSYSTEM.

(music plays)

The end credits roll.

For more on the biosphere reserves of Striking Balance www.striking balance.ca

Director and Editor, Zach Melnick.

Producer and Graphics, Yvonne Drebert.

Executive Producer TVO, Jane Jankovic.

Copyright 2016, Striking Balance Incorporated.

Watch: Ep. 7 - Fundy