Transcript: More Food, Less Water | Mar 31, 2017

A logo on a black background fades in and reads: "TVO Originals".

(soft music plays)

Fast clips show fields irrigation, a dust storm, cracks on the ground, a crowded street market and a female volunteer distributing food.

Tyler says THE VAST MAJORITY OF
THE WORLD S WATER RESOURCES
ARE USED BY AGRICULTURE,
AND THE MOST PRODUCTIVE REGIONS
ARE RUNNING OUT OF WATER.
RISING POPULATIONS,
UNSUSTAINABLE IRRIGATION
PRACTICES,
AND PROLONGED DROUGHTS,
ARE THREATENING GLOBAL WATER
SUPPLIES
AND FOOD SECURITY LIKE NEVER
BEFORE.

Alex says TO IMPROVE THE WATER
SCARCITY SITUATION WE MUST
INCREASE OUR INNOVATIONS IN
ORDER TO GROW MORE FOOD
USING LESS WATER.

The title of the episode appears in the sky: More Food, Less Water.

Tyler is in his late twenties with brown hair and wears a green plaid shirt, and is clean-shaven.
A fast clip shows Tyler, jumping into a waterfall, dancing in a crowd and scuba diving.
A caption reads "Tyler."

Tyler says HEY EVERYONE, I M TYLER.
AND THIS IS MY YOUNGER BROTHER,
ALEX.

A fast clip shows Alex water skiing, standing next to a fire, swimming with sharks, and watching a train pass by.
A caption reads "Alex."
Alex is in his late twenties with light brown hair and is not clean-shaven. He wears a black striped hoodie.

Alex says AND TOGETHER,
WE RE THE WATER BROTHERS.

Then photos show Alex and Tyler as little boys hugging, in wetsuits and Alex with snorkels.

A fast clip shows the brothers walking in a poor area, hiking in ice, canoeing on a lake, then sailing a boat, scuba diving in the ocean, then two fisherman throw their nets out into the water and a group of dolphins play in the ocean.

Alex continues WE RE GOING TO TAKE YOU ON AN
ADVENTURE AROUND THE WORLD
TO EXPLORE THE STATE OF OUR
BLUE PLANET.
A PLANET DEFINED BY WATER
AND IT S ABILITY TO
SUSTAIN LIFE.

The fast clip continues showing the two brothers in a speedboat, a woman pumping water, and another woman pulling water from a well.

Tyler says SO JOIN US ON OUR JOURNEY
AS WE EXPLORE THE WORLD
LOOKING AT THE MOST IMPORTANT
WATER STORIES OF OUR TIME.

The title of the show appears on screen. It reads "The Water Brothers."

Alex says AND TOGETHER WE WILL LEARN
HOW TO BETTER PROTECT
OUR MOST PRECIOUS RESOURCE.

Tyler says THE STRAIN OF A
GROWING HUMAN POPULATION
THAT EATS MORE AND MORE
FOOD EACH YEAR
IS TAKING AN INCREDIBLE TOLL
ON THE ENVIRONMENT,
ESPECIALLY OUR FRESHWATER
RESOURCES.
WHILE GAINS IN AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTIVITY HAVE HELPED FEED
BILLIONS, THIS HAS COME AT A
HEAVY COST.

A clip shows hundreds of chickens restrained in a breeding establishment, bottles of mils carried in a conveyor belt, factory workers selecting corn hobs, a man using an electric chainsaw to cut a tree and a deforested area.

Alex says FOR THE MOST PART,
CURRENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES
ARE DESTROYING SOIL PRODUCTIVITY
AND REDUCING BIODIVERSITY.
COUNTLESS RIVERS, LAKES,
AND AQUIFERS
ARE BEING POLLUTED
AND PUMPED DRY.

The caption changes to "Dr. Evan Fraser. Canada Research Chair in Global Food Security. University of Guelph." He is in his early forties, clean-shaven with short blond hair. He wears a blue shirt.

Evan says AGRICULTURE IS THE
WORLD S LARGEST CONSUMER OF
WATER, ABOUT 70 percent OF THE WATER
THAT HUMANITY TAKES OUT OF THE
RIVERS, TAKES OUT OF THE
GROUNDWATER SOURCES
ACTUALLY IS USED FOR IRRIGATION.
BY CONTRAST ONLY ABOUT 10 percent IS
USED FOR DOMESTIC USES
AND THE REMAINING 20 percent
IS FOR INDUSTRY.

Standing in a field, Tyler says WE PRODUCE MORE
FOOD EACH YEAR THAN EVER BEFORE,
BUT BECAUSE WATER IS RELATIVELY
CHEAP
AND MANY FARMERS DO NOT
HAVE ACCESS
TO WATER EFFICIENT EQUIPMENT
AND TECHNOLOGY,
MANY FARMS ARE EXTREMELY
WASTEFUL WITH WATER.
IT S ESTIMATED THAT OF THE 2500
TRILLION LITERS OF FRESHWATER
USED IN AGRICULTURE EACH YEAR,
OVER 60 percent OF IT IS WASTED,
NEVER REACHING CROP ROOTS
BECAUSE OF INEFFICIENT
IRRIGATION METHODS,
LEAKY INFRASTRUCTURE,
AND EVAPORATION.

An animated world map appears. USA, Brazil, India and China are highlighted in brown.

Alex says IT S NO SURPRISE THEN, THAT THE WORLD S BIGGEST
THAT THE WORLD S BIGGEST
FOOD PRODUCING COUNTRIES ARE ALL
FACING WATER SHORTAGES.

Evan says SO AT THE SAME TIME
AS THE GLOBAL POPULATION IS
GROWING FROM ITS CURRENT LEVEL
OF ABOUT 7 BILLION UP TO AN
EXPECTED 9 BILLION OR PERHAPS
EVEN 11 BILLION OVER THE
NEXT 100 YEARS, WE ARE ALSO
EXPERIENCING RAPID URBANIZATION,
AND THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE
URBAN PEOPLE TEND TO EAT MORE
RESOURCE INTENSIVE DIETS.
THEY TYPICALLY HAVE A LITTLE BIT
MORE CASH IN THEIR POCKETS
AND THEY TYPICALLY BUY A BIT
MORE IN THE WAY
OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS,
DAIRY, MEAT ETC.

A woman has dessert in a bar terrace and a group of men eat fast food in a mall.

The caption changes to "Dr. Tony Weis. Author. The Ecological Footprint." Tony is in his late thirties, with a short beard and brown hair. He wears a brown shirt.

Sitting in an office crowded with books, Tony says IN 1960, THE AVERAGE
PERSON
ON EARTH CONSUMED ABOUT
23KG OF MEAT PER YEAR.
THAT'S IN A WORLD OF ABOUT
3 BILLION PEOPLE.
TODAY IN A WORLD OF OVER
7 BILLION PEOPLE,
THE AVERAGE PERSON ON EARTH
IS CONSUMING
OVER 43KG OF MEAT PER YEAR.

An animation recreates the data mentioned around a spinning globe.

Tony continues SO, NEARLY A DOUBLING IN PER
CAPITA MEAT CONSUMPTION
ON A WORLD SCALE IN THE CONTEXT
OF HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH,
MORE THAN DOUBLING.

Cows graze in crowded cattle cages and in an open field.

Evan says NOW THIS IS
PROBLEMATIC FROM
A WATER PERSPECTIVE BECAUSE
PRODUCING MEAT AND DAIRY
REQUIRES MORE INPUTS,
IT REQUIRES MORE FEED,
IT REQUIRES MORE WATER,
IT REQUIRES MORE ENERGY.
AND SO THESE VERY THIRSTY FORMS
OF AGRICULTURE
ARE RISING AT A TIME WHEN
WE ARE FACING
AN OVERALL GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE
OF LESS WATER.
AND SO THIS DIETARY SHIFT IN
ADDITION TO
THE POPULATION GROWTH,
REPRESENTS A MAJOR CHALLENGE
THAT FACES THE NEXT GENERATION.

Alex talks to the screen as he walks in a food market.

Alex says THE UNITED NATIONS
ESTIMATES THAT IF WE WANT TO
FEED THE WORLD S RAPIDLY GROWING
POPULATION, AND KEEP UP WITH
RISING DEMAND FOR FOOD,
WE WILL NEED TO
INCREASE FOOD PRODUCTION
BY 70 percent BY 2050.
TO DO THIS, WE MUST FIGURE OUT
CLEVER WAYS TO PRODUCE
MORE FOOD, USING LESS WATER.

Tyler says MORE WATER GOES INTO
GROWING OUR FOOD
THAN MANY PEOPLE REALIZE.
WHILE AN APPLE MAY ONLY CONTAIN
A COUPLE HUNDRED MILLILITERS
OF WATER,
ABOUT 70 LITERS OF WATER
IS NEEDED TO GROW
A SINGLE APPLE TO MARKET SIZE.
THAT MAY SEEM LIKE A LOT, BUT
TYPE OF FARMING REQUIRES MORE
WATER THAN LIVESTOCK AND DAIRY
PRODUCTION.
A SINGLE GLASS OF MILK REQUIRES
OVER
200 LITERS OF WATER TO PRODUCE,
WHEREAS A SINGLE HAMBURGER,
WELL OVER 2000 LITERS.

A virtual water consumption animation appears. It shows the comparison Tyler explains.

Alex walks by cattle kept in cages in a farm and says IF WE WANT TO USE LESS
WATER AND GROW MORE FOOD,
WE SIMPLY HAVE TO GET MUCH
SMARTER ABOUT THE PROCESS OF
RAISING LIVESTOCK, AND ONE OF
THE BEST WAYS TO DO THAT IS TO
REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF WASTEWATER
PRODUCED ON FARMS,
AND THAT'S BECAUSE EACH ONE OF
THESE COWS WILL
PRODUCE UP TO 120 POUNDS OF
WASTE PER DAY,
AND CLEANING ALL THAT UP
REQUIRES A LOT OF WATER,
BUT IT DOESN'T HAVE TO BE
THAT WAY,
AND THAT'S WHAT'S BROUGHT US
HERE TO MCCORMICK FARMS
IN UPSTATE NEW YORK, TO SEE HOW
THEY ARE USING NEW TECHNOLOGY
TO DEAL WITH ANIMAL WASTE.

The caption changes to "Jim McCormick. Owner. McCormick Farms." Jim is in his early sixties, clean-shaven with short white hair. He wears a light green cap and a plaid shirt.

Jim says MCCORMICK FARMS
STARTED IN 1945,
WE STARTED WITH POTATOES
AND WENT INTO THE DAIRY BUSINESS
BUT TODAY WE RE MILKING 2,000
COWS AND WE RAISE 3,000 ACRES OF
POTATOES FOR THE POTATO CHIP
INDUSTRY.

The caption changes to "J.R. Brooks. General Manager. Livestock Water Recycling." J.R. is in his late thirties, clean-shaven with a shaved head. He wears black trousers and a light blue shirt.

Alex chats with J.R.

J.R. says A COW WILL DRINK ON
AVERAGE,
30 GALLONS OF WATER A DAY,
AND THEN ANOTHER 80 GALLONS WILL
BE USED FOR WASH,
COOLING THE ANIMALS AND SO ON,
SO AN OPERATION WITH 2,500 COWS
WILL PRODUCE 35 MILLION
GALLONS OF MANURE A YEAR,
SO THAT'S THE EQUIVALENT OF A
CITY OF A LITTLE MORE THEN
400,000 PEOPLE, THE AMOUNT OF
WASTE THAT IS PRODUCED
FROM THAT.

A male operator uses a water hose to clean the metallic round surface where automatic milking occurs.

Tyler says FOR DECADES,
MCCORMICK FARMS HANDLED
WASTEWATER JUST LIKE ANY
OTHER CONCENTRATED ANIMAL
FEEDING OPERATION OR CAFO,
BUT A GROWING CONCERN ABOUT THE
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
AND THE EXPENSE OF MANAGING VAST
AMOUNTS OF MANURE INSPIRED
THEM TO INSTALL A STATE OF THE
ART TECHNOLOGY CALLED LWR,
THE LIVESTOCK WATER RECYCLING
SYSTEM.

Alex says HOW DOES MANURE AND
WASTEWATER GET DEALT WITH ON
TRADITIONAL FARMS, LARGE-SCALE
DAIRY, AND LIVESTOCK OPERATIONS?

J.R. says SO TRADITIONALLY,
A FARM LIKE THIS WOULD STORE ALL
OF ITS MANURE IN LARGE LAGOONS,
THEY STORE MILLIONS OF MILLIONS
OF GALLONS IN LARGE LAGOONS
THE SIZE OF FOOTBALL FIELDS,
AND THEN THEY WOULD
TAKE THAT MANURE OUT OF THE
LAGOON AND THEY WOULD
SIMPLY SPREAD IT ON THEIR LAND.
THE CATCH FOR THAT IS THAT
SPREADING IT ON YOUR LAND
THERE S LIMITS TO HOW MUCH YOU
CAN SPREAD ON SO MUCH LAND
BEFORE IT BECOMES SATURATED,
THERE S REGULATIONS SO THAT
THERE S NOT RUN-OFF,
NUTRIENT EXCESS,
AND THEN TRUCKING IT, SO IF
YOU ONLY HAVE SO MUCH LAND,
YOU HAVE TO TRUCK THAT MANURE
REALLY FAR,
WHICH IS COSTLY AND NOT GREAT
FOR THE ENVIRONMENT OBVIOUSLY,
IT'S CREATING EMISSIONS.

A pig crammed in a cage chew the bars nervously.

Tony says TODAY WHEN YOU HAVE THESE
VAST CONCENTRATIONS OF ANIMALS
IN HUGE AND GROWING DENSITIES,
THEY PRODUCE FAR MORE FECAL
MATTER THEN CAN BE ABSORBED IN
NEARBY LANDSCAPES.
AND NOT ONLY IS THERE THE VOLUME
QUESTION, THERE S ALSO WHAT THAT
FECAL MATTER CONTAINS IS VERY
DIFFERENT NOW.

Alex says ALTHOUGH MANURE IS
EXTREMELY RICH IN PHOSPHORUS
AND NITROGEN AND IS AN IMPORTANT
SOURCE OF FERTILIZER,
WHEN TOO MUCH IS SPREAD
IN ONE AREA,
IT RUNS OFF INTO LOCAL WATERWAYS AND CONTRIBUTES
TO THE CREATION OF ALGAE BLOOMS
THAT CAN BE TOXIC
AND DEPLETE WATER OF LIFE
GIVING OXYGEN.

Hundreds of dead fish float in a lake.

Alex continues EVEN WHEN MANURE IS APPLIED IN
CORRECT AMOUNTS,
IT STILL CONTAINS HIGH LEVELS OF
PESTICIDE
AND ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES
FROM FEED.
Tyler says LIVESTOCK WATER
RECYCLING IS A CANADIAN COMPANY
THAT HELPS FARMS SOLVE THESE
WATER POLLUTION AND CONSUMPTION
PROBLEMS AT THE SAME TIME,
TECHNICAL MANAGER,
GARETH JENKINS WAS ON HAND
TO GIVE US AN UP CLOSE LOOK
AT THE LWR SYSTEM IN ACTION.

Now, Alex and Gareth stand by a huge recycling system.

Alex says SO GARETH, IT LOOKS LIKE
WE'VE COME INTO THE HEART OF
THE OPERATION HERE,
TELL US HOW THE SYSTEM WORKS.

The caption changes to "Gareth Jenkins. Technologist. Livestock Water Recycling" Gareth is in his mid-thirties, with curly brown hair and clean-shaven. He wears a blue polo-shirt and blue jeans.

Gareth says SURE, SO WHAT WE DO
IS WE BRING IN THE MANURE FROM
THAT TANK IN FRONT OF US THERE,
WE PUMP IT IN,
WE ADD A COUPLE CHEMICALS TO IT
TO GET THE SOLIDS
TO COME OUT OF SOLUTION,
AND IT COMES UP TO THAT
BIG DOUBLE BARRELLED STAINLESS
STEEL TANK THERE,
WHICH MIXES THE CHEMISTRY IN,
AND THEN THE SOLIDS TRAVEL DOWN
THE SCREEN INTO THE SCREW PRESS,
WHICH IS GONNA GIVE A FINAL
SQUEEZE
TO REMOVE THE LAST LITTLE BIT OF
LIQUIDS OUT OF IT.
AND THE CLEAN LIQUID WILL DRAIN
THROUGH INTO THE TANK UNDERNEATH
AND THEN PUMP ONTO THE REST OF
THE SYSTEM.

Alex says THE WATER SPRAYING
UP HERE YOU GOT TO WATCH OUT FOR
THAT I GUESS TOO?

Gareth says WELL IT DOES SPRAY A
LITTLE BIT, NORMALLY WE HAVE A
COVER ON THIS SCREEN,
WE'VE TAKEN IT OFF SO YOU
CAN GET A GOOD IDEA OF HOW
THE OPERATION WORKS.
THE SYSTEM RUNS 21 HOURS A DAY,
7 DAYS A WEEK.

Alex says OKAY, SO PRETTY MUCH ALL
THE TIME.
I GUESS THE COWS NEVER
STOP POOPING.

Gareth says THEY DON T STOP POOPING,
NO.

Alex says ONCE THE MANURE
SOLIDS ARE REMOVED AND STORED
FOR USE AS A PHOSPHORUS RICH
FERTILIZER,
THE REMAINING LIQUID PASSES
THROUGH REVERSE OSMOSIS
MEMBRANES THAT
FILTER OUT SALTS,
MICROBES AND OTHER IMPURITIES
SUCH AS CHEMICAL
AND PHARMACEUTICAL RESIDUES.
THE BY-PRODUCT OF THIS STAGE IS
A LIQUID FERTILIZER THAT
CONTAINS HIGH LEVELS OF
NITROGEN.

Tyler says BY SEPARATING
NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS,
THE SYSTEM ALLOWS FARMERS TO
MANAGE FERTILIZERS
MORE PRECISELY,
PREVENTING NUTRIENT OVERLOADING
AND POLLUTION ON NEARBY FIELDS
AND WATER SOURCES.

A tractor carries manure.

He continues ANY EXCESS NUTRIENTS CAN EVEN BE
SOLD OFF TO CREATE AN ADDITIONAL
REVENUE STREAM FOR FARMERS.
WHAT S LEFT IS CLEAN WATER THAT
IS SAFE ENOUGH TO BE CONSUMED
BY COWS OR EVEN PEOPLE.

Alex and Gareth make a toast with the resulting water from the manure recycling system.

Alex says ALL RIGHT,
ONE THING LEFT TO DO.

Gareth says THAT'S RIGHT, CHEERS.

Alex says I'VE HAD RECYCLED WASTE
WATER BEFORE,
THIS IS SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT,
BUT IT TASTES GOOD
AND IT JUST GETS CYCLED RIGHT
THROUGH THE SYSTEM
AND NICE CLEAN WATER FOR ALL
THE COWS TO ENJOY.

Gareth says YEP, FOR SURE.

Tyler says LWR ALLOWS 75 percent OF
MANURE LIQUIDS TO BE RECYCLED
INTO POTABLE WATER THAT CAN BE
REUSED TO PROVIDE DRINKING
AND WASH WATER FOR THE BARNS
OR TO IRRIGATE CROPS.

Jim says WHEN YOU ADD UP ALL THOSE
THINGS, WE FEEL AS THOUGH IT
PAYS FOR ITSELF OR WILL IN A
MATTER OF 3 OR 4 YEARS.

Alex says WHAT WAS ONCE A
TROUBLESOME LIABILITY
HAS BEEN TURNED INTO THREE
VALUABLE PRODUCTS THAT SAVE TIME
AND MONEY AND PREVENT WATER
POLLUTION.
FARMS THAT HAVE INSTALLED
THE LWR SYSTEM
HAVE REDUCED THEIR WATER
CONSUMPTION BY OVER 40 percent
AND ELIMINATED THE NEED
FOR LARGE LAGOONS.

Jim says IT'S BECOME A MUCH EASIER
PROBLEM TO HANDLE
IN OUR BUSINESS,
BECAUSE IT IS A PROBLEM,
COW MANURE IS A PROBLEM IN THE
DAIRY INDUSTRY.
IF PEOPLE COULD UNDERSTAND
HOW MUCH DAIRY FARMERS,
HOW MUCH EFFORT THAT WE PUT IN
TO HAVING A CLEAN FACILITY,
HAVING THE COWS UNDER THE RIGHT
CONDITIONS, I THINK THEY D BE
SURPRISED ON HOW MUCH WE CARE
ABOUT OUR COWS.
A LOT OF PEOPLE HAVE THIS IDEA
THAT THEY DON'T CARE ABOUT THEIR
COWS, AND THAT'S NOT TRUE AT
ALL, WE WANT THE BEST CONDITIONS
POSSIBLE FOR OUR COWS, A HAPPY
COW IS WHAT MAKES YOU MONEY.

Tyler says RECYCLING WASTEWATER
ON CONCENTRATED LIVESTOCK FARMS
CAN DRAMATICALLY REDUCE THE
WATER FOOTPRINT OF
MEAT AND DAIRY PRODUCTION,
HOWEVER,
DESPITE THE MANY BENEFITS OF
THIS TECHNOLOGY
IT DOES NOT SOLVE THE SINGLE
LARGEST SOURCE OF WATER USE
IN ANIMAL AGRICULTURE,
THE LARGE VOLUMES OF WATER
REQUIRED TO GROW FEED CROPS.

Tony says CLOSE TO A THIRD OF
THE WORLD'S ARABLE LAND IS
DEVOTED TO FEED CROPS,
THE BIGGEST IS MAIZE,
SECOND BIGGEST IS SOY BEANS,
SOY BEANS IS
OVERWHELMINGLY GOING NOT TO
TOFU,
IT'S GOING TO ANIMAL FEED.
BOTH OF THOSE CROPS HAVE
EXPERIENCED PHENOMENAL GROWTH IN
BOTH YIELD BUT ALSO IN LAND AREA
OVER THE PAST HALF-CENTURY OR
SO, AND ALSO THOSE ARE VERY,
ESPECIALLY MAIZE,
VERY INPUT INTENSIVE CROPS.

A harvester machine crosses a field.

Tyler says ONE OF THE MOST
EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS FOR LOWERING
WATER USE IN AGRICULTURE WILL BE
TO REDUCE GLOBAL DEMAND FOR
MEAT AND DAIRY PRODUCTS AND FIND
ALTERNATE SOURCES OF PROTEIN
AND NUTRITION IN OUR DIETS.

Alex says WE'RE HERE AT ENTOMO FARMS
NEAR NORWOOD ONTARIO,
WHERE THEY RE GROWING SOME OF
THE HEALTHIEST,
LOW IMPACT FOOD SOURCES ON
THE PLANET,
THE ONLY OBSTACLE FOR SOME
PEOPLE IS THAT
THEIR PROTEIN COMES FROM THESE
LITTLE GUYS.

Alex shows his hands covered with crickets.

Tyler says ENTOMO FARMS IS A
FAMILY BUSINESS FOUNDED BY
THREE BROTHERS THAT STARTED OUT
FARMING CRICKETS
AND OTHER INSECTS FOR THE
REPTILE TRADE,
BUT THE MANY NUTRITIONAL
AND ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF
USING INSECTS AS HUMAN FOOD SOON
BECAME TOO BIG TO IGNORE.
WE MET WITH ONE OF THE BROTHERS,
JARROD GOLDIN, WHO TOOK US TO
THE HATCHING ROOM WHERE THE
OPERATION BEGINS.

Alex says SO HOW MANY CRICKETS ARE
WE SURROUNDED BY RIGHT NOW,
APPROXIMATELY?

The caption changes to "Jarrod Goldin. Co-Founder. Entomo Farms." Jarrod is in his mid-forties, with receding black hair and clean-shaven. He wears a denim shirt.

Jarrod says SO IN THE WHOLE FACILITY
THERE S ABOUT 30 TO 40 MILLION
CRICKETS,
THEY'RE EACH IN PRETTY LARGE
ROOMS OF ABOUT
5,000 SQUARE FEET.

Tyler says CRICKETS CAN BE
RAISED IN EXTREMELY HIGH
DENSITIES AND GROW INCREDIBLY
FAST NEEDING LESS THAN TWO
MONTHS TO GROW FROM A HATCHLING
TO MARKET SIZE.

Jarrod uncovers a plastic container where crickets walk on soil substrate.

Jarrod says THE EGGS ARE STILL
WHITE,
AND THE BABY CRICKETS,
THE NEW HATCHLINGS,
ARE WHITE AS WELL FOR ABOUT
HALF AN HOUR
UNTIL THEY GET THEIR EXOSKELETON
AND THEN THEY'LL TURN BROWN.

Alex says SO YEAH,
THEY RE ALL WHITE,
SO THESE ONES HAVE JUST HATCHED.

Jarrod says THEY RE SECONDS
TO MINUTES OLD, YEAH,
THERE S TENS OF THOUSANDS
OF CRICKETS IN HERE.

Jarrod says ALRIGHT, SO WELCOME TO
THE BIG ROOM.

Alex says OH, THIS IS INSANE.
YOU SAID YOU HAD MILLIONS OF
THEM, SO NOW I BELIEVE YOU.

Jarrod says YEAH THIS IS WHERE YOU
CAN SEE THEM
EATING IN THEIR TROUGHS,
DRINKING THEIR WATER,
GROWING UP INTO NICE
DELICIOUS FOOD.

Alex says AND I M NOT GOING TO STEP
ON ANY RIGHT NOW AM I?

Jarrod says NO, THEY'LL SCATTER.
THEY RE IN THEIR CONDOS,
HERE FOR ABOUT 4 WEEKS,
EATING, DRINKING, UNTIL WE
EVENTUALLY HARVEST THEM
AND THEN WE USE ICE TO PUT THEM
TO SLEEP, NICE AND GENTLY,
AND THEN WE TAKE THEM OVER TO
THE PROCESSING FACILITY.

Alex says AND TELL US A LITTLE ABOUT
WHAT THEY RE EATING RIGHT NOW,
AND HOW MUCH WATER THEY NEED TO
SURVIVE?

Jarrod says SO THIS IS A BASIC GRAIN
INPUT, THE SAME GRAIN YOU MAY
USE TO IN CHICKEN FARMING,
HOG FARMING
OR THAT'S RELATED TO COW
FARMING EVEN.
THE AMAZING THING ABOUT CRICKETS
IS IN COWS,
FOR EXAMPLE, YOU NEED 10 UNITS
OF FEED INPUT
TO PRODUCE 1 UNIT OF
FOOD OUTPUT,
AND WITH CRICKETS 10 UNITS OF
INPUT,
PRODUCE ABOUT 7 UNITS OF OUTPUT.
SO THE TRADITIONAL BEEF-FARMING
ANIMALS ARE VERY INEFFICIENT
CONVERTERS OF FOOD.
CRICKETS ARE INCREDIBLE
CONVERTERS OF FOOD.
THAT FOOD TAKES A LOT OF WATER
TO GROW, SO ONE OF THE MAIN
REASONS THEY RE SO EFFICIENT IN
SAVING WATER, RELATIVE TO OTHER
TRADITIONAL PROTEIN OF
FOOD FARMING,
IS THEIR FOOD CONVERSIONS.
AS WELL AS HOW MUCH WATER
THEY NEED.
FOR EXAMPLE, IT TAKES ABOUT 100
GALLONS OF WATER TO PRODUCE
A POUND OF BEEF PROTEIN,
AND ABOUT A GALLON OF WATER
TO PRODUCE THE
SAME AMOUNT OF PROTEIN FROM
CRICKETS.

Animated slates show the comparisons explained by Jarrod.

Alex says SO JUST LIKE A TINY
FRACTION OF WHAT IT TAKES TO
PRODUCE BEEF OR OTHER LIVESTOCK.

Jarrod says ANOTHER REALLY GREAT
ANALOGY IS IF A FAMILY OF FOUR
WERE TO EAT INSECT PROTEIN JUST
ONE DAY A WEEK.
SO LET'S SAY ON AVERAGE WE NEED
ABOUT 50 GRAMS OF PROTEIN A DAY,
IF A FAMILY OF FOUR WERE TO EAT
INSECT PROTEIN ONE DAY A WEEK
FOR A YEAR, THAT FAMILY OF FOUR,
WOULD SAVE THE PLANET ALMOST A
MILLION LITERS OF WATER A YEAR.

Alex says JUST ONE FAMILY?

Jarrod says JUST ONE FAMILY OF FOUR.

Tyler says ONCE THE CRICKETS ARE
FULL-GROWN THEY ARE TRANSFERRED
TO A PROCESSING FACILITY TO BE
OVEN ROASTED
AND GROUND UP INTO
A FINE POWDER.
ONE OF THE BEST PARTS ABOUT
EATING CRICKETS IS THAT THEY CAN
BE MIXED INTO ALMOST ANY COMMON
FOOD ITEM TO PROVIDE A
NUTRITIONAL BOOST HIGH IN
PROTEIN AND OTHER
ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS.
THE POSSIBILITIES ARE VIRTUALLY
ENDLESS.

Fast clips show biscuits, cakes, chocolates, a salad and a soup.

Then, Tyler and Alex taste and enjoy the cricket soup.

Jarrod says SO WE CALL CRICKETS THE
GATEWAY BUG,
I THINK YOU KNOW WHAT THE
CALIFORNIA ROLL WAS TO SUSHI,
CRICKETS ARE TO ENTOMOPHAGY,
OR EATING OF INSECTS.
IT'S A START YOU KNOW.
WE JUST NEED TO GET PEOPLE IN
THE DOOR AND UNDERSTANDING THE
TREMENDOUS ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS
AND THE AMAZING HEALTH BENEFITS.

Alex says SO IT ISN'T JUST EATING
RAW BUGS, WE RE NOT JUST
COMING IN HERE TO JUST TAKE A
HANDFUL.

Jarrod says IT'S NOT FEAR FACTOR.
IT'S REALLY THE FUTURE OF FOOD.

Alex says EATING INSECTS MAY
SEEM WEIRD, BUT HUMANS HAVE
BEEN EATING THEM EVER SINCE WE
BECAME HUMANS, AND TODAY OVER
2 BILLION PEOPLE STILL EAT
INSECTS ON A REGULAR BASIS.

A clip shows a male politician and a woman eating insects next to a group of people in an exhibition. The caption changes to "John Tory. Mayor. City of Toronto."

Alex continues NOW IT S ONLY A MATTER OF
CONVINCING PEOPLE IN PLACES
LIKE NORTH AMERICA THAT INSECTS
ARE A HEALTHY
AND TASTY ALTERNATIVE TO HELP
REPLACE SOME OF THE WATER
AND RESOURCE INTENSIVE PROTEIN
SOURCES IN OUR DIETS.

A boy tastes an insect and says SURPRISINGLY GOOD.

Now, Tyler wears a safety helmet and yellow vest.

In a plant, Tyler says IT'S HARD TO PREDICT IF
INSECT PROTEIN WILL REALLY TAKE
OFF IN NORTH AMERICA WHEN CHEAP
FACTORY RAISED MEAT IS STILL
WIDELY AVAILABLE, BUT REGARDLESS
OF WHAT WE RE GROWING AND EATING
WE NEED TO REDUCE THE HUGE
AMOUNTS OF WATER THAT
AGRICULTURE USES, AND ONE OF
THE BEST WAYS TO DO THAT,
IS TO CUT BACK ON THE MASSIVE
AMOUNT OF FOOD THAT IS
WASTED EACH YEAR.

A truck unloads garbage bags in a large facility.

Evan says SO THANKS TO
POPULATION GROWTH,
MOST PEOPLE THINK THAT BY 2050
THERE WILL BE ABOUT 9 BILLION
PEOPLE ON THE PLANET,
AND THAT UNLESS THE
FARMERS PRODUCE APPROXIMATELY
70 percent MORE FOOD, THE WORLD WILL
BECOME HUNGRIER, MORE VIOLENT
AND MORE DISEASE RIDDEN.
WHILE THAT PROBABLY IS TRUE,
AND REPRESENTS A MAJOR CHALLENGE
WE ALSO HAVE TO ACKNOWLEDGE THE
FACT THAT TODAY
THERE IS ENOUGH FOOD.
TODAY WE PRODUCE ABOUT 2850
CALORIES, DIETARY CALORIES
PER PERSON, PER DAY,
AND WE WASTE ABOUT A THIRD OF
THE WORLD S FOOD.
AT THE SAME TIME WE FACE
THE IMPERATIVE TO
IMPROVE PRODUCTION,
OR INCREASE PRODUCTION,
WE ALSO HAVE TO ACKNOWLEDGE THAT
THERE S A MAJOR DISTRIBUTION
AND EQUITY ISSUE GOING ON
AS WELL.

Alex says UNFORTUNATELY,
INCREASING FOOD PRODUCTION IS
NOT THAT SIMPLE.
THERE IS ONLY SO MUCH ARABLE
LAND AVAILABLE TO US
UNLESS WE CUT DOWN MORE
FORESTS,
AND EVEN THE ARABLE LAND
THAT DOES EXIST
IS BEING RAPIDLY LOST EACH YEAR
DUE TO EROSION, POLLUTION,
UNSUSTAINABLE FARMING PRACTICES,
AND CLIMATE CHANGE.
IT TURNS OUT THAT ONE OF THE
EASIEST AND MOST EFFECTIVE
WAYS TO REDUCE THE WATER
FOOTPRINT, AND ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE, IS TO CUT
DOWN ON FOOD WASTE.

Evan says IN NORTH AMERICA,
MOST OF THIS FOOD WASTE HAPPENS
AT THE RETAILER AND CONSUMER
END OF THE SPECTRUM.
SO THIS IS VEGETABLES GOING BAD
IN MY CRISPER, THIS IS THINGS
PASSING THEIR BEST BEFORE DATE
AND BEING DROPPED OFF IN A
LANDFILL, AND ON SO MANY LEVELS
THIS IS A TRAGEDY.
THIS REPRESENTS A GARGANTUAN
INVESTMENT OF RESOURCES,
OF INPUTS, OF TIME, OF LABOUR,
OF MONEY,
IN A RESOURCE THAT ESSENTIALLY
IS LOST.

A fast-motion clip shows fruit and vegetables decomposing.

Tyler says THE UNITED NATIONS
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
ORGANIZATION ESTIMATES THAT
EACH YEAR, AROUND 1.3 BILLION
TONS OF FOOD IS WASTED GLOBALLY,
COSTING OVER 750 BILLION
DOLLARS.
NOT ONLY DOES THIS REPRESENT
A STAGGERING
ECONOMIC LOSS TO SOCIETY,
BUT THAT WASTED FOOD REQUIRED
NEARLY 1,400 TRILLION LITERS
OF WATER TO PRODUCE,
ALMOST ENOUGH TO FILL
LAKE ONTARIO.

The caption changes to "Dr. Kate Parizeau. Department of Geography. University of Guelph." Kate is in his late thirties, with shoulder-length curly reddish hair. She wears a brown headband, fuchsia cardigan and dark blue blouse with small patterns.

Kate says IT S BEEN ESTIMATED THAT
WE WASTE
ABOUT 31 BILLION DOLLARS WORTH
OF FOOD IN CANADA,
THAT'S 30 percent OF THE FOOD THAT S
PRODUCED HERE,
AND IT'S EQUIVALENT TO ABOUT 2 percent
OF OUR GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT.

A young man throws food leftovers into a garbage bin in a kitchen.

The caption changes to "Dr. Martin Gooch. CEO. VCM International."

Martin sits in an elegant room. He is in his late forties, clean-shaven with brown hair. He wears a blue shirt under a dark blue jacket.

Martin says THE TYPICAL HOUSEHOLD
WASTES,
LOSES AROUND ABOUT 1,500
DOLLARS A YEAR.
SO ONE THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED
DOLLARS A YEAR.
WE ESTIMATE THAT 47 percent OF
FOOD WASTE
AND LOSS OCCURS IN
THE HOUSEHOLD,
AROUND ABOUT 10 percent OCCURS AT
RETAIL,
4 percent IN DISTRIBUTION,
10 percent ON THE FARM,
AND THE REMAINDER IS DURING
VARIOUS STAGES OF PROCESSING.

Alex says ALTHOUGH MOST FOOD IS
WASTED IN THE HOME,
A GREAT DEAL OF FOOD IS THROWN
OUT ON FARMS BEFORE IT EVEN
REACHES STORE SHELVES,
BECAUSE RETAILERS
AND CONSUMERS ARE VERY PICKY
ABOUT THE APPEARANCE OF FOOD.
WE WENT TO PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND,
TO VISIT A LOCAL POTATO FARMER
NAMED STEPHEN WHO IS CONFRONTED
WITH THIS CHALLENGE
ON A DAILY BASIS.

The caption changes to "Stephen Visser. Farmer. Prince Edward Island." Stephen is in his early forties, clean-shaven with short brown hair. He wears glasses, blue cap and dark pink shirt.

Alex and Stephen stand by a large wooden box containing potatoes.

Stephen says SO ALEX, THIS IS A
BOX OF
REJECTS THAT WE VE JUST RUN
THROUGH OUR LINE ACTUALLY
AND WE'VE TAKEN ALL THE POOR
ONES OUT
AND SHIPPED THE GOOD ONES.

Alex says AND WHAT'S WRONG WITH SOME
OF THEM, DO YOU HAVE SOME
EXAMPLES YOU CAN SHOW US?

Stephen says YEP, THESE ARE EXAMPLES
OF WHAT WE ARE THROWING OUT,
THESE ARE HALLOW ON THE INSIDE,
WE'RE X-RAYING THOSE AND TAKING
THOSE OUT,
AND THEN ALSO A LOT OF THESE
THAT HAVE
THE BLACK INDENTS ON THEM
AND STUFF,
THAT'S WHAT WE ARE TAKING OUT.

Alex says AND SOME OF THEM ARE JUST
A LITTLE MISSHAPEN?

Stephen says YEAH, LIKE THEY RE KIND
OF ROUGH AND THEY RE REALLY NOT
THAT NICE COSMETICALLY,
BUT IF YOU TAKE YOUR KNIFE
AND CUT THAT AWAY,
THERE S NOTHING WRONG WITH THE
POTATO UNDERNEATH.

Alex says PERFECTLY GOOD, SO JUST
THAT ONE LITTLE MARK THERE,
SO WHAT WOULD HAPPEN TO THESE
REJECTS IF THEY CAN'T
GO, YOU KNOW?

Stephen says THESE REJECTS GENERALLY
GO TO CATTLE FARMS.
IF THERE S TOO MANY OF THEM IN
THE COUNTRYSIDE
THEN THEY WILL GET PUT IN A
HOLE AND BURIED.

Tyler says WHEN FARMERS LIKE
STEPHEN ARE FORCED TO SELL OFF A
PORTION OF THEIR CROP FOR ANIMAL
FEED AT A REDUCED PRICE,
OR DISPOSE OF POTATOES ENTIRELY,
THE COSTS ARE ULTIMATELY PASSED
OFF TO CONSUMERS.
IT S ESTIMATED THAT FOOD WASTE
CAN INCREASE THE PRICE OF
CERTAIN FOODS BY 10 PERCENT OR
MORE.
IN PEI, RETAILERS AND PROCESSORS
HAVE EVEN PRESSURED FARMERS TO
INCREASE THEIR WATER CONSUMPTION
TO GROW BETTER-LOOKING POTATOES.

Stephen says THERE S BEEN A PUSH
HERE IN THIS AREA, TO HAVE DEEP
WATER WELLS ACCEPTED BY THE
GENERAL PUBLIC, IN MY EYES IT'S
BASICALLY JUST TO GROW BIGGER,
CHEAPER PRODUCT.

Alex says HOW DO THEY NORMALLY
GET THEIR WATER?

Stephen says WE NORMALLY
JUST DO IT THROUGH RAINFALL.
JUST RAINFALL THAT'S ALL WE
COUNT ON.

Alex says AND SO THE RETAILERS ARE
PRESSURING YOU TO USE AQUIFERS?

Stephen says YES, TO DIG DEEP WATER
WELLS.
SOMETIMES THERE IS A NEED FOR
IT,
BUT A LOT OF THE TIME, IT'S JUST
USING A REAL PRECIOUS RESOURCE
JUST TO COVER THE NEEDS
OF RETAILERS
AND PROCESSORS BASICALLY.

Alex says IT DOESN'T MAKE A BETTER
TASTING POTATO?

Stephen says NO, IT MAKES A MORE
CONSISTENT QUALITY POTATO,
BUT THAT COMES AT A COST.

Conveyor belts carry potatoes as a system irrigates water over them in a plant.

Tyler says WHILE RETAILERS DO
PUT FARMERS IN A DIFFICULT
POSITION TO CREATE PERFECT
LOOKING FOOD, THEY DO SO KNOWING
THAT CONSUMERS EXPECT PERFECTION
AND WILL NOT NECESSARILY BUY
PRODUCE THAT IS UGLY.

Alex says DON'T MOST POTATOES
END UP GETTING MASHED, OR FRIED?

Stephen says YEP, RARELY DOES
IT LOOK THE SAME ON A PLATE AS
IT COMES IN YOUR BAG OR WHEN YOU
BUY IT AT THE GROCERY STORE.
I MEAN YOU COOK IT, PEEL IT,
FRY IT, BAKE IT,
MASH IT, IT NEVER LOOKS THE
SAME.

Alex says YEAH SO IT DOESN'T MATTER
IF IT'S A LITTLE MISSHAPEN.

Stephen says IT SHOULDN'T MATTER NO.

Alex says THANKFULLY, RETAILERS
AROUND THE WORLD ARE BEGINNING
TO ACKNOWLEDGE THE FOOD
WASTE EPIDEMIC
AND GIVING CONSUMERS THE OPTION
TO BUY IMPERFECT PRODUCE AT
A REDUCED PRICE.
FARMERS AND RETAILERS ARE ALSO
WORKING WITH CHARITABLE
ORGANIZATIONS TO HELP DIRECT
FOOD TO PEOPLE WHO ARE IN
NEED BEFORE IT GETS WASTED.

Fast clips show supermarket discounts, and Alex and Tyler loading banana boxes into a truck with a logo that "Second Harvest."

Alex continues HOWEVER, SINCE THE VAST MAJORITY
OF FOOD WASTE OCCURS IN HOMES,
EVERYONE HAS A ROLE TO PLAY IN
SOLVING THIS PROBLEM.

Kate says WE SUGGEST THAT PEOPLE GO
SHOPPING WITH GROCERY LISTS,
THAT THEY LEARN HOW TO COOK
VEGETABLES IN MULTIPLE WAYS,
FOR EXAMPLE, ONCE A CARROT GOES
WILTY YOU DON'T HAVE TO GET RID
OF IT, YOU CAN COOK IT IN A
SOUP,
YOU CAN BAKE IT INTO MUFFINS.
WE LIKE TO ENCOURAGE PEOPLE
TO LEARN HOW TO STORE
THEIR FOOD PROPERLY SO IT
DOESN'T ROT,
AND THEN TO SHARE IT, IF THEY
HAVE TOO MUCH,
RATHER THEN PUTTING IT INTO THE
GREEN BIN,
OR INTO THE GARBAGE BIN.

Tyler says WHETHER IT S REDUCING
FOOD WASTE
OR CHANGING OUR DIETS,
NOT ONLY DO THESE SOLUTIONS HELP
MAKE AGRICULTURE
MORE WATER EFFICIENT, THEY ALSO
HELP SOLVE OTHER MAJOR
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL
CHALLENGES SUCH AS
CLIMATE CHANGE, THE LOSS OF
BIODIVERSITY, AND GLOBAL HUNGER.
PRACTICES THAT HELP DECREASE
WATER CONSUMPTION
AND POLLUTION IN AGRICULTURE,
ARE SOME OF OUR MOST
POWERFUL TOOLS
TO CREATE A HEALTHIER PLANET.

Evan says MY MAIN CHALLENGE IN
COMMUNICATING THESE ISSUES TO
THE GENERAL PUBLIC IS THIS
NOTION THAT THE WORLD IS ABOUT
TO RUN OUT OF FOOD, AND THAT
WE RE ABOUT TO FACE SOME
ENORMOUS COLLAPSE DUE TO THE
WORLD S POPULATION GROWTH,
AND TO THAT I KEEP COMING BACK
TO THE FACT THAT
IN THE WORLD TODAY WE HAVE
ENOUGH FOOD,
IT'S JUST NOT DISTRIBUTED RIGHT,
APPROXIMATELY ONE SEVENTH OF THE WORLD
IS OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE,
WHILE ALMOST ONE SEVENTH OF THE WORLD
IS UNDER NOURISHED,
AND THE FACT THAT WE WASTE
A THIRD OF THE WORLDS FOOD.

A clip shows a boy selling grapes in a poor area, a woman peeling garlic crouched on a street, consumers at a fast food restaurant and people eating rice sitting on the floor.

He continues WITH THOSE STATISTICS IN MIND
YOU CAN'T COME TO THE CONCLUSION
THAT WE RE RUNNING OUT,
WE HAVE TO COME TO THE
CONCLUSION THAT WE RE,
USING OUR RESOURCES
UNSUSTAINABLY,
WE RE USING OUR RESOURCES
INEFFICIENTLY,
AND THAT REALLY BY IMPROVING
THE EFFICIENCY AND EQUITY
OF THE CURRENT SYSTEM, WE CAN
ACHIEVE HUGE AMOUNTS OF
NUTRITION FOR HUGE AMOUNTS
OF PEOPLE
AND THAT THAT IS A MORE PRESSING
ISSUE THEN SIMPLY
BOOSTING PRODUCTION TO MEET THE
WORLD S GROWING POPULATION.

Alex says THERE IS SO MUCH WE CAN BE
DOING TO FEED THE PLANET USING
LESS WATER.

Tyler says SOME OF THESE SOLUTIONS
WILL REQUIRE US TO ADOPT NEW
FOODS INTO OUR DIETS, BUT THAT
DOESN'T MEAN WE ALL HAVE
TO EAT INSECTS, SOMETIMES IT CAN
BE AS SIMPLE AS EATING ONE
OR TWO LESS MEAT BASED MEALS
PER WEEK.

Alex says WHATEVER IT IS YOU DECIDE
TO DO,
THIS IS A PROBLEM WE ALL NEED TO
PARTICIPATE IN TO SOLVE,
THE HEALTH OF OUR FOOD SYSTEM
AND OUR DIETS
IS IN MANY WAYS A REFLECTION OF
THE HEALTH OF THE ENVIRONMENT,
SO ANYTHING WE CAN DO TO MAKE
AGRICULTURE MORE SUSTAINABLE
IS ALSO GOOD FOR THE QUALITY
AND TASTE OF OUR FOOD,
AND OUR OWN HEALTH.

Tyler says MOST OF ALL,
WE NEED TO VALUE
AND APPRECIATE OUR FOOD MORE,
WASTE LESS OF IT,
AND SUPPORT THE FARMERS
AND COMPANIES WHO ARE MAKING AN
EFFORT TO FEED THE WORLD
IN THE MOST SUSTAINABLE WAYS
POSSIBLE.

A slate shows two animated divers going down.

Alex says JOIN US AND DIVE
DEEPER INTO THE EPISODES AT
THEWATERBROTHERS.CA

(the end music plays)

The end credits roll.

Executive Producer, Jonathan Barker.

Host, Director and Co-Producer, Tyler Mifflin.

Host, Writer and Co-Director, Alex Mifflin.

An SK Films Production.

Copyright 2017, Water Brothers Inc.

Watch: More Food, Less Water