Video Transcript

(music plays)

Jimmy Doherty walks in a market. He’s in his late thirties, with a goatee and blond hair. He’s wearing a blue jacket.

Jimmy says DO YOU FEEL
YOU'RE FORKING OUT MORE FOR
YOUR FOOD?
WELL, THAT'S BECAUSE YOU ARE.
THE PRICE OF OUR WEEKLY SHOP
HAS GONE UP BY ALMOST A QUARTER
IN JUST SIX YEARS.
THE PRICE OF COFFEE'S GONE UP
41 PERCENT.
BREAD'S GONE UP BY ALMOST A
HALF.
AND BEEF'S GONE UP AN
EYE-WATERING 64 PERCENT.
AT LEAST CHOCCY BARS ARE THE
SAME PRICE - BUT THEY ARE
SHRINKING IN SIZE.
EVEN IF YOU ADJUST THESE
FIGURES FOR INFLATION, THEY ARE
RUNNING ABOVE ANY WAGE
INCREASES WE HAVE HAD.

A clip shows people buying products at a supermarket.

Jimmy continues WHY HAS THE PRICE OF OUR
FAVOURITE FOODS GONE UP SO
MUCH?
AND IS THE COST OF OUR WEEKLY
SHOP GOING TO KEEP ON RISING?

Jimmy works in a plantation and says WHEN DO YOU GET A TEA BREAK?
[chuckling]
I'VE TRAVELLED THE WORLD TO SEE
HOW WE DEPEND ON THE GLOBAL
NETWORK THAT BRINGS US OUR
FOOD.
AND TO TRY AND UNDERSTAND THE
WORRYING PRESSURES ON THE COST
OF THE FOOD WE ALL BUY.
THAT IS ONE GOOD SAUSAGE.
FOOD IS ESSENTIAL; IT'S AN
UNAVOIDABLE COST.
I WANT TO KNOW IF THE PRICE OF
SOME OF OUR DINNERTIME
FAVOURITES WILL CONTINUE TO GO
UP AND WHETHER WE WILL BE ABLE
TO AFFORD THEM IN THE FUTURE OR
HAVE TO GO WITHOUT.

(electronic music plays)

On a small chalkboard, the title of the program reads “Jimmy’s Food Price Hike.” “Jimmy” appears in red letters and “Food Price Hike” in white chalk.

Jimmy says IT'S THE END OF THE DAY AND
MILLIONS OF BRITONS WEND THEIR
WEARY WAY HOME WITH ONLY ONE
THOUGHT ON THEIR MIND: WHAT'S
FOR DINNER?
IT'S A MEAL TO US, BUT FOR THE
WORLD'S FARMERS AND FOOD
PROCESSORS, IT'S THE
CULMINATION OF AN INDUSTRY THAT
SEES FOOD GROWN ACROSS THE
GLOBE HARVESTED, TRADED, AND
EVENTUALLY SOLD TO US FOR OUR
EVENING MEAL.

A time-lapse clip shows a combined harvester working, cattle, a butcher, a worker spreading chicken chicks in a conveyor belt, an electronic display panel showing numbers and different shops.

Jimmy continues BUT THANKS TO A CHANGING WORLD,
THE PRICE OF THE FOOD ON OUR
PLATE IS UNDER PRESSURE.

Jimmy leans on a food wagon and says WE'RE NOW LOCKED IN TO A GLOBAL
FOOD MARKET, NO MATTER WHERE
THE INDIVIDUAL INGREDIENTS ON
THE PLATE COME FROM.
AND WE'RE REACHING A POINT
WHERE WE IN THE U.K. ARE
UNCERTAIN WE'LL BE ABLE TO
AFFORD ALL THE FOODS WE'VE
ALWAYS TAKEN FOR GRANTED.
BECAUSE BEYOND THE SHORT TERM
UPS AND DOWNS OF SHOP PRICES
ARE SOME VERY POWERFUL
LONG-TERM FORCES THAT ARE
PUTTING A CONSIDERABLE STRAIN
ON THE COST OF OUR FOOD.
I'VE CHOSEN THREE DINNERTIME
FOODS THAT HAVE SEEN MASSIVE
PRICE SPIKES OVER THE LAST 10
YEARS TO SEE WHAT WE CAN EXPECT
IN THE FUTURE.
THAT GREAT BRITISH FAVOURITE:
BEEF.
OUR SUPPERTIME STAPLE: SALMON.
BUT FIRST, I'M GOING TO LOOK AT
SOMETHING THAT HAS BECOME AN
ESSENTIAL ELEMENT OF MOST OF
OUR DIETS TODAY: RICE.
WHETHER YOU'RE HAVING A CHINESE
TAKEAWAY OR A RUBY MURRAY, YOU
CAN'T HAVE ONE WITHOUT A DOLLOP
OF RICE ON THE SIDE.
BUT WHAT'S HAPPENED TO THE
PRICE OF IT OVER THE LAST 10
YEARS HAS BEEN EXTRAORDINARY.
WE NOW EAT MORE THAN THREE
TIMES AS MUCH RICE AS WE DID
20 YEARS AGO - A SIGN THAT OUR
TASTES HAVE BECOME MORE
ADVENTUROUS.

Jimmy hands a paper cap with ice to a couple in the street.

Jimmy says HERE WE GO, DO YOU LIKE CURRY?

A young woman says YES.

Jimmy says THERE'S A BIT OF RICE
AND CURRY THERE.
THERE WE GO.
NOW, TELL ME, DO YOU EAT
A LOT OF RICE?

A woman wearing a scarf says YEAH, I DO ACTUALLY, I DO
EAT A LOT OF RICE.

Jimmy says HAVE YOU SEEN, WHEN
YOU'RE GOING SHOPPING, THE
PRICE OF RICE CHANGE AT ALL?

A woman with black hair says IT'S BEEN INCREASING, I
GUESS.

A man with black hair says RICE IS GOING THROUGH THE
ROOF.
I HAVE TO ACTUALLY SHOP AROUND
NOW FOR RICE.

Jimmy says WHY DO YOU THINK THE
PRICE IS GOING UP?
WHAT'S CAUSING THAT?

A young man says MAYBE THERE'S LESS SUPPLY.

Jimmy says FOR YEARS AND YEARS,
THE PRICE OF RICE WAS DROPPING,
AND THEN SUDDENLY IN 2008 IT
WENT NUTS.
EVEN THOUGH IT DROPPED A BIT,
IT'S STILL MUCH MORE EXPENSIVE
THAN IT USED TO BE.

On the chalkboard, an animated red line graph appears under the “Rice Prices: 2003-2013.”

Jimmy continues NOW, YOU MIGHT THINK THAT WAS
BECAUSE OF A GLOBAL FAMINE OR
SOME REALLY BAD HARVESTS; BUT
NO, WHAT HAPPENED WITH RICE WAS
FAR MORE INTRIGUING.
RICE IS GROWN ALL OVER THE
WORLD, BUT JUST A HANDFUL OF
COUNTRIES - INCLUDING VIETNAM,
THAILAND, CHINA, AND BANGLADESH
ARE THE MAJOR PLAYERS IN AN
INDUSTRY THAT PRODUCES AN
AMAZING 718 MILLION TONNES A
YEAR.
AND I'M OFF TO INDIA.

(Indian music plays)
From a rice dish, an animated planet earth spins. Different sizes of yellow circles displaying rice grains appear all over the planet. A caption reads “Global rice production.” Labels with the countries mentioned pop up.

Jimmy continues INDIA IS THE WORLD'S BIGGEST
EXPORTER OF RICE, WITH PADDY
FIELDS RANGED ACROSS THE
NATION, WITH ONE MAJOR CENTRE
JUST A COUPLE OF HOURS NORTH OF
DELHI.

Cows cross the street.

Jimmy continues THESE ARE THE LUSH FIELDS OF
THE KARNAL REGION, ONE OF THE
HEARTLANDS OF INDIA'S RICE
INDUSTRY.
IT'S INCREDIBLY HOT AND HUMID
OUT HERE - PERFECT CONDITIONS
FOR RICE.
Working in the rice field, Jimmy continues WHEN DO YOU GET A TEA BREAK?
NOT SO GREAT FOR A FARMER MORE
USED TO THE CHILL WINDS OF EAST
ANGLIA.
NOW, OFTEN WHEN FOOD PRICES
RISE, IT'S DOWN TO POOR
HARVESTS OR DREADFUL WEATHER.
BUT I CAN'T SEE ANY EVIDENCE OF
THAT HERE.
IN FACT, IT'S QUITE THE
OPPOSITE.
IN THE LAST 50 YEARS, THESE
FIELDS HAVE MORE THAN DOUBLED
THEIR PRODUCTIVITY.

A farmer carries rice grass.

Jimmy continues THIS SURGE IS ALL DUE TO THE
GREEN REVOLUTION, LAUNCHED IN
THE 1960s, WHERE MODERN
FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES WERE
COMBINED WITH NEW STRAINS OF
SEEDS.
AND IT'S STILL GOING ON TODAY
WITH NEW SEEDS BEING TRIALLED
IN THE PADDY FIELDS.
BY CROSS-POLLINATING DIFFERENT
STRAINS OF RICE, SCIENTISTS
HAVE BEEN ABLE TO CREATE HIGHER
YIELDING, MORE
DISEASE-RESISTANT PLANTS, AND
OVER THE YEARS THEY'VE GOT
BETTER AND BETTER.
JUST CHECK THIS LITTLE VIDEO
OUT.

Jimmy plays a time-lapse video on a tablet.

Jimmy continues THE NEW VARIETY'S ON THE LEFT,
AND IT'S AMAZING JUST HOW
QUICKLY IT BEGINS TO OUTPERFORM
THE OLD-STYLE PLANT ON THE
RIGHT.
THE DIFFERENCE IN YIELD IS
STAGGERING.

A caption at the bottom of the tablet screen increases from “Day 34” to “Day 125.”

Jimmy continues THE ODD THING ABOUT RICE IS
EVEN THOUGH WE'VE HAD SOME
MAJOR PRICE HIKES, THERE IS
MORE RICE GROWN TODAY THAN
THERE'S EVER BEEN.
IN FACT, IT'S ONE OF
AGRICULTURE'S GREAT SUCCESS
STORIES.
BUT TO UNDERSTAND WHY THE PRICE
OF RICE HAS SPIKED IN RECENT
YEARS, I NEED TO GO TO THE
TEEMING CENTRE OF ONE OF THE
MOST POPULATED CITIES ON EARTH:
DELHI.
22 MILLION PEOPLE LIVE ROUND
HERE, AND MANY OF THEM ARE
PRETTY POOR.
AND THIS IS WHERE THEY GET
THEIR RICE.
THERE ARE HALF A MILLION OF
THESE RATION SHOPS ACROSS
INDIA.
THEY SELL RICE AT A HEAVILY
DISCOUNTED PRICE.
WHAT IS THE PRICE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN RICE HERE AND THE RICE
I CAN BUY IN THE OPEN MARKET?

Suresh is in his late thirties, clean-shaven with short black hair. He’s wearing a light shirt.

A caption appears on screen. It reads “Suresh Kumar. Shop Owner.”

Suresh speaks in a foreign language. Subtitles read “Here the rice is 3 rupees per kilogram. The same rice, if you go in the market you pay 24 or 25 rupees per kilogram.”

Jimmy says WOW.
SO, HOW COME YOU CAN SELL THE
RICE AT SUCH A CHEAP PRICE?

Suresh says THE GOVERNMENT GIVES IT
FOR THE PEOPLE.

Jimmy says IT COSTS THE INDIAN
GOVERNMENT SOME 20 BILLION DOLLARS A
YEAR TO SUBSIDIZE RICE AND KEEP
PRICES WELL BELOW MARKET VALUE.

An old customer says IF WE DIDN’T HAVE
SHOPS LIKE THIS WHAT
WOUL I EAT?

Jimmy says SO, IF YOU HAD TO
SHOP ON THE OPEN MARKET, WHAT
WOULD HAPPEN TO YOUR FAMILY?

A middle-aged woman says WE WON’T
BE ABLE TO SURVIVE.
SOMEHOW OR OTHER WE WILL
HAVE TO DEPRIVE OURSELVES
AND CUTDOWN ON WHAT WE EAT.

Jimmy says TO PUT IT BLUNTLY,
RICE - AND PLAIN OLD WHITE RICE
IN PARTICULAR - IS THE FOOD OF
THE WORLD'S POOR.

(music plays)
OVER 50 PERCENT OF THE GLOBAL
POPULATION RELY ON RICE AS
THEIR STAPLE, WITH THE MAJORITY
OF THOSE PEOPLE LIVING IN THE
VERY SAME COUNTRIES THAT
PRODUCE MOST OF THE WORLD'S
RICE.

The animated planet earth appears. A sign that reads “Combined population” displays growing numbers that go from 0.6 to 3.2 billion. White lines stretch from the sign to different yellow circles that read “India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia, China.”

Jimmy continues AND THAT'S WHY IT'S RECKONED
ONLY 7 PERCENT OF THE WORLD'S
RICE CROP EVER LEAVES THE
COUNTRY IT WAS GROWN IN.
SO, THE NATIONS THAT GROW THIS
STUFF AREN'T INTERESTED IN
PROVIDING US WITH A CHEAP,
STEADY SUPPLY OF OUR FAVOURITE
CURRY ACCOMPANIMENT; THEIR MAIN
CONCERN IS KEEPING THEIR OWN
NATION FED - EVEN IF IT MEANS
SPARKING A WORLDWIDE CRISIS.
AND THAT'S EXACTLY WHAT
HAPPENED SEVEN YEARS AGO.
A SHORTFALL IN THE INDIAN WHEAT
HARVEST FORCED THE INDIAN
GOVERNMENT TO BUY MORE RICE.
AT THE SAME TIME, OTHER
COUNTRIES STARTED TO BUY MORE
RICE, PUTTING PRESSURE ON THE
INDIAN EXPORT MARKET.

A clip in fast motion shows trucks carrying cargo containers.

Jimmy continues NOT UNSURPRISINGLY, THE RULES
OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND KICKED IN;
WITH MORE DEMAND FROM ABROAD
AND HOME, THE PRICES WERE
PUSHED UP.
BUT THERE WAS NOTHING TO WORRY
ABOUT; THERE WAS STILL PLENTY
OF THE STUFF AROUND.
EXCEPT THERE WERE ELECTIONS
LOOMING, AND POLITICIANS TOOK
SOME DRASTIC ACTION.
IN AN ATTEMPT TO KEEP THE
DOMESTIC RICE PRICE DOWN, THE
INDIAN GOVERNMENT BANNED ALL
EXPORTS.
THE RICE STILL EXISTED; IT'S
JUST IT WASN'T FOR SALE TO
ANYONE OUTSIDE INDIA.
SUDDENLY, ONE SIXTH OF THE
WORLD'S EXPORTS OF RICE
DISAPPEARED AS INDIA STORED IT
AWAY FOR ITS OWN PEOPLE.

Hundreds of rice jute bags sit outdoors.

Jimmy continues OTHER COUNTRIES FOLLOWED SUIT,
AND THE GLOBAL PRICE STARTED TO
RISE AS BUYERS SCRAMBLED AROUND
TO FILL THE GAP.
IN THE SPACE OF JUST ONE YEAR,
PRICES ROSE BY 200 PERCENT.

As workers load rice bags, animated captions appear on the bags. They read “January: 393 dollars, February: 484 dollars, March: 673 dollars, April: 1015 dollars.”

Jimmy continues GOVERNMENTS WERE ACTING AS IF A
VAST SHARE OF THE WORLD'S RICE
HAD DISAPPEARED OVERNIGHT,
WHEN, IN FACT, IT HAD ACTUALLY
BEEN A GOOD HARVEST.
THIS WAS A TOTALLY MANMADE
CRISIS, AND PRICES CONTINUED TO
SOAR.
EVENTUALLY, COMMON SENSE BROKE
OUT AND PRICES BEGAN TO DROP,
BUT NOT TO THE VALUE THEY WERE
BEFORE THE PANIC.

On a rice jute bag, an animated line graph appears under the title “Price of rice.” The x axis reads “2006, 2010, 2013.”

Jimmy continues AND THAT'S PARTLY BECAUSE THE
RICE-PRODUCING NATIONS WERE
SPOOKED BY WHAT HAD HAPPENED,
AND WHAT COULD HAPPEN IF THERE
WAS A DROP IN SUPPLY.
AND SO, THEY BEGAN TO INCREASE
THE AMOUNT OF RICE THEY WERE
SAVING FOR A RAINY DAY.
AND THE RESULT WAS THIS.
LOOK AT THIS LOT.
I'VE NEVER SEEN SO MUCH RICE IN
MY ENTIRE LIFE.
LOOK AT IT; IT GOES ON AND ON.
BUT NONE OF IT IS FOR SALE.
THIS IS JUST ONE GOVERNMENT
STOREHOUSE, AND THERE ARE MANY
OF THESE, STOCKPILING RICE
RIGHT ACROSS INDIA.
THIS IS JUST A TINY FRACTION OF
THE STOCKPILE CREATED BY THE
INDIAN GOVERNMENT TO MAKE SURE
ENOUGH RICE IS KEPT IN THE
COUNTRY TO FEED ITS PEOPLE.
SO, EVEN THOUGH THERE HAVE BEEN
BUMPER HARVESTS, A LOT OF IT IS
NOW BEING LOCKED AWAY -
SOMETIMES ROTTING UNDER CANVAS.

(music plays)
IT SEEMS TERRIBLY WASTEFUL, BUT
THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT IS TRYING
TO MAKE SURE THEY CAN SUPPLY
SUBSIDIZED RICE TO OVER 900
MILLION PEOPLE.

Rain wets the rice bags stacked in the outside.

Jimmy continues IN THEIR POSITION, MAYBE WE'D
DO THE SAME - ESPECIALLY IF
THOSE PEOPLE ALSO HAVE A VOTE
IN YOUR ELECTION.
THE PRICE HIKE IN RICE
HIGHLIGHTS A GROWING DEBATE IN
THE POLITICS OF FOOD.
JUST HOW MUCH CONTROL OVER FOOD
GROWN IN THEIR COUNTRY SHOULD A
NATION HAVE?
FOR YEARS, FREE TRADE IDEAS
HAVE HELD SWAY, BUT THERE'S A
DIFFERENT IDEA GAINING
MOMENTUM: FOOD SOVEREIGNTY.

Farmers collect grains.

Jimmy continues THIS CALLS ON NATIONS TO BECOME
AS SELF-SUFFICIENT AS POSSIBLE,
ONLY TRADING FOOD WHEN THEY'VE
SATISFIED THEIR OWN NEEDS...
AND THAT EACH COUNTRY SHOULD BE
FREE TO DETERMINE ITS OWN FOOD
POLICY, EVEN IF THAT MEANS
RESTRICTING TRADE.
IT'S A CONCEPT THAT IS GAINING
GROUND, AND IT COULD HAVE
LONG-TERM PRICE IMPLICATIONS
FOR ALL OF US.

Jimmy stands next to Purnima in the street. She is in her late thirties with short black hair. She’s wearing a dark shirt.

Purnima says IT'S THE
PEOPLE WHO ARE POOR WHO QUEUE
UP TO VOTE, THAT VOTE
GOVERNMENTS TO POWER OR VOTE
OUT GOVERNMENTS, SO RICE AND
POLITICS, FOOD AND POLITICS AS
SUCH IN INDIA IS QUITE CLOSELY
RELATED.

The caption changes to “Purnima Tripathi. Journalist.”

Jimmy says WHAT DO YOU THINK
THAT YOUR POLITICIANS WOULD SAY
TO OTHER COUNTRIES WHO NOW SEE
THE PRICE OF THEIR RICE
INCREASING?

Purnima says I DON'T
KNOW WHETHER THEY ARE REALLY
BOTHERED ABOUT SAYING ANYTHING
TO OTHER COUNTRIES BECAUSE THEY
HAVE ENOUGH SURPLUS STOCK HERE
IN INDIA.

Jimmy says EVEN IF IT MEANS YOU
LET IT ROT?

Purnima says YES, EVEN
IF IT MEANS THEY ARE LETTING IT
ROT.

Jimmy says IN THE LAST FIVE
YEARS, INDIA, CHINA, AND
THAILAND HAVE BOUGHT AN EXTRA
30 MILLION TONNES OF RICE TO BE
STORED IN CASE OF EMERGENCY.
AND WHILE THAT'S HELPED KEEP
PRICES HIGH IN RECENT YEARS,
THERE'S A LONGER-TERM THREAT
LOOMING.
IT'S ONE OF THE BIGGEST STORIES
OF THE 21ST CENTURY.
THIS IS A PICTURE OF A CHANGING
DELHI CAPTURED FROM SPACE OVER
30 YEARS.
THE SAME PICTURE IS BEING
REPEATED IN DEVELOPING NATIONS
AROUND THE WORLD AS PEOPLE
FLOCK TO THE CITIES TO SEEK
THEIR FORTUNE.
AND THIS MASS MIGRATION IS
HAVING A DIRECT EFFECT ON THE
PRICE WE PAY FOR OUR RICE.

(dramatic music plays)

Jimmy continues THE GREAT FLIGHT TO THE CITY IS
CAUSING LABOUR SHORTAGES, AND
THOSE WHO STAY BEHIND ARE
DEMANDING HIGHER WAGES.

Jimmy has tea next to a group of local men that wear turbans.

A man with a long dark beard speaks a local dialect. Subtitles read “The reason is that labourers have started working in factories, no-one wants to farm. The new generation want a white collar job, everyone wants to sit and earn.

Jimmy says IT'S THE SAME AROUND
THE WORLD: FARMING IS HARD WORK
AND NOBODY WANTS TO DO THAT AND
THEY'D MUCH RATHER WORK IN AN
OFFICE THAN GET THEIR HANDS
DIRTY.
IS THIS SOMETHING THAT ALL YOU
FARMERS ARE FACING WITH THE
LABOUR COSTS RISING?

A middle-aged man says YES.

Jimmy says IT WOULD SEEM THERE'S
TOO MANY PRESSURES ON THE
TRADITIONAL PRODUCERS TO ENSURE
THAT WE CAN GET RICE AT THE
PRICE WE'VE GOT USED TO PAYING.
ASIA'S RICE GROWERS HAVE DONE A
CRACKING JOB PRODUCING EVER
HIGHER YIELDS, BUT WHENEVER
THERE'S A SHORTAGE, THEIR
GOVERNMENTS PANIC, HOARD, AND
OVERPAY - JUST LIKE EVERYONE
ELSE.
AND WITH RISING POPULATIONS,
IT'S NO WONDER GOVERNMENTS WANT
TO KEEP THE MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF
RICE IN THEIR COUNTRY FOR THEIR
PEOPLE.
AND THAT LOOKS LIKE AN ATTITUDE
THAT WILL HARDEN IN THE YEARS
TO COME.

Fast clips show the hectic daily life of the city.

Jimmy continues IF WE ARE TO FEED THE WORLD IN
THE FUTURE BUT AVOID THE PRICE
HIKES OF THE PAST, WE MAY NEED
TO THINK BEYOND THE TRADITIONAL
ASIAN RICE BOWL.
AND THE ANSWER COULD LIE
THOUSANDS OF MILES AWAY, ON A
CONTINENT MORE OFTEN ASSOCIATED
WITH FAMINE THAN FEAST.

(drum music plays)
The animated planet earth spins. Yellow circles read “China, Thailand, India” Then, a white line highlights Africa.

Jimmy continues SURPRISINGLY, IT'S PARTS OF
AFRICA THAT MIGHT PROVIDE THE
WORLD WITH CRITICAL SUPPLIES OF
RICE IN THE FUTURE.
MANY AFRICAN COUNTRIES ALREADY
GROW SOME RICE, BUT AT THE
MOMENT, IT'S NOT ENOUGH TO MEET
DEMAND ACROSS THE CONTINENT.
NOW, THE HIGH PRICE OF
IMPORTING THIS STAPLE IS
PUSHING A NEW GENERATION OF
SCIENTISTS IN GHANA TO COME UP
WITH A SOLUTION.

A sign on a wire fence reads “Genetically modified rice trial. Please do not enter.”

Kofi Dartey stands in a tall grass field. He is in his thirties, with short-trimmed black hair and clean-shaven. He’s wearing a light gray polo-shirt.

Kofi says DEMAND FOR RICE
IS LARGELY BECAUSE OF
URBANIZATION.
PRESENTLY, THAT IS ANYWHERE
FROM 300 TO 500 MILLION DOLLARS TO
IMPORT A CROP THAT CAN GROW
EVERYWHERE IN THE COUNTRY.

The caption changes to “Kofi Dartey. Research Scientist.”

Kofi continues SO, WHAT WE NEED TO DO IS TO
JUST PUT OUR ACTS TOGETHER.

Jimmy says IT'S A TALL ORDER,
BUT THE AFRICAN CONTINENT
ALREADY HAS ONE VITAL
REQUIREMENT: LAND, AND LOTS OF
IT.
WHICH IS WHY FARMERS AND
SCIENTISTS ARE TESTING OUT NEW
GM STRAINS OF RICE SUITED TO
THE DRY CONDITIONS AND SALTY
SOILS OF THE REGION.

A white net covers large pieces of green land.

Doctor Prince Addae is in his early forties with short black hair. He’s wearing glasses and a blue striped shirt.

Prince says
BIOTECHNOLOGY HAS COME IN AS A
TOOL, AND WE ARE SEEING THAT IT
WORKS VERY WELL.

The caption changes to “Doctor Prince Addae.”

Prince continues IN AFRICA, WE'RE TRYING TO
INTRODUCE THESE NEW TECHNOLOGIES
TO CATCH UP, SO TO SPEAK.
AND SO, THERE IS A LOT OF
POTENTIAL IN AFRICA TO DO THAT.

Jimmy says AT THE MOMENT, AFRICA
USES 3.5 MILLION HECTARES OF
LAND TO FARM RICE, BUT IT'S
ESTIMATED THAT A WHOPPING 240
MILLION HECTARES ARE SUITABLE
FOR GROWING THIS WONDER FOOD.
THE POTENTIAL FOR EXPANSION IS
VAST, AND THE KNOCK-ON EFFECT
FOR THE REST OF THE WORLD COULD
BE INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT.

The animated planet earth appears displaying yellow circles of different sizes across Africa. A label reads “Rice farming: 240 million hectares.” Then, Africa highlights and light red circles pop up. Finally, white lines stretch from the continent to the rest of the world.

Jimmy continues BECAUSE MORE RICE ON THE MARKET
COULD HELP MEET RISING WORLD
DEMAND AND HELP PROTECT OUR
RICE AGAINST DRAMATIC PRICE
SPIKES IN THE FUTURE.

Kofi says WHEN I WAS A
KID, YOU EAT RICE AT CHRISTMAS
AND IT WAS VERY SPECIAL.
TODAY, THE DIET HAS CHANGED SO
SIGNIFICANTLY THAT OUR CHILDREN
LIKE RICE AND YOU HAVE TO COOK
RICE FOR THEM.
ANY FUNERAL, ANY MARRIAGE,
EVERY CEREMONY, THERE WILL BE
RICE.

Jimmy says PROJECTS LIKE THIS
SHOW AFRICA HAS THE POTENTIAL
TO BE SUCH AN IMPORTANT PLAYER
IN THE FUTURE OF GLOBAL FOOD.
TO MAXIMIZE THAT POTENTIAL WILL
NEED MONEY, BUT WITH THE RIGHT
BACKING, LOCAL FARMERS WILL BE
ABLE TO TRANSFORM THE
AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE.
AND IF IT'S SUCCESSFUL, IT
COULD BENEFIT US ALL.

(electronic music plays)

Jimmy continues IF RICE IS THE FOOD OF THE
WORLD'S POOR, MY NEXT WEEKLY
ESSENTIAL IS THE FOOD OF THE
WESTERN WELL-OFF.
AND A GREAT BRITISH CLASSIC,
ONE THAT CONNECTS US TO ONE OF
THE BIGGEST DILEMMAS OF THE
21ST CENTURY: OUR BEEF.

Jimmy prepares hamburgers in the food wagon.

Jimmy continues HEY, GUYS, COME OVER.
HELLO, WOULD YOU LIKE A LITTLE
TINY BURGER?
HOW OFTEN DO YOU EAT BURGERS?

A woman says EVERY DAY IN SCHOOL.

Jimmy says EVERY DAY AT SCHOOL?

The woman says YEAH.

Jimmy says GRAB ONE OF THOSE,
DON'T LET IT DROP OUT.
DO YOU EAT A LOT OF BEEF?

A woman with a shaved head says YES.

Jimmy says YOU DO?
SUNDAY ROAST?

The woman with a shaved head says YES, ROAST BEEF, YORKSHIRE
PUDDING.

Jimmy says CAN'T BEAT IT, CAN
YOU?
HAVE YOU FOUND THAT BEEF'S A
BIT MORE EXPENSIVE THESE DAYS?

A young man says YEAH, YEAH, IT IS.

A woman wearing a fur hat says WE USE TO HAVE IT TWO, THREE
TIMES A WEEK, AND NOW MAYBE
ONCE OR TWICE.

The woman with a shaved head says WE DON'T EAT MUCH BEEF NOW,
NOT LIKE WE USED TO.

Jimmy says TOO EXPENSIVE?

The woman with a shaved head says YEAH.

Jimmy says WHATEVER YOUR
FAVOURITE BEEF DISH IS, WE'VE
ALL NOTICED THAT THE PRICE HAS
BEEN RISING.
TAKE MINCE, FOR EXAMPLE; IT'S
INCREASED OVER 70 PERCENT
OVER THE LAST DECADE.

An animated line graph under the title “Mince Prices” appears on the chalkboard. The graph reads “2002-2012.”

Jimmy continues BUT HOW COME SOMETHING SO
IDENTIFIABLY BRITISH IS IN
DANGER OF BEING PRICED OFF OUR
SHOPPING LISTS?
85 PERCENT OF THE BEEF WE EAT IS
FROM THE BRITISH ISLES, AND JUST
OVER HALF OF THAT IS SOLD AS
FRESH MEAT FOR ROASTS, STEWS,
OR MINCE.
THE REST GOES INTO READY MEALS,
BURGERS, AND PIES.

The Auctioneer says 142, 143!
2007: 5.65 POUNDS.
2012: 7.25 POUNDS.

A man hits a cow with a stick so that it walks around a track.

Jimmy says ALTHOUGH MOST OF THE
BEEF WE EAT IS BRITISH, THE
CLIMB IN PRICE IS MUCH MORE
THAN A LOCAL STORY.
IN FACT, THESE CATTLE ARE
CARRYING THE COST OF SOME VERY
GLOBAL WORRIES.

The Auctioneer says 136, 137...

Jimmy says EVERY ASPECT OF BEEF
REARING IS INCREASED, AND IT
CAN BE SUMMED UP BY THREE Fs:
FUEL, FERTILIZER, AND FEED.
SO, THE FIRST F THAT'S HAD A
MAJOR IMPACT ON THE SELLING
PRICE OF THESE ANIMALS IS FEED.
PRODUCING BEEF IS AN EXPENSIVE
BUSINESS.
TO GET A CALF LIKE THIS UP TO A
WEIGHT OF AROUND 600 KILOS IS
GOING TO TAKE A WHOLE BAG OF
MILK POWDER LIKE THIS,
TWO-AND-A-HALF TONNES OF FEED,
AND THAT BIG PILE OF STRAW, ALL
WASHED DOWN WITH 8,000 LITRES
OF WATER.
THE OTHER Fs REFLECT THE WAY
FOOD PRICES CAN'T ESCAPE THE
FLUCTUATIONS OF THE MOST
VALUABLE AND VITAL COMMODITY
SECTOR IN THE WORLD: ENERGY.
ENERGY COSTS RIPPLE THROUGH THE
CHAIN OF FOOD PRODUCTION.
HOW ARE YOU GETTING ON?

Peter says HELLO, JIMMY,
NICE TO SEE YOU AGAIN.

Jimmy and Peter Walker shake hands. Peter is in his fifties with gray hair. He’s wearing a blue overall.

Jimmy says AND ON THE FAMILY
FARM IN NOTTINGHAMSHIRE, PETER
WALKER HAS BEEN FEELING THE
ENERGY COST SQUEEZE.
SO, TELL ME, HAVE YOU SEEN FUEL
PRICES INCREASE?

Peter says ABOUT 10 YEARS
AGO, WE WERE PAYING PROBABLY
20 PENCE A LITRE FOR TRACTOR
DIESEL; BUT IN THE LAST 10
YEARS, IT'S GONE FROM ABOUT 20p
TO 70p A LITRE.

The caption changes to “Peter Walker. Farmer.”

Jimmy says WOW.

Peter says PARTLY WITH
THE PRICE OF OIL GOING UP, BUT
ALSO THERE'S NOW AN ELEMENT OF
TAX ON IT.
SO, IT HAS INCREASED
SUBSTANTIALLY.

Jimmy says NOW, A LOT OF PEOPLE
MIGHT SAY, THIS IS JUST MOANING
FARMERS; SURELY IT DOESN'T
REALLY MATTER.
CATTLE GO OUT AND EAT GRASS,
WHICH GROWS FOR FREE!

Peter says NO, IT DOESN'T
QUITE WORK LIKE THAT, BECAUSE
EVEN THOSE THAT DO GO OUTSIDE,
THEY EAT GRASS, SO THE GRASS
HAS TO BE DRILLED AND GROWN,
SPRAYED.
IT DOESN'T GROW ON ITS OWN.
IF YOU HAVE A LAWN AND DO
NOTHING WITH IT, IT WON'T GROW
ANYTHING ON IT.
IT AFFECTS THINGS YOU WOULDN'T
EVEN THINK ABOUT.

[mooing]

Jimmy says FUEL POWERS BRITISH
FARMING, WHETHER CUTTING AND
SHIFTING THE STRAW AND HAY, OR
GROWING THE GRAIN NEEDED TO
PRODUCE THE CATTLE FOR MARKET.
WHAT ARE THE COSTS THAT HAVE
GONE UP THEN?
HOW'S THE COST OF THIS GONE UP?

Peter says JUST GROWING
THE CORN HAS GONE UP
DRAMATICALLY WITH FUEL
CONSUMPTION AGAIN, BECAUSE IT'S
ALL DONE BY TRACTORS AND
DIESEL, AND HAULING IT ABOUT,
AND PRICES HAVE DOUBLED.
WHEN I FIRST STARTED 25 YEARS
AGO OR SO, MOST OF IT WAS DONE
BY LABOUR.
BUT NOW, THERE'S NO LABOUR ON
THE FARMS - ONE THING, WE CAN'T
AFFORD IT - SO IT'S ALL DONE BY
MACHINERY.

Jimmy says SO, MODERN FARMING IS
REALLY, REALLY DEPENDENT ON
MACHINERY USE; IT'S DEPENDENT
ON FUEL.
AND FOR FUEL, READ OIL.
IT'S BEEN A DRAMATIC DECADE FOR
BLACK GOLD.
IN 2008, IT HIT AN HISTORIC
HIGH ON THE BACK OF STRONG
DEMAND AND CONFLICT IN THE
MIDDLE EAST.
THEN IT FELL SHARPLY AS THE
FINANCIAL CRASH HIT EVERY
ECONOMY IN THE WORLD.
BUT SINCE THEN, IT'S RECOVERED
STRONGLY.

On a barn, an animated blue line graph appears under the title “Crude oil.” The graph reads “dollars per barrel” and the x axis reads “2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013.”

Jimmy continues AND WHEN THE PRICE OF OIL GOES
UP, SO DOES THE COST OF FARMING
CATTLE.

Peter says THE BEEF PRICE
HAS GONE UP QUITE CONSIDERABLY
IN THE LAST 10 YEARS.
YES, IT'S THE ONLY WAY.
WE CAN ABSORB SOME COSTS, AS
EVERY BUSINESS DOES, BUT NOT
INDEFINITELY, SO IT HAS TO GO
ON THE PRICE OF FOOD.
BUT IT'S A WORLD MARKET SO YOU
ONLY NEED A SMALL SHORTAGE IN
ANY PART OF THE WORLD AND
SOMETHING GOES UP, AND IT GOES
UP DRAMATICALLY.

Jimmy says SO, THESE GLOBAL
FACTORS THAT ARE DRIVING UP
COSTS, DO YOU FEEL THAT THEY'RE
TOTALLY OUT OF YOUR CONTROL?

Peter says WE'RE NOT IN
CONTROL OF MUCH AT ALL.
I CAN FEED THE ANIMALS AND LOOK
AFTER THEM TO THE BEST OF OUR
ABILITY, BUT EVERYTHING ELSE IS
OUTSIDE OF OUR OWN CONTROL.

Jimmy says BUT OIL'S NOT THE
ONLY GLOBAL COMMODITY BUBBLING
UNDER THE PRICE OF A BRITISH
STEAK.

Jimmy cooks a steak next to William Walker. William is in his late twenties, clean-shaven with short blond hair. He’s wearing a dark green T-shirt.

Jimmy says RIGHT, I'VE GOT ONE THAT'S
FAIRLY WELL DONE, OR DO YOU
LIKE IT QUITE RARE?

William says I QUITE LIKE
MINE RARE, STILL A BIT OF
BLOOD COMING OUT.

Jimmy says WE'LL FIGHT OVER THAT
ONE THEN.
I THINK THEY'RE ABOUT READY.
DO YOU WANT TO GET A COUPLE OF
PLATES AND WE'LL HAVE THESE.
SO, WHAT OTHER COSTS ARE YOU
FORKING OUT FOR THIS STEAK
THEN?

William says ONE OF THE
BIG COSTS WE'VE GOT IS THE
FERTILIZER, WHICH WE PUT ON THE
GRASS FOR MAKING THE SILAGE AND
ALSO FOR THE GRAZING.

The caption changes to “William Walker. Farmer.”

William continues IN THE LAST 10 YEARS, THE
FERTILIZER HAS GONE UP BY
AROUND 350 PERCENT.

Jimmy says 350 PERCENT INCREASE?

William says THAT'S
RIGHT, YEAH.

Jimmy says WHAT'S PUSHING UP THE
PRICE OF FERTILIZER?

William says ONE OF THE
MAIN ELEMENTS TO FERTILIZER IS
GAS, NATURAL GAS, AND AS WE'VE
SEEN WITH OIL PRICES AND ALL
HEATING AND ENERGY COSTS HAVE
ALL GONE UP, AND SO THAT HAS
AFFECTED THE PRICE
DRAMATICALLY.

Jimmy says IT'S INTERESTING TO
THINK THAT EVERY BITE OF THE
STEAK, THERE'S A LOT OF FUEL
GONE INTO THIS STEAK; THERE'S A
LOT OF GAS, THERE'S A LOT OF
OIL, A LOT OF FERTILIZER.
ENERGY COSTS ARE PREDICTED TO
REMAIN HIGH IN COMING YEARS,
WHICH MEANS BEEF PRICES ARE
UNLIKELY TO DROP MUCH ANYTIME
SOON.
AND AS DEMAND FOR BEEF GROWS
AROUND THE WORLD, YET MORE
PRESSURE WILL BE PUT ON PRICES.

Fast clips show an industrial slaughterhouse at work, a butcher selling beef, a blond woman eating, a burger restaurant and a person paying for meet.

Jimmy continues DO YOU THINK THERE'LL BE A TIME
WHEN EATING STEAK LIKE THIS IS
GOING TO BE A LUXURY AGAIN?
BECAUSE GROWING UP, HAVING
BEEF, IF YOU ORDERED STEAK IN A
RESTAURANT YOU WERE LIKE, HE
MUST BE LOADED TO ORDER STEAK.

William says IT HAS
BECOME MORE OF AN EVERYDAY
FOOD, BUT I THINK AS THE MIDDLE
CLASSES IN THE EMERGING
ECONOMIES INCREASE, I THINK
DEMAND IS DEFINITELY GOING TO
OUTSTRIP SUPPLY, AND SO THE
PRICES ARE GOING TO GO UP.
AND I THINK THEY'LL BE ABLE TO
AFFORD IT MORE THAN WE CAN.

Jimmy says YOU'RE A YOUNG
FARMER; DO YOU SEE A TIME WHERE
YOU WON'T BE PRODUCING BEEF FOR
THE DOMESTIC MARKET HERE IN THE
U.K. BUT FOR A FOREIGN MARKET -
EXPORTING IT TO CHINA OR INDIA?

William says AS THEIR
MARKETS INCREASE, AS THEY GET
RICHER, I THINK THEY ARE GOING
TO BE THE ONES THAT WILL PAY
THE HIGHEST PRICE.
SO, UNFORTUNATELY, I THINK WE
MAY HAVE TO START EXPORTING OUR
MEAT AND A LOT LESS WILL GET
EATEN HERE.

Jimmy says SO, WE'VE HAD OUR
TIME IN THE WEST THEN, YOU
THINK, OF INDULGING OURSELVES
ON STEAK WHENEVER WE WANT IT?

William says I THINK SO,
YEAH.

Jimmy says THE RISING PRICE OF
THESE THREE Fs HAS CREATED THE
PERFECT STORM FOR THE BRITISH
CONSUMER.
SO, WHAT CAN WE DO TO COMBAT
THIS TRIO OF RISING PRODUCTION
COSTS?
COULD THERE BE ANOTHER WAY TO
PRODUCE THIS GREAT BRITISH
FAVOURITE THAT MIGHT GIVE US
MORE VALUE FOR OUR MONEY?

(rock music plays)

Jimmy continues WELL, WHERE BETTER TO LOOK THAN
ONE OF THE MOST EFFICIENT BEEF
PRODUCTION LINES IN THE WORLD:
AMERICA.
AND IT'S PLACES LIKE THIS:
DODGE CITY - YES, THE DODGE
CITY - THAT SUPPLY AMERICA WITH
THIS CHEAP BEEF.
I'M DRIVING DOWN WYATT EARP
BOULEVARD TO A PLACE THAT
SHOULD EXPLAIN WHY AMERICAN
FARMERS HAVE MANAGED TO KEEP
THEIR BEEF PRICES MUCH LOWER
THAN OURS DESPITE FACING THE
SAME SORT OF PRESSURES AS
BRITISH CATTLE FARMERS.
THIS IS WHERE MILLIONS OF
CATTLE SPEND THEIR LAST MONTHS
AS THEY'RE CONSTANTLY FED UNTIL
THEY REACH THEIR SLAUGHTER
WEIGHT.
THESE ARE THE STOCKYARDS OF
AMERICA - NOT A BLADE OF GRASS
IN SIGHT, JUST THOUSANDS OF
CATTLE, BUT THIS IS THE
CHEAPEST WAY TO PRODUCE BEEF.
IT ALLOWS THE AVERAGE AMERICAN
TO EAT THE MEAT ON A REGULAR
BASIS.
THE ANIMALS GROW MORE QUICKLY
THAN THEIR EUROPEAN
COUNTERPARTS THANKS TO A
JUDICIOUS USE OF GROWTH
HORMONES THAT ARE ACTUALLY
BANNED IN EUROPE.
BUT AT THE CORE OF THIS MEGA
INDUSTRY ARE THE THREE Fs, AND
FOR DECADES AMERICA ENJOYED
CHEAP BEEF BUILT ON THE CONCEPT
OF CHEAP FERTILIZER, CHEAP
FEED, AND CHEAP FUEL.
UP 'TIL NOW, THE EFFICIENCIES
OF SCALE HAVE HELPED KEEP
PRICES LOW.
BUT THAT'S NOT TRUE ANYMORE:
COSTS ARE RISING AROUND THE
WORLD, AND IN A COUNTRY WHERE
THE ANIMALS AND THEIR MEAT ARE
DRIVEN HUNDREDS OF MILES, THE
SKY-HIGH PRICE OF FUEL IS
TAKING ITS TOLL.

A fast motion clip features a truck driving down a road.

Jimmy continues AND THE MEAT LOVERS OF AMERICA
ARE FEELING THE EFFECT.
CHICAGO IS A CITY THAT HAS
BUILT ITS FOUNDATIONS ON THE
BEEF INDUSTRY.
Driving a car, Jimmy continues IT SEEMS MADNESS WHILE I'M HERE
NOT TO TRY SOME, SO I'M OFF TO
MEET A GUY THAT SEEMS TO HAVE
BEEF RUNNING THROUGH HIS VEINS,
SO MUCH SO, HE'S ACTUALLY
KNOWN AS MISTERBEEF.
RIGHT DOWN HERE.
THIS BEEF JOINT HAS BEEN
SERVING THE PEOPLE OF CHICAGO
WITH THEIR LUNCHTIME HOAGIES
SINCE THE 1970s.
AND IF THERE'S ANYONE WHO CAN
TELL ME ABOUT THE RISING COST
OF BEEF, IT'S MISTER BEEF.

Jimmy walks into a restaurant.

Jimmy says YOU MUST BE THE OWNER.

Christopher stands behind a counter. He’s in his thirties, clean-shaven with long black hair. He’s wearing a red head band, a sleeveless black T-shirt and a red apron.

Christopher says
CHRISTOPHER.

The caption changes to “Christopher Zucchero. Restaurateur.”

Jimmy says HOW ARE YOU DOING?

Christopher says GOOD,
BUDDY, HOW ARE YOU?

Jimmy says GOOD.
BUSY PLACE YOU'VE GOT HERE.

Christopher says IT IS,
SIR, IT IS.

Jimmy says I'VE LOOKED AT THE
MENU, AND THERE'S A LOT OF BEEF.
WHAT WOULD YOU RECOMMEND?

Christopher says THE
ITALIAN BEEF - THAT'S WHAT
WE'RE FAMOUS FOR, THAT'S THE
STAPLE HERE IN THIS PLACE.
SANSIO, CAN WE HAVE A BEEF
HOTTY AND SWEET, PLEASE,
DIPPED.

Jimmy says HAVE YOU SEEN IT
CHANGE IN THE BUSINESS WHEN IT
COMES TO BUYING BEEF?

Christopher says
ABSOLUTELY, ABSOLUTELY,
ABSOLUTELY.
THE PRICES HAVE SKYROCKETED IN
THE LAST FOUR YEARS.
THE PRICING WAS WAY UNDER 1.50 DOLLARS
PER POUND.
IF IT DIDN'T GO UP, IT WOULD GO
UP MAYBE A CENT EVERY COUPLE OF
MONTHS, POSSIBLY FIVE CENTS,
AND THEN I SAW IT SHOOT UP FROM
LIKE 1.65 TO ALMOST
2 DOLLARS -SOMETHING IN A MATTER OF TWO
MONTHS.

Jimmy says WOW, SO A MASSIVE
PRICE HIKE.

Christopher says HUGE.

Jimmy says WHY DO YOU THINK BEEF
IS INCREASING IN PRICE THEN?

Christopher says OIL IS
A HUGE FACTOR, OIL FROM
EVERYTHING IN YOUR PERISHABLE
PRODUCTS TO YOUR NON-PERISHABLE
PRODUCTS TO THE DELIVERY OF THE
MEAT - IT'S ALL TOGETHER.

Jimmy says SO, FUEL GOING UP,
TRANSPORTATION OF LIVESTOCK,
THE IDEA THAT YOU NEED OIL TO
RUN MACHINES, THE COMBINES?

Christopher says
ABSOLUTELY.

Jimmy says EVENTUALLY, THE
PRICES YOU'VE GOT HERE ON THE
BOARD, FOR YOU TO SURVIVE AND
CARRY ON THIS AMAZING
TRADITION, THEY'VE GOT TO GO
UP, HAVEN'T THEY?

Christopher says OH,
YEAH, ABSOLUTELY.
AND THEY WILL, AND THEY WILL,
AND THERE'S NO STOPPING THAT.

Jimmy says AND IT'S NOT JUST
FUEL COSTS HITTING BEEF
PRODUCTION; IT'S FEED, TOO.
IN 2012, THE MIDWEST WAS HIT BY
ONE OF THE MOST PUNISHING
DROUGHTS IN AMERICAN HISTORY.
AS CROPS FAILED, THE PRICE OF
GRAIN SHOT THROUGH THE ROOF.
IT'S JUST ONE OF A SERIES OF
EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS TO HIT
U.S. SHORES IN RECENT YEARS,
AND THE SHOCKWAVES IN THE GRAIN
MARKET HAVE HIT MEAT PRICES
WORLDWIDE.
EVEN IF WE COULD STOMACH GOING
MEGA INDUSTRIAL, RELYING ON THE
THREE Fs DOESN'T SEEM THE BEST
WAY TO GUARANTEE AFFORDABLE
BEEF IN THE FUTURE.

Standing by a cattle ranch, Jimmy says THE MASSIVE SCALE OF THE
FEEDLOT OPERATION PROBABLY
WOULDN'T WORK IN THE U.K., AS
I FEEL AS CONSUMERS, WE WOULDN'T
EMBRACE SUCH LARGE-SCALE
INDUSTRIAL FARMING.
HOWEVER, THERE IS A SYSTEM ON
TRIAL HERE THAT I THINK WOULD
BE MORE TO OUR LIKING.

(music plays)

Jimmy continues DEEP IN COLORADO, A
REVOLUTIONARY NEW APPROACH IS
BEING TRIALLED, ONE THAT COULD
DRASTICALLY REDUCE MODERN
FARMING'S RELIANCE ON FUEL,
FERTILIZER, AND FEED.

Allan Savory looks at a map over a car bonnet. He is in his late fifties, clean-shaven with gray hair. He’s wearing a gray beret and a matching shirt.

Allan says WE NEED A MAP
OF THE LAND, WE NEED TO DIVIDE
THE LAND UP INTO UNITS.
NOW, THOSE CAN BE USED...

Jimmy says AND THE MAN WHO
CREATED IT, ENVIRONMENTALIST
ALLAN SAVORY, HAS BASED HIS
METHOD ON THE MILITARY STRATEGY
TAUGHT AT BRITAIN'S TOP OFFICER
TRAINING SCHOOL.

Allan says I TOOK THIS
FROM SANDHURST.

The caption changes to “Allan Savory. Environmentalist.”

Jimmy says THE MILITARY COLLEGE?

Allan says YEAH, YEAH,
YEAH.
THIS IS NOTHING BUT A
BIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF 300
YEARS OF MILITARY EXPERIENCE.
WE CAN PLOT WHERE WE MOVE THE
ANIMALS, AND WE CAN PLAY AROUND
WITH PENCIL MARKINGS 'TIL WE
GET THE PLAN EXACTLY AS WE
WANT IT.

Jimmy says SO, IT'S ALL
ORGANIZED WITH MILITARY
PRECISION, AND THE LIVESTOCK IN
THIS PLAN LIVE MAINLY OFF THE
LAND, SO THERE'S LESS RELIANCE
ON EXPENSIVE ANIMAL FEED, AND
THE CATTLE FERTILIZE THE LAND
AS THEY GRAZE, DOING AWAY WITH
INCREASINGLY COSTLY COMMERCIAL
FERTILIZER.
AND AS FOR FUEL, HE BELIEVES
THIS APPROACH TAKES FARMERS
AWAY FROM YEARS OF AGRICULTURE
BEING BASED ON OIL-HUNGRY
SYSTEMS.

Allan says IT ORIGINATED
FROM TRYING TO MARKET MORE OIL
AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR.

Jimmy says IN TERMS OF
FERTILIZERS, MACHINERY?

Allan says REALLY
UNDERLYING THAT IS MARKETING
OIL.

Jimmy says IT'S ALL VERY
ENLIGHTENING, BUT WHAT I WANT
TO KNOW IS WHAT WILL THIS STYLE
OF FARMING DO TO THE PRICE OF
BEEF?

Allan says THROUGH THIS
PROCESS, WE'RE ALREADY
REALIZING THAT WE CAN INCREASE
THE PRODUCTION OF A UNIT OF
LAND 3-, 400 PERCENT,
AND THAT IS INEVITABLY GOING TO
PRODUCE ENORMOUS AMOUNTS OF MEAT
AT MUCH LOWER COST.

Cattle graze freely near trees.

Jimmy says CHEAP MEAT WITHOUT
THE HEAVY RELIANCE ON OIL AND
ANIMAL FEED SOUNDS IDEAL.
BUT THIS REVOLUTIONARY IDEA
NEEDS TWO THINGS.
FIRST, AN ABUNDANCE OF CHEAP
LAND, AND SECONDLY, FARMERS
WILLING TO ABANDON THE
THAT MIGHT BE SOME WAY OFF, SO
FOR THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE, OUR
FARMERS AND OUR PRICES WILL
BEAR THE BURDEN OF HIGH-ENERGY
COSTS.
FOR YEARS, MECHANIZED FARMING
AND FOOD PRODUCTION HELPED
DELIVER BEEF AT AFFORDABLE
PRICES.
BUT TODAY, SOME OF THE FARMING
METHODS THAT MADE THAT POSSIBLE
ARE ACTUALLY HELPING TO PUSH UP
PRICES.
WHILE BEEF FARMERS HAVE BEEN
LOOKING BACK TO OUR PAST FOR
THEIR INSPIRATION, THE
PRODUCERS OF MY FINAL FOOD ARE
FIRMLY PLACING THEIR FAITH IN
TECHNOLOGY FOR THE FUTURE.
AND FOR MY LAST DISH,
I'M GOING POSH.
RIGHT - SMOKED SALMON, ANYONE?

At night, Jimmy takes a salmon dish out of the food wagon and offers it to people in the street.

Jimmy says ARE YOU BIG FANS OF SMOKED
SALMON?

A woman with long hair says I LIKE SALMON.

A woman wearing a dark raincoat says NOT SMOKED.

Jimmy says WOULD YOU LIKE SOME
SMOKED SALMON?

A woman wearing a checked scarf says YES.

Jimmy says THERE WE GO, HAVE
ONE OF THOSE.
WHEN I SAY POSH, WHAT I MEANT
WAS WHEN I WAS GROWING UP THIS
WAS THE ULTIMATE LUXURY, ONLY
TO BE EATEN AT SPECIAL
OCCASIONS.
NOWADAYS, SALMON IN ALL ITS
FORMS IS THE FOOD OF THE
PEOPLE.

The man with black hair says IT'S AN EVERYDAY THING; WE
USE IT ALL THE TIME NOW.

The woman wearing a checked scarf says SATURDAY MORNING, BAGEL,
SOMETHING LIKE THAT.

Jimmy says LOVELY.
WE SCARF OUR WAY THROUGH ONE
MILLION FRESH SALMON MEALS
EVERY DAY, WHICH IS WHY WE
REALLY NOTICE WHEN THE PRICE
GOES UP.
YOU WORK IN A PUB?

The woman with long hair says YES.
WHEN WE BUY IT IN FROM OUR FOOD
COMPANY, YOU'VE DEFINITELY SEEN
THE PRICES IN OUR STOCKS GO UP.
BUT IT'S A STAPLE AND PEOPLE
LIKE IT; WE SELL A LOT OF IT,
SO WE'RE GOING TO KEEP SELLING
IT.

A male fishmonger says YOU GET PEOPLE
LIKE THE CHINESE AND THE
RUSSIANS, THEY ALL WANT IT NOW
BECAUSE THEY'RE GETTING A LOT
MORE MONEY OVER THERE, SO ALL
OF A SUDDEN THAT PUSHES THE
PRICE UP AS WELL.
THE TRANSPORT, PETROL, AND ALL
THIS JUST PUSHES EVERYTHING UP.

Jimmy says IN THE LATE '70s,
FRESH SALMON COST AROUND 19 POUNDS A
KILO IN TODAY'S MONEY, BUT JUST
OVER A DECADE AGO, IT HAD
DROPPED TO AROUND 3 POUNDS A KILO.
BUT SINCE THEN, PRICES HAVE
STARTED TO RISE.
SO, WHAT'S BEEN HAPPENING TO
ONE OF OUR FAVOURITE FOODS?
FISH HAS ALWAYS BEEN ONE OF THE
WORLD'S MOST IMPORTANT SOURCES
OF PROTEIN.
BUT AS GLOBAL DEMAND HAS GROWN,
OCEANS HAVE BEEN OVEREXPLOITED,
PUTTING MANY SPECIES AT RISK.
Driving a car, Jimmy continues IN THE 1950s, THE GLOBAL CATCH
WAS 17 MILLION TONNES; IN THE
1990s, IT WAS 84 MILLION TONNES.
BUT WE WERE ACHIEVING THIS BY
OVERFISHING; BUT IT SIMPLY
COULDN'T GO ON AT THIS PACE -
WE WOULD RUN OUT OF FISH.
A NEW SOLUTION WAS NEEDED, AND
FISH FARMS WERE THE ANSWER.
IN THE PAST FEW DECADES, THE
AQUACULTURE INDUSTRY HAS
THE WORLD'S FISH.

An aerial shot shows square fish farms in the sea.

Jimmy continues AND ONE OF ITS GREATEST SUCCESS
STORIES IS SALMON.
THIS MAY NOT LOOK LIKE AN
INDUSTRIAL SITE, BUT IT'S PART
OF ONE OF SCOTLAND'S BIGGEST
INDUSTRIES, WORTH HUNDREDS OF
MILLIONS OF POUNDS EACH YEAR,
AND THE REASON WHY THE HUMBLE
SALMON HAS LEFT THE PLATES OF
THE RICH AND FAMOUS AND BECOME
THE FOOD OF THE PEOPLE.
THE GROWTH OF SCOTTISH SALMON
FARMING IS BREATHTAKING.
ITS FIRST HARVEST IN 1971
YIELDED 14 TONNES.
JUST 40 YEARS LATER, THAT HAD
INCREASE OF 1,000,000 PERCENT.

Salmons fall into a conveyor belt.

Jimmy continues BUT THIS ULTRA-EFFICIENT
INDUSTRY HAS A WEAK SPOT:
DISEASE.

Jimmy stands on a platform.

Jimmy continues OKAY, SO THIS IS JUST A ROUTINE
THING, JUST TO CHECK YOUR
STOCK.

Steve Bracken is in his mid-fifties with gray hair. He’s wearing blue jeans and an orange safety helmet.

Steve says ABSOLUTELY,
JUST TO DO A QUICK HEALTH
INSPECTION ON THEM.

Ronnie is in his fifties with blond hair. He’s wearing an orange safety helmet and dark trousers.

The caption changes to “Ronnie Hawkins. Farm Manager.”

Ronnie says SO, THE
FIRST THING I'M DOING IS I'M
LOOKING FOR SEA LICE AND I CAN
SEE A VERY FEW EARLY STAGE
JUVENILES ON THIS FISH.

Jimmy says FARMED SALMON ARE
SEPARATED FROM THE SEA, LAKE,
OR LOCH ONLY BY A NET, LEAVING
THEM VULNERABLE TO ANY NASTY
VIRUS OR PARASITE FOUND LURKING
IN THE OPEN WATER.

Holding a salmon by its tail, Ronnie says
HISTORICALLY, WE WOULD HAVE
USED A LICENSED MEDICINE TO
TREAT THESE FISH FOR SEA LICE,
BUT THIS YEAR WE'VE INTRODUCED
WRASSE, WHICH IS A WILD FISH,
AND WHAT THAT DOES IS IT EATS
ALL THE LICE OFF THE BACKS OF
THE SALMON.
HE'S GOOD; HIS GILLS ARE VERY
HEALTHY LOOKING.

Jimmy says SO, HE'S A GOODY.
IT TAKES CONSTANT VIGILANCE TO
ENSURE THE FARMED FISH DON'T
FALL PREY TO AN OUTBREAK OF
DISEASE.
ALL IT TAKES IS ONE FISH TO
CONTRACT AN INFECTION FROM THE
WATER OR FROM WILD FISH
SWIMMING NEARBY, AND IT CAN
SPREAD RAPIDLY THROUGH THE PEN.

As fishes swim, an animated danger triangle appears on some of them.

Jimmy continues AND THAT CAN HAVE A DEVASTATING
EFFECT ON THE FARM AND THE
PRICE WE HAVE TO PAY.
THE WORST CASE SCENARIO
HAPPENED IN CHILE LESS THAN A
DECADE AGO.

The animated planet earth homes in on Chile.

The caption changes to “Steve Bracken. Business Support Manager.”

Steve says WHAT HAPPENED
WITH THE INDUSTRY IN CHILE WAS
THAT IT DID EXPAND VERY, VERY
QUICKLY, AND SOME WOULD SAY
WITHOUT PROPER REGULATION.

Jimmy says BY 2007, IT WAS THE
WORLD'S SECOND BIGGEST SALMON
EXPORTER, AND THEN DISEASE
STRUCK.
IT SPREAD LIKE WILDFIRE THROUGH
THE TIGHTLY PACKED PENS, WITH
FARM AFTER FARM SUCCUMBING.

Steve says IN 2007, THEY
WERE FARMING ABOUT 350,000
TONNES THAT YEAR.
ABOUT TWO YEARS LATER, THEY
WERE AS LOW AS 120,000 TO
150,000 TONNES, SO THAT HAD A
HUGE IMPACT ON THE GLOBAL
MARKET.

Jimmy says THE VIRUS COST THE
CHILEANS 2 BILLION DOLLARS; 26,000
WORKERS LOST THEIR JOBS AND THE
MARKET LOST 20 PERCENT OF
ITS FISH.
BUT WITH DEMAND AROUND THE
WORLD STAYING THE SAME, PRICES
BEGAN TO RISE.
AS THE LOSS OF STOCK FILTERED
THROUGH THE GLOBAL SUPPLY
CHAIN, SALMON PRICES IN BRITAIN
SOARED BY OVER A THIRD.
SINCE THEN, NEW REGULATIONS
HAVE BEEN BROUGHT IN ACROSS THE
INDUSTRY TO AVOID FUTURE
OUTBREAKS ON THE SAME SCALE.
BUT THEY, TOO, CARRY A COST.
BUT THIS IS AN IMPORTANT
PROCESS; THIS IS SOMETHING THAT
YOU DO ROUTINELY.

Steve says ABSOLUTELY,
ON A WEEKLY BASIS.

Jimmy says RIGHT, OKAY, AND
THERE'S LOTS OF LAWS AND
REGULATIONS THAT ADVISE YOU AND
GUIDE YOU IN THIS SORT OF
PRACTICE.
AND HAS THAT CHANGED OVER THE
YEARS WHEN YOU FIRST STARTED?

Steve says OH,
ABSOLUTELY; SINCE WE GOT
INVOLVED WITH THE RSPCA FREEDOM
FOOD STANDARD, IT MEANS THAT
YOU'RE WORKING WITH THAT,
AND ALL THE FARMERS AND THEIR
TEAMS ARE WORKING WITH IT AS
WELL.
IT'S A SET STANDARD AND THAT'S
WORKING REALLY, REALLY GOOD.

Jimmy says MORE REGULATION AND
ALL THAT KIND OF STUFF MAKES
YOU MORE EFFICIENT, WHICH IS A
GOOD THING, BUT ALSO THAT ALL
COMES AT A COST AS WELL,
DOESN'T IT, 'CAUSE ALL THESE
EXTRA HOOPS YOU'VE GOT TO JUMP
THROUGH - BE IT MORE STAFFING -
IT DOES PUT UP YOUR OVERHEADS
AND MAKES IT MORE COSTLY.

Steve says IT DOES, BUT
AT THE END OF THE DAY I THINK
THE FISH BENEFIT FROM THAT, AND
SO IF THE FISH BENEFIT, WE
BENEFIT TOO.

(soft music plays)

Jimmy says AND WITH DEMAND FOR
SALMON GROWING AROUND THE
WORLD, PRODUCING A HEALTHY AND
SUSTAINABLE SOURCE OF FISH IS
PROBABLY MORE IMPORTANT THAN
EVER.
Driving a car, Jimmy continues AND THAT'S WHY I'M SO EXCITED
ABOUT MY NEXT PORT OF CALL,
BECAUSE IT JUST MIGHT BE THE
REVOLUTION AQUACULTURE HAS BEEN
WAITING FOR.

(rock music plays)

Jimmy continues NESTLED AMONGST THESE DANISH
FISHING VILLAGES IS THE GENESIS
OF A NEW WAY OF FARMING THAT
COULD RADICALLY REDUCE THE RISK
OF AN OUTBREAK OF DISEASE.

Jimmy walks down a beach and says BUT THE SECRET ISN'T IN THESE
CRYSTAL-CLEAR WATERS; IT'S IN
THIS FACTORY BEHIND ME.
THIS IS HIGH-TECH FACTORY FISH
FARMING.
THE RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE
SYSTEM HAS REDESIGNED THE WHOLE
APPROACH TO SALMON FARMING.
THIS JAMES BOND-ESQUE VIRTUAL
SEA WORLD MAY USE FRESH
SEAWATER PUMPED IN FROM THE
NEARBY BAY, BUT IT'S DESIGNED
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF DISEASES
THAT NORMALLY LURK IN THE WILD.
IF IT WORKS, FARMERS WILL BE
ABLE TO PRODUCE A STEADY STREAM
OF SALMON UNAFFECTED BY DISEASE
OR EXTREME WEATHER FOR THE
FIRST TIME IN HISTORY AND AT A
STABLE PRICE.
IT WAS DEVELOPED BY
ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGIST THUE
HOLM, WHO WITNESSED THE CHILEAN
OUTBREAK AT FIRST HAND AND SET
OUT TO CREATE A FISH FARM THAT
WAS IMMUNE FROM OUTSIDE
INTERFERENCE.

Jimmy and Thue Holm walk by large metallic tanks. Thue is in his mid-thirties, with a beard and brown hair. He’s wearing a blue T-shirt.

The caption changes to “Thue Holm. Environmental Biologist.”

Thue says IN MANY WAYS, YOU
COULD LOOK AT THIS AS YOUR
BODY, WITH THE KIDNEYS, THE
LUNGS, EVERYTHING HERE INSIDE
THE SYSTEM TO CLEAN THE WATER
FOR THE FISH.

Jimmy says SO, WHAT WE'RE
WALKING TOWARDS IS ONE BIG
AQUARIUM, AND WHAT WE'VE GOT
HERE IS ONE HUGE AQUARIUM
FILTER.

Thue says EXACTLY, THE FISH
ALWAYS GET OPTIMUM CONDITIONS.
IN SEA PENS, YOU CAN OFTEN GET
LOW TEMPERATURES, YOU CAN HAVE
ALGAE BLOOMS, AND ALL KINDS
OF STUFF.

Jimmy says SO, BY DOING THIS,
YOU'RE GETTING CONSISTENCY -
NOT ONLY IN TEMPERATURE, BUT
WATER QUALITY - AND IT'S ABOUT
KEEPING THE FISH HEALTHY AND
REDUCING DISEASE.

Thue says EXACTLY.

Jimmy says FOR THESE NEWLY
HATCHED SALMON, THE FUTURE IS A
SCIENTIFICALLY MONITORED AND
CONTROLLED REPLICA OF LIFE IN
THE OCEAN.
VAST TANKS WILL REPLICATE THE
PERFECT COLD-WATER CONDITIONS
AS ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
RECREATES THE DAYS, MONTHS, AND
SEASONS OF THEIR LIFECYCLE
BEFORE THEY ARE FINALLY
HARVESTED.

Thue says HERE, WE CAN, OF
COURSE, GET A DISEASE, BUT WE
ARE CLOSED, SO WE CAN'T GIVE IT
BACK TO THE NATURE.

Jimmy says SO, YOU ARE THE
MASTER OF THIS ENVIRONMENT.

Thue says ABSOLUTELY, WE
CAN DECIDE HOW MUCH HUMIDITY
WE WANT, HOW MUCH TEMPERATURE
WE WANT - EVERYTHING WE CAN
CONTROL.

Hundreds of small red salmons swim in a tank.

Jimmy says IT'S INTERESTING IN A
FARMING SENSE, BECAUSE WE'VE
SEEN FARMING LIKE THIS BEFORE,
SAY WITH PIGS OR CHICKENS,
WHERE WE GET A LOT OF ANIMALS
TOGETHER AND PUT THEM IN SHED
AND CONTROL THE CONDITIONS, AND
A LOT OF PEOPLE WOULD CRITICIZE
THAT AND SAY, THIS IS JUST
ANOTHER WAY OF FACTORY FARMING;
YOU'RE JUST FACTORY FARMING
FISH.

Thue says FISH IS A WHOLE
OTHER ANIMAL.
THEY GO IN BIG FISH SCHOOLS IN
THE SEA, AND LOOK AT THE FISH
TANK - YOU CAN ACTUALLY SEE HOW
THEY SCHOOL AROUND IN THE TANK.

Jimmy says BUILDING AND RUNNING
A SECURE INDOOR SYSTEM LIKE
THIS DOESN'T COME CHEAP, AND
MANY OF THOSE COSTS ARE LIKELY
TO BE PASSED ON TO US, THE
CONSUMER.
BUT THE CREATORS BELIEVE HIGHER
PRICES WILL BE WORTH PAYING IF
THE RESULT IS A RELIABLE AND
SUSTAINABLE FUTURE SOURCE OF
PROTEIN, FREE OF THE
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES THAT HAVE
PLAGUED THE CURRENT SYSTEM.

Thue says THE WHOLE IDEA OF
THIS CONCEPT IS TO PRODUCE IT
NEXT TO THE CUSTOMER, BECAUSE
TODAY, INTO THE UNITED STATES,
FOR EXAMPLE, THERE IS FLOWN
200,000 TONNES OF SALMON EVERY
YEAR.

Jimmy says WOW, THAT IS
INCREDIBLE.

Thue says SO, IF YOU CAN
PLACE SYSTEMS NEXT TO THE
MARKETS, THEN YOU WILL HAVE
MUCH LESS FUEL COSTS.

Jimmy says SO, SOMETHING LIKE
THIS COULD BE BUILT ANYWHERE IN
THE WORLD THEN?

Thue says ABSOLUTELY
ANYWHERE - THE CHINESE ARE
BUILDING ONE IN THE GOBI DESERT
RIGHT NOW.

Jimmy says SO, THE CHINESE ARE
BUILDING ONE OF THESE IN THE
DESERT?

(calm music plays)

Jimmy says SALMON FISHING IN THE GOBI
DESERT MAY SEEM NUTS OR
PERVERSE OR EVEN AGAINST THE
LAWS OF NATURE, BUT THERE IS
SOUND LOGIC BEHIND THIS DANISH
ENDEAVOUR - BECAUSE WE'VE GOT A
PROBLEM THAT NEEDS SOLVING.
IN AN INCREASINGLY WEALTHY
WORLD, DEMAND FOR PROTEIN IS
GROWING, AND THE WORLD BANK HAS
FORECAST THAT BY 2030
AQUACULTURE WILL GROW BY 60
PERCENT TO HELP FILL THAT GAP.

An animated line graph appears on the sky, near a ship. The graph reads “Total seafood production: 180 million tonnes, capture: 92 million tonnes. 2030.”

Jimmy continues AND WHEN IT COMES TO PRODUCING
PROTEIN, SALMON IS ONE OF THE
MOST EFFICIENT PRODUCERS WE'VE
GOT.
A CHICKEN NEEDS TWO-AND-A-HALF
KILOS OF FEED TO GROW ONE KILO
OF MEAT.
A PIG NEEDS SOMETHING LIKE SIX
KILOS.
AND TO GET ONE KILO OF BEEF,
YOU NEED TO GIVE A COW SEVEN
TIMES THAT AMOUNT OF FEED.
SALMON, ON THE OTHER HAND,
NEEDS JUST A FRACTION OF THAT:
A LITTLE OVER A KILO OF ANIMAL
FEED WILL GIVE YOU A KILO OF
MEAT.

Animated labels with the data given pop up next to the animals mentioned.

Jimmy continues OF COURSE, SALMON ISN'T QUITE A
MIRACLE FISH.
IS CURRENTLY MADE FROM FISHMEAL
AND OIL HARVESTED FROM WILD
FISH STOCKS, BUT IT'S STILL A
MORE EFFECTIVE USE OF ANIMAL
FEED.
AND THAT'S WHY THE BACKERS OF
INDOOR FISH FARMS BELIEVE IT
COULD PLAY A CRUCIAL ROLE IN
FEEDING A GROWING WORLD
POPULATION IN THE FUTURE.

Jimmy and Katherine Bryer have lunch by a lake. She is in her thirties with short blond hair. She’s wearing a white shirt.

The caption changes to “Katherine Bryer. Marketing Consultant.”

Katherine says TO PRODUCE
THE MAJORITY, THE 80 PERCENT OF
FOOD TO FEED THE WORLD, IT IS
DONE IN AN INDUSTRIAL MANNER.

Jimmy says A LOT OF PEOPLE
THINK, THAT'S JUST THE SAME AS
HAVING BATTERY HENS, OR
WOULDN'T THESE FISH BE BETTER
OFF IN CAGES IN THE OCEAN.
IS IT A FAD OR DOES IT REALLY
HAVE A ROLE TO PLAY?

Katherine says IT
ABSOLUTELY HAS A ROLE TO PLAY.
IT IS A NEW TECHNOLOGY AND IT
DOES SOUND A LITTLE STRANGE,
BUT OUR EVOLUTION IN FARMING
HAS BEEN CONTINUING FOR
THOUSANDS OF YEARS AND OUR
POPULATION HAS CONTINUED TO
GROW, AND HENCE THE FARMING
SYSTEMS MUST CONTINUE TO EVOLVE
TO BECOME EFFICIENT, TO PRODUCE
ENOUGH FOOD TO FEED THE WORLD.
THAT'S THE SIMPLE TRUTH.

Jimmy says INDOOR FISH FARMS
MIGHT SOUND UNNATURAL, BUT I
THINK, AS LONG AS IT'S DONE
PROPERLY, THIS COULD BE THE
BREAKTHROUGH THAT PROVIDES A
CRITICAL SOURCE OF PROTEIN FOR
A HUNGRY 21ST CENTURY WORLD.
IT MIGHT JUST MEAN WE HAVE TO
GET USED TO PAYING A HIGHER
PRICE FOR THIS DINNERTIME
FAVOURITE.
MY JOURNEY THROUGH BREAKFAST,
LUNCH, AND DINNER HAVE SHOWN ME
THAT THE CHEAP FOOD PRICES OVER
THE LAST COUPLE OF DECADES HAVE
BEEN GOOD TO OUR WALLETS, BUT
THEY MAY HAVE HAD AN
UNFORTUNATE SIDE EFFECT.

(electronic music plays)

Jimmy continues WE'VE STOPPED THINKING ABOUT
WHERE OUR FOOD COMES FROM...
AND WHAT A CHANGING WORLD MIGHT
DO TO OUR FOOD SECURITY.

A time-lapse clip features different means of production and distribution.

Jimmy continues MANY OF THE PRICE SCARES WE'VE
SEEN ARE A DIRECT RESULT OF
ALWAYS THINKING OF THE PRESENT
AND NEVER PLANNING FOR THE
FUTURE.
SOME OF THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL
ISSUES OF THE 21ST CENTURY ARE
DETERMINING THE PRICE OF OUR
FOOD, FROM CLIMATE CHANGE TO
OIL, FROM THE RISE OF ASIA TO
THE POWER OF THE FINANCIAL
MARKETS, AND FROM URBANIZATION
TO THE WAY WE FARM OUR FOOD.
BUT SAYING THAT, IT REALLY
ISN'T ALL DOOM AND GLOOM.
USING SOME OF THE AMAZING
TECHNIQUES DEVELOPED BY THE
AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY, THERE
ARE POTENTIALLY ENOUGH
RESOURCES IN THIS WORLD TO FEED
EVERYONE.
IT'S JUST IT MIGHT BE MORE
EXPENSIVE THAN WE'RE USED TO
PAYING.
BUT IF IT'S DONE RIGHT, AT
LEAST WE CAN PLAN FOR IT.
AND WE WON'T HAVE TO ENDURE THE
ROLLER COASTER RIDE OF PRICE
HIKES AND SPIKES THAT HAVE
PLAGUED US FOR THE LAST DECADE.

(music plays)

The end credits roll.

Original Music by Niraj Chag.

Series Producer and Director, Michael Douglas.

Executive Producer, Steve Condie.

Logo: OSF.

An Oxford Scientific Production for Part of the Boom Pictures Group.

Logo: Boom Pictures.

Copyright Oxford Scientific Films 2014.

Logo: BBC. Worldwide Sales and Distribution.