Transcript: Water in Space | May 19, 2015

ALEX says In our quest to
explore the universe finding
liquid water is key to
discovering new life forms.
Water is at the heart of space
exploration, whether quenching
an astronaut's thirst,
launching rockets into space,
or monitoring the water cycle
and health of our own planet.

Fast clips show a rocket ship flying over a golden planet, an image of Earth with the sun right above it, and a satellite flying over planet Earth,

Then an astronaut appears. He in his forties with grey hair and a grey moustache. He opens the top of a plastic bag of water and drinks from it.

Then a rocket ship launches and the atmosphere around it is full of smoke, and another satellite appears above Earth.


TYLER says To solve humankind's
greatest challenges and answer
our most profound questions
we are driven to look for
water in space.

Fast clips show a rocket ship about to launch and a spring bursting from a rock.

Thena young woman in her twenties appears inside a rocket ship with her blonde hair floating weightlessly.

Then a title reads “Water in Space.”

Tyler says Hey everyone! I'm Tyler.

(music plays)

And this is my younger brother, Alex.

Tyler is in his twenties. He has brown hair, is clean-shaven, and is wearing a green flannel shirt.

Alex is also in his twenties. He has dirty blond hair, a little bit of facial hair, and is wearing a black sweater with white stripes.

A caption reads “Tyler.”

Clips show Tyler upside-down in the middle of the air with his skiboard, Tyler on the beach with a surfboard, him skating, another one of him underwater with an oxygen mask on, and him inside a helicopter.

ALEX says And together
we're the Water Brothers!

Now another caption appears that reads “Alex.”

Some more clips show Alex and Tyler at around age four, hugging each other, another of them on the beach wearing swimsuits, one of them sitting in the middle of a frozen body of water with a video camera and a microphone, and the last of them wearing red uniforms and hats, and holding fishing nets.

ALEX continues We're going to
take you on an adventure around
the world to explore the state
of our Blue Planet.
A planet defined by water
and its ability to sustain life.

A few short clips show Tyler and Alex doing activities in the water like rowing a boat in a lake, riding in a boat on the ocean and diving in the middle of the sea with swimsuits on. A couple of sharks appear on screen. Then they are fishing on a pier, and a dolphin jumps out of the water into the air, and falls back into the water.

Tyler says So join us on our journey
as we explore the world looking
at the most important water
stories of our time.

A couple of short clips show both brothers in a boat and getting splashed with dirty water, Tyler filming Alex while he’s speaking, a lady pumping water, and someone pulling a bucket of water from a well.

Alex says And together we will learn
how to better protect our most
precious resource.

A title appears on screen that says “The Water Brothers.”

ALEX says Earth, The Blue
Planet.
Over seventy percent of its surface
is covered by water and for now it is
the only place in the universe
known to harbour life.
Exciting new views
into deep space could soon
determine if there is life
beyond Earth, and these
journeys are forever tied to
a search for water.

Short clips show the sun rising over planet Earth, and a rocket ship launching into space.

A caption appears that reads “Neil Degrasse Tyson, Director, Hayden Planetarium, American Museum of Natural History.”

Doctor Tyson is in his forties with dark gray
hair and a mustache. He is wearing a black button-up shirt over a gray undershirt.

Behind him there is a bookshelf full of books and other items, and a model rocket ship.

Doctor Tyson says The search for water
is not only important if we
imagine we are ever going
to colonize a planet or a moon,
it's also important in the
search for life as we know it.
Life as we know it requires
liquid water for its survival.
So if we want to find life and
boost the chances of it
being something like
us, we're going to make a list.

A few clips show an elephant drinking water in a lake, a heron eating a fish, and a group of people crossing the street.

Doctor Tyson continues Alright-
that planet's just too hot,
this one's too cold, this one
looks just right.
So we're going to look for
goldilocks places in the
solar system.
So yes, one of NASA's mantras
is to follow the water.

A clip shows a satellite flying over an asteroid.

Then Alex and Tyler appear. They stand against a background of the universe.

Alex says The universe is filled
with water.
In distant galaxies, clouds of
water have been discovered that
are trillions of times the
size of Earth's oceans.

An image of a galaxy appears.

Tyler says Comets and asteroids can
also contain vast quantities of
frozen water and asteroids are
one possible source of
the water that arrived here
on Earth billions of years ago.

An asteroid appears in the middle of space.

Alex says Water is surprisingly
common in the universe.
It's liquid water that's quite
difficult to find and within our
own solar system, only one other
planet besides Earth is believed
to have ever contained water as
a liquid.

A few clips show the sun rising over Earth, a galaxy, and Mars.

Tyler says Today the surface of
Mars is an inhospitable desert
but recent satellite data show
tell-tale signs that the entire
planet's surface has
been shaped by moving water.

Some images show shapes on the surface of Mars.

Doctor Tyson says There are river
basins and river deltas and
flood plains resembling some of
the topographic features you
find in the mid-west when it
rains too much, too quickly.

An image of planet Earth appears.

Doctor Tyson continues So all of this
evidence tells us
that water, or some
common liquid, was flowing
freely and rapidly over the
Martian surface.
No one thinks that Mars didn't
once have liquid water.
One of the big questions is,
where is it now?

A caption appears on screen that reads “NASA Visualization - Ancient Mars.”

A video shows Mars with bodies of water and many rocks.

The caption changes to “DOCTORoctor Jim Green - Director Planetary Science Division NASA.”

Doctor Jim Green is in his sixties. He has gray hair and a gray beard. He is wearing a light blue long-sleeved button-up shirt, dark blue trousers and a watch.

He is in a room containing bookshelves and a globe.

Doctor Jim Green says The more we
learned about Mars the more we
realized that there is a
significant amount of water in
Mars, inside Mars right
now.

A video show Mars with snow on it.

Doctor Jim Green continues It's also
in the polar caps,
buried by the
carbon dioxide snow.

An image shows the layers of the inside of Mars. Another image show frozen water on the inner layers.

Doctor Jim Green continues We see
it in aquifers, it leaks
out and goes down the sides of
craters during certain seasons.
We see that in the past Mars had
a significant amount of water
flowing on its surface, maybe
oceans. Mars looked more like Earth
today, than anything else.

A few clips show Mars full of water, Mars from afar, then Mars turning into Earth.

Doctor Tyson says One thing we learned
in the past several decades is
that the moons of planets are,
in some cases, more interesting
than the planets themselves.

A video shows several moons orbiting around Jupiter and Saturn.

Alex says Several moons
Orbiting Jupiter and Saturn
have been known for decades to
contain vast quantities of solid
ice but recent discoveries
suggest that the water on these
moons does not always
remain frozen.

A couple of pictures of Europa appear.

Doctor Tyson says One of Jupiter's
Moons, Europa, is well outside
of our goldilocks zone from
the Sun so you don't expect it
to have liquid water, were it
not for the massaging effect of
Jupiter's gravity competing
with the gravity of other moons.
As Europa moves around in its
orbit, Jupiter distorts it a
little bit and then the other
moons distort it and so there it
is constantly being distorted.

A video shows different moons orbiting around Jupiter.

Doctor Tyson continues In much the
same way racquetball is
distorted every time you hit it.
Have you felt a racquetball
after you've hit it a few times?
It's warm.
You've been pumping energy into
it by hitting it and it's been
rebounding and every
time you do this you raise its
temperature just a little bit.

A video shows Europa’s interior, proving there is water inside it.

Doctor Tyson continues That has happened on Europa, the
ice surface is liquid beneath it
by every bit of topographic
evidence we can summon and it's
likely been liquid for billions
of years.
So as I've said before I want to go
ice fishing on Europa.

Tyler says Europa's ocean is
thought to be twice the volume
of all the surface water here
on Earth and together with the
heat created from the tidal
forces of Jupiter, two of the
most essential ingredients for
life are present.

A video shows planet Earth and Europa, and the amount of water they each have. Europa’s interior appears and has two labels that read “Energy” and “Liquid water.”

Doctor Green says We also believe
that on the bottom of the ocean
are potentially hydrothermal
vents.
Places where heat is constantly
generated through these tidal
forces of Jupiter and
continually melting the water.
And that makes it an extreme
environment where potentially
it could be very hot.
And when we go to our
hydrothermal vents here on
the Earth they're teeming
with life.
And it's because the nutrients
and the energy necessary to keep
this life alive, in addition to
the water, is there in
abundance.
That may be happening at the
bottom of Europa's ocean too.

A few clips show Europa with hydrothermal vents, the hydrothermal vents in Earth, a fish swimming, and a lot of crabs underwater.

Tyler says If we wish to
discover both liquid water and
life beyond Earth we will
eventually need to send humans
to distant worlds like Mars and
Europa.
Journeys that will take months
or even years to complete.

Short videos show people standing, a rocket ship, an astronaut walking with other people, a rocket ship launching, and a satellite.

Alex says Keeping astronauts
healthy and alive is a
tremendous challenge and aboard
the International Space Station
teams of astronauts have been
living in space since the
year 2000 trying to overcome
these very problems.

A video shows some astronauts in a rocket ship, a lady with her hair floating free while she uses a computer screen, a man running on a treadmill and a man floating in the spaceship.

Tyler says To get a sense of
this important work being done
we sat down with Canadian
astronaut Chris Hadfield,
a veteran of three spaceflights
and a former commander of
the ISS, where he lived for
nearly five months.

Chris appears on screen. He is in his fifties with gray hair and a moustache. He is wearing a white button-up shirt with a gray suit.

A caption reads “Colonel Chris Hadfield - Commander NASA and CSA.”

Alex says So Chris, you've inspired
so many people by changing
their perspectives of Earth, of
what it's like to be in space,
and just for my brother and I,
you've been a big inspiration
just being an amazing ambassador
for Canada and also for your
legendary moustache, which is
why we've decided to spend
the last few weeks growing
ours to pay homage to you.

Chris says Congratulations
on the moustaches, they're
coming along very nicely.
And maybe to mix everything
together, you might try
watering them a little bit.

Alex says Is that your secret?

Chris says (laughing) No it
just takes time.

Tyler says One primary mission
of the ISS is to develop life
support systems that will be
efficient and reliable enough to
keep astronauts like Chris
alive for long space journeys.

A video show Chris inside the rocket ship.

Chris says When people
start to explore at first they
stay close to home.
When we were getting ready to
sail the Atlantic the sailors
went up and down the coast
thousands of times for many,
many, years before they
sailed west and went across
the Atlantic.
What we're doing in space right
now is the same thing.
We're orbiting the world and
learning how to figure out
what you need.
What food do you need, what do
you make your ship out of,
how do you make the toilet work,
how do you recycle the water,
how do you do all those things,
before we head further out
into the universe.

Videos show a satellite, a lady floating in a seated position, Chris trying to catch food floating in the spaceship, a woman drying her hair with a towel while it moves upward, a guy getting his hair cut by someone, and a man standing in front of a robot.

Alex says Do you think that the
provision of water to astronauts
will be a challenge for future
missions as we push deeper
into space?

Chris says When I lived on
the space shuttle and helped
build the Russian space station
MIR and the international
space station, of course, we
just brought a finite quantity
of water, like going on a
camping trip where you bring
some jugs of water with you.
So you know how much water you
have left, you know how
many days, no big deal.
On a space station you could do
that but all your ships
coming up from Earth, they would
just be full of water and so you
are very concerned about how
much water is onboard.
And often it becomes our
limiting resource.
If we are trying to decide how
many more days can we stay
on station, it's maybe not
oxygen supply, it's maybe not
food, the limiting factor might
be water, and it often is.

A video shows a man in the rocket ship taking a package to Chris. Then Chris pours out water and instead of falling, it goes sideways in a straight line onto a towel. Then, he drains the towel and the water stays surrounding the towel. After that, he has water on his hands and as he moves his hands back and forth the water moves as well but doesn’t drip off his hands. He takes a sip from the water bag. Then a satellite appears in space.

Alex appears being filmed by Tyler.

Alex says On average it costs over
Sixty-thousand dollars to send a liter
of water into space.
So anytime you can cut down on
the amount of water you send up
into space it leads to huge
savings, and that's what's
brought us here to the Marshall
Spaceflight Center,
to learn how scientists here are
turning urine, into
clean drinking water.

Alex shows a jar full of water and a bottle full of urine. Then Alex, Tyler, and Layne appear inside the NASA’s primary hub. They walk in through a door. Tyler is filming everything.

Layne is in his fifties with gray hair, a beard, and a moustache. He is wearing a blue sweater.

Tyler says Since 1960, this
Centre in Huntsville, Alabama
has been NASA's primary hub for
developing rocket propulsion
systems.
Many Earth and Space science
activities continue to take
place here, including the
development of the water
recovery system that recycles
wastewater aboard the
International Space Station.

A video appears of Chris putting toothpaste on a toothbrush while he is in the spaceship. He brushes his teeth. Then, he waves at the camera and closes the door.

A satellite appears.

A caption reads “Layne Carter - Lead Engineer-Water Recovery System NASA.”

Layne says On average we need
about 4000 liters each
year to support the crew that
we have on the space station,
just in the US segment.
That costs about 250 million
dollars to fly up that
much water.
So that's how much we are saving
with this water recovery
system.

Alex and Layne appear in a room with the urine processor.

Alex says So it saves a lot of money
and it allows more astronauts to
I guess maybe even stay longer
up there.

Layne says Exactly.
We basically were able to
double the size of the crew
and therefore do twice as
much science.

Alex says And we are going to get to
test out the urine
processor today right?

Layne says Absolutely. We
need some samples.
We need some urine so that
we can go off and show you
guys how this system operates.

Alex and Tyler walk into a restroom.

Alex says Time to give a donation!

Alex, Tyler, and Layne are in a lab room. Layne has a test tube with urine inside it and he pours it into a plastic container.

TYLER says While the first few
steps of the water recycling
system must be conducted
manually here on the ground,
on the space station, the entire process
it automated.

A man who has black hair appears in the lab. He is wearing a green sweater and blue trousers.

Then he pours out the urine into a big glass tube.

Alex says So we've just poured in
the sample, it's mixed with
a whole bunch of other chemicals
and it's going to go through
this whole system.
The whole process takes about
two and a half hours and at the
end of it we're going to
get a nice clean drink of water.

Tyler says This system can
recycle about 93 percent of all
the water it receives. The
process starts by separating
the water from urine through
evaporation with a distillation
machine that spins to recreate
the effect of gravity.
Once the water vapor from the
urine is removed it condenses on
the outer wall of distillation
machine and is then combined
with wastewater from the
astronauts' breath, sweat and
washing needs.
From there the wastewater is
sent through a multi-filtration
bed and oxidation reactor before
it is cold and ready to drink.

A video shows how the process works.

Alex says So Layne, just a few hours
ago this was a bucket of pee,
it had some of me, it had some
of Tyler, it had some of you
and some of your colleagues, and
now after showing us how it all
works there is only one way to
find out if it's good to drink.

Layne says That's right,
you're going to have to do
the sample.

Alex says Alright.

Layne says Cheers.

Alex says Cheers.

They all start drinking the water.

Tyler says Cheers guys.

Tyler says That tastes pretty good
to me.

Alex says That's excellent.

Tyler says Good clean water.

Layne says Yes. It's good
quality.

Alex says It's great, yeah.

Layne says The water quality
of this produced on the station
is much cleaner than any water
that you drink from a tap
that is on the ground.

A video shows Chris using the water machine to fill up a water bag. Then he drinks the water.

TYLER says the compact technology
used to build NASA's water
recycling system is so reliable
and efficient that components in
the machine are now being
used to build portable water
filtration devices for remote
areas of developing countries.
While these portable devices do
not recycle urine and are only
used to treat unsafe drinking
water, their compact size makes
them an ideal option for small
rural communities.

Short videos show a man carrying the water machine across a pond.

Then a little boy appears. He is around five years old with black hair, and is wearing a yellow shirt. He pours himself some water in a yellow cup and drinks it.

A thirty year old man with black hair appears. He wears a white shirt, gray trousers and a blue hat.

Next to him is a man in his twenties. He also has black hair, and is wearing a yellow shirt with blue stripes and jeans.

He is pouring water in a plastic container. The other man picks up a big water bottle and puts it over his shoulder. Then, a little boy with black hair starts running. He is around five years old and is wearing a light blue shirt and blue shorts. After that,two bulls appear pulling a man on a wooden cart. There are a couple of people walking in the street.

Chris says We're learning
on the space station, about all
sorts of things, but we are
learning about water recycling.
The system we have now works
amazingly well.
It takes all that waste and out
of that little spigot out of the
wall spits really clean pure
potable water and we just
need to improve the system and
include as many things as
possible and then we'll be
ready to go to the moon,
to go to an asteroid, and maybe
even head across the Atlantic
and go all the way to Mars.

A video shows Chris floating inside the spaceship. He goes through a door and gets a plastic bag with food in it, connects the bag to the water machine, adds water, then puts a spoonful of food in the air and catches it with his mouth.

Alex is being filmed by Tyler. Behind them are a couple of rocket ships.

Alex says Improving water-recycling
technology will be critical for
taking astronauts deeper into
space.
But how do you build a rocket
powerful enough to take people
the entire 70 million kilometer
trip to Mars?
Well that's exactly what
scientists here at the
Marshall Spaceflight Center are
also working on.
And as we'll soon find out, if
you want to build a big rocket,
you need a lot of water.

A rocket ship appears horizontally with flames coming off the bottom.

Tyler says The Space Launch
System, or SLS, is the
newest and most powerful rocket
NASA has ever built.
Population engineer Jeremy
Kenny took us on a tour of
the site where a 5 percent scale model
of the SLS was undergoing tests.

A caption appears that says “Jeremy Kenny - Acoustic Engineer NASA.”

Jeremy is in his thirties. He has brown hair and a bald spot. He also wears a beard. Jeremy is wearing a yellow and gray jacket.

Jeremy says So this model
here is actually being used to
understand the sound generated
from this powerful rocket system
at lift-off.
Through small scales and
continuous firings we are able
to generate a sound field that
emulates what's happening in
the full-scale rocket at
lift-off.
That way NASA engineers such as
myself can understand the
lift-off sound and to design
ways to suppress the sound.

Clips show the rocket system and mechanics working on it.

Alex says And what's brought us here
is because we've heard that you
use a lot of water in the
testing process and then
also in the eventual launch
when that happens as well.

Jeremy says That's right.
The sound levels that we are
getting from these rockets
are high.
They are easily up to 165
decibels, on certain
sections of the vehicle and
surrounding structure.
With those kinds of sound levels
you got to mitigate it,
you got to suppress it.
So one readily available
feature that NASA engineers have
been leveraging for all their
launch vehicles is water.

Clips show a rocket ship launching, and how the whole system works with water.

Jeremy continues Being able
to use water easily lets NASA
engineers figure out different
ways to tailor how we want
to inject water and create a
sound-suppressing curtain
if you will, in order to keep
the sound levels down.

Alex says So without water the
sounds generated from the rocket
would just create a whole
mess of problems, I guess.

Jeremy says It could be bad
news, lift-off sound levels from
these powerful rockets can
rattle components all over
the place and if they break,
you don't get to fly.

Clips show NASA professionals working with computers and other technologies in a lab.

Tyler and Alex appear in the lab.

Tyler says So we've come inside the
control room for the rocket
firing and that's because the
noise produced by the rocket
when it fires is so loud you can
go deaf if you are too close.

Alex says Here we go.

Alex and Taylor are in a room. They are looking out through a window, watching a rocket ship about to launch.

Alex continues Woah. That's huge.

Tyler says Alright!

Alex says Only by using
high-speed cameras and
specialized microphones is it
possible for the engineers to
water dispersal.

A clip shows all the water being used in the process.

Alex says It's pretty cool to think
that the testing being done here
is going to help develop the
space launch system and in just
a few years the rocket being
tested here is going to lead
to a huge rocket that could
launch astronauts on
journeys to Mars and maybe
even further.

A rocket ship launches in slow motion.

Tyler says When the first
2018, millions of liters of
saltwater will pour onto the
launch pad to absorb heat and
the powerful sound waves. That plume you
see during rocket
launches is not smoke,
but mostly water vapor that
becomes a cloud and eventually
falls as rain.

The rocket ship flies through the clouds.

Alex says The SLS will help NASA
fulfill one of its major
objectives: to send astronauts
to Mars and beyond.
But there is another planet in
the solar system that NASA is
studying more intensely than any
other place in the universe.

Doctor Tyson says It wasn't really
on anyone's agenda when NASA was
manifest in the space race, that
its energy or monies
would focus on Earth.
But then when we got to
the moon, and then...
and you looked back and saw
Earth afloat, in the
darkness of space.

An astronaut appears on the moon and the Earth is seen from the moon.

Then the Earth is seen close-up, and a view shows the Earth covered with clouds.

Doctor Tyson continues Seen as nature
intended it to be noticed
with oceans and land,
clouds.
No color coded national
boundaries, none of these human
constructs that we use to divide
and conquer, real estate,
nations.
It's earth, we're a planet.
So I, among with many, are convinced
that we went to the moon
to explore the moon, but really
we discovered Earth for the
first time.

A satellite appears on screen. Then a space ship appears.

Chris says Holding onto the
outside of a spaceship,
suddenly you really see the
Earth for what it is.
A discrete ball, one small place
in the universe, and it gives
you a really profound respect
for the enormity and the power
and the permanence and the
age of the planet, but also for
the rarity of it, and the
uniqueness of it, and the
preciousness of it, and the
blue color of it.

A video shows the oceans of planet Earth.

Chris says You know the
amount of water that's on it.
And so it absolutely drives home
the necessity to take care
of this one, because this is
ours and this is where we are
all from, and you have to be a
good steward of it because
there is nobody else to take
care of it but us.

A video shows a part of planet Earth at night, with all the city lights on.

Alex says From its inception,
NASA discovered that one of the
most fascinating places to
explore from space was our
home planet.
Since its first weather
satellite in 1960, NASA has
continued its Earth science
ever-changing blue planet,
culminating in the creation of
the Earth Observing System in
1997.

An info-graphic video clip shows NASA satellites in Orbit.

A woman appears. She has blond hair and is in her forties. She is wearing a light blue button-up shirt.

A caption says “Doctor Gail Slofronick-Jackson GPM PROJECT SCIENTIST NASA.”

Doctor Gail Jackson says Most people
think of NASA as sending people
to the International Space
Station, or missions to Mars or
other planets, but we really
have a very large fleet of
satellites looking down on
Earth.

Short videos show how satellites orbit around Earth.

Doctor Compton Tucker appears. He is in his sixties with white hair, a beard, and a moustache. He is wearing a light blue button-up shirt and glasses.

A caption reads “Doctor Compton Tucker - Senior Scientist NASA.”

Doctor Tucker says And the
fantastic thing about satellites
that study the Earth is they
orbit the Earth every 90
minutes and so you see the Earth
day after day and year after
year.
You have these data now in some
cases for 30 and 40 years to
study the evolution of the water
cycle, of temperatures on
Earth, in the oceans,
in the atmosphere, and it's just
revolutionized earth science.

An info-graphic video appears.

A caption reads “NASA Satellite Visualization Wind and Ocean Currents.”

Tyler says Whether they are
warning us of severe storms,
finding holes in the ozone layer,
or monitoring deforestation and
and bringing international attention to
nations using unsustainable
forestry practices, NASA
satellites benefit humanity
in many ways.

Alex says And some of the most
fascinating data is being
provided by satellites
specifically designed to
measure
the water cycle.
From groundwater depletion to
changing rainfall patterns,
ocean currents, sea level rise,
the loss of glaciers and sea ice
cover at the poles.

Tyler says With so much still to
learn about how water moves
around the planet, in 2014 NASA
launched the
mission or GPM.

A woman in her thirties appears. She has blond hair. She is wearing a red long-sleeved shirt and a black necklace.

The caption changes to “Doctor Dalia Kirschbaum GPM Application Scientist.”

Doctor Dalia Kirschbaum says GPM is an
international constellation
of satellites and it's anchored
by this core satellite that was
developed by NASA and the Japan
Aerospace Exploration Agency,
but what's really amazing about
GPM is that it can combine
information from all of these
other satellites in different
orbits to provide a global
picture of rain and snow
everywhere around the world
every three hours.

An info-graphic video shows how the satellite records everything around the world.

Doctor Gail Jackson says If you think
about getting rain rate
estimates every three hours
everywhere in the world,
we can start to be able to
predict floods, landslides,
we can track hurricanes
better, with this mission we are
able to see more of the globe so
we can see hurricanes
as they go, like hurricane
Sandy, we can see when it hits
into New York City, we can see
how much rain is falling
out of it, and all of this data
is important for science and
society.

Short clips show a flood, a picture of a landslide and a map of hurricane Sandy on October 25, 2012.

Alex says Using GPM data,
precise timing and amount of
incoming precipitation to
forecast crop yields and be
warned of freshwater shortages
that might affect the irrigation
and production.
With the capacity to more
accurately predict certain
natural disasters, GPM
satellites will help save
countless lives and prevent
billions of dollars in property
damage and lost crops.

A video shows a truck on a crop field, some farmers picking vegetables, a man with two ponies, a lady and a man in a crop field picking crops and a satellite orbiting Earth

Tyler says Only by looking at
our planet from space with
satellites can we effectively
monitor our dynamic Earth
and better prepare ourselves
for catastrophic events and
the onset of climate change.

Alex says But if there is
anything the human journey into
it is the fact that Earth,
its liquid water and
life are rarities that must be
cherished.
of galaxies and trillions of
stars and planets and we might
never invent technology capable
of taking us the vast distances
to other habitable worlds,
so we have no choice but to
care for the water we have,
because there is only one
earth.

A video shows a body of clear, blue water in the middle of the forest, a waterfall, the snow, the sky full of stars, and planet Earth.

Chris says I flew in space
three times, over almost
20 years, so I actually got to
see changes on the surface of
the Earth in the time that I was
in orbit.
Changes that you can see with
your naked eye.

Chris appears taking a picture of space from a rocket ship. An image of the Aral Sea appears.

Chris continues One of them
is the Aral Sea.
The first time I launched it was
still the fourth biggest sea on
Earth, and because of human
water use policies we dried that
sea up.
Fundamentally the
Aral Sea is gone.
Completely caused by poor
decision making of human
water use.
Something else I noticed, when
you come across the Great Lakes,
the boundary waters between
Canada and the US,
they look so huge.
I grew up around those lakes,
they look enormous, but when you
look at them from orbit, and
they're somewhere around
20 percent of all the currently
drinkable water on Earth,
is right there in those great
lakes, and when you actually
look at them from space, they
look like what they really are,
which is the last drying up
puddles of the remnants
from the last ice age.
That's what they really are.
They are just puddles that
last a few thousand years.
And I think that really soaked
into me.
The fact that something that
looks permanent in
two dimensions, but once you get
up in the third dimension,
you can truly see the transient
nature from that perspective,
but also you can see the
deleterious effects that we can
have on something that used to
be a huge water resource.

An image of the Great Lakes appears.

Chris says And so
it makes me think every time
I turn on the tap, it makes me
think when I look at water
resources and it makes me think
about climate change and how
that's going to move the
distribution of water
around the world.
Global awareness is the only way
that you can make
global decisions.
And being able to see the world
from orbit really helps with
global awareness.

Tyler says Water is the essence of
life from the bottom of the
oceans to the edge of the
universe and it definitely
expanded our perspectives
to realize that so many
important discoveries made about
water have come as a result of
space exploration and by
studying the Earth from space.

Alex says Whether it's the search
for water on other planets or
even moons, it's so exciting to
our understanding of life in the
universe could
change significantly.

Tyler says And as our Earth
continues to experience
unpredictable changes to its
water cycle and climate, it's
more important than ever to use
satellites and space
technology to monitor the
Earth from above.

Alex says The human journey into
space is an endless source
of inspiration and only by
pushing the limits of our
understanding of space can we
fully appreciate the value of
the most precious resource in
the universe.

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Tyler says Join us and dive
deeper into the episodes at
thewaterbrothers.ca

(music plays)

The End Credits roll

Watch: Water in Space